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A Cell Structure

Features of prokaryotes:
1. DNA not surrounded by, nuclear, envelope / membrane ; AW A no (true)
2. circular DNA ; A loop
3. DNA not complexed with histone proteins ; A naked DNA
4. (only) 70S / smaller / 18nm, ribosomes ; A ribosomes not attached to
5. no double membrane-bound organelles; A no, mitochondria / chloroplasts
6. absence of named organelle ; e.g. Golgi apparatus, ER / RER / SER
if previous mp not given, A no membrane-bound organelles
7. capsule / slime layer ;
8. very small diameter / 0.5 to 5.0m ;
9. cell wall of, murein / peptidoglycan ;
examples of other relevant points
10.pili / pilus ;
11.no 9+2 microtubule arrangement ;
12.flagellum not covered by cell surface membrane ;
13.presence of plasmids ;

B Biological Molecules
Function of collagen in the wall of arteries:
1. withstands pressure ;
2. prevents, overstretching / AW ;
3. prevents, bursting / rupture / AW ;
Structure of collagen vs. Haemoglobin:

1 polypeptides are not identical (v. 2 identical, / , polypeptides) ;

triple helix or three, polypeptides / helices (v. 4 polypeptides) ;
only composed of amino acids or no, prosthetic group / haem / iron ;
(fibrous so) not globular ;
no complex folding / AW (v. complex folding) ; A no tertiary structure
glycine is repeated every 3rd position / more glycine ;
repeating triplets of amino acids / large number repeating amino acid
sequences (v. greater variety) ;
8. AVP ; e.g. different primary structure / AW
9. variation in amino acid sequences (v specific sequences)
10.all polypeptides, helical / AW (v. different to , polypeptides)
11.hydrogen bonds between polypeptides (v. Van der Waals)
12.covalent bonds between molecules (to form fibrils) (v. none)
13.300nm long polypeptides (v 510nm)
each polypeptide over 1000 amino acids (each 141 / 146 amino acids)

C Enzymes

D Cell Membranes and Transport

Role in cell membrane of
receptors / receptor molecules;
for hormones / neurotransmitters / named hormone /
neurotransmitter (e.g. insulin, acetyl choline, noradrenaline);
idea of (cell surface) antigens / (cell surface) markers / cell
recognition / cell adhesion;
help to stabilise membrane structure / forms H bonds with water
carrier proteins
allow named substance (e.g. glucose / amino acids) / polar substance
/ ion(s) / hydrophilic / water soluble substance (to pass through
(ref) against concentration gradient / active transport;
energy / ATP (req for transport);
(and) facilitated diffusion / faster than simple diffusion (for ions
/ polar molecules);
maintains / regulates fluidity of membrane / prevents membrane
being too rigid or fluid / mechanical stability (qualified) /
prevent ions / polar / water soluble / named molecule, passing /
leaking through membrane;

1. can form a bilayer ;
2. link between, hydrophobic core / AW, and barrier to water-soluble
substances ; A polar/ ionic
3. idea of, hydrophilic / phosphate, head, forming H bonds with water ; A facing,
water / watery environment / aqueous environment / cytoplasm / cytosol
4. ref. contribution to fluid nature of membrane ;
5. further detail ; e.g. mainly saturated fatty acids, less fluid e.g. mainly
unsaturated fatty acids, more fluid
6. ref. to control over membrane protein orientation ; e.g. hydrophobic
hydrophobic interaction for floating proteins
Some cells take in bacteria by endocytosis. Explain how endocytosis
occurs at cell surface membrane.
1. attachment (of bacteria) to receptor(s) ; AW

2. ref. ability to attach to antibody (bound to antigen on bacterium)

