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CompendiumofPreschoolThroughElementarySchool

SocialEmotionalLearning
andAssociatedAssessmentMeasures

SusanneA.Denham
GeorgeMasonUniversity

PeterJi
UniversityofIllinoisatChicago

BridgetHamre
UniversityofVirginia

October2010

DeliverableforAssessmentsforSocial,Emotional,andAcademicLearning
withPreschool/ElementarySchoolChildren
FundedbytheBill&MelindaGatesFoundation,theKirlinCharitableFoundation,
theNoVoFoundation,theRaunerFamilyFoundation,andtheUniversityofIllinoisatChicago

TableofContents
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................3

CoreConstructs.......................................................................................................................................................7

Section1AspectsofSchoolContext....................................................................................................................8

ArnettCaregiverInteractionScale(CIS)........................................................................................................10
AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms(APECP)...........................................................................12
EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScaleRevisedEdition(ECERSR)......................................................16
PreschoolProgramQualityAssessment,2ndedition(PQA).........................................................................19
ClassroomAssessmentScoringSystem(CLASS)............................................................................................23
EarlyChildhoodClassroomObservationMeasure(ECCOM).........................................................................28
SchoolAgeCareEnvironmentRatingScale(SACERS)...................................................................................31
StudentTeacherRelationshipScale..............................................................................................................33
AssessmentofPracticesinEarlyElementaryClassrooms(APEEC)...............................................................35

Section2TheFiveSELCoreCompetencies........................................................................................................38

ChallengingSituationsTask(CST)..................................................................................................................43
DenhamsAffectKnowledgeTest(AKT)........................................................................................................45
TheDevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessment...................................................................................................48
MinnesotaPreschoolAffectChecklist(MPAC)..............................................................................................50
PennInteractivePreschoolPlayScales..........................................................................................................52
PreschoolSelfRegulationAssessment(PSRA)..............................................................................................54
SelfDescriptionQuestionnaireforPreschoolers(SDQP)..............................................................................55
SocialCompetenceandBehaviorEvaluation30.........................................................................................58
SouthamptonTestofEmpathyforPreschoolers(STEP)................................................................................61
BattelleDevelopmentalInventory(BDI),2ndEdition.....................................................................................63
BehaviorAssessmentSystemforChildren,SecondEdition(BASC2)...........................................................65
BerkeleyPuppetInterview(BPI)....................................................................................................................68
CopingwithEmotionalSituations..................................................................................................................70
EmotionRegulationChecklist........................................................................................................................72
ThePictorialScaleofPerceivedCompetenceandSocialAcceptanceforYoungChildren(PSPCSAYC)........74
PositiveandNegativeAffectScale(PANAS)..................................................................................................76
PositiveandNegativeAffectScale,ChildVersion(PANASC)........................................................................76
RothbartTemperamentScalesInfant,EarlyChildhood,Child...................................................................78
SocialSkillsRatingSystem(SSRS)..................................................................................................................81
SocialSkillsImprovementSystem(SSIS)........................................................................................................83
SociometricRatingsandNominations...........................................................................................................86
AssessmentofChildren'sEmotionSkills(ACES)............................................................................................89
BehavioralandEmotionalRatingScaleSecondEdition:(BERS),ParentRatingScale(PRS),YouthRating
Scale(YRS)......................................................................................................................................................91
BryantEmpathyScaleforChildren................................................................................................................94
Child/Teacher/ParentRatingScale................................................................................................................95
ChildrensEmotionManagementScales:AngerandSadness.......................................................................97
DevereuxStudentStrengthsAssessment(DESSA)........................................................................................99
EmotionExpressionScaleforChildren(EESC).............................................................................................102
FeelingsaboutSchool(FAS).........................................................................................................................104
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FriendshipQualityQuestionnaire................................................................................................................106
HowIFeelScale...........................................................................................................................................107
KatzGottmanRegulationScale..................................................................................................................108
KuschAffectInterviewRevised...............................................................................................................109
MeasureofProsocialandAggressiveBehavior...........................................................................................111
MultidimensionalSelfConceptScale(MSCS)..............................................................................................113
RelationshipQuestionnaire(RelQ).............................................................................................................115
ResiliencyInventory.....................................................................................................................................118

Section3AcademicrelatedSELCompetencies...............................................................................................120

PreschoolLearningBehaviorsScale(PLBS)..................................................................................................123
ChildBehaviorChecklist(CBCL)andTeacherReportForm(TRF)................................................................125
TheTeacherRatingScaleofSchoolAdjustment(TRSSA)............................................................................128
LearningBehaviorsScale(LBS)....................................................................................................................130
RevisedChildrensManifestAnxietyScale(RCMAS)...................................................................................132
SenseofClassroomasaCommunityScaleFeelingsaboutMyClassroom...........................................134

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Introduction
Inthiscompendiumwefocusontoolstoassessthesocialandemotionallearning(SEL)ofpreschool
andelementaryschoolstudents(i.e.,fivetotenyearolds),alongwithaspectsofthecontextsin
whichtheylearnandtheirlearningbehaviors.Theseassessmentmeasuresareintendedfor
researchersandthoseintheappliedresearchcommunityforexample,educatorsandsocial
workerswhomayfindthemusefulintheirworkwithgroupsofchildren.
Increasingly,SELhasbeenshowntobecriticaltochildrenssuccessinschool,bothacademicallyand
socially(Greenbergetal.,2003;Paytonetal.,2007).WehaveidentifiedfivecoreSELcompetencies:
selfawareness,selfmanagement,socialawareness,responsibledecisionmaking,and
relationship/socialskills(Paytonetal.,2000;Zinsetal.,2007).
Selfawareness.Selfawarenessreferstotheabilitytoaccuratelyassesspersonalfeelings,interests,
values,andstrengths.Aschildrenmoveintoelementaryschool,theirfeelingsofselfefficacybecome
evenmoreimportant.ThisaspectofSELalsoincludesidentifyingandlabelingonesownfeelings.
Althoughpreschoolershaveawelldefined,stablesenseofself,muchdevelopmentinthisarea
occursduringthepreschoolthroughprimaryyears.
Selfmanagement.Selfmanagementincludestheabilitytohandleonesemotionsinproductive
ways,beingawareoffeelings,monitoringthem,andmodifyingthemwhennecessary,sothatthey
aidratherthanimpedethewaysinwhichthechildisabletocopewithvaryingsituations.Thisaspect
ofSELalsoincludeshandlingstress,perseveringdespiteobstacles,andexpressingemotions
appropriately.Atthesametime,importantnonemotionalaspectsofselfmanagementare
paramounttosuccessinthepreschoolthroughelementaryyears.Theseincludebeingabletouse
somenonSELskills(e.g.,workingmemory,attention,andinhibitorycontrol)toregulateonessocial
andacademicbehavior.
SocialAwareness.ThisaspectofSELincludestheabilitytotakeothersperspectives,understand
theirfeelings,andempathizewiththem,andtoappreciateotherssimilaritiesanddifferences.
Childrenareconstantlyattemptingtounderstandtheirownandothersbehavior,andemotionsplay
aroleinthisunderstanding,conveyingcrucialinterpersonalinformationthatcanguideinteraction.
Inabilitytointerpretemotionscanmaketheclassroomaconfusing,overwhelmingplace.Much
developmentoccursinthisareaofSELacrossthisageperiod.
RelationshipSkills.ThegoalinthisaspectofSEListopromotepositiveandeffectiveexchangeswith
othersand,ultimately,relationshipsthatlastovertime.Numerousskillsarecrucialatthislevel,
includingmakingpositiveoverturestoplaywithothers,initiatingandmaintainingconversations,
cooperating,listening,takingturns,seekinghelp,anddevelopingfriendshipskills(e.g.,joining
anotherchildorsmallgroup,expressingappreciation,negotiating,andgivingfeedback).Inaddition,
assertingoneself,resolvingconflict,andaddressingothersneedsthroughnegotiationdevelopduring
thepreschooltoprimaryperiod.
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Responsibledecisionmaking.Responsibledecisionmakingbecomesimportantastheeveryday
socialinteractionsofpreschoolersincreaseinfrequencyandcomplexity.Youngchildrenmustlearn
tosolvesocialproblemstoanalyzesocialsituations,identifyproblems,setprosocialgoals,and
determineeffectivewaystosolvedifferencesthatarisewithintheirpeergroup.Responsible
decisionmakingincreasinglyincludestheabilitytomakeappropriateethicaldecisionsthatconsider
andrespectothersandpromotethewellbeingoftheschoolandcommunity.Attheagesconsidered
here,complyingwithclassroomrules,resistingpeerpressure,andcontrollingaggressionorother
disruptivebehavioralsoreflectsuchresponsibility.
AllofthesecomponentsofSELareinterrelated.Toperformresearchonthesecomponentsandtheir
relationtoacademicandsocialsuccess,tofocusontheneedsofindividualchildren,andtoshowthe
successofSELprogramming,assessmenttoolsarerequired.Thiscompendiumprovidesaguideto
suchinstruments.
Inaddition,knowledgehasincreasedaboutthecharacteristicsofschoolcontextsandhowtheyrelate
tobothacademicandsocialsuccess.Forexample,healthyrelationshipsintheclassroombothpredict
SELskillsandarepredictedbythemovertime.Aspectsoftheclassroomthatareimportantinthis
regardinclude,alongwithsupportiverelationshipsamongteachersandchildren,effectiveclassroom
managementandgoodinstruction(includinginstructioninSELskillsandopportunitiesforchildrento
applythoseskills).
Theassessmenttoolsinthiscompendiumhavebeengatheredtoprovideresearchers,especially
educationalandpolicypractitioners,ameanstogaugetheSELskillsofthepreschool/elementary
studentsintheircare,aswellastoevaluatecontextsthatpromoteSELanditslongtermoutcomes.
Manycompendiaofmeasurementtoolsarecurrentlyavailable,butwebelievethiscompilationhas
specialvaluebecause(1)itfollowsourframeworkofSELrelatedinputs(seeTable1,nextpage);and
(2)itismorecomprehensivethanmost.
AssessmenttoolsareincludedfortheleftmosttwocolumnsofTable1only(wedonotconsiderthe
rightmostcolumnbecauseourfocushereisonmoreproximalaspectsofSELandschoolinginthe
preschoolandelementaryyears).Ratherthanattemptingtobecompletelyexhaustive,wehave
includedmeasuresthatmatchthecoreSELconstructsforeachagerangeandformultiplereporters
andmethods,wherepossible.
Thetoolsinthiscompendiumareorganizedintothreesections,correspondingwithContext(Section
1);theCoreSELCompetenciesofSelfAwareness,SelfManagement,SocialAwareness,Relationship
Skills,andResponsibleDecisionMaking(Section2),andAcademicrelatedSELCompetencies,i.e.,
FeelingsaboutSchool/SchoolClimate,andAcademicCompetencies(Section3).Wehavecreateda
tableforeachsectionsouserscanhaveanoverviewofwhatSELassessmentsareavailable,forwhich
studentgrades,andforwhichSELcorecompetency.

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Withineachtable,theassessmentswerefirstsortedbygradelevel(preschool,
preschool/elementary,elementaryschool).Specificsregardingageandgraderangeforeachmeasure
arefurtherdetailedinthemeasuredescription.Withineachgradelevelassessmenttoolswerethen
sortedalphabeticallybygradelevelgroupandbasicratingtypeincludingteacherrating,parent
rating,studentreport,performancebased,observational,andother.Foreachmeasure,weprovide
informationaboutthemeasureitself,includingadministration(rater,format,andlength),scoring,
psychometrics,overallstrengthsandweaknesses,pricing,source,andreferences.
Weacknowledgetherearegapsinwhatweofferineachsection.Forsomeconstructsandsomeage
ranges,fewassessmenttoolsareavailable.Thesegapsarenotedintheintroductionstoeachsection.
TheSELassessmentfieldisevolving,andalthoughweapplaudwhathasbeendonesofar,we
recognizetheneedformoreworktocreatenewandbetterassessmenttools.Finally,wechose,for
reasonsofspaceandfocus,nottoincludeinthiscompendiumcurriculumbased,diagnostic,orwork
samplingassessmenttools.

ForotherinformationonSELassessment,pleaseseethefollowing:
Denham,S.A.(2006).Socialemotionalcompetenceassupportforschoolreadiness:Whatisitand
howdoweassessit?EarlyEducationandDevelopment,SpecialIssue:MeasurementofSchool
Readiness,17,5789.
Denham,S.A.,&Weissberg,R.P.(2004).Socialemotionallearninginearlychildhood:Whatwe
knowand&wheretogofromhere?InE.Chesebrough,P.King,T.P.Gullotta,&M.Bloom(Eds.),A
blueprintforthepromotionofprosocialbehaviorinearlychildhood(pp.1350).NewYork:
Kluwer/AcademicPublishers.
Denham,S.A.,Wyatt,T.,Bassett,H.H.,Echeverria,D.,&Knox,S.(2009).Assessingsocialemotional
developmentinchildrenfromalongitudinalperspective.JournalofEpidemiologyandCommunity
Health,63,3752.
Greenberg,M.T.,Weissberg,R.P.,OBrien,M.U.,Zins,J.E.,Fredericks,L.,Resnik,H.,&Elias,M.J.
(2003).Schoolbasedprevention:Promotingpositivesocialdevelopmentthroughsocialand
emotionallearning.AmericanPsychologist,58(6/7),466474.
Payton,J.W.,Wardlaw,D.M.,Graczyk,P.A.,Bloodworth,M.R.,Tompsett,C.J.,&Weissberg,R.P.
(2000).Socialandemotionallearning:Aframeworkforpromotingmentalhealthandreducingrisk
behaviorsinchildrenandyouth.JournalofSchoolHealth,70(5),179185.
Payton,J.,Weissberg,R.P.,Durlak,J.A.,Dymnicki,A.B.,Taylor,R.D.,Schellinger,K.B.,&Pachan,M.
(2008).Thepositiveimpactofsocialandemotionallearningforkindergartentoeighthgrade
students:Findingsfromthreescientificreviews.Chicago,IL:CollaborativeforAcademic,Social,and
EmotionalLearning.

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Zins,J.E.,Bloodworth,M.R.,Weissberg,R.P.,&Walberg,H.J.(2007).Thescientificbaselinking
socialandemotionallearningtoschoolsuccess.JournalofEducationalandPsychological
Consultation,17,191210.

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Table1.CoreConstructsforStudentSocial,Emotional,andAcademicCompetencies;Classroom&SchoolContext;andLongtermStudentOutcomes
Context

EffectiveClassroomManagement(e.g.,
materialsclearlyorganized,studentmatters
dealtwithefficientlyandappropriately,
proactively)
InstructionalSupport(e.g.,teacherhas
studentsprepared)
HealthyRelationships(e.g.,teachers
emotionallysupportstudents,respondto
studentconcerns)
SocialandEmotionalSkillsInstruction(e.g.,
classtimedevotedtosequenced,active,
focused,andexplicitsocialandemotional
skillsdevelopment)
OpportunitiesforSocialandEmotionalSkill
Application(e.g.,extracurricular
programming,studentgovernment,service
learning)
ProsocialNormsandBehaviors(e.g.,clear
standardsandexpectations,prosocialand
healthybehaviorsareestablishedand
rewarded)

StudentsSELCompetencies

ShorttermStudentOutcomes

SelfAwareness(e.g.,identifyingfeelings,beliefs,
andvalues,selfconfidence,selfesteem,
appropriateemotionalexpression,curiosity,
optimism,perceivedcompetence,selfefficacy)
SelfManagement(e.g.,attention,emotion
regualation,selfcontrol,angermanagement,stress
management,settingandachievinggoals,flexibility
andadaptability,initiativeandpersistence)
SocialAwareness(e.g.,emotionknowledge,
empathy,socialawareness,perspectivetaking,
respectfordifferences,belongingnesstofamily,
communityculture)

Relationshipskills(e.g.,peercompetence,effective
communicationandlisteningskills,abilitytowork
wellwithothers,cooperationwithothers,conflict
resolutionskills,negotiationskills)
ResponsibleDecisionMaking(e.g.,followsrules,
takesresponsibilityformistakes,resistsnegative
peerpressure,responsibledecisionmakingand
socialproblemsolvingskills,leadershipskills)

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Lackofinternalizedproblems(e.g.,
depression,anxiety)
Lackofexternalbehaviorproblems(e.g.,
actingout,disciplineproblems)
SchoolEngagement(e.g.,relationshipswith
teachers,socialconnectionsinthe
classroom,classroomparticipation,
academicmotivation,attendance)
AcademicCompetence(e.g.,GPA,
achievementtestscores)

Longterm(SecondarySchoolandBeyond)

Outcomes

AcademicSuccess(e.g.,highschool
graduation,collegegraduation)
MentalHealth(e.g.,reducedbehavioraland
emotionaldisorders,positivelifeoutlook)
PhysicalHealth(e.g.,engageinbehaviors
thatpromotehealthylifestyles,doesnot
engageinriskybehaviorssuchassubstance
abuseorunprotectedsex)
PositiveSocialRelationships(e.g.,having
networkoffriends,positivefamily
relationships,andparentingskills)
Preparedforworkforce(e.g.,skillsand
dispositionstogain,maintain,andadvance
inemployment)
CivicandCommunityEngagement(e.g.,
communityservice,civicparticipation,or
contribution)

Section1:AspectofSchoolContext
ThisincludesmeasuresinTable2on:

EffectiveClassroomManagement(e.g.,materialsclearlyorganized,studentmattersdealtwithefficiently,
appropriately,proactively)

InstructionalSupport(e.g.,teacherhasstudentsprepared)

HealthyRelationships(e.g.,teachersemotionallysupportstudents,respondtostudentconcerns)

SELSupportiveEnvironment

SocialandEmotionalSkillsInstruction(e.g.,classtimedevotedsequenced,active,focused,
explicitsocialandemotionalskillsdevelopment)

OpportunitiesforSocialandEmotionalSkillApplication(e.g.,extracurricularprogramming,
studentgovernment,servicelearning)

Table2summarizesthefollowingmeasures.Althoughitmayappearthatthereisadearthofmeanstoassess
healthyrelationshipsintheclassroom,thosethatexist(theCLASSandtheSTRS)aregoldstandardsinthe
field.

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Table2.ContextMeasures,SubConstructAssessed,AgeRange,PreschoolorElementarySchool,andRatingType*

School/Grade
Level

Instructional
Support

Healthy
Relationships

SELsupportive
Environment

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other
(e.g.,interview)

RatingType

EffectiveClassroom
Management

EnvironmentalSkillsand
Instruction

ArnetteCaregiverInteractionScale
(CIS)

AssessmentProfileForEarly
ChildhoodPrograms(APECP)

EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRating
ScaleRevisedEdition(ECERSR)

Preschoolprogramquality
assessment,2ndedition(PQA)

ClassroomAssessmentScoring
System(CLASS)

EarlyChildhoodClassroom
ObservationMeasure(ECCOM)

Schoolagecareenvironmentrating
scale(SACERS)

StudentTeacherRelationshipScale

AssessmentOfPracticesInEarly
ElementaryClassrooms(APEEC)

ScaleName

* Shadedcellsindicateareaofcontextassessed,agelevel,orratingtype.
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Measure

ArnettCaregiverInteractionScale(CIS)

Constructs

ClassroomEmotionalEnvironment,SELSupportiveEnvironments

Agerange

Originallyvalidatedforpreschool

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Toratetheemotionaltone,disciplinestyle,andresponsivenessofteachersand
caregiversinaclassroom.Theitemsfocusontheemotionaltoneandresponsiveness
ofthecaregiversinteractionswithchildren.Thescaledoesnotaddressissuesof
curriculumorotherclassroommanagementissues(suchasgroupingorflowof
activities)(U.S.DepartmentofEducation,1997,p.78).

Administration

TrainingRequired:Youmustachievea.70interraterreliabilityfortwoconsecutive
visitstobeacertifiedArnettCaregiverInteractionScaleobserver(Jaeger&Funk,
2001).

Scoring

TheCaregiverInteractionScale(CIS)consistsof26itemsusuallydividedinto4
subscales.Someresearchershaveconductedfactoranalysesonthe26itemsandhave
founddifferentsubscales(e.g.,Whitebook,Howes,&Phillips,1989).
Observersareaskedtoratetheextenttowhich26itemsarecharacteristicofthechild
careproviderwhomtheyareobserving.Itemsarescoredona4pointscalefrom(1)
Notatallcharacteristicto(4)Verymuchcharacteristicofthechildcareprovider.The
measureusuallycontainsthefollowingsubscales:
Sensitivity(10items)
Harshness(8items)
Detachment(4items)
Permissiveness(4items)

Reliability

JaegerandFunk(2001)reportedinterraterreliabilitycoefficientsrangingfrom.75to
.97betweenacertifiedobserverandtrainees.
Forinternalconsistency,CronbachsalphasfromtheObservationalStudyofEarly
ChildhoodPrograms(Layzer,1993):Warmth/responsivenessrating(10)=.91,and
Harshnessrating(7)=.90
JaegerandFunk(2001)reportedcoefficientsof.81andhigherforthesensitivity
(positiveinteraction),punitiveness,anddetachmentsubscales.

Validity

ConcurrentValidity:Layzer(1993)foundcorrelationcoefficientsof.43to.67between
theCISandseveralothermeasuresofchildcarequality(i.e.,EarlyChildhood
EnvironmentRatingScale(ECERS),AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms,
DescriptionofPreschoolPractices.However,theauthorsdidnotexpectlarge
coefficientsbecausetheCISfocusesmorenarrowlyonanaspectofteacherbehavior
thantheotherobservationmeasures.

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Strengths

Thetrainingisshortandthereisnocostforthemeasure.

Weaknesses

Publication/Pricing

Source:Arnett,J.(1989).Caregiversindaycarecenters:Doestrainingmatter?Journal
ofAppliedDevelopmentalPsychology,10,541522.
(Notethatthisarticledoesnotcontainalistoftheitemsonthescale.However,thisis
thearticlethatistypicallycitedwhentheCISisused.)
Publisher:AcopyofthescalecanbefoundinJaegerandFunk(2001).
Cost:None

Jaeger,E.&Funk,S.(2001).ThePhiladelphiaChildCareQualityStudy:Anexaminationofqualityinselected
earlyeducationandcaresettings.Philadelphia.Philadelphia,PA:SaintJosephsUniversity.
Layzer,J.I.(1993).Observationalstudyofearlychildhoodprograms.Finalreport.VolumeI:Lifeinpreschool.
(ERIC#ED366468).Washington,DC:USDepartmentofEducation.
Love,J.M.,Meckstroth,A.,&Sprachman,S.(1997).MeasuringthequalityofprogramenvironmentsinHead
Startandotherearlychildhoodprograms:Areviewandrecommendationsforfutureresearch(WorkingPaper
No.9736).Washington,DC:U.S.DepartmentofEducationNationalCenterforEducationStatistics.
USDepartmentofEducation.(1997)Thepocketconditionofeducation.NationalCenterforEducation
Statistics;Washington,DC:NationalCenterforEducationStatistics,Aug1997
Whitebook,M.,Howes,C.,&Phillips,D.(1989).Whocares?Childcareteachersandthequalityofcarein
America.ExecutivesummaryoftheNationalChildCareStaffingStudy.Oakland,CA:ChildCareEmployee
Project.

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Measure

AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms(APECP)

Agerange

Preschoolthrough2ndgrade

Construct

Effectiveclassroommanagement,InstructionalSupport,SELSupportive
Environments

Ratingtype

Teacher,Other

Descriptionof
PopulationMeasure:DevelopedwiththeAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhood
measureasrelatedto Programs:ResearchEditionI(1992)wasoriginallystandardizedusing401preschool
constructofinterest classroomsinchildcare,HeadStart,andkindergartensettings.Laterrevisedusinga
nationalstandardizationsampleof2,820classrooms.Subsequentanalysesacrossthe
original87itemswereconductedtoconfirmthefactorstructures,toestimate
reliability,andtorecalibratetheIRTproperties.Followingtheanalyses,eachscale
wasreducedto12itemsandtheAssessmentProfile:ResearchEditionIIwas
publishedin1998.
SummativeMeasure:TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:Research
EditionII(APECP)isaglobalmeasureofqualityusedbyresearcherstoevaluatethe
learningenvironmentandteachingpracticesinclassroomsforyoungchildren.The
AssessmentProfileforHomeswithYoungChildren:ResearchVersionwasdeveloped
usingitemsontheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:Research
Version.TheFamilyChildCareHomesversion(APFCCH)hasonlybeenusedinthe
NICHDEarlyChildhoodResearchProjectandtheauthorshaveneverestablishedany
psychometricproperties.
FormativeMeasure:TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:Preschool,
Toddler,Infant,SchoolAge,andAdministrationinstrumentsareformativeevaluation
measuresusedforprogramimprovementpurposes.Thesemeasuresaremore
comprehensivethanthesummativeresearchtool,andprovideuserfriendly
proceduresforselfevaluationofearlychildhoodsettings.Asformativemeasures,
theyaresupportedbysoftwarethatprovidesextensiveanalysesanddetailed
programimprovementrecommendations.TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhood
Programstoolevaluatescenterbased,classroomandadministrativepracticeswhile
theAssessmentProfileforFamilyChildCareHomesisacompaniontoolforformative
evaluationpurposesinthefamilychildcaresetting.
Administration

Testadministration:Datacollectionrequiresobservation,reviewofrecords,and
interviewwithteachers,administrator(s),and/orfamilychildcareprovider(s).
Trainingrequired:Trainingisrequiredtoestablishinterraterreliability.Training
involvesareviewofthecriteriaanddatacollectionmethodsandonsitepractice
observation,recordreview,andinterviews.Traininggenerallyinvolves23days.

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Scoring

SummativeMeasure:TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:Research
EditionIIisanobservationchecklistwithdichotomousitemsandincludesfivescales
with12itemseachtoassessLearningEnvironment,Scheduling,CurriculumMethods,
Interacting,andIndividualizing.Thesefivescaleshavemettheunidimensionality
criteriaforInformationResponseTheory(IRT)creationofscalesandhaveshowna
strongfittoathreeparameterIRTmodel(AbbottShim,Neel,&Sibley,2001).
FormativeMeasure:TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodevaluatestheSafety
(109items),LearningEnvironment(73items),Scheduling(34items),Curriculum
Methods(49items),Interacting(61items),andIndividualizing(25items)practices
withinclassrooms.Thenumberofitemsforeachdimensionvariesdependingupon
theagegroupobserved;themaximumnumberofitemsisnotedinparentheses.
AdministrativepracticesareevaluatedintermsofPhysicalFacilities(68items),Food
Service(45items),ProgramManagement(63items),Personnel(38items),and
ProgramDevelopment(31items).

Reliability

InterraterReliability
ForboththesummativeandformativeversionsoftheAssessmentProfile,interrater
reliabilitiesbetweenatrainerandobserversisconsistentlyreportedwithameanof
93to95percentagreementwitharangeof83to99percentagreement(Abbott
Shim,Lambert,&McCarty,2000).Numerousotherresearchstudieshavereported
similarinterraterreliabilities.
InternalConsistency
Thereliabilitycoefficientsforthefivescales(LearningEnvironment,Scheduling,
Curriculum,Interacting,andIndividualizing)rangefrom.79to.98fortheKuder
Richardson20andfrom.81to.98fortheSpearmanBrowncorrectedsplithalf.The
IRTbasedreliabilitiesforthefivescalesrangefrom.83to.91(AbbottShim,Neel&
Sibley,1992).

Validity

CriterionValidity
Criterionrelatedvaliditywasestablishedbyexaminingtherelationshipofthe
AssessmentProfile:ResearchEditionItotheEarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRating
Scale(ECERS)(Harms&Clifford,1980).Inthesecriterionrelatedvaliditystudies,
Wilkes(1989)foundasignificantcorrelation(r=.64,p=.001),andAbbottShim
(1991)foundasignificantcorrelation(r=.74,p=.001).
ConstructValidity
Asecondorderfactoranalysiswasusedtodeterminewhetherthefivescalesofthe
AssessmentProfile:ResearchEditionIIformasinglelatentconstructofclassroom
quality.Theseresultsindicatedthatobservedmeasurementsusingthesefactor
scoresstemfromasingleunderlyingconstructofclassroomquality(AbbottShim,
Lambert,&McCarty,2000).

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ContentValidity
Contentvaliditywasdocumentedthroughareviewoftheinstrumentbyawiderange
ofearlychildhoodprofessionalsandacrossreferenceoftheitemswiththeinitial
NAEYCAccreditationCriteria(NationalAssociationfortheEducationofYoung
Children,1998).Thecrossreferenceshowedextensiveconsistencybetweenthetwo
measureswith100%matchofthecriteria.Thishasbeenperiodicallyupdatedasthe
accreditationcriteriahavebeenmodified(AbbottShim,Neel,&Sibley,2001).
Strengths

Themeasurehasalsodemonstratedtobereliableandvalidinassessingthechildcare
environment.

Weaknesses

Thisassessmentdoesnotmeasureteacherchildreninteractions,andmustbeusedin
combinationwithotherassessmentsthatexamineinteractionvariables.

Publication/Pricing

SummativeMeasure:
o AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:ResearchEditionII
o AssessmentProfileforHomeswithYoungChildren:ResearchVersion
o AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:ResearchEditionTechnical
Manual
Publisher:
MarthaAbbottShim.
294WoodviewDrive
Decatur,GA30030
Email:martha.abbottshim@gmail.com
FormativeMeasure:
o AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms
o AssessmentProfileforFamilyChildCareHomes
Publisher:
QualityAssist,Inc.
17ExecutiveParkDrive,Suite150
Atlanta,GA30329Phone:4043252225Website:www.qassist.com
SummativeMeasure:AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms:Research
EditionII:$18(3classrooms),TechnicalManual:$25
FormativeMeasure:AssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodProgramsandAssessment
ProfileforFamilyChildCareHomespricingisbasedonthescopeandspecificationof
theevaluationplanregardingtraining,datacollection,technologysupport(PDA),data
analysisandreporting.

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AbbottShim,M.,Lambert,R.,&McCarty,F.(2000).StructuralmodelofHeadStartclassroomquality.Early
ChildhoodResearchQuarterly,15(1),115134.
AbbottShim,M.,Neel,J.,&Sibley,A.(2000).Assessmentprofileforearlychildhoodprograms:Research
technicalmanual.Atlanta,GA:QualityCounts,Inc.
Harms,T.,&Clifford,R.M.(1980).EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScale.NewYork:TeachersCollege
Press.
InternationalReadingAssociation(1998).Usingmultiplemethodsofbeginningreadinginstruction.Aposition
statementoftheInternationalReadingAssociation.Newark,DE.

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Measure

EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScaleRevisedEdition(ECERSR)

Constructs

Effectiveclassroommanagement,InstructionalSupport,SELSupportiveEnvironments

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Asdescribedbytheauthors:
TheEarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScale(ECERSR)measuresglobalqualityin
centerbasedearlychildhoodprograms.TheECERSRcanbeusedasatooltoseehow
wellaprogramismeetingchildrensneedstoseewhetherchildrenreceivethe
protection,learningopportunities,andpositiverelationshipstheyneedforsuccessful
development(Cryer,Harms&Riley,2003,p.x).Itcanbeusedbyresearchers,
practitioners,programmonitorsandearlychildhoodprofessionalsprovidingtechnical
assistancetoprograms.
TheECERSRisarevisionoftheECERSoriginallypublishedin1980,whichretains
theoriginalscalesbroaddefinitionofenvironment,includingthosespatial,
programmatic,andinterpersonalfeaturesthatdirectlyaffectthechildrenandadultsin
anearlychildhoodsetting(Harms,Clifford,&Cryer,1998,p.1).

Administration

TestAdministration:TheECERSRbookprovidesquestionsforeachitemthatcanguide
theinterview.Theauthorsalsoprovidespecificinstructionsforadministeringthescale
andforconductingtheobservationinawaythatminimizestheimpactoftheobserver
ontheclassroomenvironment.Becauseofthelargenumberofindicatorsthatneedto
bescored,theobservershouldhavetheECERSRbookwithher/himwhileinthe
classroomandshouldcompletescoringbeforeleavingthefacility.
TrainingRequired:Theauthorsrecommendthatobserversparticipateinatraining
sequenceledbyanexperiencedECERSRtrainerbeforeusingthescaleformally.The
trainingsequenceforobserverswhowillusethescaleformonitoring,evaluation,or
researchshouldincludeatleasttwopracticeclassroomobservationswithasmallgroup
ofobservers,followedbyinterraterreliabilitycomparison(Harmsetal.,1998,p.5).
Fivedayandthreedaytrainingsareofferedbytheauthorsofthescaleatthe
UniversityofNorthCarolina,ChapelHill.Observerscanpurchaseadditionalresources
includingavideotrainingpackage(availablefromTeachersCollegePress)ortheAll
AbouttheECERSRbook(Cryer,Harms,&Riley,2003),particularlytodevelopreliability
andbemoreconsistentwiththeECERSRauthors.

