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IHECS - BACHELOR 1 - ENGLISH

COMMUVOC 1.2

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COMMUVOC 1.2

Vocabulary revision for Bachelor 1 English at IHECS 2nd


term (updated version)
Commuvoc 1.2 consists of a series of revision tools, all available on CLIck:
1. the present course book, dowloadable free from CLIck and readable on any
platform through Scribd - the solutions are available from page 27.
2. online exercises for the computer, available from the CLIck website
3. offline exercises in a mobile app called Miniteach
4, offline recap flashcards in a mobile app called Quizlet
Tutorials on the use of these different tools are available on the CLIck website

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Advertising (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/advertising1.htm


______________ are everywhere, from columns of small ______________ advertisements
for houses, jobs, cars etc. in newspapers to big ______________ on walls and enormous
advertisements on______________ by the side of the road. The job of the ______________
agencies is to______________ the products and services of their clients, the
______________.. They design eye-catching ______________ and make television or radio
______________ to persuade us to buy, or ______________, them. The advertising media
include broadcast media, such as TV and radio, and print media, such as dailies and
weeklies, but also cinema, hoardings, ______________ displays,______________, mail
______________, telemarketing and many more. All these media may______________ the
advertising message and put it ______________ to the adequate ______________audience.

Across advertise - advertisements - advertisements - advertisers - advertising carry classified commercials - hoardings - point-of-sales - posters - purchase shots - sponsorship target

Advertising (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/advertising2.htm


Modern advertisements contain hidden messages. ______________ in the advertisement
showing
the pretty girl in the new car or the smiling children round the packet of washing
______________ is the message that if we buy the product, we also ______________ success
and happiness. It is a______________ approach since it ______________ to exploit our
secret dreams, and it is______________ since advertising is ubiquitous. Giant street
______________ and catchy jingles on television ______________ us from all sides. They
______________ us into believing that we can realize our ambitions quickly and easily. On
the other hand, ______________ of advertising say that it is ______________. Advertising is
informative. ______________ tell us about useful new products. They______________ our
lives with colour and music. They increase ______________, stimulate industry and so
keep prices ______________. Whether for or against advertising, most people would agree
that some
kind of ______________ , appointed by the government or by the ______________ industry
itself, is necessary to maintain ______________ of honesty and to discourage the more
______________ types of ______________ advertisements.

achieve advertisements - advertising - beneficial - blatant - bombard - brainwash brighten - defenders - demand - down - hoardings - implicit - inescapable - misleading
powder - seeks - standards - subtle watchdog

Air Travel (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/air_travel1.htm


When travelling by air you have to get to the ___________________ early in order
to___________________ about an hour before your ___________________. If you have a lot of
luggage, you can put it on a ___________________ and push it to the check-in
___________________, where someone will check your ticket and weigh your
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___________________. If you have excess luggage, it can be expensive. Your heavy luggage
is put on a ___________________ and carried away. A light bag is classed as
___________________ luggage and you can take it with you onto the plane. An
___________________ looks at your passport and a ___________________ checks your hand
luggage before you go into the ___________________ to wait till your flight is called. If you
want to, you can buy some cheap ___________________ goods here. Then you see on the
___________________ or you hear an ___________________ that you must
___________________ your plane. You go through the ___________________, then there is
sometimes a ___________________ before you actually enter the plane. When all the
___________________ are ___________________, and when the captain and his
___________________ are ready in the cockpit, the plane begins to ___________________ to
the end of the ___________________. Finally, permission is received from the control
tower and the plane moves faster and faster in order to ___________________ .

Airport - announcement - board - check in - conveyor belt - crew - departure gate departures board departures lounge - desk - duty free - flight - hand - immigration officer
luggage - on board passengers - runway - security check- security guard - take off - taxi
trolley

Air travel (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/air_travel2.htm


Flying is fun. I like being in a big __________ with the __________, i.e. the stewards and
stewardesses looking after me. They walk up and down the __________ - bringing meals
and drinks; and if the flight is going through some __________, such as an __________,
they warn everybody that it might be a bit __________ and ask us to fasten our
__________. On a long flight I like listening to music through the __________ available to all
passengers, and sometimes I have a sleep. I enjoy it all so much that I never want the
plane to __________.

air pocket - airliner - aisle - bumpy - crew - headphones land - seat belts - turbulence

