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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA

GY 302: Crystallography &


Mineralogy
Lecture 3:
Miller Indices & Point Groups

Last Time
Rotoinversion
Translational Symmetry
3. Bravais Lattices
1.

2.

Rotoinversion
A combination of rotation with a center of inversion.
e.g., 4-fold Rotoinversion
- This involves rotation of the object by 90o then inverting
through a center.
Note that an object possessing a 4- fold rotoinversion axis
will have two faces on top and two identical faces upside
down on the bottom, if the axis is held in the vertical
position.

http://www.cartage.org.lb

Symmetry in Crystals
Translation: Repetition of points by lateral displacement.
Consider 2 dimensional translations:
b
a

Unit Mesh or
Plane Lattice

Symmetry in Crystals

Symmetry in Crystals

Symmetry in Crystals

The 14
Bravais
Lattices

Unit Cells
NaCl

Source: www.chm.bris.ac.uk

(Halite)

+
-Na
-Cl
Face-centered isometric crystal

Todays Agenda
Miller Indices
2.
Point Groups (32 of them)
Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols
1.

3.

Miller Indices

Crystal facies can be identified using a set of coordinates.

Miller Indices

Crystal facies can be identified using a set of coordinates.


The most widely used scheme is that by Miller (Miller
Indices)

Miller Indices

Crystal facies can be identified using a set of coordinates.


The most widely used scheme is that by Miller (Miller
Indices)

Miller Indices
Consider

the
plane in pink

(a, , )

Miller Indices
Consider

the
plane in pink.
Its actually one
of an infinite
number of parallel
planes each a
consistent distance
from the origin

(a, , )

Miller Indices
Consider

the
plane in pink.
Its actually one
of an infinite
number of parallel
planes each a
consistent distance
from the origin
e.g., 1a, 2a, 3a
1a
(a, , )

2a
3a

Miller Indices
In

the x direction,
the first plane
terminates at point
1a. It continues
indefinitely in the
y and z directions

(1a, , )

Miller Indices
This

plane can be
designated
(1a, , )
or better yet
(1, , )

(1a, , )

Miller Indices
Likewise,

this
plane in yellow
can be designated
( , 1, )
And the plane in
green can be
designated
( ,, 1)

( , , 1)

( , 1, )
( 1, , )

Miller Indices
By convention, Miller Indices are reciprocals of the
parameters of each crystal face

( , , 1)

( , 1, )
( 1, , )

Miller Indices
By convention, Miller Indices are reciprocals of the
parameters of each crystal face
Pink Face = 1/1, 1/, 1/
1, 0, 0
Yellow Face = 1/, 1/1, 1/
0, 1, 0

( , , 1)

( , 1, )
( 1, , )

Green Face = 1/, 1/, 1/1


0, 0, 1

Miller Indices
Miller Indices are placed in parentheses with no
commas and no fractions*

Pink Face = (1 0 0)
Yellow Face = (0 1 0)
Green Face = (0 0 1)
* e.g., if you got (1 ), you would convert this to (4 3 2)

Miller Indices
The opposite sides of each face are designated with
negative signs

(-1 0 0)

Pink Face = (-1 0 0)


Yellow Face = (0 -1 0)
Green Face = (0 0 -1)

(0 -1 0)

(0 0 -1)

Miller Indices
This

time, the
plane of interest
cuts two of the
crystallographic
axes.
The

Miller Index?

Miller Indices
This

time, the
plane of interest
cuts two of the
crystallographic
axes.
The

Miller Index?
(1 1 0)

Miller Indices
This

plane cuts all


three crystallographic
axes.
The

Miller Index?

Miller Indices
This

plane cuts all


three crystallographic
axes.
The

Miller Index?
(1 1 1)

Miller Indices
Tricky;

this plane
cuts two of the
crystallographic
axes, but not
equidimensionally

Miller Indices
Tricky;

this plane
cuts two of the
crystallographic
axes, but not
equidimensionally
The

coordinates
of the plane are:
(1/2, 1, 0)

Miller Indices
Tricky;

this plane
cuts two of the
crystallographic
axes, but not
equidimensionally
The

coordinates
of the plane are:
(1/2, 1, 0)
Multiple by 2 to
get Miller Indices = (1 2 0)

Miller Indices

Miller Indices

Ness, W.D., 2000. Introduction to Mineralogy. Oxford University Press, New York, 442p

Miller Indices

Isometric crystal forms


related to Miller Indices

Ness, W.D., 2000. Introduction to Mineralogy. Oxford University Press, New York, 442p

Miller Indices

Hexagonal crystal forms


related to Miller Indices

Ness, W.D., 2000. Introduction to Mineralogy. Oxford University Press, New York, 442p

The Point Groups

The Point Groups


There

are 32 possible combinations of symmetry


operations (the point groups or crystal classes)

The Point Groups


There

are 32 possible combinations of symmetry


operations (the point groups or crystal classes)
Each point group will have crystal faces that define the
symmetry of the class (the crystal forms)

The Point Groups


There

are 32 possible combinations of symmetry


operations (the point groups or crystal classes)
Each point group will have crystal faces that define the
symmetry of the class (the crystal forms)
The point groups are best appreciated through the use
of stereo net projections (Thursdays Lecture Oh Boy!)

