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ACCEPTBLE RISK

A New Look at Hazard


Assessments
Presented by:
Holly Elke,

CRSP, CSP, CHRP, CMQ/OE

Senior QHSE Advisor


SH&E System Solutions

THE HAZARD BASED


APPROACH
Control and mitigate sources
of harm or loss (hazards)
that may be encountered by
personnel.

THE HAZARD BASED


APPROACH
HAZARD SOURCES
P eople
E quipment
M aterial

E nvironment

CHANGE

HAZARD BASED
REGULATIONS

ALBERTA: OHS CODE PART 2


Hazard Assessment, Elimination
and Control.
BRITISH COLUMBIA: WCA
DIVISION 3 General Duties Of
Employers & PART 3 OHS Regs
OHS Program Contents

HAZARD BASED
REGULATIONS

SASKATCHEWAN: OHS Act S.9


Duty to Provide Information.

MANITOBA: WHS Act S.4


Further Duties of Employers.
OSHA (US): Regs 1910 (General)
and Regs 1926 (Construction)
Subparts focus on specific
hazards and control measures.

TERMINOLOGY
RISK
Effect of uncertainty on objectives
Effects positive or negative deviations from
what is expected.
Uncertainty Lack of information,
understanding or knowledge of an event, its
consequence, or likelihood.
Objectives - financial, production, operational,
HSE goals that are strategic, corporate,
project, product or process driven.
ISO Guide 73/ ANSI Z690

TERMINOLOGY
RISK
Combination of the likelihood of an
occurrence of a hazardous event or
exposure(s) and the severity of injury
or ill health that can be caused by the
event or exposure(s).

OHSAS 18001

THE RISK BASED APPROACH

Control and mitigate sources


of harm or loss (hazards, risk
factors) based upon the level
of foreseeable risk potential.
*Hazards can be a risk source*

RISK BASED REGULATIONS


9(3) If a hazard cannot be
eliminated or controlled under
subsection (2), the employer must
use administrative controls that
control the hazard to a level as
low as reasonably achievable.
ALBERTA OHS CODE PART 2 Hazard
Assessment, Elimination and Control

RISK BASED REGULATIONS


"as low as reasonably achievable"
or "ALARA" means, in reference
to a substance, that measures
must be taken to keep a worker's
exposure to a level as low as is
reasonably achievable;
BC OHS Regs: Part 5 Chemical Agents and
Biological Agents

THE ALARP TRIANGLE

RISK BASED REGULATIONS

SASKATCHEWAN: OHS
Regulations Part III General
Duties (S. 22 OHS Program).
MANITOBA: WSH Regs MSIs,
Working Alone, Violence.
OSHA (US): 1910.119 - Process
Safety Management Standard.
OSHA: I2P2 (Injury & Illness
Prevention Program) proposed.

RISK BASED STANDARDS

OHSAS 18001: 2007

CSA Z1000- 06 (CANADA)

CSA Z1002-12 Hazard


Identification, Elimination & Risk
Assessment/Control (New)
ISO 31000:2009 Risk
Management Principles and
Guidelines.

WHY USE A RISK-BASED


APPROACH ?
Standardizes risk management
goals and methods to be used =
increase in process efficiency.
Consistent framework that can be
used by all business units and
work groups = increase in process
& employee effectiveness.

Due Diligence (defensible).

WHAT APPROACH DOES YOUR


COMPANY USE?

RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS


IMPROVE THE
FRAMEWORK:
CONTINUOUS
IMPROVEMENT
INITIATIVES

PLAN

CREATE THE
FRAMEWORK FOR
MANAGING RISK:
GOALS, PRINCIPLES,
PROCESS

DO
ACT

MONITOR & REVIEW


THE FRAMEWORK:
KPIs, AUDITS,
NONCONFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT
REVIEW

CHECK

IMPLEMENT THE
FRAMEWORK:
OBJECTIVES,
RESOURCES,
COMMUNICATION,
TRAINING

COMPANY MANDATE AND MANAGEMENT COMMITTMENT

RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS


Communicate/Consult Stakeholders
Establish Risk Management Goals

Internal and External factors


Consider company resources &
capability

Define Risk Criteria to be used

Frequency, likelihood, consequences


to be measured
ALARA or ALARP

RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS


Establish Risk Assessment Methods

Risk Identification

Risk Analysis

Risk Evaluation (Prioritization)