Scoring

Thescaleconsistsof43itemscategorizedintosevensubscales.Itemsarescoredona
7pointscalefrom1to7.Numberedindicatorsoutliningthespecificrequirementsfor
theitemareprovidedatscorepoints1(inadequate),3(minimal),5(good),and7
(excellent).Theobserverbeginsatlevel1andscoreseachindicatoryes,no,or

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NA.Thefinalscoreisdeterminedbythenumberofindicatorsthathavebeen
passed.Allindicatorsmustbepassedateachleveltoscoreatorabovethatlevel.
Thus,toscorea7onanitem,allindicatorsmustbepassedincludingallofthose
includedunderLevel7.
Includesthefollowingscales:
SpaceandFurnishings(8items);PersonalCareRoutines(6items);LanguageReasoning
(4items);Activities(10items);Interaction(5items);ProgramStructure(4items);and
ParentsandStaff(6items)
Reliability

Interraterreliability
OveralltheECERSRisreliableattheindicatorandtheitemlevel,andatthelevelof
thetotalscore.Thepercentageofagreementacrossthefull470indicatorsinthescale
is86.1%,withnoitemhavinganindicatoragreementlevelbelow70%.Attheitem
level,theproportionofagreementwas48%forexactagreementand71%for
agreementwithinonepoint.Fortheentirescale,thecorrelationsbetweenthetwo
observerswere.92productmomentcorrelation(Pearson)and.87rankorder
(Spearman).Theinterclasscorrelationwas.92(Harmsetal.,1998,p.2).
InternalConsistency
Theauthorsalsoexaminedtheinternalconsistencyofthescaleatthesubscaleand
totalscorelevels.Subscaleinternalconsistenciesrangefrom.71to.88withatotal
scaleinternalconsistencyof.92(Harmsetal.,1998,p.2).

Validity

PredictiveValidity
Theauthorsnotethat,sincetheoriginalECERShaddemonstratedthatqualityas
measuredbytheECERShasgoodpredictivevalidity(i.e.,PeisnerFeinberg&Burchinal,
1997;Whitebook,Howes,&Phillips,1990),therevisedversionwouldbeexpectedto
maintainthatformofvalidity(Harmsetal.,1998,p.2).
ContentValidity
Whenthescalewasrevised,theauthorsconductedfocusgroupswithexpertsinthe
fieldwhomadesuggestionsfortherevisionbasedonhowtheECERShadworkedin
inclusiveandculturallydiversesettings.Theauthorsalsogatheredfeedbackand
suggestionsfromresearchersandotherECERSusersthatinformedthecontentinthe
ECERSR.

Strengths

TherearemanyitemsontheECERSRthatmeasurediversity.Interraterreliabilityand
internalconsistencywerealsohighontheECERSR.Ithasbeenusedextensivelyin
researchandpractice.

Weaknesses

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Publication/Pricing

Source:Harms,T.,Clifford,R.M.,&Cryer,D.(1998).EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScale
RevisedEdition.NewYork,NY:TeachersCollegePress.
Harms,T.,Clifford,R.M.&Cryer,D.(2005).EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScale
RevisedEdition.NewYork,NY:TeachersCollegePress.(Updatedwithadditionalnotesanda
newexpandedscoresheet).
Publisher:TeachersCollegePress
1234AmsterdamAvenue
NewYork,NY10027

Cost:AllmaterialsareavailablethroughTeachersCollegePress
Manuals(ECERSR,2005)$17.95(ECERSR,1998)$14.95
VideoTrainingPackages1999,VHS$59.002006,DVD$59.00
TrainingWorkbook1999$4.00

Cryer,D.,Harms,T.&Riley,C.(2003).AllabouttheECERSR:Adetailedguideinwords&picturestobeused
withtheECERSR.PACTHousePublishing.
Harms,T.,Clifford,R.M.,&Cryer,D.(1998).EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScaleRevisedEdition.New
York,NY:TeachersCollegePress.
Harms,T.,Clifford,R.M.&Cryer,D.(2005).EarlyChildhoodEnvironmentRatingScaleRevisedEdition.New
York,NY:TeachersCollegePress.(Updatedwithadditionalnotesandanewexpandedscoresheet).
PeisnerFeinberg,E.,&Burchinal,M.(1997).Relationsbetweenpreschoolchildrenschildcareexperiences
andconcurrentdevelopment:TheCost,QualityandOutcomesStudy.MerrillPalmerQuarterly,43,451477.
Whitebook,M.,Howes,C.,&Phillips,D.(1989).Whocares?Childcareteachersandthequalityofcarein
America.ExecutivesummaryoftheNationalChildCareStaffingStudy.Oakland,CA:ChildCareEmployee
Project.

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Measure

PreschoolProgramQualityAssessment,2ndedition(PQA)

Constructs

InstructionalSupport,SELSupportiveEnvironments

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

ThecurrentrevisionofthePQA includes twonotabledifferencesfromearlierversions:


1)thenumberofcontentareashasincreasedfromfourtoseven,and2)thescoring
systemhasbeenrevisedtoadequatelymeasurethefullrangeofqualityalongeach
qualityconstruct.
Asdescribedbytheauthors:
ThePreschoolProgramQualityAssessment(PQA),SecondEdition,isarating
instrumentdesignedtoevaluatethequalityofearlychildhoodprogramsandidentify
stafftrainingneeds.DevelopedbyHigh/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,itis
appropriateforuseinallcenterbasedsettings,notjustthoseusingtheHigh/Scope
educationalapproach.ThePreschoolPQAintentionallyreflectsbestpracticesin
earlychildhoodeducationasawhole.Themeasureidentifiesthestructural
characteristicsanddynamicrelationshipsthateffectivelypromotethedevelopmentof
youngchildren,encouragetheinvolvementoffamiliesandcommunities,andcreate
supportiveworkingenvironmentsforstaff(High/ScopeEducationalResearch
Foundation,2003,p.1).
ThePQAcanbeusedforavarietyofpurposesincludingbothpreserviceandin
servicetraininginitiatives,selfassessmentandmonitoring.ThePQAcanalsobeused
toconductobservationsandprovidefeedbacktostaff.Inaddition,thePreschoolPQA
canbeusedasaresearchtoolwhenadministeredbytrainedoutsideobserversto
documentprogrampractices,comparequality,examinetherelationshipbetween
qualityofcareandchildrensoutcomes,andevaluatetheeffectivenessofstaff
developmentinitiatives.Finally,thePreschoolPQAcanbeusedtoexplainresearch
basedpracticestoavarietyofindividualsandagenciesincludingadministrators,
policymakers,andsupportstaffinthepreschool(High/ScopeEducationalResearch
Foundation,2003).

Administration

WhoAdministersMeasure/TrainingRequired
TestAdministration:Themeasuremaybeadministeredbyindependentraters
includingresearchers,programevaluators,outsideconsultantsoragency
administrators.Inaddition,sitestaffincludingdirectors,earlychildhoodspecialists,
curriculumcoordinators,teachers,orparentsmayalsocompleteitaspartofaself
assessment.StudentsmayalsousetheirPQAobservationsaspartoftheirtrainingto
becometeachersorcaregivers.

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TrainingRequired:TrainingtoacceptablelevelsofinterraterreliabilityonthePQA
takes2days.ThefirstdayisdevotedtoreviewingandpracticingthePQA,using
anecdotesandrawfootagevideotapes.Theseconddayisusedtoconductactual
observationsanddetermineinterraterreliability.
Scoring

ThePQAiscomprisedofsevenareasofprogramquality,threeofwhicharebasedon
classroomobservation,andfourofwhicharebasedoninterviewswithteachers
and/ordirectors.Thefirstfourareasareclassroomspecific,whilethelatterthreeare
programspecific.Eachareahasbetween5and13items,withseveralindicatorsper
item.Ratersscoreeachindicatorona5pointscale.Theadministrationmanual
providesadetaileddescriptionofthescoringprocedures.Theareasofprogramquality
anditemsaresummarizedbelow.
ClassroomItems
o LearningEnvironment(9items)
o DailyRoutine(12items)
o AdultChildInteraction(13items)
o CurriculumPlanningandAssessment(5items)
AgencyItems
o ParentInvolvementandFamilyServices(10items)
o StaffQualificationsandStaffDevelopment(7items)
o ProgramManagement(7items)

Reliability

TherevisedPQAwasfieldtestedintworesearchprojects:the2000cohort ofPhase2
oftheMichiganSchoolReadinessProgram(MSRP)evaluationwithasampleof19
classroomsand2,000children(Smith,Jurkiewicz,&Xiang,2002),andtheMichigan
FullDayPreschoolComparisonStudywithtwocohortscomprising121and132
classrooms(Jurkiewicz,2003).Abroadrangeofpublicandprivateearlychildhood
settingswererepresentedbythesesamples,permittingrigoroustestingofthe
psychometricpropertiesofthenewPQA.Thefollowingareexemplarypointsof
informationfromthesestudies.
InterraterReliability
Pairsofratersweresentto10classroomstoobservethelearningenvironment,daily
routine,andadultchildinteraction.Pearsonscorrelationswerecalculatedtobe0.57
forlearningenvironment(p<0.10),0.75fordailyroutine(p<0.05),and0.74foradult
childinteraction(p<0.05).
InternalConsistency
Toassessinternalconsistency,Cronbachsalphawascalculatedonfivequality
constructs(learningenvironment,dailyroutine,adultchildinteraction,curriculum
planningandassessment)andtotalPQAscores.Therewasinsufficientdatato

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determineinternalconsistencyontheothertwoconstructs(staffqualificationsand
development,andprogrammanagement)sincethesewereonlyratedonceatthe
agencylevelratherthanforeachclassroom...Internalconsistencyforthenewversion
wascalculatedwith185classroomsinthreesamples...andaveraged0.93,withallbut
twooftheresultswithintheacceptablerangeof0.70to0.90
(High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,2003,p.11).
Validity

ConcurrentValidity
ThevalidityofqualityconstructswithinsectionsIthroughVoftherevisedPQAwas
assessedinrelationshiptotheTeacherBeliefsScale.ThePQAwassignificantly
correlated,intheexpectedpositiveornegativedirection,withappropriateand
inappropriateteacherbeliefsandpractices.Withoneexception[(thecorrelation
betweenthelearningenvironmentofthePQAandappropriatepracticesofthe
TeacherBeliefsScale,r=0.16)],allcorrelationsweresignificantandrangedin
magnitudefrom0.28to0.49(High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,2003,p.
12).
PredictiveValidity
PQAscoresaresignificantlyrelatedtochildrensdevelopmentaloutcomes,bothwhile
childrenareinpreschool,andkindergarten,andisassociatedwithestablished
measuresofchilddevelopment(e.g.DIALR,High/ScopeCOR)andteacherratings.
ConfirmatoryFactorAnalysis
AconfirmatoryfactoranalysiswasconductedwithsectionsIthroughVusinga
sampleofapproximately150classrooms.Fivefactorsemerged,accountingfor58%of
thevariance,andtheircontentalignedwiththefivecorrespondingPQAsections:
LearningEnvironment,DailyRoutine,AdultChildInteraction,CurriculumPlanningand
Assessment,andParentInvolvementandFamilyServices.Factorloadingsrangedfrom
0.43to0.82,withthemajority(64%)at0.60orhigher.However,severaldailyroutine
items,notablythoserelatedtogrouptimes(e.g.,smallandlargegrouptime),loaded
ontheadultchildfactor.TheseitemsweremodifiedinthefinalversionofthePQA
(High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,2003,p.12).

Strengths

ThePQAhasbeenshowntobebothareliableandvalidmeasuretoassessprogram
quality.OnestrengthofthePQAisthatitmeasuresbothstructuralfeaturesofthe
preschoolclassroomaswellasrelationshipsbetweenchildrenandadults.

Weaknesses

Therewasinsufficientdatatodetermineinternalconsistencyonstaffqualifications
anddevelopmentandprogrammanagementsincethesewereonlyratedonceatthe
agencylevelratherthanforeachclassroom.

Publication/Pricing

Jurkiewicz,T.(2003).TheRevisedPreschoolPQA:Reportonpsychometricproperties.
InstrumentevaluationreporttotheMichiganDepartmentofEducation.Ypsilanti,MI:
High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,ResearchDivision.

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Smith,C.,Jurkiewicz,T.,&Xiang,Z.P.(2002).ProgramqualityinMichiganSchool
ReadinessProgramclassrooms:Classroomcharacteristics,teacherbeliefs,and
measurementissues.EvaluationreporttotheMichiganDepartmentofEducation.
Ypsilanti,MI:High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,ResearchDivision.
Cost:ThecostofthePQAis$25.95.

High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation.(2003).PQA:PreschoolProgramQualityAssessment.Ypsilanti,
MI:Author
Jurkiewicz,T.(2003).TheRevisedPreschoolPQA:Reportonpsychometricproperties.Instrumentevaluation
reporttotheMichiganDepartmentofEducation.Ypsilanti,MI:High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,
ResearchDivision.
Smith,C.,Jurkiewicz,T.,&Xiang,Z.P.(2002).ProgramqualityinMichiganSchoolReadinessProgram
classrooms:Classroomcharacteristics,teacherbeliefs,andmeasurementissues.Evaluationreporttothe
MichiganDepartmentofEducation.Ypsilanti,MI:High/ScopeEducationalResearchFoundation,Research
Division.

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Measure

ClassroomAssessmentScoringSystem(CLASS)

Constructs

HealthyRelationships,Effectiveclassroommanagement,InstructionalSupport,
ClassroomEmotionalEnvironment
PreKthrough12thgrade(variousversions;theoriginalCLASSisusedthrough3rd
grade)
Observational

Agerange
Ratingtype
Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Asdescribedbytheauthors:TheClassroomAssessmentScoringSystem(CLASS)isan
observationalinstrumentdevelopedtoassessclassroomqualityinpreschoolthrough
thirdgradeclassrooms.TheCLASSdimensionsarebasedonobservedinteractions
amongteachersandstudentsinclassrooms.Thedimensionswerederivedfroma
reviewofconstructsassessedinclassroomobservationinstrumentsusedinchild
care/Elementaryschoolresearch,literatureoneffectiveteachingpractices,focus
groups,andextensivepiloting.TheObservationalRecordofClassroomEnvironments
(ORCE,ECRN,NICHD,1996)servedasafoundationforthedevelopmentoftheCLASS.

Administration

TestAdministration:TrainedCLASSusersobserveinclassroomsfortwentyminute
intervalsandthenscoreeachCLASSdimension.Themanualrecommendsgatheringat
leastfourofthesetwentyminuteintervalstoassessaclassroom.Itisalsopossibleto
scorewiththeCLASSbasedonvideotapedfootage.Althoughthemanualdescribesa
standardizedprotocolforobservation,theprocedurecanbemodifiedtomeetthe
goalsofspecificprojects.
TrainingRequired:Trainingisrequiredtoassureproperuseoftheinstrumentforeach
ofitsintendeduses(i.e.,research,professionaldevelopment,programdevelopment
andevaluation).Allobserversmustattendtrainingandpassareliabilitytest.Regular
trainingsessionsareavailableattheUniversityofVirginiaandUniversityofNorth
CarolinaGreensboro.Trainersarealsoavailabletoprovidelocaltrainings.In
addition,thereareseveralTraintheTrainerworkshopseachyearattheUniversityof
VirginiainwhichpeoplecanbecomecertifiedCLASStrainers.Refertowebsitefora
scheduleoftrainings.

Scoring

Scoresforeachdimensionaremadeona7pointscale(lowrange1,2;midrange 3,
4,5;highrange6,7)usingthedescriptionsofclassroomsthatfallwithinthescoring
rangesforeachdimension.Eachdimensionhascorrespondingindicatorsandthen
behavioraldescriptionswithscalepointsforeachindicator.Domainscorescanbe
calculatedasanaverageofeachofthecorrespondingdimensionscores.Togenerate
compositescoresacrosscycles,individualcyclescoresforeachdimensionare
averagedacrossthenumberofcyclesofobservationscompleted(Pianta,LaParo,&
Hamre,2004).

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Reliability

InterraterReliability
AllobserversmustattendtrainingontheCLASSandtakeareliabilitytest.Observers
codefive20minutevideotapedclassroomsessions.Theaverageinterraterreliability
(withinonepointofmastercodes)isreportedintheTechnicalAppendix(p.9)as87
percent.Twoobserversbothcodedatotalof3330minutedigitalvideotapes
submittedbyteachersintheMyTeachingPartner(MTP)Study.Interraterreliability
(within1pointofeachother)rangedfrom78.8percent(forBehaviorManagement
andInstructionalLearningFormats)to96.9percent(forProductivity).Similarlevelsof
reliabilityhavebeenobtainedinliveobservations(Hamreetal.,2006,p.9).
InternalConsistency
CorrelationsamongtheCLASSdimensionsrangefrom.11to.79.Correlationsforthe
preschoolsampleintheMS/SWEEPStudiesweregenerallylowerthanthoseforthe
thirdgradesampleinthe4RsStudy.
Confirmatoryfactoranalyseswereperformedondatafromeachofthestudiesexcept
fortheInductionStudy(Hamreetal.,2006).Analysesrevealedthreefactors
representingEmotionalSupport,ClassroomOrganization,andInstructionalSupport.
WithintheMTPsample,whichusedthemostcurrentversionoftheCLASS,internal
consistencieswere:EmotionalSupport(alpha=.89);ClassroomOrganization(alpha=
.77);andInstructionalSupport(alpha=.83).
StabilityacrossTime
Stabilityofratingsacrossobservationcycleswasassessedinpreschooland3rdgrade
classroomsusingdatafromtheNCEDLMSStudyofpreschoolandthe4RsStudyof3rd
gradeclassroomsinNewYorkCity.Forthe3rdgradesample,correlationsbetween
thefirstcycleandthetotalscorearemoderatetohigh,rangingfrom.68for
Productivityto.87forPositiveClimate.Forthepreschoolsample,correlations
betweenthefirst4cyclesandthefinalscorerangedfrom.84forProductivityto.91for
ConceptDevelopment.Bycompletingtwocyclescorrelationswiththefinalscoreare
uniformlyhighwithalmostallcorrelationsabove.90inbothpreschooland3rdgrade
(Hamreetal.,2006,p.10).Correlationsbetweenobservationsmadeontwo
consecutivedayssuggestahighdegreeofstability,withcorrelationsbetweenthetwo
daysrangingfrom.73forProductivityto.85forTeacherSensitivity.Thereweresmall
butsignificantmeanchangesacrossseveralofthedimensionswithageneraltrend
towardlowerqualityscoresonthesecondday.Giventhatthereisnoreasontoexpect
asystematicdifferenceinqualityacrosstwoconsecutivedaysthesesmallchangesmay
beduetoobserverbiasinwhichscoresbecomeslightlylowerovertime.Again,
however,althoughthesedifferencesarestatisticallysignificant,theyarerelatively
smalleffectsandcorrelationsbetweenthetwodaysarehigh(Hamreetal.,2006,p.
13).

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Validity

CLASSscoreshavealsobeenfoundtoberelativelystableacrosstheschoolyear,at
leastinalargenumberofpreschoolclassrooms.Analysesalsoindicatethat7point
ratingscalesoftheclassroomarehighlystableandnotdependentonoccasion.
CriterionValidity
TheCLASSdomainsofEmotionalSupport,ClassroomOrganization,andInstructional
Supportarecorrelatedwithteacherreportsofdepressionandadultcentered
attitudes.Specifically,classroomswithlowerscoresacrosstheCLASSdimensionshad
teacherswhoreportedhigherlevelsofdepressionwhilethosewithlowerscoreson
classroomorganizationandinstructionalsupporthadteacherswhoreportedmore
adultcenteredattitudes.
ConcurrentValidity
IncomparisonsoftheCLASSwiththeEarlyChildhoodEnvironmentalRatingScale
(ECERSR),classroomswithhigherCLASSscoreswereratedhigherontheECERS
interactionsfactor(correlationsrangefrom.45to.63).CorrelationsbetweenCLASS
ratingsandtheFurnishingsandMaterialsfactorfromtheECERSwereonlymoderate,
rangingfrom.33to.36(Piantaetal.,2005).
TheCLASShasalsobeencomparedtoTheSnapshot,atimesamplingmethodusedto
assessthepercentoftimespentonvariousactivities(Piantaetal.,2005).Becausethe
CLASSassessesthequalityratherthanthequantityofclassroomactivities,itisnot
surprisingthattherewerelow(butstillsignificant)correlationsbetweentheCLASS
instructionalsupportdomainandtimespentinliteracyandmathaccordingtoThe
Snapshot.ChildreninclassroomswithhigherCLASSscoresspentmoretimein
elaboratedinteractionswithadultsandsignificantlymoretimeengaged.
PredictiveValidity
ResultsfromtheNCEDLmultistatestudyprovideevidencethatclassroomquality,as
assessedbytheCLASS,isassociatedwithchildrensperformanceattheendof
preschool,aswellasgainsintheirperformanceacrossthepreschoolyear(Howeset
al.,inpress).Theseassociationsweresustained,evenaftercontrollingforavarietyof
covariates,includingmaternaleducation,ethnicity,andgender.Themostconsistent
androbustclassroomqualitydimensionforpredictinggrowthacrosstimewasthe
InstructionalSupportoftheclassroomasassessedbytheCLASS.TheCLASSEmotional
Supportscalewasassociatedwithgrowthinchildrensexpressiveandreceptive
languagescores,aswellasdecreasesinteacherreportedbehaviorproblems(Howes
etal.,inpress).

ContentValidity
TheCLASSdimensionsarebasedonobservedinteractionsamongteachersand
studentsinclassrooms.Thedimensionswerederivedfromanextensivereviewof
constructsassessedinclassroomobservationinstrumentsusedinchild
care/Elementaryschoolresearch,literatureoneffectiveteachingpractices,focus
groups,andpiloting.

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Strengths

TheCLASShasstrongreliabilityandvaliditysupportingitsstatusasaneffective
measureofclassroominteractionssupport.Ithasawideagerange,astheCLASScan
beusedinPreKthrough12thgradeclassrooms.Itisalsoalignedwithavarietyof
professionaldevelopmentsupporttohelpteachersimprovethequalityoftheir
interactionswithstudents.

Weaknesses

Publication/Pricing

Source:Hamre,B.K.,Mashburn,A.J.,Pianta,R.C.,LocasaleCrouch,J.,&LaParo,K.M.
(2006).
ClassroomAssessmentScoringSystemTechnicalAppendix.
Pianta,R.C.,LaParo,K.M.,&Hamre,B.K.(2008).
ClassroomAssessmentScoringSystem.BrookesPublishing
Publisher:PaulH.BrookesPublishingCo.
PostOfficeBox10624
Baltimore,MD212850624
Phone:8006383775
Website:www.brookespublishing.com
Cost:TwodaytrainingatUVA:$600/person
Fourdaytraining(Trainthetrainer):$1,000/personLocalTraining:$3,000forupto
15people(plustravelcostsfor1trainer)
PreKManual:$49.95
K3Manual:$49.95
Packof10scoringforms:$25
Seewww.classobservation.com

Curby,T.W.,LoCasaleCrouch,J.,Konold,T.R.,Pianta,R.,Howes,C.,Burchinal,M.etal(2009).Therelationsof
observedprekclassroomsqualityprofilestochildren'sacademicachievementandsocialcompetence.Early
EducationandDevelopment,20,346372.
Hamre,B.K.,Mashburn,A.J.,Pianta,R.C.,LacasleCrouch,J.,&LaParo,K.M.(2006).ClassroomAssessment
ScoringSystemtechnicalappendix.
Hamre,B.K.,&Pianta,R.C.(2005).Caninstructionalandemotionalsupportinthefirstgradeclassroommake
adifferenceforchildrenatriskofschoolfailure?ChildDevelopment,76,949967.
Howes,C.,Burchinal,M.,Pianta,R.,Bryant,D.,Early,D.,Clifford,R.,&Barbarin,O.(inpress).Readytolearn?
Childrenspreacademicachievementinprekindergartenprograms.EarlyChildhoodResearchQuarterly.

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Page26

LaParo,K.M.,Pianta,R.C.,&Stuhlman,M.(2004).Theclassroomassessmentscoringsystem:Findingsfrom
theprekindergartenyear.TheElementarySchoolJournal,104,409426.
Mashburn,A.J.,Pianta,R.,Hamre,B.K.,Downer,J.T.,Barbarin,O.,Bryant,D.,Burchinal,M.,Clifford,R.,Early,
D.,&Howes,C.(2008).Measuresofclassroomqualityinprekindergartenandchildrensdevelopmentof
academic,languageandsocialskills.ChildDevelopment,79,732749.
NationalInstituteofChildHealthandHumanDevelopment,EarlyChildCareResearchNetwork(NICHDECCRN)
(2002).Therelationofglobalfirstgradeclassroomenvironmenttostructuralclassroomfeaturesandteacher
andstudentbehaviors.TheElementarySchoolJournal,102(5),367387.
Pianta,R.,Howes,C.,Burchinal,M.,Bryant,D.,Clifford,R.,Early,D.,&Barbarin,O.(2005).Featuresofpre
kindergartenprograms,classrooms,andteachers:Dotheypredictobservedclassroomqualityandchild
teacherinteractions?AppliedDevelopmentalScience,9,144159.
Pianta,R.,LaParo,K.M.,&Hamre,B.K.(2004).ClassroomAssessmentScoringSystem(CLASS).Unpublished
measure,UniversityofVirginia,2004.

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Measure

EarlyChildhoodClassroomObservationMeasure(ECCOM)

Constructs

Effectiveclassroommanagement,InstructionalSupport,SELSupportiveEnvironment

Agerange

47yearsold

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Populationmeasuredevelopedwithkindergartenandfirstgradeteacherspublicand
privateschools,inurbanandruralareas,inthenortheast,andonthewestcoast).
TeacherswerepredominantlyfemaleandCaucasian.
Asdescribedbytheauthors:
Mostextantobservationmeasuresofearlychildhoodclassroomenvironmentsfocus
predominantlyonthesocialclimateandresourcesoftheclassroom,withless
attentiongiventothequalityofinstructionprovidedbytheteacher.TheEarly
ChildhoodClassroomObservationMeasure(ECCOM)wasdevelopedtotapthenature
andqualityofacademicinstructionaswellasthesocialclimate,resources,andother
aspectsofeffectiveclassrooms(Stipek&Byler,undatedcodingmanual,p.1).The
measurefocusesontheapproachusedforinstructionratherthansubjectmatter
content.
Theinstrumentwasdevelopedprimarilyasaresearchtool.However,atleastone
researchteam(HeadStartQualityResearchProject)isusingtheECCOMasan
interventiontoolaswellasforresearch(Stipek&Byler,2004).Thus,theECCOMmay
beusedforresearch,asaprofessionaldevelopmenttool,and/orasaprogram
developmentandevaluationtool,butthevalueoftheECCOMforprofessional
developmentpurposeshasnotyetbeensystematicallyassessed.

Administration

Testadministration:Observationsarerecommendedtobeconductedbyatrained
observer,onatypicalday,beginningatthebeginningofthedayforfulldayprograms
oratthebeginningoftheEarlyChildhoodClassroomObservationMeasure(ECCOM)
programforlessthanfulldayprograms.Observationsoccurovera3hourperiod,and
shouldalwaysincludeobservationsofbothmathandliteracyinstruction.
TrainingRequired:Allobserversshouldattendtwofulldaysoftrainingandpassa
reliabilitytest(i.e.,demonstrate80%reliabilityoncodingwiththeheadtraineror
previouslycertifiedobserver).

Scoring

TheECCOMreportedoninStipekandByler(2004)consistsof32items(17
constructivist,15didactic)ratedonascaleof1(practicesarerarelyseen)to5
(practicespredominate).Therewereparallelitemsforbothconstructivistanddidactic
practices,butthereweretwoadditionalitemsintheconstructivistscale(relevanceof
instructionactivitiesandteacherwarmth).

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Page28

Theratingofeachitemoccursafteranobservationoftheclassroom.Scoresarebased
roughlyonthepercentageoftimethedescribedpracticeswereseenduring
observation.
ConstructivistSubscales
Instruction.Ahighscoreoccursifchildrenareheldaccountableforcompletingwork
andheldtoaclearstandard,lessonsarecoherentandwellconnectedtochildrens
previousknowledge,lessonsteachidentifiableconceptsandarefocusedon
understanding,childrenareactiveparticipantsininstructionalconversations,and
specificstrategiesformathandliteracyinstructionareimplemented.
Management.Ahighscoreoccursifteachersprovidechildrenwithchoicesinboth
teacherplannedactivitiesandduringfreetime,rulesandroutinesareclearbut
flexible,childrenaregivendevelopmentallyappropriateresponsibilities,anddiscipline
isbriefandnondisruptive(ofteninvolvingexplanationsorassistingchildrenintheir
ownsocialproblemsolving).
Socialclimate.Ahighscoreoccursifteachersarewarm,responsive,attentive,and
respectfulofchildren.
DidacticSubscales
Instruction.Ahighscoreoccursiftheteacherholdschildrenaccountablefor
completingworkandforattaininguniversalratherthanindividualizedstandards,
lessonsfocusondiscreteskills,theteacherfocusesonfactsandproceduralknowledge,
theteachercontrolstheclassroomconversations,andmathandliteracyinstruction.
EarlyChildhoodClassroomObservationMeasure(ECCOM)emphasizeslearningdistinct
skillswhicharenotembeddedinmeaningfulcontextsandalsostronglyemphasizes
correctness.
Management.Ahighscoreoccursiftherulesandroutinesareteacherdetermined,
childrendonotselecttheirownactivitiesoutsideofrecess,andtheteachertakes
responsibilityformaintainingorderintheclassroom,includinginterveningquicklyin
socialconflictsituations.
Socialclimate.Ahighscoreoccursiftherearefewsocialinteractionsamongchildren,
littlecollaborativeworkamongchildren,andmostchildrenworkindividuallyorina
teacherledgroup.Tasksandexpectationsareteacherorcurriculumdrivenand
uniformacrossallchildren.
Reliability

InterraterReliability
Observersindependentlyrated26classroomsinpairs.Intraclasscorrelationswere
usedtocalculatereliability.Reliabilitywashighforallsubscales(Stipek&Byler,2004,
p.387).
InternalConsistency
Alphaswerehighforallsubscales(Stipek&Byler,2004,p.388).

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Page29

Validity

PredictiveValidity
StipekandByler(2004)foundpredictableassociationsbetweenECCOMscores,and
teachersselfreportedpractices,teachinggoals,relationshipswithchildren,and
perceptionsofchildrensabilitytobeselfdirectedlearners.Theauthorsconcedethat
directobservationofchildbehaviorsandskillswouldbebetterthanrelyingonteacher
reportforassessingassociationsbetweenmeasures.
Additionally,thestudyfoundstrongcorrelationsbetweentheconstructivistand
didacticsubscalesoftheECCOMandteacherseducationallevel.Thelesseducation
teachershad,themoretheyengagedindidacticinstruction(r=0.29,p<0.001),and
themoreeducationteachershad,themoretheyengagedinconstructivistinstruction
(r=0.27,p<0.001).

Strengths

ThemeasureaddressesdiversitybyhavingachecklistofRepresentationsRelatedto
DiversityandaTreatmentofNativeLanguage.Additionally,themeasurehasstrong
predictivevalidity.

Weaknesses

Thevalidityinformationwasgatheredbyteacherreport,andwouldbemoreaccurate
ifdatahadbeengatheredthroughdirectobservationofchildbehaviorsandskills.

Publication/Pricing

Source:Stipek,D.,&Byler,P.(2004).Theearlychildhoodclassroomobservation
measure.EarlyChildhoodResearchQuarterly,19,375397.
Publisher:Unpublished.ThemeasuremaybeobtainedbyemailingDeborahStipekat
stipek@stanford.edu
Cost:ContactDr.DeborahStipekatstipek@stanford.edu

Stipek,D.,&Byler,P.(2004).Theearlychildhoodclassroomobservationmeasure.EarlyChildhoodResearch
Quarterly,19,375397.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page30


Measure

SchoolAgeCareEnvironmentRatingScale(SACERS)

Constructs

SELSupportiveEnvironments

Agerange

Schoolage

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Asdescribedbytheauthors:

Administration

TheSchoolAgeCareEnvironmentRatingScale(SACERS)measuresenvironmental
qualityinschoolagecaresettings.
TestAdministration: Theinstrumentmaybeusedbythecaregivingstaffforself
assessment,bydirectorsasaprogramqualitymeasureforplanningprogram
improvement,byagencystaffformonitoring,inteachertrainingprograms,andby
parentsconcernedaboutqualitycarefortheirschoolagechildren.
TrainingRequired:Trainingisrequiredtoassureproperuseoftheinstrumentforeach
ofitsintendeduses(i.e.,research,programevaluation,andselfevaluation).Itis
preferabletoparticipateinatrainingsequenceledbyanexperiencedSACERStrainer
followingthetrainingguideintheSACERSbook,pages3840.

Scoring

Fortynineitemsofschoolagecareenvironmentqualityarecategorizedintoseven
subscales,eachwithseveralitems.Itemsareratedona7pointscalefrom1
(inadequate)to7(excellent).Descriptionsareprovidedatscorepoints1,3,5,and7.
o SpaceandFurnishings(11items)
o HealthandSafety(8items)
o Activities(8items)
o Interactions(9items)
o ProgramStructure(4items)
o StaffDevelopment(3items)
o SpecialNeedsSupplementaryItems(6items)

Reliability

InterraterReliability
WeightedKappaswerecalculatedfor24centers,ratedindependentlybytwo
observers.WeightedKappasforeachofthesubscalesandtotalscorerangedfrom.79
to.91.IntraclassCorrelationswerealsocalculatedon13centersthatwereobserved
bythesametwoindependentobservers.Theserangedfrom.87to.99.
InternalConsistency
CronbachsAlphasforeachofthesubscalesandtotalscoresbasedon24classrooms
rangedfrom.67to.95.

