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JOB AID

Kiln Heat Balance Calculation


Calciner _ Preheater

Pyroprocessing

1/18

PR PYR T09-04 v1. - Jan 2009


The following colour code is used:
Blue on yellow
Cells to fill in
Data input is carried out on 4 input sheets (Input Sheet 1 to 4).

This tool is used for kiln audits' balance calculations and reporting of them. This version is the official release 1 as division
tool. Former versions distributed in CTEC area are replaced by this release - the changes and improvements compared to
the April 2008 version are documented in the next page _ revision.
A detailed training on the tool is provided in the process engineer training Pyroprocessing 2 (kiln audit training). To guide the
user comments are available for most input cells and important calculation cells.
This tool is using the updated Add IN Function thermodynamic.xla from January 2009 (1.5b). User should install the updated
add-in prior to using the tool. The add in file as well as an installation guide is attached below. The new add in version allows
the use of negative temperatures, an "Enthalpy_free" function without water evaporation is implemented.
There are no makros used for calculation to keep the tool transparent. The only makro used is to ensure the proper function
of the add ins - the makro is deleting any path to thermodynamic functions which might occure when copying from another
PC.
The add in function still have some logical checks which might cause error massages during data input (unlogical data as
long as the input is not completed). Just aknowledge and continue with further data input.
The cells are not protected to allow follow up with the formula auditing = take care not to modify. Input is done only on the
input pages and to be customised example pages at the back.
Summary layout of tool: 4 input sheets where data entry is processed into material balance, waste gas calculation and finally
heat balance sheets. Balanced figures of performance results are summarized in a final sheet.
The calculation and result sheets are created to be directly copied into the audit report.
Preheater and/or precalciner kilns are supported by the tool (still separate line calciners with separated preheater strings
need manipulation by user). For wet lines and long dry lines a separate version is in use within CTEC and available as
division tool soon.
Flow sheet example and example for cyclone speed calculations are added at the back, they are linked to the input sheets of
the heat balance but are not used for heat balance results, they can be customised for the specific application.

Source:
Authors:

CTEC Heat Balance Tool 2007 ; updated in 2008


Bernhard Koeck / Cenk Eskin
Any error to report ? Suggestions for improvement ?
Please contact your TC or the authors above.

All rights of reproduction, representation, adaptation and translation relating to this report belong to Lafarge SA. Lafarge SA reserves the right to exploit this report or not and to freely
distribute it to all of its current and future subsidiaries worldwide in any form, whether paper, electronic or digital, including via internet and/or intranet. This report along with its content
is of a confidential nature. In particular, it may not be reproduced, copied, transmitted, published, divulged and/or appropriated in whole or in part for personal use or for use by a third
party without prior consent from the Production & Process Department, except for reproduction by or for affiliated Lafarge companies.

Kiln Heat Balance Tool _ Calciner Preheater

Revisions
Version
Division 1.0

Date
Jan-09

Who
DPC

CTEC 1_2_6

Nov-08

Bernhard Koeck

CTEC 1_1

Apr-08

CTEC test version

2007

Cenk Eskin
Bernhard Koeck
Cenk Eskin
Bernhard Koeck

Comments
CTEC Kiln Heat Balance Tool v. 1.2.6 becomes the division tool version 1
For publication on Cement Portal's Pyroprocessing domain
Improvements / Correction since 1_1
All changes since the first CTEC release 1_1 are documented below.
Official release within CTEC - spread out in CTEC area
Used by CTEC process engineers since begin 2007 - first use in kiln audit training Sept 2007 - first sharing within the combustion COP

LIST OF MODIFICATIONS (VERSION 1.1 TO VERSION 1.2.6)


1) waste gas calculation: LHV as fired is corrected with 594kcal/KJ water instead of 596 before.
2) waste gas calculation and calciner waste gas calculation: correction of O88 - ambient air moisture was not considered in mass section
3) Change of clinker heat of formation. Dehydration of clay is considering the cristal water. C3S is without SO3 substraction.
4) False air tertiary air related to tertiary air input at the calciner
5) Correction of moisture - material balance N9 and O9
6) Material balance C42: Chlorine added to total
7) Material balance G68: corrected D45 (bypass dust) instead of D44
8) Input3: for a preheater kiln cells B36,B37,G31,G10,J10 "Not applicable for preheater kiln" sentance added
9) Input 3 C35: preheater false air in a preheater kiln is calculated using a separate equation and not linked to Waste Gas Calc. M115 "Tertiary air into calciner"
10) Input 3 I31: no value in case of preheater kiln
11) Heat value of CO in the exit gas considered as heat loss
12) Material balance: S, Cl and Fuel Ash is taken from as fired (was taken from input 2 before without considering wet/dry)
13) Material balance C37 and 38 --- correction of S2-/TOC and moisture calculation (dry --> dry+TOC/S-->wet+TOC/S).
Correction of all dependend calculations which had been C36 before to C 37 (calculated clinker analyse, CO2 raw mix,...)
14) A new input field (input 1 - kiln feed balanced dry) is created to avoid circular reference in the material balance - used to calculate the SO2 emissions and the S2- fuel ash part.
15) Material balance: Kiln feed S2- trapped is added to fuel ash.
16) Correction of material balance based on kiln feed
17) TOC and S flow in exit gas calculations (P54 and Q 54) are based on C37 material balance
18) heat capacity for gases from temperature 0C to -50C is added
19) enthalpy for H2Ov without heat of vaporization is replaced:
enthalpy_free(" "; )
20) enthalpy for kiln feed, filter dust and bypass dust are based on their chemical composition
21) enthalpy for coal (dry) is based on volatile content
22) enthalpy for oil is based on the density
23) material balance H68 corrected
24) Input 1 E25 deleted (bypass dust now by default not included in clinker weighing)
25) Calculation of secondary air is corrected by using blendtemperature_free. In version 1 vol % moisture had been used in I22 instead of mass %.
26) Corrction of bypass impact in waste gas calculation - N76 / N87 / N90.
27) Calculation of CO2 and CO2 fossil added, input fields for % fossil per fuel added.
28) Waste gas calc and calciner exit gas: Correction of cell D77 and O77 - use of calculated Oxygen in C117 instead of 20,95.
29) Sulfide considered in LOI check - input 1
30) Waste gas calculations Q31 - Sulfide oxydation into SO3 instead of SO2 is considered depending on the trapping coefficient, Fe2O3 oxidation from FeS2 is considered.
31) Waste gas calcualtion neutral combustion air - Oxidation into SO3 instead of SO2 is considered.
32) Heat Calculation Cooler - F23 and L10 - changed back from blendtemperature_free to blendtemperature considering recalculated energies in I21 and I22
(the blendtemperature_free function used before showed in some iteration cases an error).
33) Material balance - SO2 emissions not considered as output for the back calculation of kiln feed or clinker.
34) Waste gas calculation and calciner exit gas calculation (D100,...) - ambient moisture considered in the excess air of kiln and excess air of line. CO considered in the excess air as well.
35) blendtemperature_free replaced by blendtemperature with recalcualted enthalpy. (primary air and false air in heat calculation kiln)
36) Waste gas calculation g74 - ambient moisture considered in the bypass excess air.
37) Material balance D67 - decarbonatisation energy of bypass dust - taking CaO free in bypass dust as input figure
38) Waste gas calculation and calciner exit gas calculation - C63 is taking directly the decarbonatisation CO2 from the material balance - considering the bypass dust CO2 as well.
39) Change to the updated thermodynamic.xla (1.5b - Jan 2009). Improoved help and description of the add ins. Correction of blendtemperature_free, new Enthalpy_rawmix.
40) Material Balance T26 / X26 and AC26: Use of new Enthalpy_rawmix function. Chemical analyse is totalised to 100% to avoid missing Enthalpy out of analytics below 100%.