Activism http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/animal_welfare.htm
The British have long been ____________ about animal welfare and were among the first
to____________ for legislation on this matter. There are three main concepts reflecting
different approaches to the topic: ____________ may be defined as the protection of
wildlife and endangered ____________.
Animal welfare refers to the ____________ of animals. ____________ call for the "best
possible
conditions" for animals, free from cruelty or unnecessary bodily ____________.
Animal rights covers conservation and animal ____________ plus the more radical idea
that animals should not be held in captivity (on farms, in zoos or in circuses) or eaten.
Animal rights ____________ are either vegetarians or ____________ (i.e. they do not eat
meat, fish, ____________, animal milk, cheese or eggs).
The move to protect animals has led to the creation of ____________ products, i.e.
products which have not been tested ____________ animals. In Britain, animal activists
have successfully ____________ a campaign for such cosmetics. This resulted in a
____________ passed in November 1998 which ____________ all cosmetics tested on
animals in Britain, although it does not ____________ to imported products. Anita
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Roddick owns The Body Shop, which manufactures ____________ and ____________, and
was a key figure in raising public ____________ about the issue. These products have
become hugely popular. The firm Beauty Without Cruelty has ____________ a similar aim
though with less commercial success.
Another sensitive ____________ is the use of animals by the fur ____________. Anti-fur
campaigns have led to a sharp ____________ in fur sales and there is now a ____________
attached to wearing fur in Britain. In January 2002 Parliament recently agreed to
____________ the remaining 13 ____________ farms, offering them financial ____________.

Activists - apply awareness bans - bill - call - compensation concerned conservationcosmetics - cruelty-free decline harm issue - mink outlaw - poultry - pursued -species
stigma - toiletries- trade vegans waged - welfare -welfarists - well-being

Art http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/ART.HTM
One of the most creative things anyone can do is to make a work of art, whether it's a
_____________ carving a sculpture or a painter painting _____________. _____________
artists do it for their own satisfaction and pleasure, but _____________ artists have to
make a _____________ from their art and they are dependent on _____________ to sell
their works in city _____________. I myself have a Picasso.
Of course, it's a _____________, not an _____________, as I can't _____________ that!
A lot of people buy a camera just to take holiday _____________. They have prints made
and put them in an _____________ or sometimes they prefer _____________, which they
can show on the wall or _____________ with a _____________. Other people are more
serious. They develop and print their _____________ themselves in their own
_____________ at home. If they want big pictures they make _____________.

afford album amateur darkroom - dealers enlargements films - galleries living


original pictures professional projector reproduction screen - sculptor slides snapshots

Banking http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/BANKING.HTM
It's very simple to open a bank account in Britain. There are very few formalities. Just
go to your local_______________, fill in a few _______________, and that's it. You will
probably only have to pay bank _______________ if there is no money in your account or if
you _______________ money from the bank, in other words if you have an overdraft or
want a _______________ or a _______________.
For regular everyday use most people prefer a _______________ account. This normally
_______________ no or little interest. A _______________ account earns some interest but
it's not so easy to _______________ your money. You sometimes have to give a week's
_______________.
At regular intervals, perhaps weekly or monthly, you will receive a _______________ from
the bank, giving details of each _______________ (money you put in) and _______________
(money you take out). If

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you're not sure how much money you have in your _______________, you can just go to
your bank and ask what your _______________ is. If you have to make a regular payment,
like rent, you can ask the bank to pay this amount for you automatically. This
arrangement is called a _______________ order.
Today you no longer depend on bank opening hours to _______________ money, as you
can withdraw plastic money from _______________ (also called _______________) and can
_______________ money through electronic banking.
Some people _______________ more money than they earn. In other words, their
_______________ is greater than their income. If you take more money out of the bank
than you have in your account, you are _______________.

account - balance - borrow branch cash - cash dispensers -cash machines - charges current - deposit deposit - earns - expenditure - forms - loan - mortgage - notice - overdrawn
- spend standing - statement - transfer - withdraw - withdrawal

Censorship http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/censorship.htm
The amount of ____________ material we are exposed to in films nowadays is surely
____________.
Most people accept that scenes of sex and violence are sometimes necessary to tell a
story, but all too often these scenes are ____________; they are unnecessary and simply
inserted in the film to ____________ to the ____________ human instincts. Censorship is
necessary, especially to protect children ____________ the corrupting influence of such
scenes, often ____________ as art, in our cinemas. There should also be censorship of
pornographic and paedophilic magazines produced by ____________ people willing to
____________ for the ____________ tastes of a small minority. Such materials destroy the
innocence of the young and ____________ all who read it. On the other hand, there are
those who say that something which is ____________ becomes desirable, so censorship is
counter-____________, and that censorship ____________ our freedom of ____________.
However freedom is not ____________ freedom to do what we want but freedom from
____________ to destroy society's moral ____________.
Censorship provides the ____________ by which society protects itself.

appeal - attempts - banned - baser - cater choice - degrade - excessive - from - gratuitous
infringes on - masquerading - merely - offensive - perverted - productive - safeguards standards unscrupulous