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Page31

Validity

ValidityInformation
Validitywasassessedintwoways:contentvaliditywasassessedusingexpertratingsof
eachitemsimportancetotheirdefinitionofquality;andconstructvaliditywas
assessedbycorrelatingSACERStotalandsubscalescoreswithstafftrainingandstaff
tochildratios.
ConstructValidity
SACERStotalandsubscalescoreswerecorrelatedwithstafftrainingandstafftochild
ratio.StafftraininghasmoderatepositivecorrelationswithSpaceandFurnishings(r=
.31),Interactions(r=.29),ProgramStructure(r=.40),andTotalScore(r=.29).Staff
tochilderatioshavemoderatenegativecorrelationswithHealthandSafety(r=.40),
Activities(r=.39),StaffDevelopment(r=.24),andTotalScores(r=.30).
ContentValidity
ContentvaliditywasassessedbyaskingninerecognizedexpertsfromtheUnitedStates
andCanadatoratetheimportanceofeachSACERSitemtotheirintuitivedefinitionof
highqualityona5pointscale.(1=notimportantto5=veryimportant).Amean
ratingof4.5to5wasfoundfor91%oftheitems.Theoverallmeanratingoftheitems
was4.8.Thelowestmeanratingassignedtoanyitemwas3.9.

Strengths

TheSACERSprovidesabroadsummaryofschoolage classroomenvironmentsthatis
alignedwithaverysimilarmeasuretobeusedinpreschoolandchildcare
environments(ECERS).Ithasstrongreliabilityandmoderateevidenceofvalidity.

Weaknesses

Thisassessmentdoesnotmeasureinstructionalinteractionsinmuchdetail.

Publication/Pricing

Source:Harms,T.,VinebergJacobs,E.,&RomanoWhite,D.(1996).School AgeCare
EnvironmentRatingScale.NewYork,NY:TeachersCollegePress.
Publisher:TeachersCollegePress1234AmsterdamAvenueNewYork,NY10027

Cost:Thecostofafivedayindepthtrainingis$1225/person.Athreedaytraining
costs$825/person.Feesincludeallmaterials.

Harms,T.,VinebergJacobs,E.,&RomanoWhite,D.(1996).SchoolAgeCareEnvironmentRatingScale.New
York,NY:TeachersCollegePress

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Measure
Constructs

StudentTeacherRelationshipScale

Healthyrelationships

Agerange

Earlychildhoodandearlyprimarygrades(through3rdgrade)

Ratingtype

Teacher

Descriptionof
Piantasscales(Pianta,1997;Pianta&Nimetz,1991;Pianta,Steinberg,&Rollins,
measureasrelatedto 1995),yieldmeasuresofthechild'srelationshipwithhis/herteacher,regarding
constructofinterest whethertherelationshipisconflicted,warm,troubled,open,ordependent.
Administration

Thescalesarequickforteacherstocomplete,approximately510minutes.

Scoring

SumLikertratingsacross5pointscalesfor28items,asfollows:
Closeness=Sum(items1,3,4,5,7,9,12,15,21,27,28)
Conflict=Sum(items2,11,13,16,18,19,20,22,23,24,25,26)
Dependency=Sum(items6,8,10,14,17)
Total=Sum(Closeness,Recoded/AllItemsReversedConflict,Recoded/Allitems
ReversedDependency)
Reversed/Recoding:1=5,2=4,3=3,4=2,5=1
Interpretationofscoresisnormative,basedonpercentilerangecomparedtonorm
groups.Separatenormgroupsincludetotalpopulation,gender,andthreeethnic
groups(Caucasian,Hispanic,andAfricanAmerican)

Reliability
Validity

Psychometricpropertiesaregood.Internal consistenciesandtestretestreliability
averageinthe.80sand.90s,exceptforDependencyscale,whichhadaloweralphaof
.64.Subscalescoresareassociatedwithchildrensclassroomandhomebehaviors
(Pianta,Steinberg,&Rollins,1995).Furthermore,theserelationshipqualitiespersist
acrosstimeandtosomeextentacrossteachers.Inrecentresearch,STRSscaleswere
negativelyrelatedtoexternalizingbehaviorsinpreschoolers;thatis,childrenwith
whomteachersreportclosenessshowedlessaggressionandotheroutofcontrol
behavior(RamosMarcuse&Arsenio,2001).Finally,andimportantly,scoresare
moderatepredictorsofschoolsuccessthroughgrade8(e.g.,Pianta,1997).

Strengths

Relationshipswithteachersareanimportant,newlyemphasizedareaofresilience
promotionforyoungchildren.

Weaknesses

Notnecessarilyweaknesses,butareaswheremoreattentionisneeded,includethe
factsthatchildage,gender,andethnicity,aswellasteacherchildethnicmatchwere
consistentlyrelatedtoteachersperceptions.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page33

Publication/Pricing

PublishedbyPsychologicalAssessmentResources,Inc.
Introductorykitw/50responsesheets=$94.00
50responseforms=$60.00

Pianta,R.C.(1997).Adultchildrelationshipprocessesandearlyschooling.EarlyEducationandDevelopment,
8,1126.
Pianta,R.C.,&Nimetz,S.L.(1991).Thestudentteacherrelationshipscale:Resultsofapilotstudy.Journalof
AppliedDevelopmentalPsychology,12,379393.
Pianta,R.C.,&Steinberg,M.(1992).Teacherchildrelationshipsandtheprocessofadjustingtoschool.New
DirectionsforChildDevelopment,57,6180.
Pianta,R.C.,Steinberg,M.,&Rollins,K.(1995).Thefirsttwoyearsofschool:Teacherchildrelationshipsand
deflectionsinchildrensclassroomadjustment.DevelopmentandPsychopathology,7,295312.
RamosMarcuse,F.,&Arsenio,W.F.(2001).Youngchildrensemotionallychargedmoralnarratives:Relations
withattachmentandbehaviorproblems.EarlyEducationandDevelopment,12,165184.
Saft,E.W.,&Pianta,R.C.(2001).Teachers'perceptionsoftheirrelationshipswithstudent:Effectsofchild
age,gender,andethnicityofteachersandchildren.SchoolPsychologyQuarterly,16,125141.

ExampleItemsfromtheStudentTeacherRelationshipScale
STRSScale

ExampleItems

Closeness

Ishareanaffectionate,warmrelationshipwiththischild;
thischildsharesinformationabouthimself;Itiseasyto
beintunewithwhatthischildisfeeling

Conflict

ThischildandIalwaysseemtobestrugglingwitheach
other;despitemybestefforts,Iamuncomfortablewith
howthischildandIhavegottenalong;

Dependency

Thischildreactsstrongtoseparationfromme;thischild
isoverlydependentonme

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Measure

AssessmentofPracticesinEarlyElementaryClassrooms(APEEC)

Constructs

InstructionalSupport

Agerange

Elementary

Ratingtype

Observational,Other

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

TheAPEECwasdevelopedtoprovideausefultoolforbothpractitionersand
researcherswhowanttounderstandElementaryschoolpractices(K3)ingeneral
educationclassroomsservingchildrenwithandwithoutdisabilities.TheAPEECdoes
notmeasurespecificcurriculumcontentorindepthteacherchildinteractions
(Hemmeter,Maxwell,Ault,&Schuster,2001,p.1).TheAPEEC(Maxwell,McWilliam,
Hemmeter,Ault,&Schuster,2001)measuresthreedomainsofclassroompractices:
physicalenvironment,curriculumandinstructionalcontext,andsocialcontext.

Administration

According to the authors, these domains can be observed in a typical elementary


classroom environment and can beused in classrooms that includechildren with and
without disabilities. Each item has two or more descriptors that characterize the
instructional setting and classroom practices (Daly & Dolgos, 2003). Observers are
asked to spend a day in the classroom making observation based on the items. A
teacherinterviewwithsuggestedinterviewquestionscanbecompletedtosupplement
theobservations.Administrationproceduresarenotstandardized.
The APEEC should be administered by individuals knowledgeable about
developmentally appropriate practices, early elementary classrooms, and special
educationpractices.Individualsareexpectedtofamiliarizethemselveswiththeitems
and scoring procedures and to read over the administration instructions provided by
theauthors.

Scoring

TheAPEECconsistsof16itemscoveringthreebroaddomainsofclassroompractices:
physicalenvironment,curriculumandinstruction,andsocialcontext.Allitemsarerated
onasevenpoint,Likerttypescale.Ascoreof1indicatestheclassroomisinadequate
intermsofdevelopmentallyappropriatepractices,ascoreof3indicatesminimal
developmentallyappropriatepractices,ascoreof5indicatestheclassroomisgoodin
termsofdevelopmentalappropriateness,andascoreof7indicatesexcellent
developmentallyappropriatepractices.Intermediatescoresof2,4,and6canalso
beobtained(Hemmeteretal.,2001,p.4).Descriptorsareprovidedatpoints1,3,5
and7.Aftereachitemisscored,itemsaresummedandthendividedbythetotal
numberofitemsadministeredtogenerateatotalscore.Ratingsaremadeusing
informationcollectedboththroughclassroomobservationandteacherinterview,with
moreweightplacedonclassroomobservation.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page35

Reliability

Validity

Thepsychometricreportforthemeasurepresentstheresultsfromanalysesofratings
of59classrooms.Interrateragreementattheitemlevelwasmoderatetohigh
(coefficientsrangedfrom.31to.81)forexactagreementandrangedfrom.5to1.0for
agreementwithin1point.Themedianintraclasscorrelation,anindicationofinternal
consistency,was.86.
ThepsychometricreportalsoindicatesthattheAPEECismoderatelycorrelatedwith
othermeasuresofclassroomquality(e.g.,theAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhood
Programs),apreliminaryindicationofvalidity(Maxwell,etal.,2001).
ConstructvaliditywasestablishedbycomparingtheAPEECtoseveralmeasuresof
developmentallyappropriatepractices.Correlationswitheachscalearepresented
below:TheAssessmentProfileforEarlyChildhoodPrograms(AbbottShim&Sibley,
1988),r=0.67

TheTeacherBeliefsandPracticesScale(Buchanan,Burts,Bidner,White,&
Charlesworth,1998;Charlesworth,Hart,Burts,Thomasson,Mosley,&Fleege,
1993)

Developmentallyappropriatepractices,r=0.55

Developmentallyinappropriatepractices,r=0.28

TheCaregiverInteractionScale(Arnett,1989),r=0.61

Strengths

Thismeasurewasdesignedforuseinclassroomsservingchildrenwithandwithout
disabilitiesforatleastpartofthedayandthusaddressesdiversityissueswithinthe
classroom.Additionally,classroomdiversityismeasuredthroughanobservationitem
thathasratersassessthedegreetowhichmaterialsandinformationondiversityare
presentintheclassroom,andtheextenttowhichdiversityisdiscussedorintegratedin
theclassroomanddailyactivities.

Weaknesses

Analysesdidnotmodelthenesteddatastructuredespitetheinclusioninthedataof
multipleteacherswithinsomeschools(VanHorn&Ramey,2004).Thefactorstructure
oftheAPEEChasnotbeenassessed(VanHorn&Ramey,2004).Areviewinthe
FifteenthBurosMentalMeasurementYearbooknotedfurtherconcernsaboutthis
instrument.ReviewersstatedthatadministrationproceduresfortheAPEECarenot
standardized;testscoremeaningisunclear,anditspsychometricpropertiesare
insufficienttorecommenditforuse(Daly&Dolgos,2003).

Publication/

TeachersCollegePress,1234AmsterdamAvenue,NewYork,NY10027

Pricing

Hemmeter,M.L.,Maxwell,K.L.,AultM.J.,&SchusterJ.W.(2001).Assessment
ofPracticesinEarlyElementaryClassrooms(APEEC).TeachersCollegePress:
NewYork,NY.

TheAPEECcosts$13.95(paperback).

AbbottShim,M.,&Sibley,A.(1988).Assessmentprofileforearlychildhoodprograms.Atlanta,GA:Quality
Assist.
CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page36

Arnett,J.(1989).Caregiversindaycarecenters:Doestrainingmatter?JournalofAppliedDevelopmental
Psychology,10,541552.
Buchanan,T.K.,Burts,D.C.,Bidner,J.,White,F.,&Charlesworth,R.(1998).Predictorsofthedevelopmentally
appropriatenessofthebeliefsandpracticesoffirst,second,andthirdgradeteachers.EarlyChildhood
ResearchQuarterly,13,459483.
Charlesworth,R.,Hart,C.H.,Burts,D.C.,Thomasson,R.H.,Mosley,J.,&Fleege,P.O.(1993).Measuringthe
developmentalappropriatenessofkindergartenteachers.EarlyChildhoodResearchQuarterly,8,255276.
ChildTrends.(2007,November).Qualityinearlychildhoodcareandeducationsettings:Acompendiumof
measures.ChildTrends:Washington,DC.
ChomatMooney,L.I.,Pianta,R.C.,Hamre,B.K.,Mashburn,A.,Luckner,A.E.,Grimm,K.J.,Wang,L.,Curby,
T.W.,&Downer,J.(2008).ApracticalguideforconductingclassroomobservationsAsummaryofissuesand
evidenceforresearchers.Charlottesville:UniversityofVirginia,CenterforAdvancedStudyofTeachingand
Learning.
Daly,E.J.,&Dolgos,K.A.(2003).TestreviewoftheAssessmentofPracticesinEarlyElementaryClassrooms.
InB.S.Plake,,J.C.Impara,&R.A.Spies(Eds.),Thefifteenthmentalmeasurementsyearbook.Lincoln,NE:The
BurosInstituteofMentalMeasurements.
Hemmeter,M.L.,Maxwell,K.L.,AultM.J.,&SchusterJ.W.(2001).AssessmentofPracticesinEarly
ElementaryClassrooms(APEEC).TeachersCollegePress:NewYork,NY.
Maxwell,K.L.,McWilliams,R.A.,Hemmeter,M.L,Ault,M.J.,&Schuster,J.W.(2001).Predictorsof
developmentallyappropriateclassroompracticesinkindergartenthroughthirdgrade.EarlyChildhood
ResearchQuarterly,16,431452.
VanHorn,M.L.,&Ramey,S.L.(2004).Anewmeasureforassessingdevelopmentallyappropriatepracticesin
earlyelementaryschool,Adevelopmentallyappropriatepracticetemplate.EarlyChildhoodResearch
Quarterly,19,569587.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page37

Section2:ThefiveSELCoreCompetencies(seeTable3):
ConstructsinthissectionincludethefiveSELcorecompetencies(Zinsetal.,2007):

SelfAwareness

SelfManagement
o Includingbothexpressionandregulationofemotion

Internalizingsymptomsareincludedhere

o Includingregulationofbehavior,butnottheentireburgeoningfieldofselfregulation(e.g.,
executivefunctiontasksaregenerallyomitted)
o Werealizethatinternalizingsymptomsandexternalizingbehaviorscanalso,laterinthechilds
life,beseenasalongtermoutcomeoflackofSEL

SocialAwareness
o Includingempathy

RelationshipSkills
o Alsoincludingempathy

Responsibledecisionmaking
o Includinglackofaggression

Somedecisionsweremadeabouthowandwheretoincludevariousconstructs,subconstructs,andtheir
attendantassessmenttools,asnotedabove.Weunderstandthatthereissomeoverlapamongstthe
constructs.
Table3summarizesthefollowingmeasures.Gapsinclude:

Fewerresponsibledecisionmakingscalesforthepreschoolagerangebecauseweelectedtoomit
thosethatrequirelearningcomplexcodingsystems

Becauseofchildrensexpressiveandcognitiveabilities,fewerselfandpeerratingsofSELarepresent
foryoungerageranges,aswell

Forparallelreasons,therearemoreobservationaltoolsatthepreschoollevel

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Table3.Measures,SELCoreConstructAssessed,AgeRange,PreschoolorElementarySchool,andRatingType*

School/Grade
Level

SELCoreCompetencyAssessed

SelfManagement

SocialAwareness

RelationshipSkills

Responsible
DecisionMaking

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other(e.g.,
interview)

RatingType

SelfAwareness

ChallengingSituationsTask(CST)

DenhamsAffectKnowledgeTest
(AKT)

TheDevereuxEarlyChildhood
Assessment(DECA)

MinnesotaPreschoolAffect
Checklist

PennInteractivePreschoolPlay
Scales

PreschoolSelfRegulation
Assessment

SelfDescriptionQuestionnairefor
Preschoolers(SDQP)

SocialCompetenceandBehavior
Evaluation

SouthamptonTestOfEmpathyFor
Preschoolers(STEP)

BattelleDevelopmentalInventory
(BDI)

ScaleName

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page39


School/Grade
Level

SELCoreCompetencyAssessed

SelfAwareness

SelfManagement

SocialAwareness

RelationshipSkills

Responsible
DecisionMaking

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other(e.g.,
interview)

RatingType

BehaviorAssessmentSystemFor
Children,SecondEdition(BASC2)

BerkeleyPuppetInterview(BPI)

CopingwithEmotionalSituations

EmotionRegulationChecklist

ThePictorialScaleofPerceived
CompetenceandSocialAcceptance
forYoungChildren(PSPCSAYC)

PositiveAndNegativeAffectScale
(PANAS)

RothbartTemperamentScales
Infant,EarlyChildhood,Child,

SocialSkillsRatingSystem,Social
SkillsImprovementSystem

ScaleName

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Page40


School/Grade
Level

SELCoreCompetencyAssessed

SelfAwareness

SelfManagement

SocialAwareness

RelationshipSkills

Responsible
DecisionMaking

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other(e.g.,
interview)

RatingType

SociometricRatingsand
Nominations

AssessmentofChildrensEmotional
Skills(ACES)

BehavioralandEmotionalRating
ScaleSecondEdition:(BERS)
ParentRatingScale(PRS)

BryantEmpathyScaleforChildren

Child/Teacher/ParentRatingScale

ChildrensEmotionManagement
Scales:AngerAndSadness

DevereuxStudentStrengths
Assessment(DESSA)

EmotionExpressionScaleFor
Children(EESC)

FeelingsAboutSchool(FAS)

ScaleName

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page41


School/Grade
Level

SELCoreCompetencyAssessed

SelfAwareness

SelfManagement

SocialAwareness

RelationshipSkills

Responsible
DecisionMaking

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other(e.g.,
interview)

RatingType

FriendshipQualityQuestionnaire

HowIFeelScale

KatzGottmanRegulationScale

KuschAffectInterviewRevised

MeasureOfProsocialand
AggressiveBehavior

MultidimensionalSelfConcept
Scale(MSCS)

RelationshipQuestionnaire(RELQ)

ResiliencyInventory

ScaleName

* GreyedcellsindicateSELcoreskillsassessed,agelevel,orratingtype

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page42

Measure

ChallengingSituationsTask(CST)

Constructs

Responsibledecisionmaking

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Performancebased

Descriptionofmeasure
Thismeasurewasdesignedtoassesschildren'saffectiveandbehavioralresponses
asrelatedtoconstructof tohypotheticalpeersituations.Achallengingsituationwasdefinedasonewhich
interest
wouldelicitaffectandtestthelimitsofthechild'sbehavioralabilitieswithinthe
crucialpeerrelationship.
Administration

ThethreesituationschosenforinclusionintheCSTwere:(a)apeerknockingdown
atowerofblockswhichthechildwasbuilding;(b)beinghitbyapeeronthe
playground;and(c)enteringagroupofpeersplayingagame.
Fourcategoriesofaffectiveresponses(i.e.,happy,sad,angry,andneutralor"just
okay"),andfourcategoriesofbehavioralresponses(i.e.,prosocial,aggressive,
manipulative,andavoidant)wereidentifiedforeachsituation.Prosocialresponses
includedengagingtheotherpersoninconstructiveplay,notbecomingupset,and
discussingtheproblem.Aggressiveresponsesincludedyelling,hittingtheother
person,ordestroyingthepeers'game.Cryingand/orpoutingweremanipulative
responses.Avoidantresponseswereignoringtheotherperson,withdrawingfrom
theinteraction,orwaitingonthesidelines.
Thechildwasinstructedtopretendthatheorshewasinthatsituationandto
respondtoquestionsasifitwerearealsituationforthem.Thetesterfirst
presenteda3x4inch(7.6x10.2cm)pictureandverbaldescriptionofeach
challengingsituation.
Followingthispresentationofeachchallengingsituation,fourpicturesofhappy,
sad,angry,andneutralaffectwerepresentedinrandomorderandlabeledforthe
child.Thenthechildwasaskedtopointtothepicturewhichbestdescribedthe
answerto"Howdoyoufeelwhen[thissituation]happenstoyou?"
Next,fourpicturesofbehavioralresponses(prosocial,aggressive,manipulationof
others'feelings,andavoidant)werepresentedinrandomorderandthechildwas
asked,"whatdoyoudowhenyoufeelthatway[inthissituation]?"

Scoring

Scoresforaffectiveandbehavioralresponsesusedwerenumberoftimeseach
affectandeachbehavioralresponsewaschosenbyeachchild,acrossthethree
situations.

Reliability

InternalconsistencyforemotionresponseandbehavioralresponseintheWarren
etal.(2010)samplewas=.43and=.54,respectively.Forsuchasmallnumber
ofitems(3each),averageinteritemcorrelationscanbeinstructiveforemotion
responses,theinteritemaveragecorrelationwas.20(p<.001)andforbehavioral
responses,itwas.28(p<.001).

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page43

Validity

Relatedtoacademiccompetence(Biermanetal,2008;Warrenetal.,2010),
behaviorproblems(Coyetal.,2001).Inearlierresearch,behavioralandaffective
choicesshowedrelationswithemotionknowledge(asmeasuredbyDenhams
AKT)andwithteacherratingsofclassroomsocialbehavior.(ZahnWaxleretal.,,
1994),

Strengths

Portable,developmentallyappropriate(e.g.,doesnotaskaboutambiguous
situations)directassessment,doesnotneedcodingasothermeasuresofsocial
problemsolvinginvariablydo,getsattheseaspectsofresponsibilityatanearlier
agethanmostotherinstruments,includestheemotionalsideofsocialinformation
processes.

Weaknesses

Needsmoreresearch,perhapsmorescenariosaddedforgreaterinternal
consistency.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Bierman,K.L,Domitrovich,C.E.,Nix,R,L.,Gest,S.D.,Welsh,J.A.,Greenberg,M.T.,Blair,C.Nelson,K.,E.&
Gill,S.(2008).Promotingacademicandsocialemotionalschoolreadiness:TheHeadStartREDIprogram.
ChildDevelopment,79,18021817.
Coy,K.,Speltz,M.L.,DeKlyen,M.,&Jones,K.(2001).Socialcognitiveprocessesinpreschoolboyswithand
withoutoppositionaldefiantdisorder.JournalofAbnormalChildPsychology,29(2),107119.
Denham,S.A.,Bouril,B.,&Belouad,F.(1994).Preschoolersaffectandcognitionaboutchallengingpeer
situations.ChildStudyJournal,24,124.
Warren,H.K.,Way,E.,Kalb,S.C.,Denham,S.A.,&Bassett,H.H.(2010).UtilizingEmotionandBehaviorfor
UnderstandingPreschoolersSocialInformationProcessing:ThePredictiveValidityoftheChallenging
SituationsTask.Submittedforpublication.
ZahnWaxler,C.,Cole,P.M.,Richardson,D.T.,Friedman,R.J.,Michel,M.K.,&Belouad,F.(1994).Social
problemsolvingindisruptivepreschoolchildren:Reactionstohypotheticalsituationsofconflictanddistress.
MerrillPalmerQuarterly,40,98119.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Measure

DenhamsAffectKnowledgeTest(AKT)

Constructs
Agerange

SocialAwareness
30to60months(olderlimitmaybealmostanunderestimateforlowSESchildren,andis
anoverestimateforhighSESchildren,whoshowaceilingeffectaround54months)

Ratingtype
Descriptionof
measureas
relatedto
constructof
interest

Performancebased
DenhamsAffectiveKnowledgeTest(AKT;1986)utilizespuppetstomeasurepreschoolers
developmentallyappropriateunderstandingofemotionalexpressionsandsituations.
Children'sunderstandingofemotionisassessedusingpuppetswithdetachablefacesthat
depicthappy,sad,angry,andafraidexpressions.First,childrenareaskedtobothverbally
nametheemotionsdepictedonthesefaces,andthentononverballyidentifythemby
pointing.Thisproceduretapsintotheirabilitytorecognizeexpressionsofemotion.

Then,intwosubtestsofemotionsituationknowledge,thepuppeteermakesstandard
facialandvocalexpressionsofemotionswhileenactingemotionladenstories,suchasfear
duringanightmare,happinessatgettingsomeicecream,andangerathavingablock
towerdestroyed.Childrenplaceonthepuppetthefacethatdepictsthepuppet'sfeelingin
eachsituation.Ineightsituations,thepuppetfeelsemotionsthatwouldbecommonto
mostpeople,suchasthosementionedabove.
Finally,childrenareaskedtomakeinferencesofemotionsinnonsterotypical,equivocal
situations.Thissubtestmeasureshowwellchildrenidentifyothers'feelingsinsituations
wherethe"other"feelsdifferentlythanthechild.Allthesituationsthatthepuppeteer
depictsduringthissectionofthemeasurecouldeasilyelicitoneoftwodifferentemotions
indifferentpeople,asinfeelinghappyorafraidtogetintoaswimmingpool.Beforethe
assessment,childrensparentsreport,viaforcedchoicequestionnaire,howtheirchildren
wouldfeel;theseresponsesdeterminetheemotionsexpressedbythepuppet.For
example,iftheparentreportsthatthechildwouldbehappytocometopreschool,the
puppetisdepictedfeelingsad.

Administration

TheAKTiseasytolearnandtoadminister,childrenenjoyit,andittakesonlyabout20
minutestoperform;itmaybeadministeredacross2sessions.

Scoring

Childrenreceive2pointsperquestionforacorrectresponse(usingscoringkeyfoundin
manual);theyreceive1pointforgettingthevalenceoftheresponsecorrect(e.g.,ifthey
pickthesadratherthanangryface,sincebotharenegative).

Reliability

Internalconsistencyandtestretestreliabilitiesaregood(Denham,Caverly,etal.,2002;
Denham&Couchoud,1990a,1990b),inthe.60.85rangedependingonthespecific
aggregateofscorescreated(i.e.,total,receptiveexpressionknowledge,expressive
expressionknowledge,situationknowledge[unequivocalandequivocal]).Dunn,
Slomkowski,etal.showedrelationsoftheAKTwithlaterindicesofemotionknowledgeat
agesix.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Validity

Thismeasureappearstobeespeciallyecologicallyvalid,asitrequireslittleverbalization
andisperformedduringplay.ScoresontheAKTareslightlytomoderatelyrelatedtoother
indicesofSEL.Forexample,researchershavefoundthatchildrensconcurrentAQS
attachmentratingsarerelatedtoscoresontheMeasure(Denham,Caverly,etal.,2002;
Laible&Thompson,1998);moresecurechildrenperformbetterontheAKT.Moreover,
predominantlyhappier,lessangrychildrenalsotendtoperformbetter(Denham,1986;
Denhametal.,1990;Denhametal,2003).Furthermore,AKTscoresarerelatedtoother
indicesofSEL,suchasmoralsensibilityanddecisionmaking(Dunn,Brown,&Maguire,
1995),conflictsandinteractionswithfriends(Cutting&Dunn,1999;Dunn&Herrera,
1997).Finally,AKTscoresarebothconcurrentlyandlongitudinallyrelatedtopeersand
teachersevaluationsofchildrenssocialcompetence(Denhametal.,1990;Denhametal.,
2003).Thus,knowingachildsstatusonthismeasurecanhelpinvestigatorsnotonlyin
knowingaboutemotionknowledge,butalsotoprognosticateaboutskillstowhichtheAKT
isrelated.Infact,itausefulassessmenttooltodocumentstatusandchangeinemotion
knowledgeduringinterventionprogramming;ithasalreadydemonstrateditsusefulnessin
thisrole(Domitrovichetal.,2002;Shieldsetal.,2001).

Strengths

Goodtoexcellentpsychometrics.Childrenenjoyit.Emotionknowledgeinpreschool
seemstobepivotalforlatersocialdevelopment.

Weaknesses

Notyetstandardizedbutcomputerizedversionisplanned;needstraining.Thereareother
Measuresofpreschoolemotionknowledge,butnoneseemtohavethesolidnetworkof
researcharoundthem.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Cutting,A.L.,&Dunn,J.(1999).Theoryofmind,emotionunderstanding,language,andfamilybackground:
Individualdifferencesandinterrelations.ChildDevelopment,70,853865.
Denham,S.A.(1986).Socialcognition,socialbehavior,andemotioninpreschoolers:Contextualvalidation.
ChildDevelopment,57,194201.
Denham,S.A.,Blair,K.A.,DeMulder,E.,Levitas,J.,Sawyer,K.,AuerbachMajor,S.T.,&Queenan,P.(2003).
Preschoolemotionalcompetence:Pathwaytosocialcompetence?ChildDevelopment,74,238256.
Denham,S.A.,Caverly,S.,Schmidt,M.,Blair,K.,DeMulder,E.,Caal,S.,Hamada,H.,&Mason,T.(2002).
Preschoolunderstandingofemotions:Contributionstoclassroomangerandaggression.JournalofChild
PsychologyandPsychiatry,43,901916.
Denham,S.A.,&Couchoud,E.A.(1990a).Youngpreschoolersunderstandingofemotion.ChildStudy
Journal,20,171192.
Denham,S.A.,&Couchoud,E.A.(1990b).Youngpreschoolersunderstandingofequivocalemotion
situations.ChildStudyJournal,20,193202.
Denham,S.A.,McKinley,M.,Couchoud,E.A.,&Holt,R.(1990).Emotionalandbehavioralpredictorsofpeer
statusinyoungpreschoolers.ChildDevelopment,61,11451152.
CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page46

Domitrovich,C.E.,Cortes,R.,&Greenberg,M.(2002,June).PreschoolPATHS:Promotingsocialandemotional
competenceinyoungchildren.Paperpresentedatthe6thNationalHeadStartResearchConference.
Dunn,J.,Brown,J.,Beardsall,L.(1991).Familytalkaboutfeelingstatesandchildren'slaterunderstandingof
others'emotions.DevelopmentalPsychology,27,448455.
Dunn,J.,Brown,J.,&Maguire,M.(1995).Thedevelopmentofchildrensmoralsensibility:Individual
differencesandemotionunderstanding.DevelopmentalPsychology,31,649659.
Dunn,J.,Brown,J.,Slomkowski,Tesla,C.,&Youngblade,L.(1991).Youngchildrensunderstandingofother
peoplesfeelingsandbeliefs:Individualdifferencesandtheirantecedents.ChildDevelopment,62,13521366.
Dunn,J.,&Cutting,A.L.(1999).Understandingothers,andindividualdifferencesinfriendshipinteractionsin
youngchildren.SocialDevelopment,8,201219.
Dunn,J.,&Herrera,C.(1997).Conflictresolutionwithfriends,siblings,andmothers:Adevelopmental
perspective.AggressiveBehavior,23,343357.
Dunsmore,J.C.,&Karn,M.A.(2001).Mothers'beliefsaboutfeelingsandchildren'semotionalunderstanding.
EarlyEducationandDevelopment,12,117138.
Laible,D.J.,&Thompson,R.A.(1998).Attachmentandemotionalunderstandinginpreschoolchildren.
DevelopmentalPsychology,34,10381045.
Ontai,L.&Thompson,R.A.(2002).Patternsofattachmentandmaternaldiscourseeffectsonchildrens
emotionunderstandingfrom3to5yearsofage.SocialDevelopment,11,433450.
Shields,A.,Dickstein,S.,Seifer,R.,Guisti,L.,Magee,K.D.,&Spritz,B.(2001).Emotionalcompetenceandearly
schooladjustment:Astudyofpreschoolersatrisk.EarlyEducationandDevelopment,12,7396.
Note.Pleaseseethreeotherpossibleemotionknowledgemeasuresforpreschoolers/earlyprimarygradesby
Cassidy,Schultz,andPons&Harris.

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Measure

TheDevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessment

Constructs

Selfmanagement,Relationshipskills,Responsibledecisionmaking,Lackofdisruptive
behaviorsandinternalizingsymptoms

Agerange

24to60months

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionofmeasure
asrelatedtoconstruct
ofinterest

TheDECAisanewlydevelopedstandardized,normreferencedmeasureof
resilience,completedbyparentsandteachersinacollaborativeandsupportive
partnership.Subscalesinclude:initiative,attachment,selfcontrol,andbehavioral
concerns.WeliketheDECAssubscaledemarcation,closelymirroringasitdoesour
notionsofSEL.

Administration

Eachchildisratedoneatatimebyteachers,parents.Takes510minutesto
complete.

