Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

ELECTRONICSZONE

Engineer'sCorner

BusinessCorner

DailyNews
Login

Circuits

Careers

Videos

Aerospace

Automation

Features

Automotive

TechnicalArticles

Communication

Consumer

YellowPages

Register

ElectronicsofThings
LEDs

Medical

Jobs
Advertise

Special

eZines&Publications

AboutUs

Subscription

PowerManagement

Solar

ContactUs

TIVideos

Test&Measurement

HOME>>CIRCUITLAB
RelatedCircuits
DistanceCounter

WaterPumpController

SecuritySystemSwitcher

BatteryLowIndicator

TimerforMosquitoDestroyer

Circuit

WaterTimer Electronics DCMotor

WASHINGMACHINEMOTORCONTROLLER
SANTHOSHVASUDEVAN

Washing machines usually employ a singlephase motor. In semiautomatic washing machines, a purely
mechanicalswitchcontrolsthetiminganddirectionofthemotor.Theseswitchesarecostlyandwearouteasily.
Heres a controller for singlephase motors of washing machines (Fig.1) that efficiently replaces its mechanical
equivalent. Basically, a singlephase motor requires a master timer, which decides the time for which the motor
shouldkeeprotating(washingtime),andaspindirectioncontroller,whichstopsthemotorfor3secondsafterevery
10secondsandthenresumesrotationinoppositedirection.

Fig.1:Circuitdiagramofwashingmachinemotorcontroller
The direction of rotation can be controlled as shown in Fig.2. When switch S1 is in position A, coil L1 of the motor

receivesthecurrentdirectly,whereascoilL2receivesthecurrentwithaphaseshiftduetocapacitorC.Sotherotor
rotates in clockwise direction (see Fig.2(a)). When switch S1 is in position B, the reverse happens and the rotor
rotatesinanticlockwisedirection(seeFig.2(b)).ThusswitchS1canchangetherotationdirection.

Fig.2:Directionofmotor
The motor cannot be reversed instantly. It needs a brief pause between switching directions, or else it may get
damaged.Forthispurpose,anotherspindirectioncontroltimer(IC2)isemployed.ItisrealisedwithanIC555.This
timer gives an alternate on and off time duration of 10 seconds and 3 seconds, respectively. So after every l0
secondsofrunning(eitherinclockwiseoranticlockwisedirection),themotorstopsforabriefdurationof3seconds.
ThevaluesofR3andR4arecalculatedaccordingly.
The master timer is realised with monostable IC 555 (IC1) and its on time is decided by the resistance of 1mega
ohm potmeter VR. A 47kiloohm resistor is added in series so that even when the VR knob is in zero resistance
position,thenetseriesresistanceisnotzero.
Theonoffcycleinthemastertimershouldgoononlyforthesettime(hereitis18minutes).Oncethemastertimer
goesoff,thecycleshouldstop.Toachievethis,theoutputsofboththetimersareconnectedtoNANDgateN1(IC3),
which gives a low output only when both the timers are giving high outputs.The output pin 3 of N1 is connected to
relayRL1viapnptransistorT1,sotherelayenergisesonlywhentheoutputfromNANDgateN1islow.Asthemains
220V line is taken through relay RL1,the monitor turns off during the 3second off period after the set time of 10
secondsisover.ThegraphisshowninFig.3.

Fig.3:Timingdiagramforrotationofmotor
During 'on' time of spin direction timer IC2, the output of negative edge triggerd JK flipflop at pin 2 goes low to
energiserelayRL2andwashingmachinemotorrotatesinonedirection.DuringtheofftimeofIC2,theoutput
ofN1goeshighagaintodeenergiserelayRL1,whichcutsoffthemainssupplytoRL2andthemonitorstop
rotating.
Floating point trouble may occur at trigger pin 2 of IC1. Resister R8 over comes this problem by holding pin 2
high.