3. infolding / invagination / AW, of membrane ; A membrane engulfs A
4. form (round bacterium)
5. fusion / AW, of membrane ;
6. formation of, vacuole / vesicle ;
Role of ions in living organism:
1. bone/teeth, formation/strengthening; R calcium in bone
R calcium for healthy bones and teeth
2. enamel/shell, formation/strengthening;
3. reference to muscle/nerve/synapse, function e.g. muscle
contraction, generation of
nerve impulse;
4. blood clotting;
5. calcium pectate, in cell wall/middle lamella;
6. spindle formation;
7. for fertilisation/fusion of egg and sperm;
1. forms part of, haem/haemoglobin/myoglobin; A transport of oxygen
in haemoglobin
A forms prosthetic group of haemoglobin
2. reference cytochrome(s)/electron carrier(s);
3. important in chlorophyll synthesis;
4. prosthetic group of some/named, enzymes/catalase;
1. activates enzymes;
2. cofactor in, photosynthesis/glycolysis;
3. reference to nerve/muscle, function e.g. conduction of nerve
impulse, muscle contraction;
4. maintains osmotic balance/water potential of cells;
5. stomatal, opening/closure/turgidity of guard cells;
6. reference to Na+/K+ pump mechanism - qualified;
E Cell and Nuclear Division
Prophase and metaphase
1. chromatids / chromosomes / chromatin, condense / become shorter / become
thicker / coil / supercoil / AW ; A become (more) visible
2. centrioles, move to / reach, opposite poles ; R ends
3. nucleolus disappears ;
4. spindle is formed ; A more developed A description in terms of spindle fibres
5. ref to assembly of microtubules ; A makes microtubules R 9+2
6. nuclear envelope, disintegrates / breaks down / destroyed / AW ; A membrane

7. chromosomes, move to / at, equatorial plate / equator / metaphase plate / AW

; ignore middle / centre
8. centromeres attach to, spindle / fibres ;
9. ref to random arrangement of chromosomes ; A not in pairs R scattered
Features characteristic of metaphase:
chromosomes / (sister) chromatids, line up at the, equator / equatorial plate /
plate ; A move to I middle / centre
centromeres attached to, spindle / spindle fibres ;
A (spindle) microtubules A kinetochore
centrioles, reach / located at / AW, poles ; R ends
ref. spindle fully formed ; A spindle fibres extend from poles / AW
R ref. to nuclear envelope absent (in anaphase also)
Importance of mitosis:
replacement of cells ;
repair of tissue ; R repair of cells
growth / increase in cell numbers ;
asexual reproduction / vegetative propagation ; R cloning
maintains / same, number of chromosomes ; A two sets of chromosomes /
diploid / 2n
genetically identical to parents ;
A produces daughter cells that are genetically identical A ref. clone(s)
ref to rejection / self vs non-self ;

F Genetic Control
Explain how the structure of DNA enables it to replicate semiconservatively.
1. base pairing/A-T and C-G; A purine - pyrimidine
2. ref to complementary/explained with ref to H bonds; R complementary in
wrong context
3. (free) nucleotides pair with both, strands/each strand/polynucleotides/sides;
4. both strands act as templates;
5. to produce two DNA molecules that are identical to one another;
Differences between mRNA and DNA:

Role of mRNA after leaving nucleus:

1. translation ; R if transcription given as well, unless in correct context A use of,
nucleotide / base, sequence, to make, amino acid chain / polypeptide /
I protein / polypeptide, synthesis
2. moves towards / combines with, ribosome ;
3. ref to small and/or large sub-units ; I small / large ribosome
4. codon(s) ; only accept in correct context
5. transfer / t, RNA, bringing, amino acid(s), to mRNA / ribosome ;

6. anticodon(s) ; only accept in correct context

7. (complementary) base pairing ;
8. any e.g. of codon:anticodon base pairing ; need six bases
9. ref to polyribosome(s) / used by many ribosomes ;
10.(mRNA short-lived) ref to production of protein for short period of time ;
Role of tRNA in protein synthesis:
1. (tRNA) carries amino acid to ribosome ;
2. ref. to specificity of amino acid carried ; A role in ensuring correct primary
3. ref. anticodon (on tRNA): codon (on mRNA) binding ;
4. ref. complementary / base pairing ; A A-U, C-G
5. ref to tRNA binding sites within ribosome ;
6. two tRNAs bound to, mRNA / ribosome, at same time ;
7. amino acids held close to each other / AW ;
8. (for) peptide bond formation ;
9. (tRNA) can be reused / binds another amino acid ;
During interphase:
cells metabolically active / AW ;
protein synthesis ;
transcription ;
translation ;
gene expression ;
DNA / semi-conservative, replication ;
respiration ;
synthesising, organelles / named organelle(s) ; e.g. A centrioles replicate
synthesising, macromolecules / named macromolecule ;

Factors that increase the risk of cancer:

1. chemical carcinogens ; A named carcinogenic chemical e.g. asbestos / tar /
benzpyrene / aniline dyes / mustard gas / ethidium bromide ; allow two
named chemicals for two marks
2. virus, qualified ; e.g. with oncogene / ability to convert host proto-oncogene /
named virus e.g. HPV / retrovirus / HIV / HTLV
3. ionizing radiation / X-rays / gamma rays / particles from radioactive decay /
ultraviolet light / alpha particles / beta particles ; allow two named radiation
examples for two marks
4. free radicals ;
5. hereditary predisposition / AW ;
6. tobacco smoking ;
7. obesity ; A qualified ref. to diet
8. AVP ; e.g. if immunocompromised

G Transport
Explain why mammalian circulatory system is described as close double
Double blood passes through the heart twice during one circulation;
Closed blood travels inside blood vessels.
Disadvantage of having no nuclei in RBCs:
1. Cannot carry out, protein synthesis/replication/repair;
2. Short life span;
3. Cannot, divide/replace themselves.
Explain how the structure of red blood cells is suited to their function of
transporting oxygen to body tissues.
1. small size / 6-8 m (diameter), to squeeze through capillaries (7 m) ;
2. small size / 6-8 m (diameter), so, haemoglobin (molecules) near to surface
(of plasma membrane) / reduces distance for diffusion (in / out of rbc) ;
3. no nucleus / lack of organelles, so more room for haemoglobin (so more
oxygen transported) ; R more room for oxygen
4. biconcave shape / diagram drawn, increases surface area for, diffusion /
uptake / release (of oxygen) ;


flexible / AW ( membrane), to squeeze through capillaries ;

Explain how heart action is initiated and controlled (reference should be

made to the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node and the Purkyne
1. myogenic;
2. SAN, is pacemaker / sends out impulses / waves of excitation / initiates, heart
beat / action potential / contraction; R electrical, messages / waves / signals
3. AVN delays, impulse / contraction (of ventricles);
4. detail e.g. specific time ref (0.1 - 0.2 secs) or to allow ventricles to fill / atria
to empty;
5. relays impulse to Purkyne tissue / bundle of His;
6. Purkyne tissue conducts (impulse) to base / apex of heart / septum/
7. ref to papillary muscles contracting;
8. ventricle (muscle) contracts / ventricular, contraction / systole, from base
9. (blood) into arteries / named artery;
Explain how the structure of haemoglobin aids the uptake of oxygen in the

4 polypeptides/4 globins/4 amino acid chains;

outwardly pointing hydrophilic (R) groups, maintain solubility/AW;
each with a haem group;
ref to iron/Fe2+ ( ion); R Fe3+/iron atom
temporary attachment to oxygen; A readily attaches/binds combines with
R oxygen binds to haem
6. 4 molecules of oxygen; A 4 O2/8 oxygen atoms R 4 oxygens unqualified
7. oxyhaemoglobin; A HbO8
8. ref to cooperative binding;
Explain how CO2 stimulates the release of oxygen from the blood.
1. carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid;
2. catalysed by carbonic anhydrase;
3. dissociates to hydrogen carbonate and hydrogen ions;
4. hydrogen ions combine with haemoglobin; R hydrogen ions replace oxygen in
5. forms haemoglobinic acid/HHb;
6. so releasing oxygen;
ignore ref to Bohr shift (question says explain)
A from equations.
Transport of CO2
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO31.

(catalyses very) fast / AW, reaction ;

(carbon dioxide as) hydrogen carbonate ions / bicarbonate ions ;
diffuse / move / leaves, out of the (red blood) cell ;
in(to) the plasma ; R into blood

5. (so that) blood can transport more than could be transported as carbon
dioxide (in
6. solution) / 80 90% CO2 transported this way ;
1. reaction maintains concentration gradient for CO 2 from, tissues / tissue fluid,
to blood ;
2. if carbon dioxide transported then pH would decrease ;
3. (therefore) maintains pH / prevents pH decreasing / acts as a buffer ;
Describe and explain how carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen ions (H+)
play a role in the unloading of oxygen from haemoglobin.
1. diffusion of, carbon dioxide / CO2;
2. into red blood cell from correct
source ;
3. description of carbonic acid
formation followed by H+
production ;
4. ref. carbonic anhydrase ) fast
reaction; A ecf from (d)
5. haemoglobin has a higher affinity
for hydrogen ions than oxygen ; A
haemoglobin releases oxygen more
easily in acidic conditions accept
idea of H+ binding to haemoglobin
bringing out oxygen release
6. ref. to, allosteric effect / change in
tertiary structure / AW, in
(oxy)haemoglobin, causes, release /
AW, of oxygen ;
7. formation of haemoglobinic acid ;
must refer to, H+ binding /
decreased pH
8. ref. higher partial pressures / AW, CO2, linked to (oxy)haemoglobin releasing,
more oxygen / oxygen more readily ; Bohr shift
9. formation of carbamino-haemoglobin ; R carboxyhaemoglobin
10.chloride shift, qualified ;
e.g. as hydrogen carbonate ions move out of cell, chloride ions move in e.g.
to maintain, electroneutrality / a balance of charge / ions ;