Scoring

Itemsareratedona5pointscalevaryingfromnevertoveryfrequently.
Scoringisshownonanswersheet,asfollows:
Initiative=Sum(items2,3,7,12,16,19,20,24,28,32,36)
SelfControl=Sum(items4,5,13,21,25,30,33,34)
Attachment=Sum(items1,6,10,17,22,29,31,37)
[BehavioralConcerns=Sum(items8,9,11,14,15,18,23,26,27,35)]

Reliabilityand
Validity

Thismeasureistheoreticallyandpsychometricallysound.Furthermore,itsutilityis
beingdemonstrated.Forexample,thetotalresiliencescore(i.e.,Initiative+
Attachment+Selfcontrol)isrelatedtoschoolreadiness,asassessedbythe
LearningAccomplishmentProfileDcognitiveandlanguagescales(DevereuxEarly
ChildhoodInitiative,2001c).TheDECAisalreadybeingusedtodocumentpreand
postprogrammingchange(DevereuxEarlyChildhoodInitiative,2001a,2001b).

Anymodifications

TheDevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessmentScaleClinicalForm(DECAC)isnow
available.

Strengths

Useinbothapplicationsandresearch.Resilienceviewpointisastrength,asisthe
inclusionofattachment.

Weaknesses

Noneseen

Publisher/Price

PublishedbyKaplanEarlyLearningCo.andapparentlyalsonowbyPsychological
AssessmentResources,Inc.
PARpricesinclude$217.00forafullkit,and40recordformsfor$44.00

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page48

Kaplanpricesinclude$199.95forafullkit,and40recordformsfor$40.00

DevereuxFoundation(2001a)DevereuxEarlyChildhoodInitiativeResearchBulletin#3.Retrievedfrom
http://www.devereux.org/site/PageServer?pagename=deci_research_bulletins
DevereuxFoundation(2001b)DevereuxEarlyChildhoodInitiativeResearchBulletin#5.Retrievedfrom
http://www.devereux.org/site/PageServer?pagename=deci_research_bulletins
DevereuxFoundation(2001c).ResearchReport#5,PilotStudyYear2.Retrievedfrom
http://www.devereux.org/site/PageServer?pagename=deci_research_bulletins
LeBuffe,P.A.,&Naglieri,J.A.(1999).DevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessmentTechnicalManual.Lewisville,NC:
KaplanPress.

ExampleItemsfromtheDevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessment
DECASubscales

SampleItems

Initiative

Tryorasks totrynewthingsoractivities

Attachment

Trustfamiliaradultsandbelievewhattheysay;seek
helpfromchildren/adultswhennecessary

SelfControl

Keeptryingwhenunsuccessful(actpersistent);calm
herself/himselfdownwhenupset

Behavioral
Concerns

Destroyordamageproperty,fightwithother
children(inDECAConly)

Note.Itemcontentquotedwithpermissionofthepublisher,theDevereuxFoundation.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Measure

MinnesotaPreschoolAffectChecklist(MPAC)

Constructs

SocialAwareness,SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills,(LackofDisruptiveBehaviorsand
InternalizingSymptoms)

Agerange

3072months

Ratingtype

Observational

Descriptionofmeasure
asrelatedtoconstruct
ofinterest

53itemsareorganizedintomegascalesforpositiveandnegativeaffect,
inappropriateaffect,positiveandnegativeinvolvementwithactivitiesand
environment,impulsivity(negativereactionstofrustration),positivereactionsto
frustration,aggression/unusualbehaviors,socialisolation,peerskills,and
empathy/prosocialbehavior.Thus,manyelementsofemotionalcompetence,as
wellassomeelementsofsocialproblemsolving(e.g.,dealswithfrustrationby
verbalizingtheproblem),andnumerousrelationshipskills,aretappedbytheMPAC
HasbeenrecentlyshortenedbyDenhamandcomputerizedversionisintheworks.

Administration

Trainedobserverswatchchildrensbehaviorsfor5minuteintervals,notingthe
presenceofitems.Inpreviousresearch,20minutesofobservationperchildacross
aseveralmonthtimeperiodresultedinvalidandreliablemeasurement.

Scoring

Uponfinishingobservationperiods,observerssumeachitemacrossperiods,for
eachmegascale.

Reliability

Previousresearchhasshowngoodinterobserverreliabilityformegascales,and
concurrentvaliditywithotherindicesofyoungchildrensSEL(Denham,Zahn
Waxler,etal.,1991;Sroufeetal.,1984).
Validity

Severalofthesescales,notablyskillsinpeerleadingandjoining,showedchange
acrosspreprogramtopostprogramperiods,withthoseshowingpremeasure
deficitsespeciallybenefitingfromtheprogram(Denham&Burton,1996).

Anymodifications

Possiblybutwouldneedtopilot maybefeweritems,althoughthesehavenot
beendauntinginearlierwork.

Strengths

Excellent,detailedprofilesofchildrenssocialemotionalcompetenceviadirect
observation.

Weaknesses

Timingfortrainingandobtainingobserverreliabilityisapproximately12hours.
Denhamandcolleagues(i.e.,Denham&Burton,1996;Denhametal.,1991)have
standardizedtrainingmaterials.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page50

Denham,S.A.,&Burton,R.(1996).Asocialemotionalinterventionforatrisk4yearolds.JournalofSchool
Psychology,34,225245.
Denham,S.A.,ZahnWaxler,C.,Cummings,E.M.,&Iannotti,R.J.(1991).Socialcompetenceinyoung
childrenspeerrelationships:Patternsofdevelopmentandchange.ChildPsychiatryandHumanDevelopment,
22,2943.
Sroufe,L.A.,Schork,E.,Motti,F.,Lawroski,N.,&LaFreniere,P.(1984).Theroleofaffectinsocialcompetence.
InC.E.Izard,J.Kagan,&R.B.Zajonc(Eds.),Emotions,cognition,&behavior(pp.289319).Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress.
Table.ItemsfromtheMinnesotaPreschoolAffectChecklist(MPAC)
MPACMegaScales

Exemplarsofbehaviorsobserved

Expressionandregulationofpositiveaffect

Unproductive,unfocuseduseofpersonalenergy

Displayspositiveaffectinanymannerfacial,vocal,
bodily;showsongoinghighenjoyment(30sec.or
more)
Usesnegativeaffecttoinitiatecontact,tobegina
socialinteractionwithsomeone;usesfaceorvoice
veryexpressivelytoshownegativeaffect
Expressesnegativeaffecttoanotherchildinresponse
totheothersneutralorpositiveoverture;takes
pleasureinanothersdistress
Engrossed,absorbed,intenselyinvolvedinactivity;
independentinvolvedinanactivitythatthechild
organizesforhimself
Wandering;listless;tensionbursts

Lapsesinimpulsecontrol(negativereactionsto
frustration)

Contextrelated,physical,interpersonalaggression;
inabilitytostopongoingbehavior;becomeswithdrawn

Positivereactionstofrustration

Promptlyexpresses,inwords,feelingsarisingfrom
problemsituation,thenmoveson;showsabilityto
toleratefrustrationwellevenifdoesnotverbalize

Skillsinpeerleadingandjoining

Successfulleadership;ineptattemptsatleadership;
smoothlyapproachesanalreadyongoingactivity

Isolation

Nosocialinteractioncontinuouslyfor3minutesor
more
Unprovoked,physical,interpersonalaggression;
hazing,teasing,orotherprovocationorthreat
Interpersonalawarenessbehaviorreflecting
knowledgeorawarenessaboutanotherperson;
helpingbehavior

Expressionandregulationofnegativeaffect

Inappropriateaffect

Productiveinvolvementinpurposefulactivity

Hostility/Aggression
Prosocialresponsetoneedsofothers

Note.GeneralitemcontentadaptedfromDenham,ZahnWaxler,etal.(1991),andSroufeetal.(1984).
CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page51

Measure

PennInteractivePreschoolPlayScales

Constructs

SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionofmeasureas Playisanimportantvehicleforchildrenssocial,emotional,andcognitive
relatedtoconstructof
development,aswellasareflectionoftheirdevelopment(Bredekamp&Copple,
interest
1997p.6).
Derivesinformationonyoungchildrenssocialcompetence,incontext(Fantuzzo,
SuttonSmith,Coolahan,Manz,Canning,&Debnam,1995;McWayne,Sekino,
Hampton,&Fantuzzo,2002).
Administration

Informants,whetherteachers/caregiversorparents,reportontherateof
occurrenceofdevelopmentallyappropriatebehaviorswithinconcrete,observable
contextsinwhichpreschoolersareactivelyengagedintheirvariousplay
environments.Takesapproximately15minutestocomplete.

Scoring

ThePIPPSyieldsthreeoverarchingscales:(1)PlayInteractioni.e.,howcreative,
cooperative,andhelpfulchildrenareduringplay;(2)PlayDisruptioni.e.,how
aggressivelyandantisociallytheybehaveduringplay;and(3)Play
Disconnectionhowwithdrawnandavoidantchildrenareincontextswhere
engagedplayismorenormative.Likertscaleitemsaresummedaspermanual
whichisordered.

Reliability

Thesescalesareinternallyconsistentforbothteachersandparents,andappear
equallyappropriateforlowincomechildrenofvaryingethnicities,including
AfricanAmericanandHispanic(Fantuzzoetal.,1998;Fantuzzo&McWayne,
2002).

Validity

Intermsofvalidity,parentsPIPPSscalesarerelatedtoteacherPIPPSscales.As
well,positivelearningstyles,theSocialSkillsRatingSystem,conductproblems,
emotionregulation,andsociometricacceptancearealsorelatedintheoretically
expectedwaystothescales.

Strengths

ThePIPPSoffersanadvantagetobothteachersandparents:becauseyoung
childrensplayissosalientapartoftheirdailyactivities,informantshaveample
opportunitiestoobserveit,andarelikelytohavetheskillstounderstandand
reliablycompleteameasuregroundedinthisphenomenon.Thus,informantsare
notrequiredtolistordescribebehaviorsprocessesthatareopentosocial
desirabilityandothererrors,bothsystematicandnonsystematic.

Weaknesses

Nonenoted

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Bredekamp.S.,&Copple,C.(1997).(Eds.).Developmentallyappropriatepracticeinearlychildhoodprograms
(rev.Ed.)Washington,DC:NationalAssociationfortheEducationofYoungChildren.
Fantuzzo,J.,Coolahan,K.,Mendez,J.,McDermott,P.&SuttonSmith,B.(1998).Contextuallyrelevant
validationofpeerplayconstructswithAfricanAmericanHeadStartchildren:PennInteractivePeerPlayScale.
EarlyChildhoodResearchQuarterly,13,411431.
Fantuzzo,J.W.,&McWayne,C.(2002).Therelationshipbetweenpeerplayinteractionsinthefamilycontext
anddimensionsofschoolreadinessforlowincomepreschoolchildren.JournalofEducationalPsychology.94,
7987
Fantuzzo,J.W.,SuttonSmith,B.,Coolahan,K.C.,Manz,P.,Canning,S.&Debnam,D.(1995).Assessmentof
playinteractionbehaviorsinyounglowincomechildren:PennInteractivePeerPlayScale.EarlyChildhood
ResearchQuarterly,10,105120.
McWayne,C.,Sekino,V.,Hampton,G.,&Fantuzzo,J.(2002).Manual:PennInteractivePeerPlayScale.
Teacherandparentratingscalesforpreschoolandkindergartenchildren.Philadelphia:Universityof
Pennsylvania.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Measure

PreschoolSelfRegulationAssessment(PSRA)

Constructs

SelfManagement

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Performancebased,observational

Descriptionofmeasureas
relatedtoconstructof
interest

Severalobservationaltasksthatshowgoodvalueasdenotingchildrensabilityto
regulateemotionshavebeenidentifiedbyKochanskaandcolleagues.Radiah
SmithDonaldandCybeleRaverarenowpilotingaveryclear,detaileduseof
suchtasks,withspecificmeasurementofthechildsperformanceboth
quantitativelyandqualitatively.

Administration

Directassessment.Overseveralshort(e.g.,~5minute)tasksforeachchild
individually.Codingisdonebytrainedobserverasthetestingproceeds.

Scoring

SeeRaversEmotionMatterscodingsheetsandscript

Reliability

ShowntobegoodbyKochanskaandcolleagues,aswellasSmithDonaldand
colleagues(2007).(seebelow).

Validity
Anymodifications

Pickingtheonesdeemedmostvaluable.

Strengths

Actualobservationofchildren;testedmethodologies

Weaknesses

Takestime(butnovideotape);requirestraining

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Kochanska,G.,Murray,K.T.,&Harlan,E.T.(2000).Effortfulcontrolinearlychildhood:Continuityandchange,
antecedents,andimplicationsforsocialdevelopment.DevelopmentalPsychology,36,220232.
Kochanska,G.,Murray,K.,Jacques,T.Y.,Koenig,A.L.,&Vandegeest,K.A.(1996).Inhibitorycontrolinyoung
childrenanditsroleinemerginginternalization.ChildDevelopment,67,490507.
McClelland,M.,Cameron,C.E.,Connor,C.M.,Farris,C.L.,Jewkes,A.M.,&Morrison,F.J.(2007).Links
betweenbehavioralregulationandpreschoolersliteracy,vocabulary,andmathskills.Developmental
Psychology,43,947959.
Mischel,W.,Shoda,Y.,&Rodriguez,M.L.(1989).Delayofgratificationinchildren.Science,244,933938.
Murray,K.T.,&Kochanska,G.(2002).Effortfulcontrol:Factorstructureandrelationtoexternalizingand
internalizingbehaviors.JournalofAbnormalChildPsychology,30,503514.
SmithDonald,R.,&Raver,C.EmotionMattersProtocol.Unpublishedmanuscript,UniversityofChicago.
SmithDonald,R.,Raver,C.C.,Hayes,T.,&Richardson,B.(2007).PreliminaryconstructvalidityofPreschool
SelfregulationAssessment(PSRA)forfieldbasedresearch.EarlyChildhoodResearchQuarterly,22,173187.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page54

Measure

SelfDescriptionQuestionnaireforPreschoolers(SDQP)

Constructs

SelfAwareness

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Performancebased

Descriptionofmeasure
TheSDQPwasdesignedtoassesstwoareasofacademicselfconcept(Verbal
asrelatedtoconstructof
andMath)andfourareasofnonacademicselfconcept(Physical,Appearance,
interest
Peers,andParents).forpreschoolchildren(preschoolchildrendonotclearly
understandGeneralselfconceptitems;seealsoHarter&Pike,1984)
ThismeasureisadownwardextensionoftheSDQI(Marsh,Craven,&Debus,
1991),anexcellentinstrumentintermsofpsychometricpropertiesandconstruct
validation(see,e.g.,Byrne,1996).
Administration

Someresearcherspromotetheuseofnonverbalmethods(e.g.,puppets,pictures)
forassessingyoungchildrensselfconcept(Eder,1990;Harter&Pike,
1984).Childrencanalsorespondtosimple,directquestions,toprovidereliable
informationontheself(Marshetal.,1991;Marsh,Craven,&Debus,1998).
AdministrationoftheSDQPthususesonlyverbalpresentations(seetablefor
items).
Itemsarewordedinquestionformat(e.g.,Canyourunfast?)ratherthanthe
declarativeformat(e.g.,Icanrunfast)toreducethelinguisticcomplexitythat
youngchildrenfacewhentheyarerequiredtoverifydeclarativestatements.

Scoring

38itemsweredevelopedtorepresentsixselfconceptscalesontheSDQP.Scoring
followsfromanswerstoprobesasfollows:(1)Noalways;(2)Nosometimes;(3)
Yessometimes;and(4)Yesalways(seealsoHarter&Pike,1984).

Reliability

Internalconsistencyevaluatedviacoefficientrangefrom.75forMathto.89for
PhysicalandAppearancescales.Theauthorssuggestthesearereasonablebased
onthebrevityofthescaleandageofparticipants.

Validity

Thereissupportforconstructvaliditytheacademic selfconceptandforthe
separationofacademicandnonacademiccomponentsofselfconcept;young
childrendoappeartodistinguishamongsttheseaspectsofself.
Intermsofconcurrentvalidity,mathematicsachievement(viaWRATscores)was
significantlyandpositivelycorrelatedwithMathandVerbalselfconceptscores.
However,verbalachievementwaspositivelybutnonsignificantlycorrelatedwith
thesesameselfconceptscores.Nonetheless,verbalachievementwassignificantly
morehighlycorrelatedwiththeacademicselfconceptfactorsthanwiththe

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page55

nonacademicselfconceptfactors.
Strengths

Becausechildrenhavedifficulty respondingappropriatelytonegativelyworded
items(Marsh,1986),alloftheSDQPitemswerewordedpositively.Covers
theoreticallyimportantareasofselfperceivedcompetence/selfconceptwith
promisingpsychometricproperties

Weaknesses

Furtherresearchneededtoreplicatethefactorsandsubstantiatenot
discriminatingbetweenmathandverbalconstructswithyoungchildren.Further,
itwouldnotappearasyetausefulmeasureformakingdecisionsaboutindividual
children,althoughitcandescribegroupsofchildrenwell.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain,asfarasweknow

ScalesandSampleItemsfromtheSDQP
SelfConceptArea

SampleQuestions

PhysicalAbility(6items)

Canyourunfast?
Doyouenjoysportsandgames?
Areyougoodlooking?
Doyoulikethesizeandshapeofyourbody?
Doyouhavelotsoffriends?
Doyouplaywithlotsofkidsatpreschool?
Doyourparentslikeyou?
Doyouenjoydoingthingswithyourparents?
Doyouknowlotsoflettersofthealphabet?
Doyouknowlotsofdifferentwords?
Doyoulikeplayingnumbergames?
Areyougoodatcounting?

Appearance(6items)

PeerRelations(6items)

ParentRelations(8items)
Verbal(6items)
Math(6items)

Byrne,B.(1996).Measuringselfconceptacrossthelifespan:Issuesandinstrumentation.Washington,DC:
AmericanPsychologicalAssociation.

Eder,R.A.(1990).Uncoveringyoungchildrenspsychologicalselves:Individualanddevelopmental
differences.ChildDevelopment,61,849863.
Harter,S.&Pike,R.(1984).Thepictorialscaleofperceivedcompetenceandsocialacceptanceforyoung
children.ChildDevelopment,55,19691982.
Marsh,H.W.(1986).Negativeiteminratingscalesforpreadolescentchildren:Acognitivedevelopmental
phenomenon.DevelopmentalPsychology,22,3749.
Marsh,H.W.,Craven,R.G.,&Debus,R.L.(1991).Selfconceptsofyoungchildrenaged5to8:Their
measurementandmultidimensionalstructure.JournalofEducationalPsychology,83,377392.
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Marsh,H.W.,Craven,R.G.,&Debus,R.L.(1998).Structure,stability,anddevelopmentofyoungchildrens
selfconcepts:Amulticohortmultioccasionstudy.ChildDevelopment,69,10301053.

Marsh,H.W.,Ellis,L.A.,&Craven,R.G.(2002).Howdopreschoolchildrenfeelaboutthemselves?Unraveling
measurementandmultidimensionalselfconceptstructure.DevelopmentalPsychology,38,376393.

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Measure

SocialCompetenceandBehaviorEvaluation 30

Constructs

SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills,Responsibledecisionmaking,(LackofDisruptive
Behaviors,InternalizingSymptoms)

Agerange

30to78months

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

.scaledevelopedtoassesspatternsofsocialcompetence,emotionregulationand
expression,andadjustmentdifficultiesinchildrenages30to78months(LaFreniere
&Dumas,1996,p.369)
Theshortform,derivedfromthe80itemformnowpublishedbyWestern
PsychologicalServices,hasbeenwidelyusedinresearch.TheshortformoftheSCBE
isintendedtopreserveseveralimportantstrengthsoftheoriginalwhilereducingits
overalllength.BothhavebeenextensivelynormedwithstratifiedsamplesofFrench
CanadianandAmericanpreschoolers.Themeasurealsohasbeentranslatedinto
Spanish(Dumasetal.,1998a,1998b).
MainsubscalesincludeAnger/Aggression,Anxiety/Withdrawal,andCooperation/
Sensitivity.

Administration

Thisteacherreportmeasurehasbothalongandashort30itemversion,aswellasa
parentshortversion(Kotler&McMahon,2002).Theinformantgiveseachchilda
ratingfrom1to6onitemslikethoseshownbelow.Theitemcontentallows
evaluationstobecompletedbyanyonewhoknowsthechildwell(i.e.,informantsare
abletocompletethequestionnaireaftertheyhaveknownthechildforatleasttwo
months).Responsesofexperiencedteacherstendtobedistributeddifferentlyfrom
inexperiencedteachers,whichisanissuetotakeintoaccountgenerallywhenusing
datafromteacherreports.Thestandardizationsamplesarenotlargebutconsidered
adequate.Themeasurewasnotdevelopedstrictlyforclinicaluse,thoughitcorrelates
withtheChildBehaviorCheckList.
Teachersandparentscancompletetheshortversionin10minutes.

Scoring

Sumratingsforthethreescales:
Anger/Aggression=Item1+Item4+Item7++Item28
Cooperation/Sensitivity=Item2+Item5+Item8++Item29
Anxiety/Withdrawal=Item3+Item6+Item9++Item30
Inpastwork(e.g.,Denhametal.,2003)hasalsoshownthatastandardizedaggregate
(i.e.,zsensitive/cooperativezangry/aggressivezanxious/withdrawn)canbeusedreliablyforanoverall
measureofsocialcompetence.

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Reliability

Thisquestionnairehasbeenwidelyused,anditsreliabilityhasbeenestablishedwithin
diversecultures(LaFreniere&Dumas,1996;LaFreniere,etal.2002).Interrater
agreementacrossteachersisuniformlyhigh,withhighinternalconsistencyofthe
scales,withtestretestreliabilityacross2weeksveryhighand6monthsslightlylower.
Theparentformscaleshaveexcellentinternalconsistencyaswell.AAandAWscales
arerelativelyorthogonal,withsocialcompetencenegativelycorrelatedwithboth
otherscales,forbothreporters.

Validity

Factorstructureoftheshortversionisveryclear.10itemscalesfromtheoriginal
SCBEstandardizationsamplewerecomputedandcorrelatehighlywiththeoriginal
scales.For517childreninIndiana,teacherratingsofconductdisorderandanxiety
withdrawalwereobtainedfromtheRevisedBehaviorProblemChecklist;the
concomitantscalesoftheSCBE30werehighlycorrelatedwiththismeasure.Kotler
andMcMahon(2002)showthatthethreeparentscalesdifferentiatepassive
noncompliant,simplenoncompliant,andnegotiatednoncompliantbehaviorsin
preschoolchildren.

Strengths

Severaladvantagesoverbroadbandassessmentsofexternalizingandinternalizing
behaviorobtainhere,including:(a)theorthogonalityofAAandAWscales;(b)
inclusionofstrengthbasedscale;and(c)clearertosocialemotionaldevelopmental
tasksinitemcontent.

Weaknesses

Nonenoted

Publisher/Price

LONGversionpublishedbyWesternPsychologicalServices
Theyrequestoptiontoapproveuseofshortform,whichisonly30itemsandwell
validated(LaFreniere&Dumas,1996)
LONGversionpricesare$82.50forakitwithmanualand25scoringforms
LONGversionpricefor25scoringformsis$39.95

ExampleItemsfromtheSocialCompetence/BehaviorEvaluation(SCBE)
SCBEScale

SampleItems

Aggression

Getsintoconflictswithother
children;opposestheteacher

Withdrawal

Doesnttalkorinteractingduring
groupactivities;avoidsnew
situations

Cooperation/Sensitivity

Negotiatessolutionstoconflicts
(notesocialproblemsolving
content);cooperateswithother
children

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Denham,S.A.,Blair,K.A.,DeMulder,E.,Levitas,J.,Sawyer,K.S.,AuerbachMajor,S.T.,&Queenan,P.L.
(2003).Preschoolers'emotionalcompetence:Pathwaytomentalhealth?ChildDevelopment,74,238256.
Dumas,J.E.,Martinez,A.,&LaFreniere,P.J.(1998a).TheSpanishversionoftheSocialCompetenceand
BehaviorEvaluation(SCBE)Preschooledition:Translationandfieldtesting.HispanicJournalofBehavioral
Sciences.20,255269.
Dumas,J.E.,Martinez,A.,LaFreniere,P.J.,&Dolz,L.(1998b).LaversinespaoladelCuestionario
EvaluacindelaConductaylaCompetenciaSocialparapreescolares(SocialCompetenceandBehavior
EvaluationSCBE):Adaptacinyvalidacin./SpanishVersionoftheSocialCompetenceandBehavior
EvaluationPreschoolEdition(SCBE):Adaptationandvalidation.Psicologica.19,107121
Kotler,J.C.,&McMahon,R.J.(2002).Differentiatinganxious,aggressive,andsociallycompetentpreschool
version:ValidationoftheSocialCompetenceandBehaviorEvaluation30(parentversion).Behaviour
ResearchandTherapy,40,947959.
LaFreniere,P.J.,&Dumas,J.E.(1996).Socialcompetenceandbehavioralevaluationinchildrenages3to6
years:Theshortform(SCBE30).PsychologicalAssessment,8,369377.
LaFreniere,P,Masataka,N.,Butovskaya,M.,Chen,Q.,Dessen,M.A.,Atwanger,K.,Schreiner,S.,Montirosso,
R.,&Frigerio,A.,(2002).Crossculturalanalysisofsocialcompetenceandbehaviorproblemsinpreschoolers.
EarlyEducationandDevelopment,13,Specialissue:Culturalperspectivesonsocialcompetenceinearly
childhood,201219.

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Measure

SouthamptonTestofEmpathyforPreschoolers(STEP)

Constructs

SocialAwareness,RelationshipSkills

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Selfrating,performancebased

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

InSTEP,theroleofaffectiveandcognitiveperspectivetakinginempathyis
considered.
Assessesachildsabilitytounderstandandshareintheexperienceofanother
personacrossanumberofhierarchicallyorganized,emotionjudgmentcontexts
linkedtofacialexpression,situationalcues,verbalcues,anddesires.STEP
incorporatescomputerpresented,videotapedvignettesofchildreninemotional
scenariosthatfocusonfouremotionaloutcomes(angry,happysad,fearful).Itasks
childrentoindicatetheirreactionstovignettesbyselectingapictureoftherelevant
facialexpression.
Thetestincorporated8videovignettesofchildreninemotionalscenarios,
assessingachildsabilitytounderstand(STEPUND)andshare(STEPSHA)inthe
emotionalexperienceofastoryprotagonist.
Eachvignetteincluded4emotions(angry,happy,fearful,sad)thatreflected
emotionjudgmentsbasedontheprotagonistsfacialexpression,situation,verbal
cues,anddesire.
Thetestincorporateseightvideovignettesofchildreninemotionallyevocative
scenariostoassessachildsabilitytounderstand(STEPUND)andshare(STEPSHA)
intheemotionalexperienceofastoryprotagonist.Eachchildwatchedonepractice
storyandeightteststories.Thevideosusedcontinuousmovementandchild
actors.Fourstorieshadamaleprotagonist,andfourhadafemaleprotagonist.Each
storywasmadeupofsevenconsecutiveparts.InParts1,2,4,and6childrenwere
askedtojudgehowtheprotagonist(STEPUND)andtheythemselves(STEPSHA)
wouldfeel,onthebasisoftheprotagonistsfacialexpression,asituationcue,a
verbalcue,andtheprotagonistsdesire.Eachstorypartrelatedtooneoffour
emotionaloutcomes(angry,happy,sadandfearful),suchthatemotionjudgments
(relatedtofacialexpression,situationcues,verbalcues,anddesire)werelinked
twicewitheachoutcome.
Desireswererepresentedbyathoughtbubble(Wellman,Hollander,&Schult,
1996).Twofurtherstoryparts(3and5)containedcheckquestionsthatwere
designedtoassessconcentrationandunderstanding.Thestoryendingmadeupthe
finalpart(seeTable1).Eachstorywasaccompaniedbyan8590wordnarrative
andlastedapproximately120s.Childrenindicatedtheiremotionjudgmentsby

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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clickingononeoffiveschematicemotionfaces(happy,sad,angry,fearful,
OK/neutral)displayedatthebottomofthecomputerscreen.Afterchildren
watchedthepracticestory,acomputerscreenappeared,featuringtheeightstory
protagonistswaving.Childrenhadtoclickonsuccessivecharactersinordertohear
eachstory,andstickersweregivenbetweenstories.Thisprocesswasrepeated
untilchildrenhadcompletedalleightvignettes,andagoodbyescreenwas
presented.
Administration
Scoring

Reliability

Validity

Strengths
Weaknesses

Videovignettesandcomputerizedresponses
Theprogramgeneratedtwoscoresthatrepresentedthechildrensabilityto
identifytheprotagonistsemotions(STEPUND;score0,1or2)andthechildrens
tendencytoshareintheseemotionalexperiences(STEPSHA;score0,1or2).A
scoreof2representedanaccuratejudgmentofaprotagonistsemotion(STEP
UND)oramatchbetweenthecharactersemotionandthechildsjudgmentofhis
orherownemotion(STEPSHA).Ascoreof1wasgivenforsad,angry,andfearful
judgmentswhenchildrenrespondedwithanyothernegativeemotion.Zero
representedaninaccuratejudgmentofacharactersemotionornomatchbetween
thecharactersemotionandachildsjudgmentofhisorherownemotion.Both
STEPUNDandSTEPSHAhadaminimumscoreof0(notempathic)andamaximum
scoreof64(highlyempathic;8stories,eachwith4emotionjudgments).
Theresultsshowedgoodinternalconsistency;Cronbachsalphareliability
coefficientsforSTEPUNDandSTEPSHAwere.70and.86,respectively.Theyalso
highlightedmoderateconcurrentvaliditywithparentratedempathy,ameasureof
facialindices,andconstructvaliditywithteacherratedprosocialbehavior.
Consideringconcurrentvalidity,childrensabilitytounderstandtheperspectiveof
others(STEPUND)andtorespondtothemappropriately(STEPSHA)waspositively
associatedwithparentreportdispositionalempathy.
Linkswithparentreportempathyandfacialrespondingsupporttheproposition
thatSTEPtapsempathicresponsivenessinpreschoolchildren.
Thesmallsamplesizeandhomogeneityofthesamplecharacteristicslimitsthe
generalizationofthesefindings.Concurrentvaliditywasonlymoderatewith
existingmeasuresofempathy,highlightingthedifficultyindevelopingavalidand
reliableinstrumenttomeasureemotionalresponsivenessinthisagegroup.
Furthermore,theabsenceoftestretestreliabilitylimitsourunderstandingofthe
stabilityofemotionalperspectivetakingandempathyinthisagegroup.
Publicdomain

Publisher/Price

Howe,A.,PittenCate,I.M.,Brown,A.&Hadwin,J.A.(2008).Empathyinpreschoolchildren:The
developmentoftheSouthamptonTestofEmpathyforPreschoolers(STEP).PsychologicalAssessment20,305
309.
Wellman,H.M.,Hollander,M.,&Schult,C.A.(1996).Youngchildrensunderstandingofthoughtbubblesand
ofthoughts.ChildDevelopment,67,768788.

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Measure

BattelleDevelopmentalInventory(BDI),2nd Edition

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills

Agerange

Birthto7years,11months

Ratingtype

Teacher,Observational,Other

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Itemsonadultinteraction,expressionoffeelings/affect,selfconcept,peerinteraction,
coping,andsocialroleareincluded.Forexample,topicareasincludeshowing
appropriateaffectiontowardpeople,pets,orpossessions,usingadultsappropriately
tohelpresolvepeerconflict,recognizingthefeelingsofothers,andrecognizingthe
basicsimilaritiesofallchildren.

Administration

TheBDIisdesignedtobeusedbyteachers,diagnosticians,andmultidisciplinaryteams.
Itsauthorsconsideritusefulforscreeningandorformoreindepthassessmentof
specificnonhandicappedorhandicappedchildrensstrengthsandweaknessesfor
programming,aswellastohelpdemonstratetheeffectsofprogramming.Useofa
transdisciplinaryassessmentformatalsoispossible.IfadministeringonlythePersonal
Socialdomain,fromwhichtheaforementioneditemsareextractedwouldtakeabout
15minutestocompletemixtureofinterview,observation,etc.

Scoring

Becausesomeitemscanbescoredviaintervieworobservationmethods,orstructured
formatitemscanbecorroboratedviathesemethods,itbehoovestheexaminerto
gatherallpossiblyrelevantdataonPersonalSocialitemsbeforescoring.Itemsare
scoredfromeachsubscalenotedabove,andsummed.Rawscorescanbeconvertedto
agenorms,percentiles,orTscores,forexample.

Reliability

Excellentreliabilitydataforthelastversion(beforethecurrentrevision)arereported,
withverysmallstandarderrorsofmeasurementandhightestretestreliabilities.

Validity

Asyetnotreportedforrevision?Substantialforearlierversions.

Strengths

TheBDIscomprehensiveness,standardizedtestscores,empiricallybasedage
placementofitsapproximately130items,behaviorallyanchoreditemdescriptions,
andimproved,easieradministrationandscoring,allmaximizeitsusefulness.Eachskill
itemchosenforthenewrevisionforthePersonalSocial(andallotherdomains)has
gonethrougharigorousprocessofjudgmentonhowcriticalorimportantitistoa
childsdevelopment.