PR PYR T09-04 v1

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - DATA ENTRY SHEET 1


Rawang, Malaysia
Plant Name
RK3#
Name of the Kiln
Kiln Type
Precalciner
March 13, 2012
Date of measurement
Date of report
Ambient temperature, C
Altitude above sea level, m.
Atmospheric pressure, hPa
Ambiente relative humidity, %

SO2 trapping % of S-2

50%

TOC burnt in calciner


Ratio hot meal/kk
Kiln inlet dust g/kgck

1.19

Kiln Feed
Flowrate wet, kg/h
H2O, %
Temperatures,C
Crystall Water, %

41720

0.21

69

445

0.4

Kiln Feed

40
1008

Err:511

50%

150

199540

Kiln feed dry - back calculated, kg/h:

Clinker t/d

4789

No

0.00%

Preheater dust Bypass Dust

0
0
308680

305338

Clinker

SiO2 ,%
Al2O3 ,%
Fe2O3 ,%

6.81

12.11

22.48

0.99

3.94

5.34

0.41

1.84

4.74

CaO, %
MgO, %
LOI ,%
CO2 ,%
K2O ,%
Na2O ,%
SO3 ,%

50.38

44.93

65.69

0.48

0.48

0.64

40.3

34.9

TOC ,%
Cl- , %
S-2 ,%
LOI check
Total

Hot meal

39.3
0.18

0.91

0.52

1.3

0.03

0.04

0.07

0.27

0.28

0.6

0.06

TiO ,%
P2O5 ,%
Non Carbonated CaO in Kiln Feed / Total CaO, %
Non Carbonated MgO in Kiln Feed / Total MgO, %

Clinker

30

0%

Is there a by-pass in the kiln?


Volume ratio of gas extraction at the by-pass, %

Preheater dust Bypass Dust

280000

0.116
0.033
0.6
free lime:
0.00

34.50

99.64

64.65

0.00

1.71
99.91

2.17

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - DATA ENTRY SHEET 2


KILN FUELS on Burner
Choose Fuel Type Coal

AF-sol.

Name of Fuel
Flowrate, kg/h fired

Servo Coal

Analyse (dry / wet)


Carbon, %

dry

Gas

Coal

PRECALCINER FUELS

Coal

Coal

Coal

Coal

AF-sol.

Servo Coal Bottom feed

8625

8075
dry

71250
dry

OTHERS

AF-sol.

Rice husk
1040
dry

Wood

TOC

6917
dry

56.80

56.80

12.90

41.20

45.90

5.90

5.90

1.05

5.90

8.30

0.50

0.50

0.14

0.06

0.10

Oxygen, %
Nitrogen, %

15.50

15.50

5.13

34.51

42.30

0.50

0.50

0.26

0.91

0.30

Ash, %

19.50

19.50

79.29

16.47

2.50

98.70

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

98.70

98.77

99.05

5279

16089

16747.2

99.40 100.00
33830

13.81

13.81

2.05

18.36

48.30

0.00

Temperatures,C

60

60

70

30

30

volatiles,%
fossil carbon, %

40

40

11

68

79

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Ash 1

Ash 2

Ash 3

Ash 4

Ash 5

Ash 6

Ash 7

Ash 8

Ash 9

Ash 10

SiO2, %

51.78

51.78

36.13

94.44

Al2O3, %

16.45

16.45

13.35

0.15

6.96

Fe2O3, %

7.98

7.98

12.42

0.11

21.53

32.48

CaO, %

6.1

0.52

24.18

MgO, %
K2O, %

4.47

4.47

0.55

0.67

0.96

2.66

2.66

1.47

2.13

2.05

Na2O, %

2.84

2.84

0.24

0.49

0.76

TiO, %
P2O5, %

0.73

0.73

0.379

0.01

0.28

0.36

0.36

0.162

0.97

0.906

Total, %

94.27

94.27

70.801

99.49

90.106

0.00
dry

100

24144

oil density, kg/dm

0
wet

100

24144

LHV [kJ/kg]
H2O, %

S-2

0
dry

Hydrogen, %
Sulphur, %

Cl-, %
Total, %

SNCR

100%

0.00

100.00
13120

100

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - DATA ENTRY SHEET 3


Preheater Exit Gas

Nm3/h

Err:511

462

Preheater Water Injection

Err:511

Preheater Exit Static Pressure, hPa

Kiln Physical Properties

kJ/kgck

Kiln

97.3

Err:511

115

Kiln Diameter, m.