Determine Risk Treatment Options

Avoidance, Elimination, Substitution

Engineering, Administrative, PPE

RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS


Monitor and Review

Changes

New and emerging risks

Improvement opportunities

Efficiency & Effectiveness of Risk


Treatment Options

RISK ANALYSIS: LIKELIHOOD


Frequency of Exposure Probability Loss = Likelihood
FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE:
4321-

Frequent (5+ per week/job)


Occasional ( 1+ per week/ 3+ per job )
Rare ( 1+ per moth/ 2+ per job)
Very Rare (1+ per year/job)

PROBABILITY OF LOSS:
4321-

Expected/Likely (Happens often; > 1 per year)


Probable/ Occasional (1 occurrence in 3 years)
Possible/Rare ( 1 occurrence in 5 years)
Remote/Very Rare (Once in the life of the facility or
company)

RISK ANALYSIS: LIKELIHOOD


PROBABILITY OF LOSS
FREQUENCY

12

12

16

RISK ANALYSIS: SEVERITY


SEVERITY
CATEGORY

SAFETY

ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT

FINANCIAL
LOSS

PUBLIC IMPACT

One or more
fatalities

Catastrophic mutual
aid required

Major environmental
impact to neighbouring
receptors (public streams,
vegetation, air, ground
water)

Extensive damage
& extended
downtime
(Corporate)

Serious impact large community

Serious injury permanent


disability, lifethreatening
occupational
illnesses

Significant Event - full


disaster
response

Off-site release or
repeated non-compliance
issues with potential for
significant adverse impact

Major downtime
(Division / Area)

Serious impact small community

Serious injury disabling


occupational
illnesses

Serious threat emergency response


(external agencies
involved)

Contained within the


facility - large impact or
repeat non-compliance
issues

Minor damage or
downtime
(Department)

Minor
families affected

Temporary
disability - minor
injuries, acute
health effects

Important occurrence potential emergency


response

Contained within facility minimal impact &


regulatory reporting
required

Minor damage or
downtime
(Individual
processes)

Minor limited no.


of individuals
affected

First Aid or less

Noticeable occurrence reportable

Contained within facility


with no adverse impact below reportable levels

Minor damage &


no downtime

Minimal to none

HEALTH

RISK ANALYSIS

SEVERITY

Severity Likelihood = Risk Level or Priority Number


4

12

16

24

32

36

48

64

12

18

24

27

36

48

12

16

18

24

32

12

16

12

16

LIKELIHOOD (Fr x Pb)

RISK EVALUATION
RISK LEVEL PRIORITIZATION
1-9

= Minimal Risk

Acceptable

12-16 = Marginal Risk

Acceptable with controls

18-27 = Serious Risk

Further controls suggested

32-64 = Critical Risk

Further controls required

RISK TREATMENT OPTIONS

Avoidance choose to not perform


the task or work activity.
Elimination Remove the hazard
(i.e. design valve handles to be
accessible at floor level)

Substitution Use a less harmful


substance (solvent replacement for
Toluene/Xylene/Varsol).
Share the Risk hire competent
personnel to perform the task

RISK TREATMENT OPTIONS

Engineered Guards, Ventilation,


Interlocking isolation systems
(pipelines), Ergonomic equipment
Administrative Safe Work
Procedures, Practices, Rules,
Training, Job rotation/schedule.

Share the Risk hire competent


personnel to perform the task

PPE

RISK METHOD SELECTION


CAN/CSA 31000
Risk Assessment Techniques
(Based upon IEC/ISO 31010:2009)
HAZOP, What if, FMEA/FMECA, FTA,
HACCP, Root cause analysis, etc.
PHA, Consequence/ Probability matrix
& Human Reliability Assessment
provide the foundation for our hybrid
THA/JSA methods.

APPLICATION OF RISK
MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES:

DEMONSTRATION USING A TASK


HAZARD ASSESSMENT METHOD

Sample Hazard Assessment Form


Types of Work

Work Related Activities

Hazards

Risk (14)

Rank

(Priority)
Total

Probability

List the hazards for each work


related activity. List both
health and safety hazards.

Frequency

List all work related activities


for each type of work.

Consequences

List all types of work done at


the work site.

Controls

List the proposed


control(s) for each
hazard.

Completion
Date
List the date
the controls
will be in
place.

http://humanservices.alberta.ca/working-in-alberta/268.html

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