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# ME-729

Optimization

Qualification

## PhD HUST, China

Mechanical Manufacturing & Automation

MS

## College of E&ME, NUST

Mechanical Design

MS

PIEAS

Process Engineering

## BSc UET Peshawar

Mechanical Engineering

## Engineering Design &

Optimization
Course Code
ME 729
Instructor
Semester
Fall 2014
Credit Hours
3-0
Pre Requisite
familiarity with MATLAB
Class timings
Tuesday, 5:00-8:00 p.m.

Email:

farhan.ausaf@hitecuni.edu.pk

Quizzes/Assignments
10%
Term Project/Presentation
10%
Sessional Exams
30%
Final Exam
50%

Class Policy
You are highly encouraged to ask questions
and discuss the course material with me
No cheating, fabrication, falsification,
forgery and computer misuse.
phones.
Adhere to the given date for assignment
submission.

Books
Recommended Books:
Introduction to Optimum design by Jasbir S.
Arora
Engineering Optimization: Theory and
Practice by Singiresu S. Rao
Optimization for engineering design,
algorithms and examples by K. Debb

Course Overview
Discuss the methods and techniques for
formulation of design problems into
mathematical form which is acceptable to
optimization algorithm
Single variable function optimization algorithms
Algorithms for optimization of constrained and
unconstrained problems
optimization algorithms will be discussed.
Use of MATLAB for optimization

Course Outline
Introduction
Design problem formulation
Graphical optimization
Optimum design concepts
Linear Programming
Constrained and unconstrained
Optimization
Multivariable optimization
algorithms

Optimization
Optimization is derived from the Latin word
Optimus, which means the best and
characterizes the activities involved to find
the best.
People have been optimizing from ages, but
the rood of modern day optimization can be
traced to the second world war.
Optimization is often synonym with
Operations research

Optimization

circumstances.

## Optimization can be defined as the process of finding the

conditions that give the maximum or minimum of a function.

## The optimum seeking methods are also known as mathematical

programming techniques and are generally studied as a part of
operations research.

## Operations research is a branch of mathematics concerned with the

application of scientific methods and techniques to decision making
problems and with establishing the best or optimal solutions

Different Kinds of
Optimization

## Figure from: Optimization Technology Center

http://www-fp.mcs.anl.gov/otc/Guide/OptWeb

## Need for optimization

Optimization problems arise naturally in many
different disciplines. In engineering design
problem often goal is to maximize or
minimize certain parameters or variables.
Some typical applications from different
engineering disciplines are

## Design of aircraft and aerospace structures for

minimum weight
Find the optimal trajectories of space vehicles
Design of civil engineering structures such as
frames, bridges, towers and dams for minimum cost

## Need for Optimization

Optimal design of linkages, cams ,gears, machines
tools and other mechanical components
Design of material handling equipment, such as
conveyors, trucks and cranes for minimum cost
Design of pumps, turbines and heat transfer
equipment for maximum efficiency
Optimum design of electrical networks
Shortest route taken by a salesperson visiting
various cities during one tour
Optimal production planning, controlling and
scheduling.
Selection of a site for an industry

## Need for Optimization

All optimization cases have the
following three things in common
There is an overall goal, or objective for the
activity
In addition to the overall goal there are
constraints that must be met
In all situations, choices are available to
meet the goals and objectives

Optimization Problem

Problem formulation
Taking statements
Defining general goals and requirements of a
given activity
Converting them into a series of well defined
mathematical statements

Problem formulation
Selecting one or more optimization variables
Choosing an objective function
Identifying a set of constraints

Optimization Problem
The

objective function
and the constraints
must all be functions of
one or more
optimization variables

Maximizing Area
Find

## the dimensions of the

rectangular garden of greatest area
that can be fenced off (all four sides)
with 300 meters of fencing

Maximizing Area
continued

Optimization variables
Length and Width

Objective Function
Maximize

A = Length x Width

Constraints
Parameter = 2x(Length +Width) = 300

Maximizing Area
continued

Minimizing Cost

## A rectangular garden of area 75 square feet

is to be surrounded on three sides by a brick
wall costing \$10 per foot and on one side by
a fence costing \$5 per foot. Find the
dimensions of the garden such that the cost
of materials is minimized.

Minimizing Cost

continued

Optimization variables
Length and Width

Objective Function
Minimize

## Cost = 20*Length + 15*Width

Constraints
Area = Length x Width = 75

Minimizing Cost

continued

## A canvas wind shelter for the beach has a

back, two square sides and a top. Find the
dimensions for which the volume will be 250
cubic feet and that requires the least
possible amount of canvas.

## Minimizing Surface Area

continued

Optimization variables
Length, Width and Height (Width = Height)

Objective Function
Minimize Surface area = 2*Width2 +
2*Width*Length

Constraints
Volume = Length x Width2= 250

continued

Design of a Can

## Design a can to hold at least 400 ml of liquid, as

well as meet other design requirements. The can
will be produced in the billions so it is desirable
to minimize manufacturing costs. Since cost can
be directly related to the surface area of the
sheet metal so minimize the amount of sheet
metal required to fabricate the can. Following
restrictions are imposed on the size of the can.
The diameter should be no more than 8 cm and
no less than 3.5cm, whereas the height should
be no more than 18cm and no less than 8 cm.