Composition of blood at venule end, compared to that at the arteriole end:

Blood at venule end has:
less pressure ; A low pressure
less oxygen ; A deoxygenated
less glucose ; only accept more glucose if identified as liver
fewer / more, amino acids / fatty acids ;

less water / lower water potential / lower solute potential / higher osmotic pressure /
concentration of solutes and / or rbcs ;
A blood is more concentrated
fewer ions ;
more of named cell product ; e.g. insulin / glucagon / albumen / AW
(more), urea / excretory waste ; R waste unqualified
The percentage saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen decreases as the
partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases. Explain how this happens.
1. hydrogen ions / protons ; A H+
2. either
react or combine with haemoglobin / form haemoglobinic acid / form HHb ; A
picks up / absorb
carbon dioxide combines with haemoglobin / forms carboxyhaemoglobin ;
3. (so) stimulate haemoglobin to release more oxygen (in areas of low pO2) ;
ref. to, allosteric effect / change in tertiary or quaternary structure or shape ;
A conformational change
4. either
haemoglobin has a higher affinity for hydrogen ions than oxygen = 2 marks
haemoglobin has a higher affinity for carbon dioxide than oxygen = 2 marks
Adaptations of xerophytes:
1. small leaves / needles / needle-like leaves; R spines / thorns / narrow /
fewer leaves
2. reduce / small surface area;
3. temporary / shed leaves;
4. leaves dry out and then rehydrate;
5. fleshy leaves / succulent leaves / leaves with hypodermis;
6. curled / rolled, leaves; R curved / folded / coiled
7. (very) thick / waxy / impermeable, cuticle;
8. stomata surrounded by hairs / hairy leaves / hairs trap moisture;
9. sunken stomata / stomata in pits / crypts / grooves;
R inverted / few stomata
10.stomata closed during the day / stomata open at night;
max 2 for features given above
11.(so) reduces / slows down (rate of) transpiration / water loss /
evaporation / diffusion of water vapour;
R prevents / avoids water loss
N.B. link to one valid feature above
Pathway of water from root hair cells to xylem vessels:
1. through cortex / via cortical cells ;
apoplast pathway
2. (by) via cell walls (of adjacent cells) ; R if named as symplast pathway ;
symplast pathway


via cytoplasm and plasmodesmata ; R if named as apoplast pathway

ref. vacuolar pathway ;
ref. apoplast to symplast / pathway described, at endodermis ;
(via) passage cells ;
ref to, suberised / Casparian, strip ; in correct context

Explain how the structure of sieve tube elements helps the translocation
of substances in the phloem.
1. little/watery/peripheral, cytoplasm/no tonoplast/no vacuole/ few
organelles/few ribosomes/so little resistance/AW e.g. easy transport/move
more easily/minimum obstruction;
2. pores in sieve plate provide little resistance/permit continuous flow/allows
movement/AW e.g. as above;
3. sieve plate braces/prevents cell bulging under pressure/collapsing;
4. plasmodesmata only between sieve tube element and companion cell allows
pressure to build up;
5. plasmodesmata allows loading/AW e.g. sucrose to be transported in from
companion/transfer cell;
6. (strong) cellulose walls prevent, excessive/too much, bulging/expansion;
7. mitochondria (and starchy plastids) for ATP, for repair/maintenance;
R reference to mitochondria in companion cells
Describe the role of companion cells in translocation in the phloem.

sucrose/sugars/assimilates, are pumped/loaded (by companion cells);

reference to pumping H+;
reference to co-transport/AW e.g. H+ carry sucrose with them;
mitochondria provide, ATP for active transport;

Explain how the sucrose is transported in phloem along the stem from the
leaf to the fruit.

(sucrose) loaded at, source / leaf;

role of companion cells;
further detail, e.g. H+ pumped out, sucrose moves in through co-transporter;
absorption of water / water enters by osmosis;
hydrostatic pressure builds up;
mass flow;
(sucrose) unloaded at, sink / fruit / root / AW;
gives a difference in pressure (between source and sink);

Describe how the assimilate is moved from source to sink.