4.7

11.4

Kiln Speed, rpm

3.0

Nm/h

Transport air 1

914

2846

30

Transport air 2
Precalciner Exit Static Pressure,hPa

Transport air 3

-8.8

Transport air 4
Gas measurements
Kiln inlet,% (dry)
Preheater outlet, % (dry)
Calciner Outlet, % (dry)
Main burner
Primary air 1

O2 [%]

CO [%]

5.2

0.0274

3.65

0.08

1.3

0.15

Nm/h

7283

Precalciner burners

30

Primary air 2

Nm/h

Transport air 1

2835

30

1240

30

Err:511

Transport air 2
Transport air 3

3455

30

Err:511

Transport air 4

3455

30

Precalciner burners
By-Pass

Primary air 1
Primary air 2
Primary air 3

False air

## Extracted kiln inlet gas

Nm/h

Err:511

30

Kiln inlet sealing


Airlift

Err:511

30

4.0

6813

65

Err:511

Preheater false air

Err:511

30

Err:511

Tertiary air false air

24997

30

Err:511

False air calciner

6700

Nm/h
Err:511

Preheater false air assessment for preca kiln

Kiln hood sealing

4.0

74

Tertiary Air Duct

Main burner

Kiln Length, m.

Preheater

-84.93
Nm3/h

Precalciner Exit Gas

Wall Losses

l/h

Gas Flowrate

Err:511

Kiln Slope, %

4.0

Refractory thickness, mm.

230

Clinker Density, t/m3

1.4

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - DATA ENTRY SHEET 4 - COOLER


Cooler fans

Fan # 1
Fan # 2
Fan # 3
Fan # 4
Fan # 5
Fan # 6
Fan # 7
Fan # 8
Fan # 9
Fan # 10
Fan # 11
Fan # 12
Fan # 13
Fan # 14
Total
Air leakage leaving cooler
False air entering cooler

Flowrate, Temperature, Grate Area, Nm3/s/m


2
Nm3/h
C
m2

Cum. Area,
m2

34342

30

7.1

1.35

7.09

58918

30

9.3

1.76

16.38

95217

30

15.6

1.70

31.93

28311

30

7.2

1.10

39.11

40356

30

12.1

0.93

51.16

39295

30

13.6

0.80

64.78

28235

30

15.1

0.52

79.87

28489

30

21.2

0.37

101.03

Flowrate,
Nm3/h

Secondary air
Tertiary air
Mill take off #1
Mill take off #2
Exhaust air measured
Exhaust air calculated
Hot clinker temperature, C
Cold clinker temperature, C

Exhaust air water


injection

353164

101.03

Err:511
Err:511

Cooling air:

1.77Nm/kgcl

901

360
Err:511
1450
227

litres/h or
kg/h

0.97

Wall losses of cooler

Temperature
C

kJ/kgck
24.00

Temperature
C

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - MATERIAL BALANCE CALCULATIONS

Flowrate, [t/h]
H2O, [%]

Kiln Feed Servo Coal


280
8.625

0
0

Kiln Fuels
0
0

0
0

0
0

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

Precalciner Fuels
0 Servo Coal Bottom feed Rice husk Wood
Preheater dBypass Dust
0
8.075
71.25
1.04
6.917
41.72
0

0.21

Sulphur, [%]
Ash, [%]
Cl, [%]

0.43
16.81
0.00

0
Kiln Feed

Ash 1

0.00
0.00
0.00
Ash 2

0.00
0.00
0.00
Ash 3

Ash 4

Ash 5

0.00
0.00
0.00
Ash 6

0.43
16.81
0.00
Ash 7

0.14
77.66
0.00
Ash 8

0.05
13.45
0.00
Ash 9

0.05
1.29
0.00
Ash 10

0
Dust 1

0
Bypass Dust

SiO2

6.81

51.78

51.78

36.13

94.44

32.48

12.11

Al2O3

0.99

16.45

16.45

13.35

0.15

6.96

3.94

Fe2O3

0.41

7.98

7.98

12.42

0.11

21.53

1.84

CaO

50.38

6.1

0.52

24.18

44.93

MgO

0.48

4.47

4.47

0.55

0.67

0.96

0.48

LOI
CO2

40.30

0.4

39.30

K2O

0.18

2.66

2.66

1.47

2.13

2.05

0.91

Na2O

0.03

2.84

2.84

0.24

0.49

0.76

0.04

SO3

0.06

TiO
P2O5

0.73

0.73

0.379

0.01

0.28

0.36

0.36

0.162

0.97

0.906

Cl

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - MATERIAL BALANCE RESULTS


Material Balance Based
on Clinker Weighing

t/h
Kiln Feed (dry)

kg/kgck

305.34

1.53

Material Balance
Based on Kiln Feed

t/h

kg/kgck

279.41

Elemental Balance Based on


Clinker Weighing

1.52

Clinker
SiO2

Measured

Calculated

22.48

18.72

5.34

4.63

Kiln Feed (dry + TOC + S )

305.34

1.53

279.41

1.52

Al2O3

Kiln Feed (wet+TOC+S-2)

305.98

1.53

280.00

1.52

Fe2O3

4.74

3.81

58.37

0.29

58.37

0.32

CaO

65.69

69.50

0.43

0.00

0.43

0.00

MgO

0.64

0.85

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

364.14

1.82

338.22

1.84

LOI
CO2

0.00

0.00

-2

Total Fuel Ash


Total Fuel SO3
Total Fuel Cl

Clinker
Preheater Dust
Bypass Dust
SO2 in preheater exit
Dehydration+Decarbonation