Cinema & films (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/cinema&films1.htm


Marlon Brando is a ___________ actor and in 'On the Waterfront' he gave his finest
___________. It is his best-known ___________. The ___________ also included Eva Marie
Saint and Karl Malden. The film's ___________, Elia Kazan, never made a better film.
Parts of the film were ___________ in the studios in Hollywood, but a lot was made
___________ in the streets of New York, which makes it at times like a ___________. The
___________ loved the film but it was not only a critical success. It was a great
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___________ success as well, and made an enormous ___________. The ___________ is


about a young man's ___________ to be a boxing champion.

attempt - box-office - cast - critics - director - documentary - on location - performance - plot


profit - role - shot - superb

Cinema & films (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/cinema&films2.htm


Fiona and I went to the cinema the other day to see 'Boyhood' ___________ UGC. The
___________ by the "Libre Belgique" ___________ was good, and we decided to go to the 8
o'clock ___________. When I arrived, Fiona was waiting for me in the ___________, looking
at a ___________ for 'Boyhood' on the wall.
The ___________ took our tickets and ___________ us to our seats. I don't like to be too
close to the ___________ and I usually sit in the back ___________ if possible, and I prefer a
seat on the
___________ so I can ___________ my legs. Before the main film there was a Mickey Mouse
___________, then a ___________ for the following week's film. "Boyhood" was an
___________ film and we enjoyed it tremendously.

Aisle- at - cartoon - critic - foyer - outstanding - performance - poster - review - row - screen
showed - stretch - trailer - usherette

City life http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/city_life.htm


Most people in developed countries are city-__________, many drawn by the irresistible
__________ of the metropolis. The attractions of the city are many: the cosmopolitan
__________, foreign restaurants, different languages, international __________, the
stimulation of cultural __________ or the simple hope of finding work. All too many find,
however, that the glamorous facade is __________. One can be very alone in the city and
the __________ which at first seems to give freedom and protection later leaves just
__________., experienced very painfully by the elderly. There is a lot to do but everything
is
__________. The cost of __________, food and accommodation, is high. There is pollution
not only of the physical but also of the moral environment and the various pressures of
__________ life cause cities to __________ crime and violence. Above all, perhaps, it is the
daily stresses and __________ of the city which make life there a __________ of survival
rather than enjoyment. Many a __________ struggling to work through the __________hour congestion probably wonders 'Is it worth it?'

anonimity - atmosphere - breed - commuter - companies - dwellers - events - expensive - false


living - loneliness - lure - matter - rush - strains - urban

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Computers http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/computers.htm
Just imagine what the world would be without computers.
A computer is an electronic machine that ___________________ calculations
and___________________ data automatically at high speed. A computer cannot work
without ___________________--i.e., a programme--which controls the different hardware
___________________ of the computer.
___________________ computers can be placed on top of a desk but are not very
transportable, while portable computers are light enough to be easily transported.
A personal computer typically has a ___________________ and a ___________________ as its
input unit, while output units are the ___________________, the ___________________, the
___________________.
There are many application programmess that individual users can conveniently
___________________.
___________________ is the creation of pages for publication using personal computers.
___________________ programs are the most popular programs for business calculations.
They allow the user to enter columns and rows of ___________________.
___________________ is the quick search and ___________________ of needed information
from a collection of ___________________ --i.e., a database.

Components- data - database - management - desktop - desktop publishing - digits - keyboard


- loudspeakers - mouse - performs - printer - processes - retrieval - run - screen - software
spreadsheet

Crime http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/crime_busting.htm
The good news is that crime has fallen markedly in recent years. Statistics may not
reflect people's
experience or fear of crime but the ______________ speak for themselves: in America,
crime
______________ have never been so low since the government started keeping
______________ 25 years ago.
Criminologists and politicians from all over the world have flocked to America to learn
about
law-enforcement. If the media are to be believed, America's ______________ approach can
be credited for the sharp ______________ in crime rates. These did not start falling, it is
frequently argued, until strict ______________ was introduced. Strict law ______________
and ______________ sentences did much to deter potential criminals. And the drop in
crime is steepest in the South, where laws are especially strict: Texas has the highest
______________ rate in the US and a crime rate at a 20-year low. In 1997, the murder rate
was ______________ 10% on 1996. Another popular concept based on the "broken
windows" theory is zero ______________. Stop petty ______________, lock them away and
they will not graduate to more ______________ crime.
Still other tough techniques such as teen ______________ now being tested in Britain or
France down well with voters who like their politicians to sound and act tough on crime.
Whether such measures really work is more ______________. Experts say the crime rate
in the US started going down before they became effective. Civil ______________ activists
claim they often result in racial bias if not outright ______________.
Interestingly, a more softly-softly approach seems to be working just as well, even if it
does not make for sensational newspaper ______________. ______________ policing based
on community contacts has done much to ______________ the streets of Washington or
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Boston, while the Maori-inspired concept of restorative justice-bringing ______________


and their victims face to face-has greatly reduced the number of juveniles brought to
court for ______________.
What is certain is that the current drop in crime is ______________ to the end of the crack
epidemic and to demographics as well as to any of the ______________ mentioned above.