1. H+ / protons, (move) out of companion cells by, active transport / AW ; R
diffuse by active transport
2. H+ / protons, diffuse (back) in with / cotransport sucrose, into companion
cells ; A description of (facilitated) diffusion R active transport (ref. to
companion cell required only once for mps 1 and 2)
3. via, cotransporter / cotransporter described ;

4. sucrose, diffuses / AW, into (phloem) sieve, tube / element, via

plasmodesmata ;
5. (entry of sucrose into sieve tube so) water potential lowers ;
6. water enters by osmosis ;
7. (hydrostatic) pressure builds up ; A pressure difference created
8. unloading at, sink / named sink, gives a difference in pressure (between
source and sink) ; AW
9. (so) mass flow ; term to be used in context
Function of water stored in the vacuoles of plant cells:

(raw material) for photosynthesis; A for photolysis

maintains turgidity / provides support;
pushes chloroplasts to edge of cell;
used in hydrolysis reactions;
solvent for, ions / named ion / pigment / named pigment;

H Gas Exchange
Goblet cells found in trachea and bronchus/bronchiole.

Role of mucus in the gas exchange system:


Lines surface (of epithelium);

Traps, dust/spores/bacteria/AW;
Moved by cilia;
Towards throat/away from lungs;
Protects, alveoli/gas exchange surface.

Mucus is sticky and therefore helps to trap dust and bacteria thereby protecting the
alveoli against damage and pathogens. The cilia sweeps out the mucus away from
the lungs.
Effects of tar on lining of the gaseous exchange system:
1. destroys / paralyses / inhibits / weakens cilia; R. kill
2. mucus glands / goblet cells produce more mucus;
3. tar contains carcinogens / chemicals which damage DNA /
genes / oncogenes;
4. ref cancer / tumour;
5. epithelium / lining replaced by scar tissue;

Outline the effects of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries on the blood

flow through these coronary arteries and the resulting effects on the heart
1. fat / cholesterol / deposited in, plaque / atheroma formed in, wall /
endothelium / epithelium / lining, of artery; R dead cells
2. (so) narrows lumen of artery;
3. (so) blood flow reduced / restricted (in coronary arteries); R constricted / stop
4. (this) creates higher blood pressure;
5. less oxygen / glucose, supplied to heart muscle; R no oxygen A blood sugar
6. less wastes removed;
7. anaerobic respiration;
8. build up of lactic acid;
9. fibrillation / heart muscle contracts less strongly;
10.angina / CHD / heart attack / MI / heart failure;
11.(risk of), thrombosis / clot / thrombus;
12.cardiac, cell / tissue / muscle, death;
Effects of nicotine on the cardio-vascular system:
1. increases heart rate;
2. increases blood pressure;
3. constricts, arterioles/arteries; A narrows diameter/lumen R ref to blood
4. reduces blood flow to, periphery/hands/fingers/AW;
5. increases stickiness of platelets; R blood cells
6. ref to atheroma, plaque, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, damage to
June 2011 ms
1. ref. to coronary arteries ; in correct context
2. makes platelets sticky, so causing blood to clot ;
3. increases risk of thrombosis in, coronary arteries / arteries to heart (muscle) ;
4. leading to plaque / atheroma / atherosclerosis / AW ;
5. increases heart rate ;
6. increased blood pressure ;
7. damage to, tunica intima / endothelium /endothelial lining / arterial lining ;
Describe the appearance of a section through the wall of a bronchus in a
person with chronic bronchitis.
1. no / few / damaged / destroyed / AW, cilia / A ; R killed / dead
2. scar tissue ;
3. fewer / damaged / AW, (columnar) epithelial cells / epithelium ; A ciliated cells
epithelial cells replaced by scar tissue = 2 marks
4. goblet cells, enlarged / AW ;
5. enlarged mucous glands ;
6. more (smooth) muscle ;
7. large numbers of white blood cells ; A macrophages, phagocytes
8. inflammation ; A swelling in context of inflammatory response