199.54

1.00

184.06

1.00

K2O

0.52

0.53

41.72

0.21

41.72

0.23

Na2O

0.07

0.14

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

SO3

0.28

0.31

0.00

0.12

0.12

0.03

0.05

0.00
99.91

0.00
98.66

0.00

0.00

0.00

122.88

0.62

112.44

0.61

TiO
P2O5

364.14

1.82

338.22

1.84

Cl

Kiln feed wet / clinker

1.53

1.52

Raw mix dry / clinker

1.32

1.29

Factor kiln feed / clinker for production:

1.40

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - THEORETICAL HEAT OF CLINKER FORMATION CALCULATION
Ash Corr. Clinker Compounds

SiO2

Clinker
gr/kgck

Bypass

116.51

Al+F

0.022 Metakaolin

0.047

Kaolin

0.054 SiO2

0.091

Al2O3

14.03

Fe2O3

11.74

CaCO3 Cal.

CaO

638.89

MgO

4.24

46.9

58.30

C2S, [%]

29.1

17.50

0.00

MgCO3 Cal.

0.002

C3A, [%]

6.1

6.50

0.00

CO2=>

0.258

C4AF, [%]

14.4

13.30

Delta

all Nm/kgck
0.3063

<=CO2

Free lime

0.0483

Sulphur / Alkali

kcal/kgck

1.45 % crystal water / kg cl


Dehydration clay
CaCO3 Decarbonisation

482.6

0.00

Clinkerisation

113.98

108.429

MgCO3 Decarbonisation

2.7

0.00

Crystallization

3.38

3.38

5.0
509.8

0.00

Total Exothermic

117.36

111.81

Total Endothermic

Theoretical Heat Clinker, [kcal / kgck]


Theoretical Heat Clinker, [kJ/kgck]

Based on average clinker analysis by plant Lab

0.256

kcal/kgck

Glas formation

Clinker Phases

C3S, [%]

19.5

410.24
1717.69

1.7
53 %

LSF 0 fCaO

90.8

S/R

2.23

398.01

For comparison: Perray's heat for clinker formation which is based on clinker analysis
410.24 [kcal / kgck]

Clinker
199.54

0
Clinker
22.48
5.34
4.74
65.69
0.64
0
0
0.52
0.07
0.28
0.116
0.033
0

ker analysis by plant Lab

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - FUEL SUMMARY


Kiln Specific Heat Consumption, (SHC), kJ/kgck

3866

SHC including TOC and S , kJ/kgck

3866

-2

Main Burner Fuels


Servo Coal

Flowrate, kg/h

LHV, (kJ/kg - as fired)

Neutral Waste Gases


Nm/kgck
Nm/MJ

Ratio over kiln SHC, %

8625

20466

0.23
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

8075
71250
1040
6917

20466
5120
12678
7457
33830
13120

0.21
0.47
0.02
0.07
0.00
0.00

Preheater / Precalciner Fuels


Servo Coal
Bottom feed
Rice husk
Wood
TOC
S-2

01/25/2015
Date:
Kiln:

3/13/2012
RK3#

Comment:

PRIMARY FIRING
Type of fuel
Type of analyse (dry / wet)
Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
H2O
Total
LHV calculated (kcal/kg)

SECONDARY FIRING

Servo Coal
dry
56.80%
5.90%
0.50%
15.50%
0.50%
19.50%
24,144
5,766
13.81%
98.70%
5,738

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

48.96%
5.09%
0.43%
13.36%
0.43%
16.81%
13.81%
20,465
4,888

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Type of fuel
Type of analyse (dry / wet)
Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
H2O
Total
LHV calculated (kcal/kg)

Analyses as fired

LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
Neutral combustion air
Nm / kg fuel
Nm / kgck
Nm / h

Neutral waste gases

SO2
N2
% CO2
%H2O
%N2

Err:511
0.91

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.003

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

1.79
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.01
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.000
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
8,625.0
Err:511
885
Err:511
22.9%

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

Mass

H2O
SO2
N2
% CO2
%H2O
%N2
Fuel feed rate (kg/h)
Total (Nm/kgck)
kJ/kgck
Nm/MJ
%
heat cons. including TOC&S:
Kiln production (kg.ck/h)
kJ/kgck total fuel consumption
decarbonatisation Nm CO2 / kg cli
%H2O in raw mix (cristall water)

3,865.4
199,540
3,865
0.31
1.19

Neutral
kiln

%N2
%O2

923
which

kcal/kgck

Including
0.00%
CO2hotmeal

%N2
%O2
%CO
CO2 decarbo kiln

Including
5.20%
O2 dry

SO2
N2
% CO2
%H2O
%N2

22.9%

Flowrate (kg/kg fuel)


CO2
H2O
SO2
N2
% CO2
%H2O
%N2
Fuel feed rate (kg/h)
Total (Nm/kgck)
kJ/kgck
Nm/MJ
%

in kiln

BY-PASS
POINT
By-pass
0.00%
extraction
Err:511

Extra
Air
for
extracted
bypass
Err:511

Err:511

0.039
Err:511

0.039
Err:511

0.039
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.00000
Err:511

H2O
SO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

N2
O2

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

12.64%
1.03%
0.14%
5.02%
0.25%
77.66%
2.05%
5,120
1,223

33.64%
4.82%
0.05%
28.17%
0.74%
13.45%
18.36%
12,677
3,028

23.73%
4.29%
0.05%
21.87%
0.16%
1.29%
48.30%
7,453
1,780

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
100.00%
0
0

100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
33,830
8,080

0.00%
0.00%
100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
13,120
3,134

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
0.91

Err:511
0.24

Err:511
0.63

Err:511
0.44

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
1.87

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.70

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

1.79
Err:511

0.46
Err:511

1.23
Err:511

0.87
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

3.66
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

0.01
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
Err:511
Err:511

2.00
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
8075
Err:511
828
Err:511
21.4%