Weaknesses

Careneedstobetakenregardingobservation,structureditems.Theexamineralso
mustapply,whentherearedisagreementsamongthesesourcesofdata,astandard
setofdecisionrules.Althoughthesearenotnecessarilyweaknesses,theyare
complications.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page63

Publisher/Price

PublishedbyRiversidePublishing
Fullkitwithmanipulativesandsoftware=$932.00(thisincludesotherdomainsthan
justpersonalsocial)

Newborg,J.(2005).BattelleDevelopmentalInventory,SecondEdition.Itasca,IL:RiversidePublishing.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Measure

BehaviorAssessmentSystemforChildren,SecondEdition(BASC2)

Constructs

SelfManagement,Responsibledecisionmaking,(LackofRisky,
Disruptive/ExternalizingBehaviorsandInternalizingSymptoms)

Agerange

Fourto18yearsofagec

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Self

Descriptionof
Thismeasureratesadaptiveandproblembehavior.
measureasrelatedto Dividedintofourcomposites(ExternalizingProblems,InternalizingProblems,School
constructofinterest Problems,andAdaptiveSkills)and15subscales.
BASC2TRSExternalizingProblemscompositereflectschildsoveralldisruptive
behaviorsymptomsandincludes:
Aggression,ConductProblems,andHyperactivity
Administration

Teachers,parents,observers,andstudentsratestudentsbehavior;selfreportscales
godowntoage67now.

Scoring

139items;ratingofadaptiveandproblembehaviorbyfrequency:
Rangingfrom0(Never)to3(Almostalways)
Fivecomponents(StructuredDevelopmentalHistory,ParentRatingScale,Teacher
RatingScale,SelfReportofPersonalityandStudentObservationSystem,whichcanbe
usedseparatelyorincombination.
Designedtoassistinthedifferentialdiagnosisofemotionalandbehavioralproblems,
educational,classification,treatmentplanningandevaluationandforuseinresearch
(ReynoldsandKamphaus,1992,1998).

Reliability

Testretestreliabilityestimates(859daysbetweenratings)indicatestrongscore
stabilityovertime.Internalconsistencyestimateswereabove.90acrossscales.
Interraterreliabilityestimatesindicatemoderateconsistencyinratingsbetween
teachers.

Validity

TheBASChasbeenthetestofchoicetosubstantiatetheconvergentvalidityofa
numberofscales,withfindingsgenerallyintheexpecteddirections,forexamplesuch
that:BASCTRSCorrelatedwithTheRevisedClassPlay(RCP;Mastenetal.,1985),a
peerassessmentofsocialreputation(Realmutoetal.,1997).
TheBASCscalesandcomposites(PRSandTRS)werecorrelatedwiththeSocialSkills
andProblemBehavioursscalesontheSocialSkillsRatingScales(SSRS;Greshamand
Elliot,1990)forthepurposeofestablishingconvergentvalidityforboth(Flanaganet

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Page65

al.,1996).WhentheSSRSSocialSkillsscalewasusedasthecriterion,convergent
validityevidencewasidentifiedfortheparentformoftheBASCSocialSkillsscale,but
thesamewasnotfoundfortheteacherform.CorrelationsbetweentheBASC
AdaptiveSkillsCompositeandtheSSRSSocialSkillsscaleswereintheexpected
directions,aswerethecorrelationsbetweentheproblemscalesofboththeBASCand
SSRS.Theauthorsconcludedthat,generally,theseresultsprovidedpreliminary
convergentvalidity.
Strengths

AdvantagesoftheBASCovertheCBCLinclude, amongothers,theexistenceof
separateformsforprimaryandadolescentagegroupsandtheseparationofthe
AnxietyandDepressionscales.Itsstrengthbasedscalesarevastlybetter(seenote).

Weaknesses

Someauthors,forexample,Flanagan(1995),haveseentheabsenceofnormsfor
minoritygroups,asalimitation.
AdamsandDrabman(1994)cautionagainsttheuseofclinicalnormsforfemale
childrenorchildrenpresentingwithinternalizingdifficultiesasbothwere
underrepresentedintheclinicalnormgroup.
Vaughnetal.(1997)foundthatneithertheCBCLnortheBASCwasadvantageouswith
respecttodifferentiatingchildrenwithADHDfromthosewhodonotmeetcriteriafor
ADHD,exceptfortheBASCTRSwhichhadbetterpredictiveabilityfordifferentiating
childrenwhodonotmeetADHDcriteria.

Publisher/Price

PearsonAssessment,http://www.pearsonassessments.com/basc.aspx
$500+forstarterkitinEnglishandSpanish

Note.TherearenowAngerControl,Bullying,ExecutiveFunction,EmotionalSelfControl,Negative
EmotionalityScales,andResiliencyScales.
Adams,C.D.&Drabman,R.S.(1994)BASC:ACriticalReview,ChildAssessmentNews,4,15.
Bergeron,R.,Floyd,R.G.,McCormack,A.C.,&Farmer,W.L.(2008)Thegeneralizabilityofexternalizing
behaviorcompositesandsubscalescoresacrosstime,rater,andinstrument.SchoolPsychologyReview,37(1),
91108.
Flanagan,R.(1995)AreviewoftheBehaviourAssessmentSystemforChildren(BASC):Assessmentconsistent
withtherequirementsoftheIndividualswithDisabilitiesEducationAct(IDEA),JournalofSchoolPsychology,
33,17786.
Flanagan,D.P.,Alpfonso,V.C.,Primavera,L.H.,Povall,L.&Higgins,D.(1996)ConvergentvalidityoftheBASC
andSSRS:ImplicationsforSocialSkillsAssessment,PsychologyintheSchools,33,1323.
Greenspoon,P.J.,&Saklofske,D.H.(1997)ValidityandreliabilityoftheMultidimensionalStudentsLife
SatisfactionScalewithCanadianchildren,JournalofPsychoeducationalAssessment15,13855.
Huebner,E.S.(1994)PreliminarydevelopmentandvalidationofaMultidimensionalLifeSatisfactionScalefor
Children,PsychologicalAssessment,6,14958.
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Masten,A.,Morison,P.andPellegrini,D.(1985)ARevisedClassPlayMethodofPeerAssessment
DevelopmentalPsychology,21,52333.
Realmuto,G.M.,August,G.J.,Sieler,J.D.&PessoaBrandao,L.(1997)Peerassessmentofsocialreputationin
communitysamplesofdisruptiveandnondisruptivechildren:Utilityoftherevisedclassplaymethod,Journal
ofClinicalChildPsychology,26,6776.
Reynolds,C.R.&Kamphaus,R.W.(1992)BehaviourAssessmentSystemforChildrenManual.CirclePines,MN:
AmericanGuidanceService.
Reynolds,C.R.&Kamphaus,R.W.(1998)BehaviourAssessmentSystemforChildrenManualSecondEdition.
CirclePines,MN:AmericanGuidanceService.
Vaughn,M.,Riccio,C.A.,Hynd,G.W.&Hall,J.(1997)DiagnosingADHD(PredominatelyInattentiveand
CombinedTypeSubtypes):DiscriminantvalidityoftheBehaviourAssessmentSystemforChildrenandthe
AchenbachParentandTeacherRatingScales,JournalofClinicalChildPsychology,26,34957.

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Measure

BerkeleyPuppetInterview(BPI)

Constructs

Selfawareness

Agerange

Preschoolthroughearlyelementary

Ratingtype

Performancebased

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

TheBPIwasdevelopedtoaddresstheabsenceofstandardizedmethodologies
appropriateformeasuringyoungchildrensperceptionsofthemselvesandtheir
environments.Itblendsstructuredandclinicalinterviewingmethods,usingthe
puppets,IggyandZiggy.
Forexample:
Iggy:Ihavelotsoffriends.Ziggy:Myparentsfightsareaboutme.
Ziggy:Idonthavelotsoffriends.Iggy:Myparentsfightsarenotaboutme.
Iggy:Howaboutyou?Ziggy:Howaboutyourparents?

Useofpuppetplayallowschildrentorespondnaturallyandcomfortably.
Administration

DirectAssessment.MostoftheBPIsubscalesconsistof4to8items.Most
successfulinterviewinglastsnolongerthan20minutesbeforeabreak;2such
periodscanbeusedinoneday.

Scoring

SelfPerceptionScalesincludeAcademicCompetence,AchievementMotivation,
SocialCompetence,PeerAcceptance,Depression/Anxiety,andAggression/Hostility.
Theauthorsaskthateachscalebeusedinitsentirety(Measelleetal.,1998).
Themethodologyisflexible,andallowsforotherscales,includingTeacherCloseness,
TeacherConflict,andSchoolEngagement,andparentchildsubscalessuchas
WarmthandEnjoyment,Anger&Hostility,Responsiveness,EmotionalAvailability,
LimitSetting,andAutonomyGranting&Control(separatescalesformotherand
father).

Reliability

Excellent

Validity

TheBPIsutilityhasbeentestedonsocioeconomically,culturally,andclinically
diversesamples.ASpanishlanguageversionisbeingtestedinChile.
Childrenunderstandthequestionsandbecomeengagedindialoguewiththe
puppets.Agreementbetweenyoungchildrenandadultinformantsisasstrongifnot
strongerthanthatbetweenpairsofadultinformants.Thesedataareimportantin
lightofthefieldstendencytoviewyoungchildrensperceptionaslessvalid.

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Strengths

Allowsforverbalornonverbal,elaboratedorlimitedresponses.Codingmanual
helpscodertodecipherfiguresofspeech,reasoningprocesses,andconditional
responsesthatreflectambivalentselfperceptionsoruncertaintyduetolackof
experience.Mayalsobeusedtoexamineareasofselfawarenessparalleltoadult
BigFivedimensionsofpersonality(Measelleetal.,2005).

Weaknesses

Requires2daytrainingworkshopandcertification,whichalsotakestime.
PriceofworkshopfromUniversityofOregonpersonnel,includingtrainingand
reliabilitychecks,equals$900pertrainee.

Measelle,J.,R.,Ablow,J.C.,Cowan,P.A.,&Cowan,C.P.(1998).Assessingyoungchildrensselfperceptions
oftheiracademic,social,andemotionallives:AnevaluationoftheBerkeleyPuppetInterview.Child
Development,69,15561576.
Measelle,J.R.,John,O.P.,Ablow,J.C.,CowanC.P.Cowan,P.A.(2005).Canchildrenprovidecoherent,
stable,andvalidselfreportsontheBigFivedimensions?Alongitudinalstudyfromages5to7.Journalof
PersonalityandSocialPsychology,89,90106

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Measure

CopingwithEmotionalSituations

Constructs

Selfmanagement

Agerange

PreschoolthroughMiddleChildhood

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionof
measureas
relatedto
constructof
interest

Childrenscopingbehaviorwhenfacedwithemotionalsituationswithpeerscanbe
assessedwithitemsdevelopedbyEisenberg,Fabes,Nyman,Bernzweig,andPinuelas
(1994).
Itemcontentreflects:InstrumentalCoping(e.g.,takingactiontoimproveasituation),
InstrumentalAggression(e.g.,hitting),EmotionalIntervention(e.g.,cryingtoelicithelp),
Avoidance(e.g.,leavingaproblem),Distraction(e.g.,keepingbusy),Venting(e.g.,cryingto
releasefrustration),EmotionalAggression(e.g.,aggressingtoreleasefrustration),
CognitiveRestructuring(e.g.,sayingIdontcare),CognitiveAvoidance(e.g.,notthinking
abouttheproblem),InstrumentalIntervention(e.g.,gettinghelp),InstrumentalSupport
(e.g.,talkingtosomeoneabouttheproblem),andDenial(e.g.,sayingnothinghappened).
BasedontheworkofEisenbergandcolleagues(1994),datacanbereducedtothree
summaryscales:
EmotionalVenting(e.g.,criestoreleasefeelings/gethelp,solvesproblems/releases
feelingsthroughaggression).
ConstructiveStrategies(e.g.,gettingemotionalsupportorpragmaticassistancewiththe
problem;solvingtheproblem)
AvoidantStrategies(e.g.,usingdistraction,denyingtheproblem)

Administration

Informantsindicateona7pointscale,with1indicatingneverand7indicatingusually,
howoftenthechildwouldengageineachof12generaltypesofcopingbehaviorwhen
confrontedwithaproblemsituation.Takeslessthan10minutes.

Scoring

Sum17ratingacrossrationalsubscales,asfollows:
Constructivecoping=items1,7,10,12,12
Ventingcoping=items2,3,8,9
Passivecoping=items4,5,6,13
Itis,however,possiblethatfactorsmaydifferacrossages.

Reliability

Goodtestretestandinternalconsistencyreliabilityhavebeenreportedbytheauthorsand
Denham.Specifically,sforthesescalesinDenhamsresearchhavebeengoodto
excellent,especiallyconsideringthenumberofitemspersubscale.

Validity

Researchsuggeststhatparentscompletionofthesescalesisrelatedtoteachers
evaluationsofyoungchildrenssocialcompetence.

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Strengths

Thesescalesareveryquickandeasyforeitherteachersorparentstocomplete.Theyyield
asnapshotofthechildsemotionalcopingstrategies,andwouldthusbeusefulfor
individualizingprogrammingaswellaspreandpostprogrammingmeasurement.

Weaknesses

Copingmaynotbeconsideredthesameasemotionregulation.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Eisenberg,N.,Fabes,R.A.,Nyman,M.,Bernzweig,J.,&Pinuelas,A.(1994).Therelationofemotionalityand
regulationtopreschoolersangerrelatedreactions.ChildDevelopment,65,13521366.

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Measure

EmotionRegulationChecklist

Constructs

SelfManagement

Agerange

Preschoolandearlyprimary

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

The24itemEmotionRegulationChecklisttapsbothprevalentemotionalexpressiveness
andtheproductaspectofemotionregulation:thatis,ittargetsprocessescentralto
emotionalityandregulation,includingaffectlability,intensity,valence,flexibility,and
contextualappropriatenessofexpressiveness(Shields&Cicchetti,1997;Shieldsetal.,
2001).
TheLability/Negativitysubscaleiscomprisedofitemsrepresentingatackofflexibility,
moodlability,anddysregulatednegativeaffect;sampleitemsinclude"Exhibitswide
moodswings,"and"Ispronetoangryoutbursts?'TheEmotionRegulationsubscale
includesitemsdescribingsituationallyappropriateaffectivedisplays,empathy,and
emotionalselfawareness;sampleitemsinclude"Isempathictowardothers,"and"Can
saywhens/heisfeelingsad,angryormad,fearfulorafraid."

Administration

Otherreportquestionnaire(teachers,couldbeadaptedforparents);takesabout10
minutesorlesstocomplete.

Scoring

Sum4pointLikertratingsforscales
Lability/NegativityScale=items2,6,8,10,13,14,17,19,20,22,24,4R,5R,9R,11R
EmotionRegulationScale=items1,3,7,15,21,23,16R,18R
R=recode,whichinthiscasedenotessubtractingthatscorefromthetotal
Item12isnotincludedineitherscaleasitdidnotloadoneitherinearlyvalidation
studies.

Reliability

Internalconsistencyfortheemotionregulationandlability/negativitysubscalesis
excellent;inShields&Cicchetti(1997)alphaswere.96forlability/negativityand.83for
EmotionRegulation.

Validity

Intermsofvalidity,themeasuredistinguisheswellregulatedfromdysregulated
children.Morespecifically,overallemotionregulationatthestartofthepreschoolyear
wasassociatedwithschooladjustmentatyear'send,whereasearlyemotional
lability/negativitypredictedpooreroutcomes.

Anymodifications

No

Strengths

Goodcontentvalidity,importantconstructsassessed

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Weaknesses

Attimesitisconcerningthatexpressionandregulationaresoconfoundedinthis
measurethisisanendemicproblemintheliteratureasawhole.However,the
ability/negativitysubscaleisatleastseparate.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Shields,A.,&Cicchetti,D.(1997).Emotionregulationinschoolagechildren:Thedevelopmentofanew
criterionQsortscale.DevelopmentalPsychology,33,906916.
Shields,A.,Dickstein,S.,Seifer,R.,Guisti,L.,Magee,K.D.,&Spritz,B.(2001).Emotionalcompetenceandearly
schooladjustment:Astudyofpreschoolersatrisk.EarlyEducationandDevelopment,12,7396.

ExampleitemsfromtheEmotionRegulationChecklist
EmotionRegulation
ChecklistScale

ExampleItems

Lability/Negativity

Exhibitswidemoodswings;iseasilyfrustrated;ispronetoangry
outbursts

EmotionRegulation

Isacheerfulchild;respondspositivelytoneutralorfriendlyovertures
byadults;cansaywhens/heisfeelingsad,angryormad,fearfulor
afraid

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Measure

ThePictorialScaleofPerceivedCompetenceandSocialAcceptanceforYoung
Children(PSPCSAYC)
Also:ThePerceivedCompetenceScaleforChildren(PCSC)

Constructs

Selfawareness

Agerange

PreschoolersandKindergartenersforonescale,1stand2ndgradersforanother.
PCSCisfor3rdthrough9thgrades

Ratingtype

Performancebased,self

Descriptionof
PSPCSAYCisapictorialscaleofperceivedcompetenceandsocialacceptancefor
measureasrelatedto youngchildren,tapping4domainswith6itemseach:cognitivecompetence,physical
constructofinterest
competence,peeracceptance,andmaternalacceptance.Itemsdiffersomewhatfor
somescalesacrossthetwoagelevels.For
ForthePSPCSAYC,factoranalysesreveala2factorsolution.Thefirstfactor,general
competence,isdefinedbythecognitiveandphysicalcompetencesubscales.The
secondfactor,socialacceptance,comprisesthepeerandmaternalacceptance
subscales.
Itisurgedthatthisinstrumentnotbeviewedasageneralselfconceptscalebutbe
treatedasameasureof2separateconstructs:perceivedcompetenceandsocial
acceptance.
However,thePCSChasfactorsofcognitive,social,physical,andgeneralselfworth.
Administration

DirectAssessment forPSPCSAYC,selfreportforPCSC
PSPCSAYC
PictureplatesThepicturesaccompanyingeachversionareboundseparately,asare
setsforboysandgirls.
SampleitemThechildisfirstreadabriefstatementabouteachchilddepicted.For
thesampleitem,thefemalesubjectwouldbetoldthatthegirlonthechild'sleftis
goodatpuzzlesbutthechildontherightisnotverygoodatpuzzles.Thechild'sfirst
taskistoindicatewhichofthetwogirlssheismostlike.Aftermakingthatdecision,
thechildisthenaskedtothinkonlyaboutthepictureonthatsideandindicate
whethersheisalotlikethatgirl(thebigcircle)orjustalittlebitlikethatgirl(the
smallercircle).Foreachitemtherearemorespecificdescriptivequestionsthat
accompanyeachcircle,suchas"Areyoujustprettygoodatpuzzles[smallcircle]or
reallygood[largecircle]?"

PCSC
Similaritemswithfourpointscaletwochoicesononesideoftheitemfortruefor
mereallyorsortofandtwochoicesontheothersideoftheitemfortrueforme
reallyorsortof.

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Scoring

Strengths

Eachitemisscoredonafourpointscale,whereascoreof4wouldbethemost
competentoracceptedandascoreof1woulddesignatetheleastcompetentor
accepted.Thus,forthePSPCSAYCsampleitem,thechildwhoindicatesthatsheisa
lotlikethegirlwhoisgoodatpuzzleswouldreceiveascoreof4.Ifshechosethe
smallercircleontheleft,shewouldgeta3.Ifsheindicatesthatsheisalittlelikethe
girlwhoisnotverygoodatpuzzles,shewouldreceivea2.Andifsheisalotlikethat
girl,shewouldgetascoreof1.Itemscoresareaveragedacrossthesixitemsfora
givensubscale,andthesefourmeansprovidethechild'sprofileofperceived
competenceandsocialacceptance.
TeacherratingscaleAteacherratingscaleparallelsthePSPCSAYC.Onthisscale,
teachersaregivenabriefverbaldescriptionofeachitem(e.g.,goodatpuzzles)and
thenratehowtruethatstatementisonafourpointscale(reallytrue,prettytrue,
onlysortoftrue,andnotverytrue).Thus,thesescorescanbecomparedwiththe
child'sscores,dependingononespurposes.
SimilarscoringandparallelformsareavailableforthePCSC.
Internalconsistency forthePSPCSAYCsubscalesranged from.50to85.When
combinedaccordingtotheirdesignatedfactors,thesereliabilitiesincrease
substantially,fallingwithinarangeof.75.89.Attenuatedvariabilitysomewhat
spuriouslyattenuatesinternalconsistencyreliabilitysomewhat.
InternalconsistencyalsoadequateforthePCSC.
Convergent,discriminant,andpredictivevalidityareadequateforbothmeasures.
OnthePSPCSAYC,forpupilswhoseratingsareeithercongruentorlowerthanthe
teachers,theirperceivedcognitivecompetenceispredictiveoftheiractualbehavior.
However,thepresenceofoverratersinthesampleattenuatesthepredictivevalidity
ofthissubscale.
DirectAssessment

Weaknesses

Somepsychometricproperties areslightlyweak.

Publisher/Price

MustcontactSusanHarter atUniversityofDenver,sharter@du.edu

Reliability

Validity

Harter,S.(1982).ThePerceivedCompetenceScaleforChildren.ChildDevelopment,53,8797.
Harter,S.&Pike,R.(1984).Thepictorialscaleofperceivedcompetenceandsocialacceptanceforyoung
children.ChildDevelopment,55,19691982.

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Measure

PositiveandNegativeAffectScale(PANAS)
PositiveandNegativeAffectScale,ChildVersion(PANASC)

Constructs

Selfmanagement

Agerange

PANAS:preschoolandelementaryschool
PANASCElementarySchool(grades48)

Ratingtype

Parent,Self

Descriptionofmeasure ThePANASassesseshowthechild/adultfeelsonaverage,for12negative
asrelatedtoconstruct emotions(e.g.,sad,angry)and3positiveemotions(e.g.,excited,enthusiastic).
ofinterest
ThePANAShasbeenmodifiedforparentreportforpreschoolersandearly
elementarygrades;examinesoverallemotionalexpressiveness.
ThePANASC(Laurentetal.,1999)isabrief,usefulmeasureofemotional
experiencethatcanbeusedtodifferentiateanxietyfromdepressioninyoungsters.
Ithasbeendevelopedmainlyasaninstrumentforuseinageneralschool
population.
Administration

Verysimpleandquick;lessthan10minutes
ThePANASCconsistsof27items.Childrenareinstructedtoindicatehowoften
theyhavefeltaspecificway(e.g.,interested,sad,etc.)duringthe"pastfewweeks"
or"past2weeks"ona5pointLikertscale(1=veryslightlyornotatall,5=
extremely).

Scoring

SumLikertratingsforsubscales i.e.,allnegativeemotionsratingsaresummed
(NA),andallpositiveemotionsratingsaresummed(PA).

Reliability

PANASWatson,Clark,andTellegen (1988)reportedalphacoefficientsof.87for
boththenegativeaffect(NA)andpositiveaffect(PA)scales;importantly,thetime
instructionsusedinthisstudyweresimilartothoseusedforvalidationofthe
PANASC.
PANASC:The27itemPANASCdemonstratedpsychometricpropertiesmuchlike
thoseofthePANAS:alphacoefficientsfortheNAscalewere.94and.92forthe
scaledevelopmentandreplicationsamples,respectively;thealphacoefficientsfor
thePAscalewere.90forthescaledevelopmentsampleand.89forthereplication
sample.Also,atwofactorsolutionbestdescribedthestructureofthePANASC,
consistentwithitsparentmeasure.Thescalesalsodemonstratedgoodconvergent
anddiscriminantvalidity.

Validity

Usedinanincreasingnumberofstudiesrelatedemotionalexpressivenessto
numeroussocialandpsychologicaloutcomes.

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Anymodifications?

No

Strengths

Short,goodpsychometrics

Weaknesses

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Laurent,J.,Catanzaro,S.J.,Joiner,T.E.,Rudolph,K.D.,Potter,K.I.,Lambert,S.,etal.(1999).AMeasureof
PositiveandNegativeAffectforChildren:ScaleDevelopmentandPreliminaryValidation.Psychological
Assessment,11,326338.
Watson,D.,&Clark,L.A.,&Tellegen,A.(1988).Developmentandvalidationofbriefmeasuresofpositiveand
negativeaffect:ThePANASScales.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,54,10631070.

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Measure

RothbartTemperamentScales Infant,EarlyChildhood,Child

Constructs

SelfManagement

Agerange

Infancythroughchildhood

Note.TheRothbartscalesincludeseveralversionsbasedontheageoftheratee.For
thiscompendiumspurpose,thefollowingareapplicable:EarlyChildhoodBehavior
Questionnaire(ECBQ),ChildrensBehaviorQuestionnaire(CBQ)
Teacher,Parent

Ratingtype
Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Threehigherordertemperamentfactorspertinenttotheassessmentofemotional
expressivenessandregulationhavebeenisolated:(a)negativeaffectivity,(b)surgency;
and(c)effortfulcontrol(Rothbartetal,1994).Takentogether,theycompriseachild's
constitutional,individualpatternofselfregulationandreactivity,relativelyenduring
biologicalpredispositionsthatareinfluencedovertimebymaturationandexperience.
Negativeaffectivityitemsinvolvediscomfortexperiencedinoverstimulatingsituations,
frustration,anger,andinabilitytosootheoneself,fearfulness,andsadness.The
Surgencydimensionincludesactive,approach,pleasure,andsmilingscales.
UseofRothbartTemperamentQuestionnairescanaddtoknowledgeofchildrens
expressivenessacrossmanyeverydaycontexts.Manychildrenhighonthetemperament
dimensionofnegativeaffectivityareeasilyangeredinmanysituations.Othershighon
thisdimensionareanxious,fearfulinnewsituations,andeasilysaddened.Thus,this
factorcanbedividedintoexternalizingnegativeemotionsandinternalizingnegative
emotions.Itiseasytoseehowthispotentcombinationcouldmakeinteractingwith
bothpeersandadultsproblematic.
Effortfulcontrol,alsoassessedbytheCBQ,isassociatedwithsensitivitytothe
emotionalexperiencesofpeers,whichcanleadtoempathicandotherprosocial
responses,aswellastoinhibitionofaggressiveimpulses(Kochanska,1993;Rothbartet
al.,1994).Morespecifically,regulatoryabilitiesinattention,inparticulartheabilityto
focusandshiftattentionvoluntarily,andtheabilitytodisengageattentionfromone's
ownperspectivetoattendtoanother's,arehallmarksofprosocialdevelopment
(Kochanska,1993).Wewouldexpectchildrenhigherontheeffortfulcontroldimension
tobeseenbyteachers,observers,andpeersalikeasmoresociallycompetent.
Effortfulcontrolencompassesscalesmeasuringinhibitorycontrol;maintenanceof
attentionalfocusduringtasks;pleasureexperiencedduringlowintensitysituations(e.g.,
lookingatpicturebooks);andperceptualsensitivityandawarenessofexternalcues.
Thus,theCBQsscalesrelatedtoemotionregulation,orinternallyconsistent
abbreviationsthereof,couldbeuseful.

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Forregulation,fourscalesareused,asfollows:(a)attentionfocusing(willmovefrom
onetasktoanotherwithoutcompletingthem(reversed);(b)attentionshifting(can
easilyshiftfromoneactivitytoanother;(c)inhibitioncontrol(e.g.,canlowerhervoice
whenaskedtodoso;and(e)impulsivity(rushesintonewsituations).
Surgencyisanaspectoftemperamentassociatedwithextraversion,approachtonovel
stimuli,positiveemotionalexpressiveness,activity,andhighlevelpleasure.Hence,a
childhighonthisdimensionoftemperamentmightbealotoffuntobearoundeagerly
initiatingcontactwithothers,findinginterestingthingstodo,sharingpositiveaffect.On
theotherhand,therecouldbetoomuchofagoodthing,withchildrenhighonsucha
dimensionpossiblyseenasirritatinglyactiveandboisterous,risktaking,andimpulsive.
Administration

Asanexample,theChildBehaviorQuestionnaire(allscalesscoredinthesamemanner):
TheCBQisanupperextensionofRothbart'sInfantandToddlerBehaviorQuestionnaires
(whichisalsorecommended),withsimilarlyexcellentreliabilityandvalidity.Itisan
instrumentthatassessestemperamentalcharacteristicsofchildrenaged38years.
Ratersscore,onsevenpointscales,howtrue195specificdescriptivebehaviorshave
beenofthepersonbeingrated,overthepastsixmonths.Theoptionofindicatingthat
anyitemis"notapplicable"tothechildisalsoavailableforinfant/childmeasures.

Scoring

Theinstructionsaregenerallyclearandusefultoraters,althoughthescalesinclude
manyitemsandtakesomeparentsoveranhourtocomplete(shortversionsmaybe
recommended,providedthatscalesofinterestarestillincluded).Veryclearscoring
instructions;facilitatedbySPSSroutines.

Reliability

Allreportedinternalconsistencyreliabilitiesandtestretestreliabilitiesforallversions
forallscalesaremoderatetoexcellent.CBQexhibitssubstantialinterparental
agreement.

Validity

Concurrentandpredictivevalidityestablishedinmanystudies

Anymodifications

Useshortforms,orifdeemedmoreappropriate,veryshortforms

Strengths

Extremelywellconstructedandvalidated,withtheoreticalfoundationsinbrainand
emotionaldevelopment.

Weaknesses

Despitesomedisagreementintheliterature,wewouldchooseparentalreportof
temperament,because:(1)parentsseeawiderangeofbehavior;(2)recent
measurementadvancesallowtheirreportsevengreaterobjectivevalidity;and(3)most
importantly,thesocialrelationshipaspectsofchildtemperamentarebestcapturedin
parentalreportsRothbartandBates(1998).

Publisher/Pricing

ThefollowingisaquotefromDr.Rothbartswebsite,
http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~maryroth/:Wedonotchargeresearcherstouseour
temperamentmeasures.Dr.Rothbartbelievesthefreeexchangeofscientific
informationisessentialtoresearchimprovement.Accesspermissiontothe
questionnairescanberepaidbysharingwithustheresultsofyourstudies.

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Torequestaccesstothequestionnaires,youcanclickonthewebsitelinks,whichsend
anemailrequesttoDr.Rothbartssecretary.Pleasedescribeyourintendedstudy,the
ageranges,andwhichquestionnaire(s)youplantorevieworuse.Ouremailreplywill
providetheaccesscodesandinformationonhowtoobtaincopiesofDr.Rothbarts
publications(someofwhicharelinkedandavailablefordownload).Youmayalso
phone(5413465534),orwritetoRothbartTemperamentLab,Attention:Cher
DiValerio,1227UniversityofOregon,Eugene,OR974031227.

Capaldi,D.M.,&Rothbart,M.K.(1992).Developmentandvalidationofanearlyadolescenttemperament
Measure.JournalofEarlyAdolescence,12,163173.
Kochanska,G.(1993).Towardasynthesisofparentalsocializationandchildtemperamentinearly
developmentofconscience.ChildDevelopment,64,325347.
Rothbart,M.K.,Ahadi,S.A.,&Hershey,K.L.(1994).Temperamentandsocialbehaviorinchildhood.Merrill
PalmerQuarterly,40,2139.
Rothbart,M.K.&Bates,J.E.(1998).Temperament.InW.Damon(Ed.),Handbookofchildpsychology:Vol.3
Social,emotional,andpersonalitydevelopment(5thed.,pp.105176).NewYork:Wiley.

Formorespecificreadingontemperamentconstructsandmeasures,seethefollowing:
Posner,M.I.&Rothbart,M.K.(2000).Developingmechanismsofselfregulation.Developmentand
Psychopathology,12,427441.
Putnam,S.P.,Ellis,L.K.,&Rothbart,M.K.(2001).Thestructureoftemperamentfrominfancythrough
adolescence.InA.Eliasz&A.Angleitner(Eds.),Advancesinresearchontemperament(pp.165182).
Germany:PabstScience.
Rothbart,M.K.,Ahadi,S.A.,Hershey,K.,&Fisher,P.(2001).Investigationsoftemperamentatthreetoseven
years:TheChildren'sBehaviorQuestionnaire.ChildDevelopment,72,(5),13941408.
Rothbart,M.K.,Chew,K.,&Gartstein,M.A.(2001).Assessmentoftemperamentinearlydevelopment.InL.
Singer&P.S.Zeskind(Eds.),Biobehavioralassessmentoftheinfant(pp.190208).NewYork:Guilford.
Rothbart,M.K.,Derryberry,D.,&Hershey,K.(2000).Stabilityoftemperamentinchildhood:Laboratoryinfant
assessmenttoparentreportatsevenyears.InV.J.Molfese&D.L.Molfese(Eds.),Temperamentand
personalitydevelopmentacrossthelifespan,(pp.85119).Hillsdale,NJ:Erlbaum.
Rothbart,M.K.,&Hwang,J.(2002).Measuringinfanttemperament.InfantBehavior&Development,25(1),
113116.