I Infectious Disease
1. ill-health / absence of well-being / abnormal condition / AW, (affecting an
organism) ;
2. reduced effectiveness of, functions / named function ; AW
3. (illness with a set of) symptoms ; AW A signs
4. poor / AW, physical, mental or social, well-being ; A two out of the three
absence of well-being for two of the three = 2 marks
Non-infectious disease
1. not transmissible from one person to another / AW ;
2. not caused by a pathogen ; R bacterium / virus / fungus / AW / worm
Describe how TB is transmitted from infected to uninfected people.
1. (infected) person, sneezes/coughs/sputum/spitting/breathes out;
2. aerosol/droplets, in the air/moist air, inhaled/breathed in by (uninfected
Reason for increase in the cases of TB in developed countries now:
1. development of antibiotic resistance (by organism) ; A drug resistance R
2. ref. impact of HIV infection ;
3. higher rate of immigration from countries with high incidence / AW ;
4. increase in tourism to countries with high incidence ;
5. reduced surveillance leading to undetected cases (and hence spread) ;
6. (detected cases, MDR) unwillingness / AW, to maintain drug regimen / AW ;
7. ref. to vaccination programmes no longer taking place ;
8. ref. to poor / overcrowded, housing (in cities) / AW ; must be in context of
developed countries
Transmission of HIV:

Sexual intercourse;
Infected, blood/blood products;
Sharing/re-using, hypodermic needles;
Across placenta/from mother to foetus;
Breast milk;

Explain why cholera remains a significant infectious disease in some parts

of the world.
1. poor sanitation / no treatment of faecal waste;
2. contamination of (drinking) water supply;
3. poverty / poor living conditions / poor hygiene / poor (health) education;

4. ref to natural disasters; e.g. assistance / aid / medical help / AW, cannot
arrive in time
5. no rehydration therapy available (at time when needed);
6. no (effective) vaccine;
7. further detail; (bacteria live in gut, where immune system is not effective)
Discuss the reasons why vaccination has not eradicated cholera and sickle
cell anaemia.
cholera up to max 4
1 transmission cycle is difficult to break; A described with example(s)
2 ref. difficulty in administering e.g. refugee camp, displaced, disaster ;
3 poor diet, lowered immune response ;
4 more than one strain (needs more than one type of vaccine) ; A more than one
type (that causes cholera) R constantly mutating
5 vaccine, only gives short-term protection / requiring boosters ;
6 antigenic concealment ;
7 qualified ; e.g. organism in intestines, difficult for antibodies to reach
8 ref. (older or newer oral) vaccine, not successful for everyone / variable (6065%
to 90% depending on population group) protection ;
9 no requirement by health authorities (for vaccine) / vaccine not used by health
authorities ; AW
sickle cell
1 no vaccine available ; A cannot vaccinate against sickle cell
2 not caused by pathogen / non-infectious / non-transmissible / non-communicable ;
3 genetic / inherited, disease / AW ; A caused by a mutation
4 affects all red blood cells so vaccine would lead to their destruction ;

J Immunity
Specificity of antibody:

variable region;
binding region to antigen;
shape is specific to, choleragen / antigen;
ref to R groups on amino acids (in polypeptide / protein);
different, sequences of amino acids / primary structures;
ref to, folding of the molecule / secondary structure / tertiary structure;

Explain the roles of the cells, A [macrophage], B [B lymphocyte] and C [T

lymphocyte] in an immune response. In your answer use the terms
antigen and non-self.
1. foreign / AW, antigens are non-self ;
2. non-self / foreign antigens, induce immune response ; AW ora
macrophage / APC (A)
3. phagocytosis / described ;
4. cuts up / AW, bacterium / pathogen ;
5. presents antigens / becomes antigen presenting cell / antigens on cell surface
B/T, cells (B and C)
6. antigen recognition by lymphocytes ;
7. (with) complementary / specific, receptors / immunoglobulins (B) / antibodies
(B) ;
8. divide by mitosis ; A clonal expansion
9. ref. formation of memory cells (for secondary response);
Th cells (C)
10.secrete cytokines to stimulate B cells ;
11.cytokines stimulate macrophages ;
Tc/k cells (C)
12.ref. destroy pathogen / AW ;
13.produce perforin / AW ;
B cells (B)
14.B cells become plasma cells ;
15.(plasma cells) secrete antibodies ;
16.AVP ; e.g.
macrophages, non-specific / faster response
ref. specificity of, lymphocytes / B and T cells
antibody variable region is the antigen binding site ;

Describe the role of T lymphocytes in fighting an infectious disease.