Err:511
Err:511
71250
Err:511
1,828
Err:511
47.3%

Err:511
Err:511
1040
Err:511
66
Err:511
1.7%

Err:511
Err:511
6917
Err:511
258
Err:511
6.7%

Err:511
Err:511
0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

0.0%

Err:511
Err:511
1.3211

Err:511

Neutral
calciner
Err:511

Including
decarbo
total
Err:511

Excluding
Bypass
Err:511

0.140
Err:511

0.179
Err:511

0.486
Err:511

0.486
Err:511

0.486
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.000

0.000

Err:511

Volume
Flowrate (Nm/kgck)
CO2

Incl.H2O

Including
Neutral
kiln
Err:511

Including Including
1.30%
0.15%
O2 dry
CO dry
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
0.274

Err:511
0.352

Err:511
0.953

Err:511
0.953

Err:511
0.953

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)

0.306
Err:511
Err:511

/neutral air

(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

CO
% CO2
%H2O
SO2 ppm
%N2
%O2
%CO

Mass
Err:511
0.078

Err:511
0.078

Err:511
0.078

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

(Nm/kgck)

Err:511

Total combustion air kiln

(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
10,129
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

4.0%

Secondary air flow


Air from the cooler(secondary + tertiary air)
Air Composition
%O2 air

Flowrate (kg/kgck)
CO2
H2O
SO2
N2
O2
CO
% CO2
%H2O
%N2
%O2
%CO
CO2 decarbo calciner

0.000

(Nm/kgck)

Secondary air
Primary air kiln (% total kiln air)
including transport air
Kiln hood inleak.(%total kiln air)

Flowrate (Nm/kg fuel)


CO2
H2O

Err:511

Excess air kiln

Total kiln exit gas (wet)

Total
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
Neutral combustion air
Nm / kg fuel
Nm / kgck
Nm / h

Err:511

O2
CO
% CO2
%H2O

13120
3,134

48.96%
5.09%
0.43%
13.36%
0.43%
16.81%
13.81%
20,465
4,888

Kiln excess air avail. (Nm/kgck)


Neutral combustion air preca (Nm/kgck)
Ratio "raw mix / clinker" (dry)

Mass

SO2
N2

100.00%

100.00%
2,245

(in real mass)

%CO
Flowrate (kg/kgck)
CO2
H2O

Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
H2O

Including
0.03%
CO dry
Err:511

Volume waste gases

%H2O
SO2 ppm

S-2
feed S-2
dry

100.00%
8,080

0.00%

Ratio "hot meal / ck"

CO
% CO2

0
100.00%
0.00%
0

TOC
feed TOC
dry
100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
33,830
8,080

Mass

Flowrate (kg/kg fuel)


CO2

N2
O2

Water Inj.
SNCR
wet

Volume

Flowrate (Nm/kg fuel)


CO2
H2O

H2O
SO2

Wood
dry
45.90%
8.30%
0.10%
42.30%
0.30%
2.50%
16,747
4,000
48.30%
99.40%
4,576

Neutral waste gases

Volume

Flowrate (Nm/kgck)
CO2

Rice husk
dry
41.20%
5.90%
0.06%
34.51%
0.91%
16.47%
16,089
3,843
18.36%
99.05%
3,786

Analyses as fired

Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
H2O

KILN EXIT

Servo Coal Bottom feed


dry
dry
56.80%
12.90%
5.90%
1.05%
0.50%
0.14%
15.50%
5.13%
0.50%
0.26%
19.50%
79.29%
24,144
5,279
5,766
1,261
13.81%
2.05%
98.70%
98.77%
5,738
1,163

Err:511

%N2 air

Neutral air calciner


Excess air
Total combustion air

Err:511
Err:511

Total calciner exit gas (wet)

Tertiary air
Primary air preca including transport air

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
Err:511

False air into tertiary air:

24997

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/h)

Tertiary air from cooler

Err:511

(Nm/h)

Kiln inlet inleakage (% kiln exit gas)

4.0%

false air kiln inlet / calciner


Tertiary air into calciner

6,700

0.055
10,985
Err:511
Err:511
0.0335772276
Err:511
Err:511

%H2O air

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
CO2 decarbo total: 0.306

Am/h
Am/h

PC Exit Gas
Density
kg/Nm
Err:511

Total
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - COOLER HEAT CALCULATIONS SUPPORT SHEET
kg/h

kcal/h

kJ/h

TC

kg/h

Fan # 1
Fan # 2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Fan # 3
Fan # 4

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Fan # 5

Err:511

Err:511

Fan # 6
Fan # 7

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Fan # 8
Fan # 9

Err:511

Fan # 10
Fan # 11
Fan # 12

kcal/h
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Tertiary Air
Mill take off #1

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

901

30

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Mill take off #2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

30

Exhaust air measured


Exhaust air calculated

Err:511

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Wall losses
Vaporisation Heat

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Cold clinker

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Energy recalculations for TC

Total Cooling Fans


Secondary Air

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Total Cooling fans

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

199540

199540

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

0
360

Err:511

Err:511

1143769

4788960

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

kcal/h
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
kg/h

Exhaust air water inj.