The Point Groups


There

are 5 possible isometric Point Groups; all either


have 4 3-fold rotational axes or 4 3-fold-rotoinversion
axes

Hermann-Mauguin class symbol; more on this shortly

The Point Groups


There

are 5 possible isometric Point Groups; all either


have 4 3-fold rotational axes or 4 3-fold-rotoinversion
axes

Symmetry Parameters: A2 = 2 fold rotational axes; A3 = 3 fold rotational axes;


A4 = 4 fold rotational axes; m = mirror planes

The Point Groups


There

are 5 possible isometric Point Groups; all either


have 4 3-fold rotational axes or 4 3-fold-rotoinversion
axes

Name of the crystal form

The Point Groups


There

are 5 possible isometric Point Groups; all either


have 4 3-fold rotational axes or 4 3-fold-rotoinversion
axes

The Point Groups


There

are 12 possible hexagonal and trigonal Point


Groups; the former has at least one 6-fold rotational
axis, the later at least one 3-fold rotational axis

The Point Groups


There

are 7 possible tetragonal Point Groups; all either


have a single 4-fold rotational axis or a 4 foldrotoinversion axis

The Point Groups


There

are 3 possible orthorhombic Point Groups; all


only have either 2-fold rotational axes or 2 foldrotational axes and mirror planes

The Point Groups


There

are also 3 possible monoclinic Point Groups; all


only have a single 2-fold rotational axis or a single
mirror plane

The Point Groups


Lastly

we have the 2 triclinic Point Groups. They only


contain 1-fold rotational axes or 1 fold-rotoinversion
axes

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Each symmetry operation has a symbol:

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Each symmetry operation has a symbol
m
- mirror planes
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 - rotational axes (1-fold, 2-fold, 3-fold.etc.)
1, 2, 3, 4, 6 - rotoinversion axes (1-fold, 2-fold, ...etc.)
i

- inversion

which are used to classify and name the Point Groups.

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 1: Orthorhombic crystal

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 1: Orthorhombic crystal
3

2-fold rotational axes (A2)


3 mirror planes (m)
center of inversion

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 1: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 1: Write down a number
representing each unique
rotational axis

222

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 1: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 2: Write an m for every
unique mirror plane*

2m 2m 2m

* those not produced by other symmetry operations

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 1: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 3: Mirror planes
perpendicular to rotational
axes are put in a denominator
position relative to the
rotational axes

2/m 2/m 2/m

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 2: Orthorhombic crystal

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 2: Orthorhombic crystal
1

2-fold rotational axes (A2)


2 mirror planes (m)

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 2: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 1: Write down a number
representing each unique
rotational axis

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 2: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 2: Write an m for every
unique mirror plane

2mm

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 2: Orthorhombic crystal
Step 3: Mirror planes
perpendicular to rotational
axes?
No

2mm

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 3: Tetragonal crystal

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 3: Tetragonal crystal
1

4-fold rotational axes (A4)


4 2-fold rotational axes (A2)
5 mirror planes (m)
center of inversion

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 3: Tetragonal crystal
Step 1: Write down a
number representing each
unique rotational axis*

422

* here 2 of the 2-fold rotational axis are generated by 4 fold rotation; they are not unique

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 3: Tetragonal crystal
Step 2: Write an m for
every unique mirror
plane*

4 m 2 m 2m

* here 2 of the 5 mirror planes are not unique. They are generated by 4 fold rotation

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 3: Tetragonal crystal
Step 3: Mirror planes
perpendicular to
rotational axes?
Yes

4/m 2/m 2/m

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 4: Isometric crystal

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 4: Isometric crystal
3

4-fold rotational axes (A4)


4 3-fold rotoinversion axes (A3)
6 2-fold rotational axes (A2)
9 mirror planes (m)
center of inversion

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 4: Isometric crystal
Step 1: Write down a
number representing each
unique rotational axis*

432

* in high symmetry crystals, most axes are not unique. Here only 1 of each axes is unique.

Hermann-Mauguin Class Symbols


Example 4: Isometric crystal
Steps 2/3: Write an m
for every unique mirror
plane. Determine if they
are perpendicular to the
axes*

4/m 3 2/m

* none of the mirror planes is perpendicular to the 3-fold rotoinversion axes

Thursdays Lecture
1.

Stereoprojections (another assignment)


2. Point Group Projections

Tuesdays Lab
1.

Isometric/Hexagonal models