helper cells


secrete / release / produce, cytokines / lymphokines / hormones;

to stimulate B cells to, divide / develop into plasma cells;
(which) produce antibodies;
(and) stimulate macrophages to carry out phagocytosis / (idea of);

cytotoxic / killer T cells

1. seek out / find / bind to (foreign) antigens on host cells / pathogens;
2. destroy, host cells / intracellular parasites / virally infected cells / viruses;
3. attach to surface of cells / punch holes into cells;
4. release toxic substances / interferons / hydrogen peroxide (into cells); R
Antigen is a foreign molecule that stimulates an immune response.
Memory cell:
1. Remains in, lymph node/blood/lymph/lymphatic system/body;
2. Recognises next infection by same, antigen/(measles) virus;
3. Secondary response;
4. (More) rapid (than primary);
5. Immunological memory;
6. AVP.
Explain how active immunity differs from passive immunity.

immune response ; A immune system responds

to antigen ;
clonal selection occurs / ref to B cells or T cells activated ;
antibodies made ; A ora for passive
memory cells produced ;
long-lived / long-term effect / permanent ;
not immediate / slow ; one week minimum
passive only antibodies removed from circulation ;

K Ecology
Role of decomposers in cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the atmosphere:
1. breakdown / decay / feed on / digest / secrete hydrolytic enzymes onto,
organic molecules / dead plant / animal / excreted /egested, material; R.
2. starch / cellulose, to sugars;
3. respire;
4. release carbon dioxide;
5. protein to amino acids;
6. deamination (of amino acids);
7. (release) ammonia (NH3) / ammonium ions (NH4+) / ammonium
8. compounds / ammonification;
9. (becomes available for) nitrification / ammonia -> nitrite -> nitrate /
ammonia -> nitrates / ammonium -> nitrates;
R. nitrifying / named bacteria unqualified / ammonia -> nitrite
Explain why little of the energy present in producers is transferred to the
secondary consumers.
1. Energy losses in respiration; R used up in/needed in respiration, energy lost in
2. waste/urine/faeces/dead parts/excreta/excretion;
3. primary consumers do not eat all the plant matter; A for secondary
4. not all parts of, plants/primary consumers, are digestible;
5. energy losses as heat qualified e.g. in digestive system (of consumers)/to
6. plants/primary consumers, migrate/swept away, by tide/waves AW;
7. energy losses to decomposers;
8. Outline the energy losses that occur in afood chain.
9. respiration ;
10.heat loss, qualified ; e.g. heat loss, from digestion / movement / metabolism
11.heat loss in respiration = 1 mark
12.indigestible parts ; A named, e.g. cellulose
13.inedible parts ;
14.excretion ; A named excretory products
15.egestion ; I waste
death, not eaten ;

Outline how bacteria convert nitrogen in these proteins to a form that may
be taken up by living plants.

proteins amino acids; A proteins are decayed into amino acids

ammonification/ammonia/ammonium ion;
ammonia/ammonium ions, to nitrate; A nitrification

The protein molecules are broken down to amino acids by enzymes produced by
bacteria. These are then converted to ammonia by deamination which are then
oxidised to nitrate ions.
Describe how urea becomes available as nitrate ions.
urea ammonia;
ammonia nitrite;
nitrite to nitrate;
oxidation / chemosynthesis;
The bacterial urease converts the urea to ammonia. The Nitrosomnas then oxidises
ammonia to nitrite ions. These nitrite ions are then oxidised to nitrate ions by
Explain why crop yields are often significantly reduced even after the
flood water has
drained away.
1. air / oxygen, will not get into soil ;
2. lack of oxygen reduces uptake of ions by plants / AW ;
3. ref. saprobiotic bacteria and fungi / nitrifying bacteria / (some) nitrogen fixing
are aerobic ;
4. ref. reduced populations (of bacteria in mp 2) ;
5. example of effect on nitrogen cycle ;;
6. e.g. slower rate / AW, of decomposition / decay
nitrogen fixation cannot occur (as rapidly)
nitrification cannot occur / nitrate will not be produced / less nitrate produced
(more) denitrification will occur
7. crops / plants, will use up remaining nitrate ;
8. ref. leaching of, nitrates / other nutrients, for growth or (only) low levels of
nitrates / other
nutrients, for growth remain in soil ; A ref. leaching reducing soil fertility
9. AVP ; e.g. named example of another nutrient, with role
will take time to, recover nitrate levels / resume nitrogen fixation ;
fertilisers (previously) applied washed away ;