TC

Secondary air, TC measured


Secondary air, TC calculated

Fan # 13
Fan # 14

Hot clinker

kJ/h

kcal/h

kJ/h

Air leakage leaving cooler

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

False air entering cooler

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Water injection volume, Nm3/h

Err:511

TC

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - KILN HEAT CALCULATIONS SUPPORT SHEET
Fuel sensible heat calculations
1
kg/h, wet
kg/h dry
kg/h,H2O
enthalpy fuel
C
kcal/h, fuel
kJ/h, fuel
enthalpy H2O
kcal/h, H2O
kJ/h, H2O

Servo Coal
8625.00
7433.89
1191.11
Err:511
60.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
0.00
0.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Humidity calculations
Absolute humidity, kgH2O/kg dry air
Air moisture by mass, %
Air moisture by volume, %

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Wet molecular weight, g/gmole wet air

Err:511

Primary air heat calculations


Main burner
kg/h

PRIMARY FIRING
2
0.00
0.00
0.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
0.00
0.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

1
0.00
0.00
0.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

SECONDARY FIRING
1

Servo Coal
Bottom feed
Rice husk
Wood
8075.00
71250.00
1040.00
6917.00
6959.84
69789.38
849.06
3576.09
1115.16
1460.63
190.94
3340.91
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
60.00
70.00
30.00
30.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

0.00
0.00
0.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

False air heat calculations


kg/h
C
Kiln hood sealing
Err:511
Kiln inlet sealing
Err:511
Airlift
Err:511
Preheater false air
Err:511
TA duct false air
Err:511
Total
Err:511
Recalculated energy for mixed TC

kcal/h
30
30
65
30
30
Err:511

kJ/h
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Water inputs
C

kcal/h

kJ/h

kg/h
Kiln feed total H2O

C
643

kcal/h

kJ/h

Primary 1
Primary 2
Transport 1
Transport 2
Transport 3
Transport 4
Preca burners
Primary 1

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

30
0
30
0
0
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Primary 2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

CO2

0 Err:511

Primary 3

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

H2O

0 Err:511

Transport 1

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

SO2

0 Err:511

Transport 2

Err:511

30

Err:511

Err:511

N2

0 Err:511

Transport 3
Err:511
Transport 4
Err:511
Total primary air
Err:511
Recalculated energy for mixed TC

30
30
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

O2

Preheater
Cooler
Total injected water

0
0
0 Err:511

By-Pass
Gas Composition

kg/h

Total By-Pass Gas


By-pass Dust

0
0

69

Err:511

Err:511

0
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

kcal/h

0 Err:511
0
Err:511
0
Err:511

kJ/h

Err:511
Err:511

Total
95907
88608
7299

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

01/25/2015
Date:
Kiln:

3/13/2012
RK3#

Comment:

PRIMARY FIRING
Type of fuel
Type of analyse (dry / wet)
Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
H2O
Total
LHV calculated (kcal/kg)

SECONDARY FIRING

Servo Coal
dry
56.80%
5.90%
0.50%
15.50%
0.50%
19.50%
24,144
5,766
13.81%
98.70%
5,738

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
0

48.96%
5.09%
0.43%
13.36%
0.43%
16.81%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

13.81%
20,466
4,888

0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0
0

0.00%
0
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Type of fuel
Type of analyse (dry / wet)
Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
H2O
Total
LHV calculated (kcal/kg)

Analyses as fired

Servo Coal Bottom feed Rice husk


dry
dry
dry
56.80%
12.90%
41.20%
5.90%
1.05%
5.90%
0.50%
0.14%
0.06%
15.50%
5.13%
34.51%
0.50%
0.26%
0.91%
19.50%
79.29%
16.47%
24,144
5,279
16,089
5,766
1,261
3,843
13.81%
2.05%
18.36%
98.70%
98.77%
99.05%
5,738
1,163
3,786

Water Inj.

TOC

SNCR
wet

feed TOC
dry
100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
33,830
8,080

feed S-2
dry

100.00%
8,080

100.00%
2,245

Wood
dry
45.90%
8.30%
0.10%
42.30%
0.30%
2.50%
16,747
4,000
48.30%
99.40%
4,576

0
100.00%
0.00%
0

S-2

100.00%

13120
3,134

Analyses as fired

Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
H2O
LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
Neutral combustion air
Nm / kg fuel
Nm / kgck
Nm / h

Neutral waste gases

Carbone
Hydrogen
Sulphur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Ash
H2O

Total
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

LHV [kJ/kg]
LHV (kcal/kg)
Neutral combustion air
Nm / kg fuel
Nm / kgck
Nm / h

48.96%
5.09%
0.43%
13.36%
0.43%
16.81%

12.64%
1.03%
0.14%
5.02%
0.25%
77.66%

33.64%
4.82%
0.05%
28.17%
0.74%
13.45%

23.73%
4.29%
0.05%
21.87%
0.16%
1.29%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.00%
0.00%
100.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

13.81%
20,466
4,888

2.05%
5,120
1,223

18.36%
12,678
3,028

48.30%
7,457
1,781

100.00%
0
0

0.00%
33,830
8,080

0.00%
13,120
3,134

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Neutral waste gases

Volume

Volume

Flowrate (Nm/kg fuel)


CO2

Err:511
0.91

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Flowrate (Nm/kg fuel)


CO2

Err:511
0.91

Err:511
0.24

Err:511
0.63

Err:511
0.44

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
1.87

Err:511
0.00

H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

SO2
N2

0.003

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.70

% CO2

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

SO2
N2
% CO2

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

%H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%N2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%N2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Flowrate (kg/kg fuel)


CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

1.79

0.46

1.23

0.87

0.00

3.66

0.00

Err:511
0.01

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
2.00

Mass

Mass

Flowrate (kg/kg fuel)


CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

1.79

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

H2O

Err:511
0.01

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.00

Err:511
0.00

H2O

N2
% CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

N2
% CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%H2O

Err:511
Err:511
8,625.0
Err:511
885
Err:511
22.9%

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

%H2O

0.0%

0.0%

Err:511
Err:511
6917
Err:511
258
Err:511
6.7%

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

0.0%

Err:511
Err:511
1040
Err:511
66
Err:511
1.7%

Err:511
Err:511
0.0
Err:511
0

0.0%

Err:511
Err:511
71250
Err:511
1,828
Err:511
47.3%

Err:511
Err:511
0
Err:511
0

0.0%

Err:511
Err:511
8075
Err:511
828
Err:511
21.4%

Incl.H2O

Including
3.65%
O2 dry

SO2

%N2
Fuel feed rate (kg/h)
Total (Nm/kgck)
kJ/kgck
Nm/MJ
%
heat cons. including TOC&S:
Kiln production (kg.ck/h)
kJ/kgck total fuel consumption
decarbonatisation Nm CO2 / kg cli
%H2O in raw mix (cristall water)