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Measure

SocialSkillsRatingSystem(SSRS)

Constructs

SelfManagement, RelationshipSkills,Responsibledecisionmaking,(LackofRisky,
Disruptive/ExternalizingBehaviorsandInternalizingSymptoms),Academic
Competence

Agerange

Preschoolthroughsecondaryschool

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Toassistprofessionsinscreeningandclassifyingchildrensuspectedofhaving
significantsocialbehaviorproblemsandaidinthedevelopmentofappropriate
interventionsforidentifiedchildren(Gresham&Eliot,1990,p.1)

Scalesinclude:
SocialSkills:Cooperation,Assertion,Responsibility,Empathy,andSelfControl
ProblemBehaviors:Externalizing,Bullying,Hyperactivity/Inattention,Internalizing,
AcademicCompetence:ReadingAchievement,MathAchievement,Motivationto
Learn
Normreferencedratingscalecomprisedofthreedifferentratingformsforteachers,
parents,andstudents.Intendedforusewithpreschool,elementary,andsecondary
students(withseparateformsforratersateachlevel).Numberofitemsrangesfrom
4057fortheadultraters,and3439forstudentsinElementaryschoolandhigher.
Allincludecooperation,assertion,andselfcontrolsubscales.Parentsalsocompletea
responsibilityscale,andstudentsalsocompleteanempathysubscale.
Allitemsevaluatedona3pointLikertscale.Eachratercancompletetheirtaskin
20minutes.Materialsareuserfriendlyandreadable,withclear,comprehensive
examples.

Administration

Scoring

Handscoringasdescribedinmanualandonindividualitembookletstakesabout5
minutes.Manualpresentsrawscores,standardscores,percentileranks,
confidencebands,anddescriptivebehaviorlevels.Thesebehaviorlevelsgarner
somecriticism,tothepointwheresomeadviseonlyusingrawscores.

Reliability

Manualincludesdetailedinformationonreliability.Teacherforminternal
consistencyisexcellent,parentandstudentinternalconsistenciesadequateoverall.
Testretestexcellentforteacherformandparent(socialskillsscale;wewouldnot
usetheattendantbehaviorproblemsscaleforthisconstruct).Testretestreliability
forthestudentformissomewhatlimited,asmightbe,atleastinpart,expected
withdevelopingchildren.
Interraterreliabilitiesareratherlow,butslightlybetterthanmanyothercross
informant,crosscontextreliabilityinthechildbehavioraltestingliterature.

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Validity

Evidenceispresentedinthemanualforcontent,criterion,andconstructvalidityof
theSSRS(theexceptionisthatthecriterionrelatedvalidityevidencesofarforthe
studentformislimitedtoadequate).

Strengths

Reliableandvalidmeasurecapturingimportantaspectsofsocialfunctioning,by
multipleinformants,acrossmanyyearsofchildhood/adolescence.

Weaknesses

BecausetheSSRSwasdevelopedtoassistinidentifyingchildrenwithdifficultiesin
thisarea,outcomestudiesmaybeinfluencedbyaceilingeffect(i.e.,globaland
subscalescoresarenegativelyskewed);thustheSSRSmayformabetterestimate
ofsocialskillsdeficitsthanwelldevelopedsocialskills.However,noextant
standardizedmeasurecoveringsuchawideagerangeisstrengthbasedinthisway.
Thestudentformsmightbeusedmorecautiouslybecauseofrelativelylower
reliabilities.Someevaluatorsurgeuseoftotalscoreonly,ratherthanfour
subscales.Astrongerstandardizationsampleisneededthatincludeschildrenfrom
familieswithlowerincomes.Despitesomereviewersnaysaying,Ibelievethis
measureisuseful.Demarayetal.(1995)foundtheSSRStobealaudabletool.

Publisher/Price

PublishedbyAmericanGuidanceServices.
SSRSPreschool/ElementaryStarterSet:$180.99
SSRSSecondaryStarterSet:$162.00
SSRSAllLevels,AllinformantsQuestionnaires,Scannable(25):$42.99

Demaray,M.K.,Ruffalo,S.L.,Carlson,J.,Busse,R.T.,Olson,A.E.,McManus,S.M.,&Leventhal,A.(1995).
Socialskillsassessment:Acomparativeevaluationofsixpublishedratingscales.SchoolPsychologyReview,
24,648671.
Gresham,F.M.,&Elliott,S.N.(1990).TheSocialSkillsRatingSystem.CirclePines,MN:AmericanGuidance
Service.

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Measure

SocialSkillsImprovementSystem(SSIS)

Constructs

SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills,Responsibledecisionmaking,(LackofRisky,
Disruptive/ExternalizingBehaviorsandInternalizingSymptoms),Academic
Competence

Agerange

Ages318

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Self

Descriptionofmeasure

asrelatedtoconstructof
interest

PurposeoftheAssessment:
o Screenforproblembehaviorsandidentifystudentsatriskforsocial
behaviordifficultiesandpooracademicperformance.
o Identifyspecificsocialbehavioracquisitionandperformance
deficitsthatcanbeaddressedwithskillbuildingschoolandhome
interventions.
o Identifysocialskillsstrengths.
o Comparestudentstonationalnormstoidentifyindividuals
functioningbelownormativeexpectations(candidatesfor
interventionservices).
o Provideabaselineforpostinterventionprogressevaluation.
o Trackprogress.
o Gatherlongitudinalresearchdata.

Administration

Scoring

Usedby:School,afterschool,socialservices,mentalhealthprofessionals.
Versions:Teacher,parentandstudentversionsofratingscaleavailable
(Studentselfreportavailablefor818).
Ratingprocedure:
o RatersshouldbefamiliarwiththeSSISandtheratingforms.
Teachersneedtoestablishrapportwiththestudent.
o Eachformtakes1520minutestocomplete.
ScaleContents:
o Numberofitemsdiffersbasedonformandageofchild.
Approximately140itemsperform.
o Teachersandparentsindicatefrequencyofbehaviorsexhibitedby
thechildona4pointscalefromNevertoAlmostAlways
o Studentsindicatehowtrueastatementaboutthemselvesisona4
pointscalefromNotTruetoVeryTrue
o Constructsassessed
SocialSkillsIncludesthefollowingsubconstructs:
Communication,Cooperation,Assertion,Responsibility,
Empathy,Engagement,SelfControl
ProblemBehaviors(onlyontheTeacherandParentforms)
Includesthefollowingsubconstructs:Externalizing,
Bullying,Hyperactivity,Internalizing,AutismSpectrum

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Reliability

Validity

Strengths

AcademicCompetence(onlyontheTeacherform)
Includesthefollowingsubconstructs:ReadingandMath
Performance,Motivation,ParentalSupport,General
CognitiveFunctioning

Scoringprocedure:
o Scoringprocedurescanbehandscoredorcomputerscored.
o Hasproceduresforinterpretingthereports.
o Hasproceduresforreportingwhentherearemultipleraters.
o Providesacaseexampleofscoringandreportingtheresults.

Normativesample:
o Normativesampleincluded4700studentsaged3through18.385
teachersprovidedratings.2800parentsprovidedratings.
o Conductedanationalstandardizationsamplealignedwith
demographicresultsofthe2006USCensus.Normsampleconsisted
ofapproximately5,000teachers,parentsandstudents.
o Normativescoresbygender,grade,andethnicityforthe3forms
Alphacoefficientsforscalesrangefrom.70toupper.90s.
Testretestreliabilityrangesfrom.72.87forthe3forms.
Interraterreliabilityrangesfrom.36.69.
Manualreportsmodestsupportfortheconvergentanddiscriminatevalidityofthe
SSISratingsubscales.
CorrelationsbetweenSSISandotherratingscales(e.g.HomeandCommunity
SocialBehaviorScale(HCSBS)andtheBehavioralAssessmentSystemforChildren
(BASC2))demonstratedlowormoderatecorrelationsandthesecorrelations
variedbyagelevel.
Validitywasacceptablefortestingonspecialpopulations(StudentswithAutism,
ADHD,LearningDisabilitiesandSpeech/LanguageImpairments).

Hasteacher,parentandchildversions.AllstrengthsofSSRSpluschangesfrom
SSRS:
Spanishversionsavailable.
Fournewsubscales(Communication,Engagement,Bullying,andAutismSpectrum)
Nationalnormsforpreschool.Standardizationbasedonanationwidesample
matchedtotheUSpopulationestimatesforrace,region,andSES.Combined
normsandseparatesexnorms
Computerizedscoringandreportingsoftwareavailable.Resultslinkdirectlyto
interventions.Formscanbecompletedwithin1520minutes.Partofalarger
systemthatincludesauniversalscreeningtoolandtosocialskillsbuilding
programs.

Weaknesses

Manualstatesthatinterpretationofscoresandreportsshouldbedonebya
professionalwhoisfamiliarwithtestconstructionandinterpretation.Manual
doesnotciteatheoreticalbasisforthepositivebehavioritems.Noanalysisofthe
dimensionalityoftheassessmentwasconducted.Costishigh.

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Publisher/Price

SSISHandscoredstarterkit(Includesmanual,packageofeachsetofforms):
$241.00
SSISComputerscoredstarterkit(Includesmanual,packageofeachsetofforms,
ASSISTScoringSoftware):$502.20
SSISManual:$101.00
SSISHandScoredForms(Teacher,ParentandStudentformssoldseparately):
$42.75
SSISComputerScoredForms(Teacher,ParentandStudentformssoldseparately):
$52.00

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Measure

SociometricRatingsandNominations

Constructs

Relationshipskills,(LackofRisky,Disruptive/ExternalizingBehaviorsand
InternalizingSymptoms)

Agerange

Preschooltoadolescence

Ratingtype

Peer,Self

Descriptionofmeasure Sociometricmeasurescaptureoverallsocial statusineachgroup;participants


asrelatedtoconstructof classmatesareaskedtonameanunlimitednumberofchildrenwhotheylikea
interest
lotandwhotheydontlikeverymuch.Aswell,toidentifyaggression,theywill
beaskedtonamechildrenwhostartfights,yellandcallotherkidsmean
names,hitandpushotherkids.Topinpointrelationalaggressionthatcanbe
sucharoadblocktoforgiveness(Crick&Grotpeter,1995,1996),theywillname
childrenwhogetevenbykeepingkidstheyaremadatoutoftheirgroupof
friends,telltheirfriendsthattheywillstoplikingthemunlesstheydowhatthey
say,trytokeepcertainkidsfrombeingintheirgroupduringactivityorplay
time,andignoreorstoptalkingtokidstheyaremadat.
Administration

Forpreschoolers,usephotographsofclassmatesandratings(3pointfor
preschoolers;seeDenham&Holt,1993).Forelementaryschoolandolder,use
nominations.Theadministrationtakes20minutesorless,althoughusually<10
minutes;attheelementaryschoollevel,instructionstakeafewminutes,andthe
measurecanbelengthenedto20minutesbytheinclusionofnumerous
nominations.
Preschoolersrequireindividualinterviewadministration,withpropsthatease
explanationofthetask;olderchildrencanbeadministeredsociometricnomination
measuresingroupsettings.
SchonertReichlalsoincludedassessmentsofprosocialbehaviors(cooperatesina
group,someoneyoucantrust,kindtoothers,helpful,understandother
kidspointofview,fair),antisocial/aggressivebehaviors(startsfights,
disruptsthingsinagroup,canttaketeasing,talksbehindotherpeoples
backs),andsociallywithdrawnbehaviors(shy,easytopusharound)in
sociometricmeasures(SchonertReichl,1999).

Scoring

Forratings,findaweightedaverage(e.g.,dislikeweight=1,neutralweight=2,like
weight=3;forkindergartners,use5pointscale)
Fornominations,frequenciesofeachnominationwillbecalculatedforeach
classroomgroupandstandardizedwithingroup.Socialpreference,socialimpact,
overtaggression,andrelationalaggressionscoresforeachparticipantwillbe
calculated(seeDodge&Coie,1987).

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Reliability&
Validity

Manydevelopmentalstudiesinthelasttwodecadessupportthereliabilityand
validityoftheseprocedures.

Strengths

Getsviewoftheseconstructsfromactualsocialpartners.Itisimportanttonote
thatalthoughteacherscantelluswhoiswellacceptedinagroupofpeers,they
arenotgoodreportersonmoreproblematicaspectsofpeerreputation(Landauet
al.,1984).

Weaknesses

Difficultiessometimesexistinconvincingparentsandschoolsystemsthatthese
measurestonotposeharmtochildren.Theyspeculatethattheremayberiskin
involved,inthat:Sociometricsimplicitlysanctionmakingnegativestatements
aboutotherpeople,andmayleadchildrentoviewrejectedchildrenmore
negativelythantheyalreadydo,increasenegativeinteractionswithunpopular
peers,orincreasesalienceofsocialostracisminthepeergroupandthusincrease
childrensunhappiness.
Wecanhappilyreportthatthereisnosupportfortheseworriesinappearsthat
participationinstudiesincludingsociometricmeasuresinvolvenomorerisksthan
everydaysociallife.Researchers(e.g.,BellDolanetal.,1989a,1989b,1992)have
found,followingadministrationofsociometricsmeasures,NOincreaseinnegative
interactionswithunpopularpeers,NOincreaseofsociallywithdrawalinless
acceptedchildren,andNOexpressionofunhappinessorlonelinessafter
participationinstudieswithsociometricmeasures.Mostchildrenappeartoenjoy
consideringsuchissues,whichareparamountinthemindsofelementarystudents
inanycase,donotchangebehavior,andmayinfactbenefitfromdiscussionof
suchissueswithresearchersItispossibletoobtainparallelsocialimpact/social
informationmoreaffirmativelybyaskingchildrenwhotheylikemostandalso
usingsociometricratings(seeAsher&Dodge,1986).
Thismeasureisthegoldstandardofpeercompetencemeasurementduringthe
middlechildhoodperiod.Theconcernsofschoolsystemsandparentsshouldbe
treatedrespectfully;butmuchresearch(aswellasthecommonsense
developmentalnotionthatchildrenduringmiddlechildhoodandearlyadolescence
areconstantlymakingthejudgmentssubsumedwithinsociometricmeasurement,
justmoreinformallythanpresentedinpsychologicalmeasurement).Evenifonly
subsetofdatasitescancollectthesedata,however,wewouldhighlyrecommend
gatheringasmuchsociometricdataaspossible.

Asher,S.R.,&Dodge,K.A.(1986).Identifyingchildrenwhoarerejectedbytheirpeers.Developmental
Psychology,22,444449.
BellDolan,D.J.,Foster,S.L.,&Christopher,J.M.(1992).Childrensreactionstoparticipatinginapeer
relationsstudy:Child,parent,andteacherreports.ChildStudyJournal,22,136156.
BellDolan,D.J.,Foster,S.L.,&Sikora,D.M.(1989a).Effectsofsociometrictestingonchildrensbehaviorand
lonelinessinschool.DevelopmentalPsychology,25,306311.
BellDolan,D.J.,Foster,S.L.,&Tishelman,A.C.(1989b).Analternativetonegativenominationsociometric
procedures.JournalofClinicalChildPsychology,18,153157.

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Crick,N.R.,&Grotpeter,J.K.(1995).Relationalaggression,gender,andsocialpsychologicaladjustment.
ChildDevelopment,66,710722.
Crick,N.,&Grotpeter(1996).Childrenstreatmentbypeers:Victimsofrelationalandovertaggression.
DevelopmentandPsychopathology,8,367380.
Denham,S.A.,&Holt,R.(1993).Preschoolerspeerstatus:Acauseorconsequenceofbehavior?
DevelopmentalPsychology,29,271275.
Dodge,K.A.,&Coie,J.D.(1987).Socialinformationprocessingfactorsinreactiveandproactiveaggressionin
childrenspeergroups.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,53,11461158.
Hayvren,M.,&Hymel,S.(1984).Ethicalissuesinsociometrictesting:TheimpactofsociometricMeasureson
interactionbehavior.DevelopmentalPsychology,20,844849.
Landau,S.,Milich,R.,&Whitten,P.(1984).Acomparisonofteacherandpeerassessmentofsocialstatus.
JournalofClinicalChildPsychology,13,4449.
Parkhurst,J.T.,&Asher,S.R.(1992).Peerrejectioninmiddleschool:Subgroupdifferencesinbehavior,
loneliness,andinterpersonalconcerns.DevelopmentalPsychology,28(2),231241.
Ratiner,C.,Weissberg,R.,&Caplan,M.(1986,August).Ethicalconsiderationsinsociometrictesting:The
reactionsofpreadolescentsubjects.Paperpresentedatthe94thannualmeetingoftheAmerican
PsychologicalAssociation,Washington,DC.
SchonertReichl,K.A.(1999).Relationsofpeeracceptance,friendship,adjustment,andsocialbehaviorto
moralreasoningduringearlyadolescence.JournalofEarlyAdolescence,19(2),249279.
Wentzel,K.R.,&Erdley,C.A.(1993).Strategiesformakingfriends:Relationstosocialbehaviorandpeer
acceptanceinearlyadolescence.DevelopmentalPsychology,29(5),819826.

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Measure

AssessmentofChildren'sEmotionSkills(ACES)

Constructs

SocialAwareness

Agerange

Elementary

Ratingtype

Performancebased

Descriptionofmeasure
Assesseschildren'semotionattributionaccuracyandemotionbiasesin
asrelatedtoconstructof threesectionsthatcoversocialbehaviours,socialsituations,andfacialexpressions.
interest
ACESincludessectionsconcerningsocialbehaviors,socialsituations,andfacial
expressions.
Administration

ACESconsistsofthreesubscales:FacialExpressions,SocialSituations,andSocial
Behaviors.TheFacialExpressionssubscaleassessestheabilitytounderstand
emotionsconveyedthroughotherchildren'sfacialexpressions.
Thesocialbehaviorsandsocialsituationssectionseachcontain15onetothree
sentenceitems.Inresponsetoeachitem,childrenlabeltheprotagonistsfeeling
bychoosinghappy,sad,mad,scared,ornofeeling.Itemsdescribebehaviorsor
situationsassociatedwithemotionarousal.Forexample,theemotionbehavior
itemsrelatedtosadnessreflectlethargicandwithdrawnsomaticresponses,and.,
theemotionsituationitemsrelatedtoangerdescribeeventsinwhichapersonis
blockedfromadesiredgoal.Anadditionalthreevignettesineachsubscaleare
ambiguous,describingbehaviorsorsituationsthatdonotdepictprototypic
emotionbehaviorsorsituations.
Toelicitchildrensattributionbiases,eachsectionalsoincludesthreeadditional
itemsthatdescribesocialbehaviorsorsocialsituationsnotassociatedexclusively
withonediscreteemotion.
Thefacialexpressionssectionincludes26photographsofelementaryaged
childrenposingfacialexpressions.Fourphotographseachcontainhappy,sad,
mad,andafraidfaces.Forthepurposesofelicitingchildrensbiases,anadditional
10photographsareincludedthatcontainamixtureofemotionsignalsanddidnot
receiveconsensusasdepictingaparticularemotionduringpilottesting.
ForallsectionsofACES,itemsarerandomizedwithinblockscontaininghappy,sad,
angry,afraid,andambiguousitems.

Scoring

Theemotionattributionaccuracyscorereflectedhowmanyitemsachild
answeredcorrectlyonthe40itemsforjoy,sadness,anger,andfearacrossthe
threesections~M=29.7,SD54.2).ACESthreesectionsalsojointlyproduce
emotionattributionbiasscores.
Theemotionknowledgescorewascalculatedbydeterminingthenumberof

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correctresponsestohappiness,sadness,anger,andfearitemswithineach
subscale.Then,therawsubscalescoreswerestandardizedbasedonthepresent
samplesothateachsubscalestandardscorehadameanof0andastandard
deviationof1.Finally,eachchild'ssubscalestandardscoreswereaddedtoattain
thetotalemotionknowledgescore.
Reliability

Internalconsistencyisadequateacrossstudies(e.g.,Mavrovelietal.,2009;Schultz
etal.,2004).Inthecurrentstudy,thisscalehadmoderateinternalreliability(a=
.71).Theseitemscoheredmoderatelywell(Cronbachsalpha=.68).

Validity

Mavroelietal.(2009)found thattheACEScorrelatedwellwithtraitemotional
intelligence.

Strengths

Tapsemotionknowledgeintheoreticalcontextofdiscreteemotionstheory,foran
agerangethatneedsagoodmeasurementtool.Psychometricsappearadequate,
andadditionofassessmentofemotionsattributionbiasesisarealplus.

Weaknesses

Notusedasyetinmuchpublishedresearch.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain,asfarasweknow

Mavroveli,S.,Petrides,K.V.,Sangareau,Y.,&Furnham,A.(2009).Exploringtherelationshipsbetweentrait
emotionalintelligenceandobjectivesocioemotionaloutcomesinchildhood.BritishJournalofEducational
Psychology,79,25272.
Schultz,D.,Izard,C.E.,&Bear,G.(2004).Childrensemotionprocessing:Relationstoemotionalityand
aggression.DevelopmentandPsychopathology,16,371387.

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Measure

BehavioralandEmotionalRatingScaleSecondEdition:(BERS),ParentRatingScale
(PRS),YouthRatingScale(YRS)

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SocialAwareness,SelfManagement,RelationshipManagement

Agerange

Elementaryandmiddleschool.(PreKthrough12th gradeforteacherandparent
ratingforms.Students11yearsoldandup(5thgradeandolder)cantaketheself
reportscale

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Self

Descriptionofmeasure
asrelatedtoconstruct
ofinterest

Standardscoresarecalculatedforanoverallstrengthindexandfivesubscales
derivedfromfactoranalysis:(1)interpersonalstrength,whichmeasuresabilityto
controlemotionsandbehaviorinsocialsituations;(2)familyinvolvement,which
measuresparticipationandrelationswiththefamily;(3)intrapersonalstrength,
whichassessesthechildsperceptionofcompetenceandaccomplishment;(4)
schoolfunctioning,whichaddressescompetenceinschoolandclassroomtasks;and
(5)affectivestrength,whichfocusesontheabilitytogiveandreceiveaffect.
Usedasanevaluationmeasure,forplanninginterventionsandservices,andasan
outcomemeasure.

Administration

Rapidassessmentinstrument(RAI)whichis atoolthatcanbecompletedasaself
reportorbyothers(e.g.,classroomteachers,psychologists,socialworkers,
parents).
Typically,theytakelessthan15minutestofinish,arewritteninclearconcise
language,anddonotrequirespecialtrainingtoadministerorscoreRAIsaretime
efficient,nonintrusive,andusefulasplanningandoutcomemeasures.
Ratershouldhavehadregular,dailycontactwiththechildforatleastafewmonths
beforerespondingtotheratingscale.Ratershouldunderstandthetheoretical
basisfortheassessment,beconversantwiththeconstructionofthescale,be
proficientinadministeringtheBERS,haveworkingknowledgeofinterpretingthe
results.

Scoring

52itemsonteacherscale;57itemsonstudentandparentscale.8openended
questionsoneachversionthataskaboutchildacademic,social,athletic,family,and
communitystrengths.5subscalesthatcorrespondtoeachofthe5constructslisted
below.Allitemsareratedonascaleof0to3(0=notatalllikethechild;1=not
muchlikethechild;2=likethechild;3=verymuchlikethechild).Ratersratehow
oftenengagedineachbehavioroverthepastfourweeks.
Assessesbehavioralandemotionalstrengthsofchildren.Definedasthe
measurementofemotionalandbehavioralskillsthatcreateasenseofpersonal
accomplishment,contributetosatisfyingrelationshipswithfamilies,peers,and
adults,enhanceonesabilitytodealwithadversityandstress,promoteones
personal,social,andacademicdevelopment.

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Constructsassessed(notethatnodefinitionweregivenfortheseconstructs):
InterpersonalStrength
FamilyInvolvement
IntrapersonalStrength
SchoolFunctioning
AffectiveStrength
CareerStrength

Reliability

Scoresonallitemsareaddedbyhandtocreateanoverallrawscore.Therating
scalesheetallowsforhandscoringoftheitems.

TheBERS2Strengthindexconvertsrawsubscalescoresintoastandardscorewith
ameanof100andastandarddeviationof15.Normativetablesareprovidedto
convertthesubscalerawscorestopercentileranksandscaledscores.
Hightestretestreliability(atorabove.80)overaoneweekperiod.
Thescalesreliabilityhasbeendeterminedintheareasofinterraterreliability(that
is,theconsistencywithwhichdifferentindividualsratethesamebehavior)
Teacherteacherinterraterreliabilitywas.83.
Parentandteacherinterraterreliabilitywas.54.

Reliabilityfindingsenhancetheconfidencewithwhichpractitionerscanusethe
measureforscreeningdecisionsinwhichthedataisreportedforindividual
students.
Alphacoefficientsforscalesrangedfrom.80to.95.

Validity

ConvergentvaliditywasassessedasparentscompletedthePRSandasecond
measureofperceivedchildfunctioning.Inthesecondstudy,thesixBERS2PRS
subscalesandoverallstrengthindexwerecorrelatedwithcompositescoresfrom
theparentformsoftheSocialSkillsRatingSystem.Correlationsweregenerally
highlypositive.PRSwasalsocorrelatedwithproblemscalesofAchenbachsChild
BehaviorChecklist.
TheBERSconsistentlydemonstratedmoderatetohighcorrelationswith
competenceorientedscalesandmoderatetohighnegativecorrelationswith
deficitorientedscalesacrossdifferentageranges(Epstein,Nordness,Nelson,&
Hertzog,2002).
Todeterminecontentvalidity,asignificantitemdevelopment,selection,and
validationprocesswasfollowed(seeEpstein&Sharma,1998,foramoredetailed
description).Parentsandprofessionalsdevelopedalistofobjectivestatementsthat
weretestedandfoundabletodiscriminatebetweenchildrenwithdevelopmentally
appropriateemotionalandbehavioralstrengths(thatis,childrenwithoutemotional

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andbehavioraldisorders[EBD])andthosewithlesswelldevelopedemotionaland
behavioralstrengths(thatis,childrenwithEBD).
Intermsofdiscriminantvalidity,theBERSadequatelydiscriminatesbetween
studentswithemotionalandbehavioraldisordersandlearningdisabilitiesand
thosewithoutsuchdisabilities.

Strengths

TeacherversionofBERShasexpectedcorrelationswiththeWalker
McConnellScaleofSocialCompetenceandschooladjustmentandother
similarscales.
ParentversionoftheBERShasexpectedcorrelationswiththeSocialSkills
RatingSystemandtheChildBehaviorChecklist.
StudentversionoftheBERShasexpectedcorrelationswiththeSocialSkills
RatingSystem.
TheBERS2PRSappearstobeapsychometricallysound,strengthbasedrapid
assessmentinstrument.
Thetechnicaladequacyhasbeendeterminedwithrespecttotheinstruments
reliabilityandvalidity.
Focusesonstudentsstrengths

Weaknesses

Publisher/Price

Doesnotalignwiththe5SELCoreCompetencies.Items/constructalignmentnot
100%convincing.
Factoranalyseshaveloweigenvaluesforfactors2through5,andconfirmatory
factoranalysiswerenotconductedfortheteacherratingscale.
Noprovisionsforhowtocoordinateresultsfromparent,teacher,andstudent
scales.
Doesnothaveexamplesofhowtouseassessmentresultsforanindividualstudent
assessment.
Cost:BERS2pricesinclude$198.00foranintroductorykit,$70.00foranexaminers
manual,$36.00forteacherratingscales,$36.00forparentratingscales,$36.00for
youthratingscales,and$36.000forsummaryforms.
http://www3.parinc.com/products/product.aspx?Productid=BERS2#

Epstein,M.H.,&Cullinan,D.(1998).Scaleforassessingemotionaldisturbance.Austin:PROED.
Epstein,M.H.,Nordness,P.D.,Nelson,J.R.,&Hertzog,M.(2002).Convergentvalidityofthebehavioraland
emotionratingscalewithprimarygradelevelstudents.TopicsinEarlyChildhoodSpecialEducation,22,114
121.
Epstein,M.H.,&Sharma,H.M.(1998).BehavioralandEmotionalRatingScale:Astrengthbasedapproachto
assessment.Austin,TX:PROED.
Gresham,F.M.,&Elliott,S.N.(1990).TheSocialSkillsRatingSystem.CirclePines,MN:AmericanGuidance
Service.
Mooney,P.,Epstein,M.H.,Ryser,G.,&Pierce,C.D.(2005).Reliabilityandvalidityofthebehavioraland
emotionalratingscalesecondedition:Parentratingscale.Children&Schools,27,147155.

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Measure

BryantEmpathyScaleforChildren

Constructs

SocialAwareness,RelationshipSkills

Agerange

1stgradethroughendofjuniorhigh

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Thismeasureofchildren'sdispositionalsympathetictendenciescontains16items
(e.g.,"Ifeelsorryforpeoplewhodon'thavethethingsIhave""Itmakesmesadto
seeakidwithnoonetoplaywith").Othersampleitemsinclude:"Peoplewhokiss
andhuginpublicaresilly,""Seeingaboywhoiscryingmakesmefeellikecrying,"
and"IgetupsetwhenIseeananimalbeinghurt."

Administration

Selfreportquestionnaire,takesabout5 10minutes.Designedforusewith
childreningrades17,thisinstrumentcanbeadministeredusingoneofthree
formats:(a)firstgraders(56yearolds)placecards(oneempathyitempercard)ina
"me"or"notme"box;(b)olderchildren(89yearolds)circle"yes"or"no"in
responsetoeachitem;and(c)seventhgradersuseeithertheyes/noformator
MehrabianandEpstein's9pointscalerangingfrom"verystrongdisagreement"to
"verystrongagreement."

Scoring

Responsesarescoredsothathigherscoresreflectgreaterempathy;sumacross
items,withitalicizeditemnumbersweightednegatively
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22

Reliability

Internalconsistencyisadequate.

Validity

Asforconcurrentvalidity,sympathyhasbeenassociatedwithhighlevelsof
regulation,teacherreportedpositiveemotionalityandgeneralemotionalintensity,
andespeciallyforboys,highsocialfunctioningandlowlevelsofnegative
emotionality(Eisenbergetal.,1996).

Strengths

Centralityofthistraittosocialfunctioning

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Bryant,B.K.(1982).Anindexofempathyforchildrenandadolescents.ChildDevelopment,53,413425.

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Measure

Child/Teacher/ParentRatingScale

Constructs

SelfManagement,RelationshipSkills,LackofDisruptiveBehaviorsandInternalizing
Symptoms

Agerange

ElementaryandIntermediateSchool

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Peer,Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Assessesproblembehaviors(actingout,shy/anxiousbehavior,learningproblems),and
socialcompetencies(frustrationtolerance,peersocialskills,assertivesocialskills,task
orientation)intheschoolcontext.

Administration

38itemsforadultversions,24forchildren;takeslessthan20minutestocomplete
(Hightoweretal.,1986,1987).

Scoring

Sumitemsforeachscale.Child,peer,teacher,andparentformsareavailable.
Forparentform:
ActingOutScale=items1,4,7,10,13,16
ShyAnxious=items2,5,8,11,14,17
LearningProblems=items3,6,9,12,15,18
FrustrationTolerance=items19,23,27,31,35
AssertiveSocialSkills=items20,24,28,32,36
TaskOrientation=items21,25,29,33,37
PeerSocialSkills=items22,26,30,34,38
Forchild/peerform:
ActingOutScale=items1,5,9R,13,17R,21
SocialAnxietyScale=items2,6,10,14,18,22
PeerSocialScale=items3,7R,11R,15,19R,23
SchoolInterestScale=items4,8R,12,16,20R,24R
Forbothforms,scores3=YES1=NO
R=recodethereverse1=32=23=1

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Reliability
Validity

Thismeasurehasexcellentinternalandtestretestreliability,aswellasdemonstrated
validity,includingdiscriminationofreferredfromnonreferredchildren,and
convergent/divergentvalidity.

Anymodifications

No,unlesssomesubscalesarenotneeded,suchasproblembehaviorsandtask
orientation.

Strengths

Excellenttheoreticalbasis,goodpsychometrics,quicklycompleted.

Weaknesses

MayberedundantwithSSRS/SSIS

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow; however,PrimaryMentalHealthProject,Inc.
requeststhatoneobtainpermissionforuse;seehttp://www.childrensinstitute.net/
obtainedfromhttp://vinst.umdnj.edu/VAID/TestReport.asp?Code=CRS

Hightower,A.D.(1986).Theteacherchildratingscale:Abriefobjectivemeasureofelementarychildrens
schoolproblembehaviorsandcompetencies.SchoolPsychologyReview,15,393409.
Hightower,A.D.,Cowen,E.L.,Spinell,A.P.,&Lotyczewski,B.S.(1987).TheChildRatingScale:The
developmentofasocioemotionalselfratingscaleforelementaryschoolchildren.SchoolPsychologyReview,
16,239255.

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Measure

ChildrensEmotionManagementScales:AngerandSadness

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement

Agerange

ElementarySchool

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Measures:Emotionregulation
The12itemChildrensSadnessManagementScale(CSMS)wasdevelopedtoassess
childrensinhibition,dysregulatedexpression,andcopingwithsadnessexperience
andexpression.(Zemanet.al,2001).
Subscalesinclude:
Coping(e.g.,Istaycalmanddontletsadthingsgettome)
Inhibition:(e.g.,Iholdmysadnessin)
DysregulatedExpression:(e.g.,Iwhine/fussaboutwhatsmakingmesad)

Administration

Selfreport,paperandpencil

Scoring

Childrenrespondtoitemsona3pointscale(1 hardlyever,2sometimes,3
often).

