Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

GRAMMAR SPELLING GUIDE YR 5

The following is a guide to the correct spelling of ing forms of verbs and gerunds.
The general rule when changing a verb into its -ING form is just to add -ING to the end of the
verb.

Infinitive

ING form

to feel

feeling

to go

going

to work

working

to sleep

sleeping

She wasn't feeling very well.

He is working on a new project.

The children are sleeping so be quiet.

Spelling exceptions
The following exceptions exist when spelling words ending in ING:
1). If the verb ends in an E we remove the E and add ING.

Infinitive

ING form

to live

living

to have

having

to make

making

to take

taking

People are living longer now than they were 100 years ago.

We are making a chocolate cake.

He was taking his time to get ready.

2). If the verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add
ING.

Infinitive

ING form

to stop

stopping

to sit

sitting

to plan

planning

to get

getting

to swim

swimming

The policeman is stopping the traffic.

We are planning a surprise party for our teacher.

I think I am getting a cold.

3). If a two-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, we do not double the final
consonant when the stress is on the first syllable.

Infinitive

ING form

to happen

happening

to enter

entering

to offer

offering

to suffer

suffering

What is happening?

They are offering a discount.

Many people are suffering from a lack of food and water.

4). But, we do not double the final consonant when the verb ends in W, X or Y or when the final
syllable is not emphasized.

Infinitive

ING form

to fix

fixing

to enjoy

enjoying

to snow

snowing

He fixing his bike.

We are enjoying this great weather.

It's snowing outside.

5). If the verb ends in IE we change it to YING.

Infinitive

ING form

to lie

lying

to die

dying

to tie

tying

I know you are lying to me!

You should water your plant more because I think it is dying.

The little boy is tying his shoelaces.

6). If the verb ends in consonant + vowel + L, we normally double the final L and add ING.
Note: In the United States (US) they do not double the L when the accent is on the first syllable.

ING form

ING form

(UK)

(US)

to travel

travelling

traveling

to marvel

marvelling

marveling

Infinitive

I have been travelling around South America for 6 months.

He was marvelling at her beauty.

7). If the verb ends in a stressed vowel + R, we double the final R and add ING.

Infinitive

ING form

refer

referring

defer

deferring

Are you referring to this one or that one?

They are thinking of deferring payment of their mortgage.

8). If the verb ends in an unstressed vowel + R, we do not double the final R and add ING.

Infinitive

ING form

to offer

offering

to suffer

suffering

to whisper

whispering

I am offering you a special deal.

He is now suffering the consequences of his actions.

I wonder what he is whispering in her ear.

ADJECTIVES
There are many adjectives that we have in English that end in -ED or -ING.
Yes, that's correct, they are not only endings that we use for verbs!
An adjective that ends in -ING is used to describe: the characteristic of a person or a thing.
An adjective that ends in -ED is used to describe: a feeling.
Compare the difference:

My girlfriend is bored. - (My girlfriend feels bored)

My girlfriend is boring. - (My girlfriend is a boring person)

You can use these adjectives to describe people or situations but be careful that you are using
the correct adjective. For example, there is a big difference in meaning between:

I am confused. - (I don't understand something)

I am confusing. - (I will cause you to be confused)

Of course, you could also find both adjectives in the same sentence. Then you really need to
concentrate on the intent / context of the sentence.
Examples:

I was shocked by how shocking the accident was last night.

They were frightened by the frightening roller-coaster ride!

I am annoyed by how annoying that person in front of us is.

Sally was confused by the confusing street signs in the city.

Note that the sentences above are to highlight how both adjectives can appear in the same
sentence though it isn't common (because it sounds repetitive).
Also see our article about the Pronunciation of words ending in -ED.

List of Adjectives ending in -ED and -ING


There is quite a long list of adjectives ending in -ED and -ING in English, and most of them are
based on a verb that can be changed into an adjective by adding either -ED or -ING.
Some of the more common ones include:

Alarmed - Alarming

Aggravated - Aggravating

Amused - Amusing

Annoyed - Annoying

Astonished - Astonishing

Astounded - Astounding

Bored - Boring

Captivated - Captivating

Challenged - Challenging

Charmed - Charming

Comforted - Comforting

Confused - Confusing

Convinced - Convincing

Depressed - Depressing

Disappointed - Disappointing

Discouraged - Discouraging

Disgusted - Disgusting

Distressed - Distressing

Disturbed - Disturbing

Embarrassed - Embarrassing

Encouraged - Encouraging

Entertained - Entertaining

Excited - Exciting

Exhausted - Exhausting

Fascinated - Fascinating

Frightened - Frightening

Frustrated - Frustrating

Fulfilled - Fulfilling

Gratified - Gratifying

Inspired - Inspiring

Insulted - Insulting

Interested - Interesting

Moved - Moving

Overwhelmed - Overwhelming

Perplexed - Perplexing

Pleased - Pleasing

Relaxed - Relaxing

Relieved - Relieving

Satisfied - Satisfying

Shocked - Shocking

Sickened - Sickening

Soothed - Soothing

Surprised - Surprising

Tempted - Tempting

Terrified - Terrifying

Threatened - Threatening

Thrilled - Thrilling

Tired - Tiring

Touched - Touching

Troubled - Troubling

Unsettled - Unsettling

Worried - Worrying