3,865.7
199,540
3,866
1.09%
1.19

Neutral
kiln

Volume waste gases

Including
0.00%
CO2hotmeal

22.9%

in kiln

(in real mass)

Fuel feed rate (kg/h)


Total (Nm/kgck)
kJ/kgck
Nm/MJ
%

Kiln excess air avail. (Nm/kgck)


Neutral combustion air preca (Nm/kgck)
Ratio "raw mix / clinker" (dry)

Err:511
Err:511
1.3211

%H2O (moisture) in kiln feed:

0.21%
305,980

Including
5.20%
O2 dry

kg/h kiln feed (moist)

Including
0.03%

BY-PASS
POINT

Extra
Air

By-pass
0.00%

for
extracted
bypass
Err:511

Volume

Err:511

Err:511

CO dry
Err:511

extraction
Err:511

0.039

0.039

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

0.00000
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Flowrate (Nm/kgck)
CO2

Err:511
0.039

H2O
SO2

Err:511
0.0001
Err:511

0.0001
Err:511

N2

which

kcal/kgck

%N2

Err:511

O2
CO
% CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

%H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

SO2 ppm
%N2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

%O2
%CO

Neutral
calciner

Including
Neutral

Including
decarbo

Excluding

Flowrate (Nm/kgck)
CO2

Err:511

kiln
Err:511

total
Err:511

Bypass
Err:511

0.140

0.179

0.486

H2O
SO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

Err:511

N2

Err:511

O2

Err:511
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.0000
Err:511

0.000

0.000

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

SO2 ppm
%N2

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Flowrate (kg/kgck)
CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

0.274

0.352

0.953

0.9533

0.953

Err:511

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511
0.0000

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

0.000

0.000

0.000

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

%O2
%CO

Mass
Err:511

Err:511

0.078

0.078

0.078

Err:511

Err:511

H2O

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

Err:511
0.000

H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

N2
O2

CO
% CO2
%H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%N2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

%O2

Total kiln exit gas (wet)

0.486
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Total combustion air kiln

0.486
Err:511

%H2O

Err:511

Excess air kiln

CO dry
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%CO
CO2 decarbo kiln

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Flowrate (kg/kgck)
CO2

N2
O2

Including
0.08%

CO
% CO2

Mass

SO2

0.0%

0.31

Ratio "hot meal / ck"

KILN EXIT

923

SO2

(Nm/kgck)

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
10,129
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

4.0%

Secondary air flow


Air from the cooler(secondary + tertiary air)
Air Composition
%O2 air

%N2 air

Err:511

False air assesment along preheater (calciner exit till preheater exit):
CO2 out of decarbonatisation:
CO2 out of combustion:
Total CO2:

0.601
0.352
0.953

kg/kg cl
kg/kg cl
kg/kg cl

CO2 out of fossil combustion kiln:


CO2 out of fossil combustion calciner:
Total fossil CO2 out of combustion:

0.078
0.274
0.352

kg/kg cl
kg/kg cl
kg/kg cl

Total fossil CO2:

0.953

kg/kg cl

CO
% CO2
%H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

%N2

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

%O2
%CO
CO2 decarbo calciner

0.000

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Secondary air
Primary air kiln (% total kiln air)
including transport air
Kiln hood inleak.(%total kiln air)

SO2

Neutral air calciner


Excess air line
Total combustion air line

Err:511
Err:511

Total preheater exit gas (wet)

Err:511
Err:511

0.306
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

/neutral air
Err:511

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

0.055
10,985
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Tertiary air
Primary air preca including transport air

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)

False air into tertiary air:

24997

Tertiary air from cooler

Err:511

(Nm/h)

air lift / PH / calciner (Nm/h)


Tertiary air into calciner

4.0%
Err:511

Err:511

(Nm/h)

Err:511

PH Exit Gas
Density

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/h)

Kiln inlet inleakage (% kiln exit gas)

%H2O air

CO2 decarbo total: 0.306

(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)
(Nm/kgck)
(Nm/h)

Am/h
Am/h

kg/Nm
Err:511

Err:511

Total
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

#VALUE!
RK3#

Date:
Kiln:
Comment:

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - COOLER BALANCE AND PERFORMANCE SHEET
Cooler input
Cooling fans
Hot Clinker
Exhaust air water injection
False air

kg/h
Err:511
199540
0
Err:511

Total
Out - In

TC
Err:511
1450
0

Err:511
Err:511

Cooler output
Nm3/kgck
1.77
Err:511
0.00

kJ/kgck
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
0.00

%
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Secondary air
Tertiary air
Mill take off #1
Mill take off #2
Exhaust air
Cold clinker
Wall losses
Vap. Heat
Air leakage
Total

kg/h
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
199540

TC
Err:511
901
0
0
360
227

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

Nm3/kgck
Err:511
Err:511
0.00
0.00
Err:511

0.00
Err:511

Cooler Load, tday/m2


Err:511

Cooling Efficiency,
Recovery Factor, k

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511 Nm3/kgck
Err:511 C

Secondary air

199540 kg/h
1450 C

Hot Clinker

Average Blowing Density, Nm3/s/m2


Cooler Loss, kJ/kgck

Err:511

Err:511 Nm3/kgck
901 C

Tertiary air

0.00 Nm3/kgck
0 C

0.00 Nm3/kgck
0 C

Mill take off #1

Mill take off #2


Exhaust air

Err:511 Nm3/kgck
360 C

%
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

47.40
1.77

Air Load, Nm3/kgck


B lo w in g D e n sity, N m 3/s/m 2

Recovery Efficiency,

kJ/kgck
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
24.00
Err:511
0.00
Err:511