Reliability

Athreefactorsolutionwassupportedwithstronginternalconsistencyforthe
InhibitionscaleandmoderatelystronginternalconsistencyfortheEmotion
RegulationCopingandDysregulatedExpressionscales.(Zemanet.al,2001).

Validity

Validitywasdemonstratedforeachofthethreescalesbyprovidingindicesof
convergentanddiscriminantvaliditywithmeasuresofemotion,psychopathology,
andsocialfunctioningaswellasexaminationofgenderdifferences.(Zemanet.al,
2001).

Strengths

FindingsindicatethattheCSMSprovidesareliableandvalidmeasureofnormative
sadnessmanagement.(Zemanet.al,2001).
TheCSMSwilladdtotheliteraturebyenablingbothresearchersandcliniciansto
assessefficientlychildrensselfreportedmanagementofnormativesadness
experienceandexpression.(Zemanet.al,2001).

Weaknesses

AlthoughtheCSMSrepresentsanimportantfirststepindevelopingamore
comprehensiveprotocolofemotionalcompetencemeasures,ithasseveral
limitations.First,thedatawerecollectedfromacommunitysamplethatlikely
resultedinarestrictedrangeofemotionalfunctioningandsymptomsofemotional
disturbance.Second,therangeofagesusedwassomewhatlimited,although
researchindicatesthatthismeasurecanbeusedsuccessfullywithchildrenfromages
6to14years(e.g.,Shipmanetal.,2000).Third,oneofthepracticalstrengthsofthis

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instrumentisthebrevitythatwasobtained,however,attheexpenseofmorerobust
reliabilityindices.Fourth,thescopeofthisinstrumentissomewhatnarrowandisnot
intendedasaglobalmeasureofemotionalcompetence.Futureresearchshould
buildandexpandupontheconceptsusedinthismeasurewhendevelopingamore
comprehensivebatteryofinstrumentstoassessemotionalcompetence.(Zemanet.
al,2001).

Penza,S.,Zeman,J.,&Shipman,K.(1998,March).Validationoftheemotiondysregulationscaleforchildren
(EDS).PosterpresentedattheConferenceonHumanDevelopment,Mobile,AL.
Shipman,K.,Zeman,J.,Penza,S.,&Champion,K.(2000).Emotionmanagementskillsinsexuallymaltreated
andnonmaltreatedgirls:Adevelopmentalpsychopathologyperspective.DevelopmentandPsychopathology
12,4762.
Zeman,J.,&Shipman,K.(1996).Children'sexpressionofnegativeaffect:Reasonsandmethods.
DevelopmentalPsychology,32,842849.
Zeman,J.,Shipman,K.,PenzaClyve,S.(2001).Developmentandinitialvalidationofthechildrenssadness
managementscale.JournalofNonverbalBehavior,25,187205.

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Measure

DevereuxStudentStrengthsAssessment(DESSA)

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement,SocialAwareness,RelationshipSkills,
Responsibledecisionmaking

Agerange

Kindergarten 8th Grade

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionofmeasureas
relatedtoconstructof

interest

Administration

Usedby:schoolpersonnel,socialservicestaff,mentalhealth
professionals.
Versions:Teacherandparentversionsofobservationalratingscaleofthe
student.nostudentselfreport
PurposeoftheAssessment:
o providemeasureofsocialemotionalcompetence
o Identifychildrenatriskofdevelopingsocialandemotional
problems
o Identifyingtheuniquestrengthsofchildrenwhohavesocialand
emotionalconcerns
o Providemeaningfulinformationonchildstrengthsforindividual
serviceplans;facilitateparentprofessionalcollaboration
o Informselectionofinterventionsneedinguniversal,targeted,or
indicatedsupport;Evaluateimpactofprogramsonoutcomesat
childandclassroom/programlevels
o Facilitateprogressmonitoringofchildren,evaluatingchangeover
time
o Serveasaresearchtooltoadvancescienceandsupportpolicy
development
ScaleContents:
o 72items,5ptscaleItemsareratedona5pointscalevaryingfrom
nevertoveryfrequently.
o Ratershowoftenengagedineachbehavioroverthepastfour
weeks.
o SocialandEmotionalCompetenciesabilityofchildrentointeract
withotherchildrenandadultsinawaythatdemonstratesan
awarenessof,abilitytomanageemotions,inanageandcontext
appropriatemanner
o ItemsweregroupedbasedonCASEL5SELcorecompetenciesand
additionaldeliberationamongdevelopers.
o Constructsassessed
Selfawareness(7items),achildsrealisticunderstanding
ofher/hisstrengthsandlimitationsandconsistentdesire
forselfimprovement
Socialawareness(9items),achildscapacitytointeract
withothersinawaythatshowsrespectfortheirideasand
behaviors,recognizesher/hisimpactonthem,anduses
cooperationandtoleranceinsocialsituations

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Selfmanagement(11items),achildssuccessincontrolling
hisorheremotionsandbehaviors,tocompleteataskor
succeedinaneworchallengingsituation
Goaldirectedbehavior(10items)achildsinitiationofand
persistenceincompletingtasksofvaryingdifficulty
Relationshipsskills(9items)achildsconsistent
performanceofsociallyacceptableactionsthatpromote
andmaintainpositiveconnectionswithothers
Personalresponsibility(10items)achildstendencytobe
carefulandreliableinher/hisactionsandincontributionto
groupefforts
Decisionmaking(8items)achildsapproachtoproblem
solvingthatinvolveslearningfromothersandfromher/his
ownperviousexperiences,usingvaluestoguideaction,
andacceptingresponsibilityfordecisions.
Optimisticthinking(7items:achildsattitudeof
confidence,hopefulness,andpositivethinkingregarding
herself/himselfandher/hislifesituationsinthepast,
presentandfuture.
Ratingprocedure:
o Ratersneedtobequalifiedhavesufficientexposuretochildfor
fourweeks,2ormorehoursofthreedaysperweekforfourweek
period.
o Parents,teachersorschoolstaffwhoareinregularcontactwith
student.
o Eachchildisratedoneatatimebyteachers,parents.

Scoring

Reliability

Alphacoefficientsforscalesrangedfrom.82to.98.
Testretestreliability.79.94forparentandteacherrating.

Meanscoresbetweenregulareducationandstudentsclassifiedasseriously
emotionallydisturbedweredifferent.
ScoresontheDESSAcorrelatedwithscoresontheBehavioralandEmotional
RatingScale(BERS)andtheBehavioralAssessmentSystemforChildren(BASC2).
(Nickerson&Fishman,2009).

Validity

Scoringprocedure:
o Eightscalescoresandacompositescore.
o Scoringprocedureshandscored,andpapersurveyhas
procedureforcalculatingthestandardizedscore
InterpretationoftheDESSAattheindividuallevel:reviewthetotalscalescore,
examinetheindividualscalescores,andexaminetheprofileofscalescores.Use
thetscorestodetermineaboveorbelowexpectedscoreforthatscale.

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Strengths

Itutilizesonlystrengthbaseditems,whereasmostratingscaleshavea
largerfocusonclinicallyorienteditems.
TheDESSAalsolendsitselftobeusedwiththegeneralpopulationinTier
1(i.e.,universalscreening)topromotethesocialemotionalwellbeingof
allyouthaswellasformoretargetedandintensiveinterventions.
AnotheradvantagetheDESSAhasoverboththeBASC2andtheBERS2
isthatitisshorterandsimplerbecausethesameformcanbeusedwith
bothparentsandteachers.Thisalsoenablesparentandteacherratingsto
bedirectlycomparedonthesamesetofbehaviors.

Weaknesses

Publisher/Price

PARpricesinclude$217.00forafullkit,and40recordformsfor$44.00.Kaplan
pricesinclude$199.95forafullkit,and40recordformsfor$40.00

Lebuffe,P.,Shapiro,V.,B.,&Naglieri,J.(2008).DevereuxStudentStrengthsAssessment(DESSA).Lewisville,
NC:KaplanEarlyLearningCo.
Nickerson,A.B.,&Fishman,C.(2009)ConvergentanddivergentvalidityoftheDevereuxStudentStrengths
Assessment.SchoolPsychologyQuarterly,24,4859.

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Measure

EmotionExpressionScaleforChildren(EESC)

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement

Agerange

Elementarytomiddleschool/adolescence

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Measures:Emotionawareness
Construct:Emotionawareness.Assesseschildrensawarenessoftheirownemotions
andtheirabilitytoexpressnegativeemotions.
Selfreportscaledesignedtoexamine2aspectsofdeficientemotionexpression:lack
ofemotionawarenessandlackofmotivationtoexpressnegativeemotion(Penza
Clyve&Zeman2002):
PoorAwarenessScale(e.g.,IhavefeelingsthatIcantfigureout)
ExpressiveReluctance(e.g.,Iprefertokeepmyfeelingstomyself)
Initiallyadaptedfromthe30itemTorontoAlexithymiaScaleforAdults,ameasureof
impoverishedabilitytoexpressemotion.Itemswereadaptedforchildrenbygroup
consensusofclinicalchildgraduatestudentsandpsychologists.

Administration

Selfreport,pencilandpaper

Scoring

Childrenrespondtoitemsusinga5pointLikertscalewithscoresof1(notatall
true),2(alittletrue),4(somewhattrue),and5(extremelytrue)toindicatehowwell
eachitemdescribestheirexperiencewiththeseexpressivedifficulties.Higherscores
indicatepooreremotionawarenessandgreaterreluctancetoexpressemotion
(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).

Reliability

Usedacommunitysampleof2084thand5thgradechildrenhighinternal
consistencyandmoderatetestretestreliabilityoftheEESC(PenzaClyve&Zeman
2002).
Therewerenosignificantsexdifferencesonthemeanscalescoresorthetotalscore
(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).

Validity

TheEESCemotionawarenessscalewaspositivelyrelatedtotheinhibitionand
dysregulatedexpressionofsadnessandanger,andnegativelyrelatedtoconstructive
copingwithsadnessandanger(i.e.,themorechildrenviewedthemselvesaslacking
emotionawareness,themoretheywerelikelytoreportinhibitingemotional
expressivity,expressingemotionsinnonconstructiveways,andcopingin
maladaptivewayswhenexperiencingsadnessandanger;PenzaClyve&Zeman
2002).

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TheexpressivereluctancescalecorrelatedpositivelywiththeInhibitionofEmotion
scalesandDysregulatedExpressionscales,indicatingthatthelesswillingchildren
weretoexpressemotion,themoretheyreportedexpressingtheseemotionsin
exaggerated,dysregulatedways.Unliketheemotionawarenessscale,the
expressivereluctancescalewasnotcorrelatedwithsadnessandangerregulation
scales,butwas,however,positivelycorrelatedwithemotionregulationquestionsfor
anger,sadness,andpain(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).
NosignificantcorrelationswerefoundbetweeneitherEESCscalewithpeerreports
ofaggressionandwithdrawnbehavior.(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).
BothEESCscalescorrelatedpositivelywithinternalizingsymptommeasures,
includingtheCDI,theSTAIC,andtheCSI(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).
Strengths

ResultsprovideinitialsupportforconcurrentvalidityfortheEESCscalesevidenced
byrelationswithmeasuresofemotionmanagement(PenzaClyve&Zeman2002).
TheEESCisanimportantadditiontotheemotionandchildclinicalliteraturesasit
mayassistintheassessmentofchildrenwithemotionregulationskilldeficits,who
consequentlymaybeatriskfordevelopingsymptomsofpsychopathology.Thus,the
EESCrepresentsanimportantfirststepindevelopingamorecomprehensive
protocolofemotionregulationmeasures.Uponfurthervalidation,theEESCmaybe
clinicallyusefulwhenincorporatedintoapsychologicalassessmenttolendmore
specificinformationregardingemotionalfunctioningofschoolagechildren(Penza
Clyve&Zeman2002).

Weaknesses

Lackofassociationwithpeerratingsofaggressionandwithdrawnbehavior.

Price

Publicdomain

PenzaClyve,S.&Zeman,J.(2002).Initialvalidationoftheemotionexpressionscaleforchildren(EESC).
JournalofClinicalChildandAdolescentPsychology,31(4),540547.

Note.Formoreassessmentsonemotionalexpression,see:
Izard,C.E.,Libero,D.Z.,Putnam,P.,&Haynes,O.M.(1995).Stabilityofemotionexperiencesandtheir
relationstotraitsofpersonality.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,64,847860.
Kring,A.M.,Smith,D.A.,&Neale,J.M.(1994).Individualdifferencesindispositionalexpressiveness:
Developmentandvalidationoftheemotionalexpressivityscale.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,
66,934949.
Tangney,J.P.,Wagner,P.E.,Burggraf,S.A.,Gramzow,R.,&Fletcher,C.(1990).TheTestofSelfConscious
AffectforChildren(TOSCAC).Fairfax,VA:GeorgeMasonUniversity.

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Measure

Feelingsabout School(FAS)

Constructs

Selfawareness,AttachmenttoSchool andTeacher

Agerange

Childreninkindergartenandfirstgrade.Couldprobablybeusedwitholder
children

Ratingtype

Self

Inthismeasure,FASisusedtoassesschildrens:

Descriptionofmeasureas
relatedtoconstructof
interest

PerceptionsofTheirCompetenceinMathandLiteracyTheseitemsreflect
thewayachildfeelsabouttheirabilitieswithnumbers,letters,andreading
(i.e.,howgoodtheyarewith,howmuchtheyknowabout,andhowgood
theyareatlearningsomethingnew).
FeelingsAboutTheirTeachers Theseitemsreflecthowachildperceives
theirteachertofeelaboutthemandhowtheyfeelabouttheirteacher(i.e.,
doesntlikeatalltolikesalot).
GeneralAttitudesaboutSchool Theseitemsreflect(i.e.,howtheyfeel
aboutgoingtoschool,howfunthethingstheydoinschoolare,howthey
feelwhentheyareinschool.

Administration

Individualassessment

Scoring

Scoresforeachreactionstyleareaveragedacrossitems,asfollows:
15Likerttypescales

Reliability

Forkindergartners, valueswere.68formath,.61forliteracy,.52forattitudes
towardschool,.74forrelationshipwithteacher.
Forfirstgraders,valueswere.63formath,.74forliteracy,.59forattitudes
towardschool,.79forrelationshipwithteacher.

Validity

Fourfactorswereextracted:
Perceivedcompetenceinmath
Perceivedcompetenceinliteracy
Childrensfeelingsabouttheirrelationshipwiththeteacher
Childrensgeneralattitudestowardschool

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Strengths

DemonstratedreliabilityandvalidityoftheFASscalewithselfsystemstheory.

Weaknesses

Nonenoted;Perhapsmodifytosuitearlychildhood

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Valeski,T.&Stipek,D.(2001).Youngchildrensfeelingsaboutschool.ChildDevelopment,72,11981213.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page105


Measure

FriendshipQualityQuestionnaire

Constructs

Relationshipskills

Agerange

Middlechildhood

Ratingtype

Peer,Self

Descriptionofmeasureas
relatedtoconstructof
interest

Dyadicrelationships,aswellasoverallpeergroupacceptance,arecrucial
duringmiddlechildhood,continuingintoadolescence.Onthismeasure(FQQ),
childrenreporton6featuresoftheirfriendships:(a)
companionship/recreation;(b)help/guidance;(c)validation/caring;(d)intimate
exchange;(e)conflict/betrayal;and(f)conflictresolution.
Individualorgroup;takesabout20 25minutes
Sumratingsforeachsubscale,asfollows:
ValidationScale=items4,5,6,8,10,12,13,15,30,41
ConflictResolutionScale=items11,26,35
ConflictandBetrayalScale=items3,9,20,21,27,31,37
HelpandGuidanceScale=items17,18,24,28,32,33,34,36,39
CompanionshipandrecreationScale=items2,7,19,22,23
IntimateExchangeScale=items14,16,25,29,38,40
Note.ThesearefactorstructurefoundbyParker&Asher(1993)Asherand
Rose(1999a)raisethepossibilityofusingonlytwoscales,positiveand
negative.
Mean=.83,withsupportforthesixsubscalesandgoodtestretestreliability.

Administration
Scoring

Reliability
Validity

Anumberofindicatorsofvalidityhavebeenidentifiede.g.,partners
perceptionsoffriendshiparerelated,andacceptedchildrendescribe
friendshipsmorepositively.

AnymodificationsforNCS?
Strengths
Weaknesses

No
Wellconstructed,goodpsychometrics,interestingforchildrenthemselves
Equivocalfactorstructurecouldbeseenasaweakness.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Parker,J.G.,&Asher,S.R.(1993).Friendshipandfriendshipqualityinmiddlechildhood:Linkswithpeer
groupacceptanceandfeelingsoflonelinessandsocialdissatisfaction.DevelopmentalPsychology,29,611621
Rose,AmandaJ.&Asher,StevenR.(1999).Children'sgoalsandstrategiesinresponsetoconflictswithina
friendship.DevelopmentalPsychology.35,6979.

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Measure

HowIFeelScale

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement

Agerange

MiddleChildhood

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
Measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

30itemselfreportmeasureofemotionfor8 to12yearoldchildrentheHowIFeel
(HIF).Itemgenerationandselectionoccurredvia2pilotadministrations(ns=250and
378,respectively).
TheHIFcanbeusefulinunderstandingtheinterplaybetweenarousalandcontrolin
socialemotionaladjustmentinschoolagechildren.
Threescalesareincluded:
PositiveEmotions(e.g.,Ifeelhappyveryoften)
NegativeEmotion(e.g.,WhenIfeltsad,mysadfeelingsareverystrong)
EmotionControl(e.g.,:IwasincontrolofhowoftenIfeltmad)

Administration

Selfreportquestionnaire,takesabout15 20minutes.

Scoring

Sumlikertratingsforscales.

Reliability

Resultsshowedmoderatelongitudinalstabilityfor120childrenover2years.

Validity

Tenexpertsprovideddataoncontentvalidity.Exploratoryfactoranalysisand
subsequentconfirmatoryfactoranalysiswithsamplesof406,524,349,and3493rd
through6thgradechildrensupporteda3factormodel,includingthefrequencyand
intensityof(a)positiveemotion,(b)negativeemotion,and(c)positiveandnegative
emotioncontrol.Concurrentvaliditywasestablished.

Strengths

Excellentpsychometricstudy

Weaknesses

Nonenoted

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Walden,T.A.Harris,V.S.,Catron,T.F.(2003).HowIFeel:Aselfreportmeasureofemotionalarousaland
regulationforchildren.PsychologicalAssessment.15,399412.

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Measure

KatzGottmanRegulationScale

Constructs

SelfManagement

Agerange

MiddleChildhood

Ratingtype

Parent

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Parentscompletethis45itemquestionnaire,whichasksthemtoreportthedegreeto
whichthechildrequiresexternalregulationofemotionsandbehaviorbyadults.
QuestionsrefertoUpRegulation(e.g.,Encouragehim/hertobeadventurous)and
DownRegulation(e.g.,Bestill,Helphim/hercalmdownafterascarymovie).

Administration

Questionnaire;takesapproximately20minutes

Scoring

SumLikertratingsforsubscales,asfollows:
UpRegulation=17,25,26,30,32,35,36,37,38,39,41,44,45
DownRegulation=1,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,14,15,18,19,29,21,22,23,24,27,28,29,
31,34,40,42
TotalRegulation=allscores

Reliability
Validity

Katzreportsthatpsychometricsareadequatetogood;inGottmanandKatz(2002),
alphaforthescalewas.74.Intermsofvalidity,regulationscoresatage8were
predictedbypreschoolagedphysiologicalindices,andmediatedbychildrens
concurrentabilitytomaintaincalmduringastressfulparentchildinteraction.

Strengths

Theoreticallysound,examinesupregulationasisneededinreallyunderstanding
emotionregulationandishardlyeverdone.

Weaknesses

Relativelylittlepsychometricdataasyet

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Gottman,J.M.,&Katz,L.F.(2002).Childrensemotionalreactionstostressfulparentchildinteractions:The
linkbetweenemotionregulationandvagaltone.Marriage&FamilyReview,34,265283.

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Measure

KuschAffectInterview Revised

Constructs

SelfandSocialAwareness

Agerange

ElementarySchool

Ratingtype

Other

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

Thismeasureassessesnotonlythedepthofearlierattainedemotionunderstanding,
butalsoextendsthisunderstandingtomorecomplicatedemotions(e.g.,pride,guilt,
jealousy,andanxiety),andtapsnewaspectsofemotionunderstanding,suchas
emotionalexperience,cuesforemotion,ambivalentfeelings,displayrules,temporal
aspectsofemotions,andtheuniversality/normativenatureofemotion.

Administration

Individuallyadministeredinterview;takesaboutamaximumof30minutesto1hour
fortheentireinterview,audiotaped,fortheoldestchildren.

Scoring

Seeattachedscoringsheet.

Reliability

Cooketal.(1994)andGreenbergetal.(1995)havereportedexcellentreliabilityand
validity;e.g.,resultsfromtheKAIarepredictiveofinterventionsuccess,andof
behavioralproblemsoverandaboveintellectualability.Testretestandinternal
consistencyreliabilitiesareadequatetogood(Greenberg,personalcommunication).

Validity

Cooketal.(1994)andGreenbergetal.(1995)havereportedexcellentvalidity;e.g.,
resultsfromtheKAIarepredictiveofinterventionsuccess,andofbehavioralproblems
overandaboveintellectualability.

Anymodifications

Selectedsubtestscouldbeusedifdeterminedmostimportant.

Strengths

Excellentcoverage

Weaknesses

Needstobecoded,whichmeanssometrainingisneeded,andtranscripts/tapesmust
beused.

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow;checkwithMarkGreenbergatPennState.

Cook,E.T.,Greenberg,M.T.,&Kusch,C.A.(1994).Therelationsbetweenemotionalunderstanding,
intellectualfunctioning,anddisruptivebehaviorproblemsinelementaryschoolagedchildren.Journalof
AbnormalChildPsychology,22,205219.
Greenberg,M.T.,Kusch,C.A.,Cook,E.T.,&Quamma,J.P.(1995).Promotingemotionalcompetencein
schoolagedchildren:TheeffectsofthePATHScurriculum.Development&Psychopathology,7,117136.

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Note.TheKuschEmotionalInventory(KEI;.Kusch,1984)canbeusedtomeasurechildrensemotional
knowledgewithoutcodingissues.Itassesseschildrensabilitytorecognizeemotionlanguage,concepts,and
visualcues.Ingrouporoneononeinterviews,theassessordisplaysapagecontainingfourdrawingsof
childrenexperiencingdifferentemotionsasindicatedbyfacialexpression,bodyposture,andsituation.The
assessorthenaskswhichpictureshowsachildwhofeelsaparticularemotion(i.e.,love,fear,etc).The
assessorrepeatsthisprocess30timesforavarietyofemotions.Childrenreceiveonepointforcorrect
identificationofanemotionandonepointforcorrectidentificationofitsvalence.ChildrensKEIscoresare
representedbythepercentageofcorrectresponses.TheKEItakesapproximately20minutestocomplete,
andhasbeenusedinavarietyofstudiesinvolvingpreschoolandkindergartenchildren(Cortes,2002;Kusch,
1984).ReliabilityoftheKEIwasgood(testretest.82.85)andcontentaswellasconcurrentvaliditywithother
measureswassufficient(.36to.49).
Kusch,C.A.(1984).Theunderstandingofemotionalconceptsbydeafchildren:Anassessmentofanaffective
curriculum.Unpublisheddissertation,UniversityofWashington.

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Measure

MeasureofProsocialandAggressiveBehavior

Constructs

RelationshipSkills,Responsibledecisionmaking,(Risky,Disruptive/Externalizing
Behaviors)

Agerange

Elementaryschool

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent,Peer,Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Physicalandverbalaggressionisa20itemscale(e.g.,1threatenothers,Igetinto
fights)withfivecontrolitems.Targetitemsofferadescriptionofachildsbehavior
aimedathurtingothersphysicallyandverbally(Pastorelliet.al.1997).
Prosocialbehaviorwasassessedby10itemsintermsofhelpfulness,sharing,
kindness,andcooperativeness(e.g.,Itrytohelpothers)(Caprara&Pastorelli,
1993).

.Administration

Self,teacher,parent,andpeerreport
Teachersratechildrenforphysicalandverbalaggressionandprosocialbehavior
usingthescalesadministeredtothechildren,butshortenedtosixitemseachand
castinathirdpersonformat.Mothersalsoratedthefrequencywithwhichtheir
childrenexhibitedprosocialandaggressiveformsofbehavior,usingthesamesetof
scalesasadministeredtothechildren.(Banduraet.al.1996;Caprara&Pastorelli
1993).

Scoring

Answerformat:often,3;sometimes,2;never,1,summedforeachscale
Controlitemsthatdonotcontributetothetotalscore(Pastorelliet.al.1997)

Reliability

Forallreportersscores,exceptforanalphaof.61forpeerratingsofprosocial
behavior,thereliabilitycoefficientsforthefoursourcesofdata(self,parents,
teachers,peers)acrossthetwoeducationallevelsforaggressivenessand
prosocialnesswerevirtuallyallinthe.80sand.90s.(Banduraet.al.1996;Caprara&
Pastorelli1993).

Validity

Convergentanddiscriminantvalidityhavebeendemonstratedinamultinational
study.(Pastorelliet.al.1997).
Concurrentvalidityofthesemeasureshasbeencorroboratedinstudiesrelating
children'sratingsoftheirbehaviortolevelofprosocialnessandaggressivenessas
ratedbyparentsandteachersandbypeers'sociometricnominations(Banduraet.al.
1996),andbycorrelationswithmoraldisengagement.

Strengths

Excellentpsychometricproperties
Shortscales

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Page111

Appearstobeanexcellentwaytogetconverginginformationondistaloutcomes
Weaknesses

Nonenoted

Publisher/Price

Publicdomain

Bandura,A.,Barbaranelli,C.,Caprara,G.V.,&Pastorelli,C.(1996a).Mechanismsofmoraldisengagementin
theexerciseofmoralagency.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,71,364374.
Caprara,G.V.&Pastorelli,C.(1993).Earlyemotionalinstability,prosocialbehaviorandaggression:Some
methodologicalaspects.EuropeanJournalofPersonality,7,1936.
Pastorelli,C.,Barbaranelli,C.,Cermak,I.,Rozsa,S.,&Caprar,G.V.(1997).Measuringemotionalinstability,
prosocialbehaviorandaggressioninpreadolescents:Acrossnationalstudy.PersonalityandIndividual
Differences,23(4)),6911703.

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Page112

Measure

MultidimensionalSelfConceptScale(MSCS)

Constructs

SelfPerception

Agerange

9to19years(Wilson,1998,suggestscanbeextendeddownwardto3rdand4th
graders)

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelated
toconstructof
interest

TheMSCSisdesignedtomeasuremultiplecontextdependentdimensionsofself
concept.Selfconcepthereisviewedasamultidimensionalbehavioralconstruct
(Degulach,1992),andtheMSCSmeasuressixcontextualdomainsinsixscalesof25
itemseach:
Socialcompetencerelatedtointeractionswithothers
Success/failureinattainmentofgoals
Recognitionofaffectivebehaviors
Academicachievementandcompetenceinotherschoolrelatedactivities
Competencerelatedtointeractionswithfamilymembers
Physicalattractivenessandprowess

Administration

150items,4pointLikertscaleformat;typicaltimeforcompletionis30minutes.Canbe
administeredingroupsorindividually.

Scoring

SummedLikertscalesforeachcomponentasonanswersheet;manualreflectsage
norms.

Reliability

Internalconsistencyrangesfrom.97to.99forfullscaleand.85to.97forsubscales.

Validity

Evidenceofcontentandconstructvalidity(Bracken,1992;Degulach,1992).Concurrent
validitywithfourotherselfconceptmeasuresbetween.73and.83.
Predictive/concurrentvaliditywithsociometricgroupsalsofound(Jackson&Bracken,
1998).

Strengths

Rigorousandextensivepsychometrictesting.Usefulforbothclinicalandresearch
applications.Subscalessolidlylinkedtoawellestablishedtheoreticalframework.

Weaknesses

Nonenoted.

Publisher/Price

PublishedbyProEd,Inc.
CompleteKit$97.00.50extrascoringsheets$51.00

Bracken,B.(1992).MultidimensionalSelfConceptScale.Austin,TX:ProEd.
CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

Page113

Delugach,RR.(1992).Selfconcept:Multidimensionalconstructexploration.PsychologyintheSchools,29,
213223.
Jackson,L.D.Bracken,B.A.(1998).Relationshipbetweenstudents'socialstatusandglobaldomainspecific
selfconcepts.JournalofSchoolPsychology,36,233246.
Wilson,P.L(1998).MultidimensionalSelfConceptScale:Anexaminationofgrade,race,andgender
differencesinthirdthroughsixthgradestudents'selfconcepts.PsychologyintheSchools,35,317326.

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Measure

RelationshipQuestionnaire(RelQ)

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SocialAwareness,RelationshipSkills,Responsibledecision making

Agerange

InSchultz,Selman& LaRussos2003study,4th 12th graders;couldbeusedwith


somewhatyoungerchildren

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionof
measureasrelatedto
constructofinterest

Designedfortheevaluationofschoolbasedcharactereducationprograms
Multiplechoicemeasureofpsychosocialmaturityderivedfromdevelopmental
theorythatidentifiesthecapacitytodifferentiateandcoordinatethesocial
perspectivesofselfandothertobecentraltotreatingotherpeopleinrespectful
andethicalways.Itemsinthemeasureposedilemmascommonsocialsituations
withpeersoradults.
Usesamodelofrelationshipawarenessthatincludes3socialcognitiveconstructs
whichare:1)interpersonalunderstandingorsocialreasoning2)interpersonal
negotiationstrategiesorconflictresolutioninthoughtandactionand3)awareness
ofthepersonalmeaningofrelationships.
Relationshipframework,indescribinghowsocialcognitivecapacitiesunderlie
socialinteractionanddevelopment,addressesacommoncritiqueofcognitive
developmentalapproachestosociomoralresearch:thatthereislittlerelation
betweenthedevelopmentofsocialcognitionandrealworldaction.

Administration

Groupadministration

Scoring

24questionscomprising5scales:understandingofinterpersonalrelationships(6
questions),perspectivetaking(4questions),hypotheticalinterpersonalnegotiation
(4questions),reallifeinterpersonalnegotiation(4questions),andawarenessof
personalmeaning(6questions)
2RelQscalesrepresentinterpersonalunderstanding(understandingand
perspectivetaking,twoscalesrepresentinterpersonalskills(hypotheticalandreal
lifeinterpersonalnegotiation)andthefifthRelQscalerepresentsthethird
competency,(inter)personalmeaningawareness.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Thequestionsonthemeasureeachhavefourmultiplechoiceresponses,which
representpointsinthecontinuumonfourtheoreticallevelsinthecoordinationof
socialperspectives,rangingfromegocentric(Level0)tounilateral(Level1)to
reciprocal(Level2)tomutual(level3).
Forexample,inthehypotheticalnegotiationquestions,asituationinvolvinga
conflictbetweenaparticularprotagonistandanotherperson(eitheranadultor
peer)inpresented,followedbyfouractionstheprotagonistcouldtaketorespond
tothedisequilibrium.
SubjectsrateeachmultiplechoiceresponseonafourpointLikertscale(poor,
averageorOK,good,excellent),thenchoosethebestresponseofthefour
responses.
ThismethodyieldstwoRelQscoresfromeachitem(andforeachscale):a
responseratingscore,basedonstudentsseparateratingsofthefourmultiple
choiceresponses,andabestresponsescorebasedonwhichresponsethey
chooseasbest.
BestresponsescoresforeachofthefiveRelQsubscales(socialperspective
coordination,interpersonalunderstanding,hypotheticalandreallifenegotiation,
andpersonalmeaningawareness)arecomputedbyaveragingthebestresponse
scoresforeachquestioninthatdomain.
Similarly,theresponseratingsubscalescoresarecomputedbyaveragingthe
responseratingscoresforeachquestioninthatsubscale.
Theoverallbestresponseandresponseratingscoresarecomputedbyaveraging
thefivesubscalescores.Becauseboththebestresponseandresponserating
scoreshavesimilardevelopmentallevelmetrics,theycanbeaveragedintoa
compositescoreforeachsubscale,andthenintooneoverallpsychosocialmaturity
score.

Reliability

TherelativelylowinternalconsistencyreliabilitiesattheRelQsubscalelevelinthe
Schultz,Selman&LaRussostudy(2003)seemtospeakmoretothecontextual
natureoftheconstructsbeingmeasuredthantotheRelQsmeasurementofthe
constructs.
Thehighreliabilityoftheoverallscorereflectsthedeepstructureofsocial
perspectivecoordinationuponwhichthedevelopmentallevelsofeachofthe
psychosocialcompetencies(i.e.,thesubscales)arebased.

Validity

IntheSchultz,Selman&LaRussostudy(2003),themoderateeffectsizeofthe
correlationoflevelormoraljudgmentwithallfivepsychosocialcompetencyscales
suggeststhatthemeasuresshareadevelopmentalorientationbutassessseparate
constructs,supportingtheRelQsvalidity.