0.97
Err:511

BLOWING DENSITY OF THE COOLER


2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60

Cooling fans
1.77 Nm3/kgck
Err:511 C

Cold
Clinker
199540 kg/h
227 C

0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

Cumulative Surface Area, m2

100.00

120.00

#VALUE!
RK3#

Date:
Kiln:
Comment:

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - KILN SYSTEM HEAT BALANCE


System In
kg/h
305338

Kiln Feed
H2O
Total Fuel

TC

System Out

Nm3/kgck
69

643

69

95907

Err:511

kJ/kgck
Err:511

heat%
Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Gas Composition
CO2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

H2O

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

content
Preheater Exit Gas

kg/h
Err:511

TC
462

Nm3/kgck kJ/kgck heat %


Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Sensible Heat

88608

Combustion
H2O

88608

Err:511

3865.67

Err:511

SO2 (ppm)

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

7299

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

N2

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511

TOC Combustion
S-2 Combustion

0
0
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
0.11
1.77
Err:511

0.00
0.00
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

O2

Err:511
Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Err:511

360

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
199540

0
0
227

0.00
0

41720
0
0

445
0
0

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
1717.69
Err:511
Err:511
0.00
0.00
Err:511
248.10
11.40
115.40
97.30
24.00

Total False Air


Total Primary Air
Total Cooling Air of Cooler
Total Water Injection

69
69
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Heat Consumption (fuels only, no TOC,S2-):

Total Heat In

3866

kJ/kgck

CO
Heat Loss CO Preheater Exit
Cooler Exhaust Air
Cooler Exhaust Inj. Water Vap.
Cooler Mill Take Off #1
Cooler Mill Take Off #2
Clinker
Clinker Formation Heat
Preheater Dust
By-Pass Gas
By-Pass Dust
By-Pass Decarbonisation Heat
Water Vaporization Heat
Wall Losses
Tertiary Air Duct
Preheater
Kiln
Cooler

643

Err:511

Err:511
Total Heat Out

Err:511

Err:511

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Date:
Kiln:
Comment:

12/30/1899
RK3#

KILN AUDIT HEAT BALANCE TOOL - RESULTS SUMMARY TABLE


Main Parameter
Kiln&Preheater
Clinker Production
Clinkerisation Factor
Preheater Exit Dust
Top Cyclone Efficiency
Specific Heat Consumption

Unit

Audit Result

Comments

Levers
Unit

Lafarge
standard
[t/d]
[-]
[g/Nm]
[%]
[kJ/kgck]

4789 Load is high due to upraded kiln from 4000 tpd to 5000 tpd
1.53
Err:511
86.37
3866 Very high SPC due to low PF. Quartz in material streams to be confirmed

4.5 Tpd kk / m3 internal volume

80 gr/Nm3 (normal practice)


92% (Normal practice)
3331 (Corrected value from
normal practice in the 5
stages PC kiln with feed
only in the top, Kj/kgkk )

Err:511
86%
3866

% Heat Input on Main Burner:

[%]

22.9 Too low. High high load at FF due to dual feed system.

AF Substitution Rate
Thermal Load (Burning Zone)

[%]
[MW/m2]

8.40 Not including SBE and Kimberly Clark in shale stream


3.47

Specific Preheater Gas Flow


Specific Preheater Gas Flow

[Nm3/kgck]
[Am3/kgck]

Err:511 Due to high heat consumption


Err:511

1.6 Nm3/kgkk
4 Normal practice, Am3/kgkk

Err:511
Err:511

Preheater Exit Gas Oxygen (wet)


False air Preheater and Calciner

[%]
[Nm3/kgck]

Err:511
Err:511 High. Will repair on shut down

4 Normal practice, %O2


0.08 Lafarge target in normal PH
kiln with 1.6 Nm3/kgkk
waste gas, Nm3/kgkk

Err:511
Err:511

Preheater Exit Gas Temperature

[C]

360 degC, assumed 30deg C is


the effect of bottom feed to
the heat transfer.

462

Calcination Degree
Kiln Residence Time
CO2 total
CO2 fossil total
Kiln Loading
Burning zone filling degree
(Fuller Formula)
Cooler
Secondary Air Volume
Secondary Air Temperature
Tertiary Air Volume

[%]
[min.]
[kg/kg cl]
[kg/kg cl]
[%]
[%]

[Nm3/kgck]
[C]
[Nm3/kgck]

462 High due to dual feed system

100.00 28
0.953
0.953
6.28
17 High filling. To be optimized

Err:511 Low.
Err:511
Err:511 High

1260 Normal practice kj/kgkk to


the main burner

4.9

5 MW/m2. ((can be pushed to


maximum 6MW/m2 in day
to day operation)

92 %

14 % filling degree

0.31 Nm3/kgkk
1200 C
0.47 Nm3/kgkk

885

3.5

100.0

16.8

Err:511
Err:511
Err:511

Tertiary Air Temperature


Cooling Air
Clinker Exit Temperature
Recovery Efficiency
K Factor
Cooler Load

[C]
[Nm3/kgck]
[C]
[%]
[-]
[t/d/m2]

901
1.77
227
Err:511
1.20
47.4

850
2.00
125
72
1.5

C, normal practice.
Nm3/kgkk
C. Good practice
%

901
1.77
227.0
Err:511
1.20

Gas Speed - Stage 1 Exit


Preheater exit gas:
Temperature:
Pressure:
Flow in actual:

Number of cyclones:
Diameter of stage exit:
Area per stage:
Total area:
Gas Speed:

Err:511 Nm/h
462 C
-84.93 hPa
Err:511
Am/h

4
1.7 m
2.27 m
9.08 m
Err:511 m/s

Absolute Pressure:

1008 hPa

Calciner Residence Time


Calciner exit gas:
Temperature:
Pressure:
Flow in actual:

Err:511 Nm/h
914 C
-8.8 hPa
Err:511
Am/h

Calciner Volume:
gas volume:

740 m
Err:511 Am/s

residence time:

Err:511 sec

Absolute Pressure:

1008 hPa