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Strengths

Thisevaluationmeasurecanassessmaturepsychosocialchoiceduetoeither
developmentorsocialization(includingschoolclimate)andcanhelpclarifythe
extenttowhichcharactereducationprogramsnotonlyteachsocialawarenessand
interpersonalskillsbutalsoengagestudentsinpersonallymeaningfulways.
Showssensitivitytogroupdifferencesbasedondifferentialsocialization,with
significantdifferencesinmeanpsychosocialmaturitybetweenschools.
TheRelQcanassesstransformational(formal)change,orqualitativechangein
form,pattern,ororganization,whereasothersocialskillinstrumentsmeasureonly
variation(functional)change,ortheextentthatwhatischangingvariesfroman
assumedstandardinaquantitativesense.
TheRelQsassessmentoftransformationalchangeinsocialmaturityprovidesa
uniquetoolforevaluatingprogramsthataimtopromotecharacterdevelopment
ratherthanbetterbehavior.
ThemultiplechoicemethodologyoftheRelQseemstobeavalidassessmentof
psychosocialmaturityinindividualsandgroups(ifsubjectsattendtothetask
carefully).

Weaknesses

Difficultconceptualizationandpotentiallydifficultscoring

Publisher/Price

Publicdomainasfarasweknow

Schultz,L.H.,Barr,D.J.,&Selman,R.L.(2001).Thevalueofadevelopmentalapproachtoevaluatingcharacter
developmentprogrammes:AnoutcomestudyofFacingHistoryandOurselves.JournalofMoralEducation,
30,327.
Schultz,L.H.&Selman,R.L.(2000)Themeaningandmeasurementofsocialcompetencefroma
developmentalperspective,WorkingPaper153(NewYork,RussellSageFoundation).
Schultz,L.H.&Selman,R.L.(2004).Thedevelopmentofpsychosocialmaturityinyoungchildren:AMeasure
forevaluatingcharactereducationprograms.JournalofResearchinCharacterEducation,2,1987.
Schultz,L.H.,Selman,R.L.,&LaRusso,M.D.(2003).Theassessmentofpsychosocialmaturityinchildrenand
adolescents:Implicationsfortheevaluationofschoolbasedcharactereducationprograms.Journalof
ResearchinCharacterEducation,1,6787.

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Measure

ResiliencyInventory

Constructs

SelfAwareness,SelfManagement,SocialAwareness,RelationshipSkills

Agerange

Adolescence,althoughithasbeenusedsuccessfullywithchildrenasyoungas4th
grade

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionofmeasure
asrelatedtoconstruct
ofinterest

AdaptedfromtheResilienceInventory(Noam&Goldstein,1998),a44item
measureofadolescenceresilience.(Song2003)
Tapsvariousdomainsofresilience:
TheOptimism(OP)subscaleconcernstherespondentspositiveperspective
ontheworldandthefuture.
TheSelfEfficacy(SE)subscaleconcernsconfidenceintherespondents
abilitytodealwithsituationsorthingseffectively.Onewhoscoreshighon
thissubscalecanthinkofasituationfromdifferentperspectivesand
evaluatealternativeactionstodealwithitmoreefficiently.

TheRelationshipswithAdults(RA)subscaleconcernssupportfromand
perceptionsofadults.Researchsuggeststhatevenonesupportivefigure
outsideofthefamilycanmakechildrenandadolescentsfeeltheyarespecial
andimportant,therebymakingthemmorecapableofhandlingstressors.

ThePeerRelationships(PR)subscalecentersontherespondents
relationshipwithfriends.Apersonwhoscoreshighonthisfactorislikelyto
bepopularamongfriendsandhavefunwiththem,thushavinganactive
sociallife.Qualityofpeerrelationshipsisreportedtoplayanimportantrole
incompetenceinchildhoodandadolescence.

TheInterpersonalSensitivity(IS)subscaleconcernstherespondents
initiativetohelpothersandimproveonessurroundings.Resilientchildren
areempathicoftheneedsofothersandwillingtocareforthem.Aperson
whoscoreshighonthissubscaletakestheinitiativetohelpothersandis
sensitivetoothersfeelings.

TheEmotionalControl(EC)subscaleconcernstherespondentsabilityto
controlhimselforherselfemotionally.Apersonwhoscoreshighonthis
factorisnotlikelytobeagitatedbyatriggeringsituationbutislikelyto
endureandbepatient.

Administration

Participantsareaskedtoindicatedhowwelleachitemdescribesthem,usinga5
pointLikerttyperesponsescale(1=alwaysfalse,2=usuallyfalse,3=halfthetime
true,halfthetimefalse,4=usuallytrue,5=alwaystrue).Attheend,11open
endedquestionsareincludedwiththeaimofprovidingresponsesthatwould
permitfurtherrefinementofthemeasure.(Song2003)

Scoring

1to5pointscale,alwaysfalsetoalwaystrue

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Reliability

Estimatesoftheinternalconsistencyreliabilityforthesixsubscalesrangedfrom.61
to.81,withtestretestreliabilityestimatesrangingfrom.57to.79.(Song2003).

Validity

Constructvalidity/discriminantvaliditywassupportedby(a)positivecorrelations
withmeasuresofselfesteem,locusofcontrol,socialsupportand(b)anegative
correlationwithameasureofhopelessness.(Song2003).
Criterionrelatedvaliditywassupportedby(a)positivecorrelationswithteacher
ratingsofstudentsresilience;and(b)negativecorrelationswithselfreport
symptomoutcomes.(Song2003)

Strengths

TheoriginalRIwasdevelopedwiththeaimofbecomingacrossculturallysensitive
andpsychometricallysoundmeasureofadolescenceresilience.Asawhole,the
resultsfromthepresentstudysuccessfullydemonstratedthatthisadaptationisa
reliableandvalidmeasureintheKoreancontext(Song2003).Althoughthereare
importantculturaldifferencesinitemresponsepatternsacrossculturalgroups,
factorialinvariancewasalsofoundinKoreanandAmericanyoungadolescent
samples.

Weaknesses

Stillindevelopmentbutverypromisingtogetatspecificdistaloutcomesofinterest.

Price

Publicdomain

Noam,G.G.,&Goldstein,L.S.(1998).TheResiliencyInventory.UnpublishedManuscript.
Song,M.(2003).Twostudiesontheresilienceinventory(RI):Towardthegoalofcreatingaculturallysensitive
measureofadolescenceresilience.UnpublishedDoctorialdissertations,HarvardUniversity.

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Section3:AcademicrelatedSELCompetencies
Thissectionincludesmeasuresonthefollowingshorttermstudentoutcomes(seeTable4):

Lackofinternalizingbehavior

Lackofexternalizingbehavior

Schoolengagement(e.g.,socialconnectionsintheclassroom,classroomparticipation,academic
motivation),ascapturedinthefollowing
o FeelingsaboutSchool

AcademicCompetence(e.g.,GPA,achievementtestscores)

Table4summarizesthefollowingmeasures.Measuresincludedareexcellentexemplarsoftheircore
construct;althoughsomeassessmenttoolsmaybeomitted,thesewerejudgedtofocusontheareasofSEL
outcomesthatrequirefocusedattention.

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Table4.ShorttermStudentOutcomes:BehaviorProblems,FeelingsAboutSchool,andAcademicCompetencies*

School/Grade
Level

FeelingsaboutSchool

AcademicCompetencies

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other
(e.g.,interview)

RatingType

Externalizing/Internalizing
BehaviorProblems

ShorttermStudent
Outcomes

TheDevereuxEarlyChildhoodAssessment(DECA,see
alsoTable3forplacementincompendium)

PreschoolLearningBehaviorsScale(PLBS)

SocialCompetenceandBehaviorEvaluation(seealso
Table3forplacementincompendium)

BehaviorAssessmentSystemForChildren,Second
Edition(BASC2,seealsoTable3forplacementin
compendium)

ChildBehaviorChecklist(CBCL)andTeacherReport
Form(TRF)

SociometricRatingsandNominations(seealsoTable3
forplacementincompendium)

SocialSkillsRatingSystem,SocialSkillsImprovement
System(seealsoTable3forplacementincompendium)

ScaleName

* GreyedcellsindicateSELcorecompetencyassessed,agelevel,orratingtype.

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School/Grade
Level

FeelingsaboutSchool

AcademicCompetencies

Preschool

ElementarySchool

Teacher

Parent

Peer

Self

Observational

Performancebased

Other
(e.g.,interview)

RatingType

Externalizing/Internalizing
BehaviorProblems

ShorttermStudent
Outcomes

TheTeacherRatingScaleofSchoolAdjustment(TRSSA)

Child/Teacher/ParentRatingScale(seealsoTable3for
placementincompendium)

FeelingsAboutSchool(FAS)(seealsoTable3for
placementincompendium)

LearningBehaviorsScale

RevisedChildrensManifestAnxietyScale(RCMAS)

ProsocialandAggressiveBehavior(seealsoTable3for
placementincompendium)

SenseOfClassroomasaCommunityScaleFeelings
AboutMyClassroom

ScaleName

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Measure

PreschoolLearningBehaviorsScale(PLBS)

Constructs

AcademicCompetencies

Agerange

Preschool

Ratingtype

Teacher

Descriptionofmeasureas TeachersratechildrensapproachestolearningusingthePLBS(PLBS;McDermott,
relatedtoconstructof
Leigh,&Perry,2002).
interest
Ingeneral,contentfocusesonattentiveness,responsestonoveltyandcorrection,
observedproblemsolvingstrategy,flexibility,reflectivity,initiative,selfdirection,
andcooperativelearning.
Administration

29itemteacherbehaviorratinginstrumentassessingpreschoolchildrens
approachestolearning.

Scoring

Teacherratedchildrensspecificobservablebehaviorsthatoccurredduring
classroomlearningactivitiesovertheprevioustwomonthsona3pointLikert
scale.
Theinstrumentyieldsthreereliablelearningbehaviordimensions:(a)
competencemotivation(i.e.,reluctanttotackleanewactivity);(b)
attention/persistence(i.e.,trieshard,butconcentrationsoonfadesand
performancedeteriorates);and(c)attitudestowardlearning(i.e.,doesn'tachieve
anythingconstructivewheninasulkymood).

Reliability

Highinternalconsistencyestimatesfromanationalstandardizationsamplewere
foundforthethreelearningbehaviordimensions(=.87,.88,and.78,
respectively).
Inthecurrentstudy,thePLBSdemonstratedadequateinternalconsistency(=
.79to.89).

Validity

Strengths

Multimethod,multisourcevalidityanalysesfurthersubstantiatedthePLBS
dimensionsforpreschoolchildren,andreliabilityestimatesweresimilarforboth
WhiteandnonWhiteportionsofthesample(Fantuzzo,Perry&McDermott,
2004).

LackofobservereffectsindicatethatPLBSassessmentsaregrounded
primarilyindistinguishingchildfeaturesratherthanidiosyncraticobserver
responses.
ThePLBSoffersastructuredandreliableapproachtounderstandingearly
learningbehaviors.
Italsoisconvenientfromtheteachersperspectiveandunobtrusivefrom
thechilds.

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Page123

Weaknesses

Publisher/Price

PleasecontactDr.PaulMcDermott,GraduateSchoolofEducation,Universityof
Pennsylvania,3700WalnutStreet,Philadelphia,PA19104,
andreamc@voicenet.com

Fantuzzo,J.,Perry,M.A.,&McDermott,P.(2004).PreschoolApproachestoLearningandTheirRelationshipto
OtherRelevantClassroomCompetenciesforLowIncomeChildren.SchoolPsychologyQuarterly,19(3),
212230.
McDermott,P.A.,Leigh,N.M.,&Perry,M.A.(2002).DevelopmentandvalidationofthePreschoolLearning
BehaviorsScale.PsychologyintheSchools,39,353365.

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Measure

ChildBehaviorChecklist(CBCL)andTeacherReportForm(TRF)

Constructs

SelfManagement,Responsibledecisionmaking,(LackofRisky,
Disruptive/ExternalizingandInternalizingSymptoms)

Agerange

Ages418

Ratingtype

Teacher,Parent

Descriptionofmeasure TheCBCLisa100itemparentreportmeasureusedtoassessproblembehaviorsin
asrelatedtoconstruct youngchildren.TheCBCLprovidesatotalproblembehaviorscore,twobroadband
ofinterest
scoresforinternalizingandexternalizingbehaviors,andsevenspecificsyndrome
scores(emotionallyreactive,anxiousdepressed,somaticcomplaints,withdrawn,
sleepproblems,attentionproblems,aggressivebehavior).
TheCTRFisalsoa100itemmeasureandiscompletedbyteachersorcaregivers.
LiketheCBCL,theCTRFisusedtoassessproblembehaviorsandyieldsatotal
problembehaviorscore,twobroadbandscoresforinternalizingandexternalizing
behaviors,andspecificsyndromescores.TheCTRFexcludessleepproblems,to
includeonlysixspecificsyndromescores.
TheclinicalscalescontainaTotalProblemsscore,twobroadbanddimensions
(InternalizingProblemsandExternalizingProblems),andeightempiricallyvalidated
syndromes(AggressiveBehavior,DelinquentBehavior,Withdrawn,Somatic
Complaints,Anxious/Depressed,AttentionProblems,SocialProblems,andThought
Problems).
Administration

ParentReport,TeacherReport

Scoring

Asksraterstomakeratingsfrom0to2dependingontheextenttowhicha
particularstatementdescribestheiryouth:0=nottrue,1=somewhator
sometimestrue,and2=verytrueoroftentrue.
TheCBCLandTRFhavebeenstandardizedtoobtainnormativepoints(i.e.,whatis
typicallyreportedbysuchinformantsfornormativesamplesofyouth;see
Achenbach&Edelbrock,1983,1986;Edelbrock&Achenbach,1984).Assuch,
standardTscoresquantifyayouthsstandinginrelationtootheryouthand
determinewhetherelevatedscoresonaparticularscalefallsinaclinicalrange.
Recently,sixscalesweredevelopedtocorrespondtoDSMIVdisordersoften
presentinyouthandadolescents(Achenbachetal.,2003):affective,anxiety,
somatic,ADH,OD,andconductproblems.

Reliability

Testretestreliabilitycoefficientsrangedfrom.68to.92fortheCBCLand.57to.91
fortheCTRF(Griffithet.al.2008).
CFAoftheCBQandCBCLyieldedthreemeaningfulconstructs(negative
emotionality,internalizingbehavior,andexternalizingbehavior)withsatisfactory

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internalconsistencies(.68<
Validity

<.85).(PaulussenHoogeboomet.al.2008)

AchenbachandRescorla(2001)foundthattheeightfactorcorrelatedmodelhad
acceptablefitonthebasisoftherootmeansquareerrorofapproximation(RMSEA)
of.06.
Inonestudy(Griffithet.al.2008),thethreetotalscores,internalizing,externalizing,
andtotalproblems,ofboththeCBCLandtheCTRFwereused.TheCBCLandtheC
TRFwereselectedforconvergentvalidityanalysesbecauseoftheirextensiveusein
bothclinicalandresearchsettingsandtheirpreviousdemonstrationswithsound
psychometricproperties(i.e.,content,construct,andconvergentvalidityand
interrater,testretest,andlongtermreliabilitycoefficients;seeAchenbach&
Rescorla,2000,forpreviouspsychometricinformation).

Strengths

TheCBCLandtheCTRFhavebeenwellresearchedanddemonstratedtobe
psychometricallysoundmeasures.
BoththeCBCLAandtheTRFAwerefoundtohavehighinternalconsistencyandto
adequatelydiscriminatebetweenyouthwithandwithoutdiagnosedanxiety
disorders.
Constructvalidityofthescalesweresupportedbyhighcorrelationswithother
reliableanxietymeasures(e.g.,MASC,RCMAS).Additionally,bothscalesdisplayed
sensitivitytotreatmenteffects.

Weaknesses

WhereastheCBCLandCTRFarebothwidelyusedandresearchedmeasuresfor
identifyingchildrenwithEBD,neitherareintendedforuseasuniversalscreeners,
andarethusnotparticularlyefficientforusewithlargenumbersofchildren.

Publisher/Price

PAR,Inc.$435andup.

Achenbach,T.M.,&Edelbrock,C.(1983).ManualfortheChildBehaviorChecklistandRevisedChildBehavior
Profile.Burlington,VT:UniversityofVermont,DepartmentofPsychiatry.
Achenbach,T.M.,&Edelbrock,C.S.(1986).ManualfortheChildBehavior.Checklist.Burlington:University
ofVermont
Achenbach,T.M.,McConaughy,S.H.(2003).TheAchenbachSystemofEmpiricallyBasedAssessment.InC.
R.Reynolds&R.W.Kamphaus.(Eds.);Handbookofpsychologicalandeducationalassessmentofchildren:
Personality,behavior,andcontext(2ndEd.),pp.406430.NewYork,NY,US:GuilfordPress,2003.
Achenbach,T.M.,&Rescorla,L.A.(2000).ManualfortheASEBAPreschoolForms&Profiles.Burlington:
UniversityofVermont,DepartmentofPsychiatry.
Achenbach,T.M.,&Rescorla,L.A.(2001).ManualfortheASEBASchoolAgeForms&Profiles.Burlington,VT:
UniversityofVermont,ResearchCenterforChildren,Youth,&Families.

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Page126

Edelbrock,C.S.&Achenbach,T.M.(1984).Theteacherversionofthechildbehaviorprofile:Boysaged611.
JournalofCounselingandClinicalPsychology,52,207217.
Kendall,P.C.,Puliafico,A.C.,Barmish,A.,Choudhury,M.S.,Henin,A.,&Treadwell,K.S.(2006)Assessing
anxietywiththeChildBehaviorChecklistandtheTeacherReportForm.JournalofAnxietyDisorders,21,1004
1015.
Griffith,A.K.,Nelson,J.R.,Epstein,M.H.,&Pederson,B.(2008)ConvergentValidityoftheEarlyChildhood
BehaviorProblemScreeningScale.JournalofEarlyIntervention,30,282294.
PaulussenHoogeboom,M.C.,Stams,G.J.J.,Hermanns,J.M.A.,Peetsma,T.T.D.,VanDenWittenboer,G.L.
H.(2008)Parentingstyleasamediatorbetweenchildrensnegativeemotionalityandproblematicbehaviorin
earlychildhood.JournalofGeneticPsychology,169,209226.
Seealso:
Crowley,S.L.,&Merrell,K.W.(2003)ThestructureoftheSchoolSocialBehaviorScales:Aconfirmatoryfactor
analysis.AssessmentforEffectiveIntervention,28(2),4155.
Emerson,E.N.,Crowley,S.L,&Merrell,K.W.(1994)ConvergentvalidityoftheSchoolSocialBehaviorScales
withtheChildBehaviorChecklistandTeacher'sReportForm.JournalofPsychoeducationalAssessment,12,
372380.

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Measure

TheTeacherRatingScaleofSchoolAdjustment(TRSSA)

Constructs

AcademicCompetencies,Feelings aboutSchool,TeacherChildRelationship

Agerange

Preschool(hasbeenusedwithpreschoolteachers)andPrimaryGrades

Ratingtype

Teacher

Descriptionofmeasure TheTeacherRatingScaleofSchoolAdjustment(TRSSA)wasdevelopedtotap
asrelatedtoconstruct severalconstructsthatarereflectiveofyoungchildren'sbehavioralandrelational
ofinterest
adjustmenttoschoolorclassroomsettings.Theseconstructs(subscales)havebeen
labeled:(1)independentparticipation,(2)cooperativeparticipation,(3)teacher's
perceptionofchildren'sschoolliking,(4)teacher'sperceptionofchildren'sschool
avoidance,and(5)teacher'sperceptionofchildren'sinterest/comfortwiththe
teacher.
Independentparticipationisthedegreetowhichchildrendisplayautonomous,self
reliantbehaviortowardclassroomactivitiesandlearningtasks.Fromamotivational
perspective,thisformofparticipationmayreflectanintrinsicmotivational,
autonomous,orlearninggoalorientation.
Cooperativeparticipationisdefinedaschildren'swillingnesstoadheretothesocial
rulesandroleexpectationsoftheclassroomand,fromamotivationalperspective,
mayreflectthepresenceofcooperativeandcompliantgoals(Wentzel,1991).
Childrenhighonthisdimensionconductthemselvesinacooperativeand
responsiblemannerinresponsetoteacherandclassroomdemands.
Administration

TeacherRatings

Scoring

LaterTRSSASubscales:CooperativeParticipation(7items),Independent
Participation(4items),SchoolLiking(5items);SchoolAvoidance(5items):
Teachersratechildrenfrom02onthefollowingscaleswhere:
0=Doesntapply1=Appliessometimes2=Certainlyapplies

Reliability

Excellent.

Validity

Excellent;relationswithschoolachievementandsocialrelations.

Strengths

Assessesanumberofimportantaspectsofchildrensschoollivesinone
instrument.Excellentpsychometricsingeneral

Weaknesses

Needsforsecondversion,andshortenedinstrument(Betts&Rotenberg,2007)
reflectedafewweaknessintermsofdelineatingthescalesclearly.

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Publisher/Price

PublicDoman

Betts,L.R.,&Rotenberg,K.J.(2007).AshortformoftheTeacherRatingScaleofSchoolAdjustment.Journal
ofPsychoeducationalAssessment,25(2),150164.
ForresearchusingtheTRSSA,see:
Birch,S.H.&Ladd,G.W.(1998).Childrensinterpersonalbehaviorsandtheteacherchildrelationship.
DevelopmentalPsychology,34,934946.
Buhs,E.&Ladd,G.W.(2001).Peerrejectioninkindergarten:Relationalprocessesmediatingacademicand
emotionaloutcomes.DevelopmentalPsychology,37,550560.
Kochenderfer,B.J.&Ladd,G.W.(1996).Peervictimization:Manifestationandrelationstoschooladjustment.
JournalofSchoolPsychology,34,267284.
Ladd,G.W.,Birch,S.H.&Buhs,E.(1999).Childrenssocialandscholasticlivesinkindergarten:Related
spheresofinfluence?ChildDevelopment,70,13731400.
Ladd,G.W.&Burgess,K.B.(1999).Chartingtherelationshiptrajectoriesofaggressive,withdrawn,and
aggressive/withdrawnchildrenduringearlygradeschool.ChildDevelopment,70,910929.
Ladd,G.W.&Burgess,K.B.(2001).Dorelationalrisksandprotectivefactorsmoderatethelinkagesbetween
childhoodaggressionandearlypsychologicalandschooladjustment?ChildDevelopment,72,15791601.
Ladd,G.W.&Kochenderfer,B.J.&Coleman,C.C.(1997).Classroompeeracceptance,friendship,and
victimization:Distinctrelationalsystemsthatcontributeuniquelytochildrensschooladjustment?Child
Development,68,11811197.
Wentzel,K.R.(1991).Socialcompetenceatschool:Relationbetweensocialresponsibilityandacademic
achievement.ReviewofEducationalResearch,61,124.
Note.ThereisalsoachildreportversiononschoollikingandavoidancecreatedbyGaryLadd,see,for
example:
Ladd,G.W.,Buhs,E.&Seid,M.(2000).Childrensinitialsentimentsaboutkindergarten:Isschoollikingan
antecedentofearlyclassroomparticipationandachievement?MerrillPalmerQuarterly,46,255279.

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Measure

LearningBehaviorsScale(LBS)

Constructs

AcademicCompetencies

Agerange

Studentsaged517years

Ratingtype

Teacher

Descriptionofmeasureas Ameasureofdifferentialpatternsofclassroomlearningforstudentsaged517
relatedtoconstructof
years.(McDermott,1999).
interest

Administration

29itemobservationdevicecompletedbyachildsteacheralongdimensionsof
studentcompetencemotivation,attention/persistence,strategy/flexibility,and
attitudestowardlearning.

Scoring

Itiscomposedof29positivelyandnegativelywordeditems(eachofwhich
presentsaspecificlearningrelatedbehavior)toreduceresponsesetsandisrated
ona3pointscale(0=doesnotapply,1=sometimesapplies,2=mostoften
applies;McDermott,1999).Thevalence(positiveornegativeofitemwordingis
variedasameasuretoreduceresponsesets.(McDermott1999)
Ofthe29items,25areusedtoproduceatotalscoreandthefoursubscales
includeCompetenceMotivation(CM),AttentionandLearningAttitudes(AL),
Attention/Persistence(AP),andStrategy/Flexibility(SF).Fiveitemscrossloaded
ontwofactorsduringcreationofthemeasure,andarethusincludedontwoLBS
scales.
TotalandsubscalerawscoresareconvertedtonormalizedTscores(M=50,SD=
10)basedonthenationallyrepresentativestandardizationsampleof1,500
studentsaged5to17.

Reliability

Alphacoefficientswerecomputedforthedimensionsacrossthenationalsample
andwithinpertinentsubsamples.Allexceeded.70(McDermott1999)
Stabilitycoefficientsweresubstantial(M=.92,range.93.91)andstatistically
significantatp<.0001.(McDermott1999)
Further,raterreliabilityisexcellent.

Validity

Convergentanddivergentvalidityisexcellent.
Incrementalvalidityisexcellent,inthatoverlapwithIQismodest(about12%in
McDermott,1999).

CompendiumofSELandAssociatedAssessmentMeasuresOctober2010

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Strengths

Theitemsareuniquelybehavioralandrequirenoinferencesconcerning
mediatingthoughtsorfeelings.
EvidencehasaccumulatedthattheLBSprovidesanormativeapproachassessing
basiclearningbehaviorsinawaythatisuniformacrossvariationsinage,gender,
ethnicity,socialclass,andfamily/communitystructures.(McDermott1999)

Weaknesses

Publisher/Price

PleasecontactDr.PaulMcDermott,GraduateSchoolofEducation,Universityof
Pennsylvania,3700WalnutStreet,Philadelphia,PA19104,
andreamc@voicenet.com

Buchanan,H.H.,McDermott,P.A.,&Schaefer,B.A.(1998).Agreementamongclassroomobserversof
children'sstylisticlearningbehaviors.PsychologyintheSchools,35,355362
McDermott,P.A.(1999)NationalscalesofdifferentiallearningbehaviorsamongAmericanchildrenand
adolescents.SchoolPsychologyReview,28,280291.

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Measure

RevisedChildrensManifestAnxietyScale(RCMAS)

Constructs

InternalizingSymptoms

Agerange

Childrenandadolescentsages519or 6to17years(OTooleetal.,2006)

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionofmeasure
asrelatedtoconstruct
ofinterest

Selfreportmeasurecompletedbyyouthasameasureofmanifestanxiety.
Designedtoassessthepresenceofgeneralizedandnonspecificornonsituational
anxiety(i.e.,traitanxiety).(Varela&Biggs,2006).
Measuresthelevelandnatureofanxietysymptomsinchildrenandadolescents
aged6to19years.

Administration

Selfreport

Scoring

37itemsthatareansweredinyes/noformat(e.g.,Iworryalotofthetime).
(Healy&Rucklidge,2006)
AyouthsrawscoreontheRCMASisconvertedtoprovidefiveTscorestotal
score,physiologicalsubscalescore,worrysubscalescore,socialsubscalescore,and
aliesubscalescore.
Yieldsfourscores:totalanxietyscore,PhysiologicalAnxiety,Worry/Oversensitivity,
andConcentrationAnxiety.(Varela&Biggs,2006)
Inaddition,aLieScalescoreiscalculated.(OTooleetal.,2006)
Therawscoremaybeconvertedintoastandardscorebasedontherespondent's
age,ethnicorigin,orboth.Forthetotalanxietyscore,theTscorescalewasused,
whichhasameanof50andstandarddeviationof10.Scoresrangefrom0to28
(rawscores)or0to100(Tscores).
TherearenoclinicalcutoffsavailablefortheRCMAS,althoughitissuggestedthat
"greatersignificance"shouldbeattachedtoTscoresgreaterthan60.Three
subscaleshavebeenderivedfromtheinstrument,including:(a)Physiological
Anxiety,(b)Worry/Oversensitivity,and(c)SocialConcerns/Concentration.In
addition,nineitemsconcernaLiescale.

Reliability

Validity

Moderateretestreliability(r=.68;Reynolds&Richmond,1985).
Cronbachsalphasforthestudent,parent,andteacherratingsrespectivelywere
total,.74,.84,.64;Worry/Oversensitivity,.82,.82,.80;PhysiologicalAnxiety,.74,
.69,.70;andConcentrationAnxiety,.69,.66,.64.TotalFearScoreboththeFSSCR
andtheRCMAShavegoodevidenceofreliabilityandvalidity(Varelaetal.,2006).
Testretestreliabilityis.94afterthreeweeksand.68afterninemonths.(Saldinger
et.al.2004).
Possesseshighinternalconsistency(a=.83,Reynolds&Richmond,1985)

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TheRCMASwasstandardizedonWhite,Black,MexicanAmerican,Nigerian,highIQ,
andintellectuallyhandicappedchildren.Coefficientsofcongruenceacrossethnic
andgendergroupsrangefrom.96to.99,showingconsistencyofthestructureof
theRCMASacrossnominalvariables.Goodevidenceofvalidity(Varelaetal.,2006)
Goodconvergentanddivergentvalidity.(OTooleetal.,2006)TheRCMAS
correlateshighlywithothermeasuresoftraitanxiety,suchastheStateTrait
AnxietyInventoryforChildrenTraitScale,providingconsiderablesupportforthe
constructvalidityoftheinstrument(Mather&CartwrightHatton,2004).
ConcurrentvalidityoftheRCMAShasbeensupportedbyitscorrelationwithmany
anxietymeasures,particularlytheStateTraitAnxietyInventoryforChildren(Healey
&Rucklidge,2006).
Strengths

HighValidity
ModerateHighReliability
Widelyusedasameasureofanxietyinthisagegroup
Goodpsychometricproperties

Weaknesses

Nonenoted

Publisher/Price

$99.50forkitwith25forms(theresalsoa5minuteshortform).Publisheris
WesternPsych.
http://portal.wpspublish.com/portal/page?_pageid=53,234661&_dad=portal&_sch
ema=PORTAL

Healey,D.,&Rucklidge,J.(2006).Aninvestigationintothepsychosocialfunctioningofcreativechildren:The
impactofADHDsymptomatology.JournalofCreativeBehavior,40,243264.
Mather,A.,&CartwrightHatton,S.(2004).CognitivepredictorsofObsessiveCompulsivesymptomsin
adolescence:Apreliminaryinvestigation.JournalofClinicalChildandAdolescentPsychology33,743749.
OToole,K.,Borden,K.A.,&MillerC.(2006).Longtermpsychosocialandadaptiveoutcomesinchildrenwith
arteriovenousmalformations.RehabilitationPsychology,51,6068.
Saldinger,A.,Porterfield,K.&Cain,A.C.(2004).Meetingtheneedsofparentallybereavedchildren:A
frameworkforchildcenteredparenting.Psychiatry,67,331352.
Varela,R.E.,&Biggs,B.K.(2006).ReliabilityandvalidityoftheRevisedChildrensManifestAnxietyScale
(RCMAS)acrosssamplesofMexican,MexicanAmerican,andEuropeanAmericanchildren:Apreliminary
investigation.Anxiety,Stress,andCoping,19,6780.

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Measure

SenseofClassroomasaCommunityScale FeelingsaboutMyClassroom

Constructs

FeelingsAboutSchool

Agerange

ElementarySchool

Ratingtype

Self

Descriptionofmeasure Measures:Studentsfeelingsofcaring/supportivenessandautonomyandinfluence
asrelatedtoconstruct intheirclassroomandschool
ofinterest
Selfreportmeasureofstudentssenseoftheclassroomasacommunity(Battistich
et.al.1997).
Initialmeasureincludeditemsrepresentingtwoelementsofcommunity:(a)
studentsperceptionsthattheyandtheirclassmatescaredaboutandwere
supportiveofoneanother(7items:e.g.,studentsatthisschoolworktogetherto
solveproblems,thestudentsinthisclassreallycareaboutoneanother,my
classislikeafamily);and(b)studentsperceptionsthattheyhadanactiveand
importantroleinclassroomnormsettinganddecisionmaking(10items:e.g.,
Teachersandstudentsplanthingstogetheratthisschool.,inmyclassthe
teacherandstudentsdecidetogetherwhattheruleswillbe).(Battistichet.al.
1997).
Administration
Selfreport.Responsescale:1=disagreealot,2 =disagreealittle,3=neitheragree
nordisagree,4=agreealittle,5=agreealot.[R]indicatesreversescoreditem.
Scoring
Reversescoreditem:3
Reliability
Theinternalconsistency(Cronbachsalpha)ofthisMeasureaveraged.78acrossthe
3years.(Battistichet.al.1997).
Validity
Studentsclassroomlevel(N=28)scoreswererelatedtoconceptuallyrelated
measuresofclassroomcharacteristicsderivedfromclassroomobservations.The
aggregatedstudentscoreswerefoundtobestronglycorrelatedwithobservational
measuresofstudentsupportiveandfriendlybehavior(r=.60,p<.001),student
spontaneousprosocialbehavior(r=.61,p<.001),thefrequencyofcooperative
activities(r=.55,p<.01),andopportunitiesforstudentautonomyandinfluence(r
=.51,p<.01)(Battistichet.al.1997).
Strengths
Asksquestionsinareliablemannerthataccesschildrensfeelingsabouttheirschool
asacommunity,animportantaspectofattachmenttoschool
Weaknesses
Nonenoted

Battistich,V.,Solomon,D.,Watson,M.,&Schaps,E.(1997).Caringschoolcommunities.Education
Psychologist,32,137151.

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