attributable - criminals - curfews - debatable - discrimination - down - drop - enforcement


figures - headlines - incarceration - mandatory - neighbourhood - offenders - policies - rates
reclaim records reoffending- rights - sentencing serious- tolerance - tough

Issues in education http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/education_issues.htm


It is interesting that in some countries which are socialist and therefore supposedly
_____________ , the educational system is based on _____________ , which means that
children are educated according to their ability, with the more _____________ children
separated from the others. _____________ of this system say that more intelligent
children will be helped to _____________ their full potential in this way and that these
children will be _____________ if they have to share lessons with less clever pupils.
_____________ of this system, on the other hand, _____________ that it creates an
educated elite, a special class of _____________ people who are encouraged to think of
_____________ as superior _____________ the others. Similarly the others may, as a result
of being _____________ second-rate, develop some kind of inferiority. In a word, such a
system is _____________, since it creates a division between people. Another important
_____________ in education is the amount of freedom and choice children should be given
at school. The _____________ view is that a conventional system of strict rules is best.
However, _____________ of this attitude say it causes _____________, as in the army, and
_____________ children's natural imagination and creativity. We must ask _____________
what the purpose of education is : to _____________ children's heads with facts or to
encourage them to develop their natural _____________ in their own way?

achieve - classless - conservative - cram - critics - discourages - divisive - gifted - held back
issue - labeled - maintain - opponents - ourselves - privileged - regimentation - skills streaming supporters - themselves to

Education (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/education.htm


When children are two or three years old, they sometimes go to a ___________ school,
where they learn simple games and songs. Their first real school is called a ___________
school. In Britain children start this
school at the age of five. The ___________ year in Britain begins in September and is
divided into three ___________. Schools ___________ for the summer holiday in July.
___________ education begins at the age of about eleven. In Britain education is
___________ from five to 16 years of age, but many children choose to ___________ at
school for another two or three years after 16 to take higher exams. Most
children go to ___________ schools, which are ___________ by the government or local
education ___________, but some children go to ___________ schools, which can be very
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expensive. University courses normally last three years and then students ___________,
which means they receive their ___________. At university, teaching is by ___________ (an
individual lesson between a teacher and one
or two students), ___________ (a class of students discussing a subject with a teacher),
___________ (when a teacher gives a prepared talk to a number of students) and of
course private study. Most people who receive a university place are given a ___________
by the government to help pay their ___________ and living ___________.

academic - authorities - break up - compulsory - degree - expenses - fees - graduate - grant


lecture -maintained - nursery - primary - private - remain - secondary - seminar - state terms
- tutorial

Elections and government (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/elections1.htm


People sometimes try to _________________ the result of an election weeks before it takes
place. Several hundred people are asked which party they prefer, and their answers are
used to guess the result of the coming election. This is called an _________________.
Meanwhile each party conducts its _________________ with meetings, _________________,
television _________________, and party members going from door _________________
encouraging people to _________________ their party.
In Britain everyone over 18 is _________________ to vote. The place where people go to
vote in an election is called a _________________ and the day of the election is often
known as
_________________. The voters put their votes, also called _________________, in a
_________________ and later they are counted. The _________________ with the most votes
is then declared the winner.

ballot box- ballots candidate- commercials - election campaign - eligible - opinion poll
polling day - polling station - predict - speeches support - to door

Elections and government (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/elections2.htm


In most countries, except ______________ states, there are several different political
parties. The one with the majority of seats normally forms the ______________, and the
parties which are against the government are called the ______________. Sometimes no
single party wins enough ______________, and several parties must ______________
together in a coalition to form a government. The principal ministers in the government
form a group called the ______________. The leader of this group, and of the government,
is the ______________. Of course, there are many different kinds of parties and
governments. A socialist or communist party is often described as ______________. A
______________ party on the other ______________, is usually said to be right-wing.
Political situations are always changing. Sometimes in a party or between two parties
there is a big ______________ or deep difference of opinion. This is called a ______________.
When, on the other hand, two parties work together, this is sometimes called an
______________.

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alliance - argument - cabinet - combine - conservative - government hand- left-wing oneparty - opposition - prime minister - seats - split

Electrical appliances http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/electrical_appliances.htm


When you buy a television or radio make sure it has a long enough ________. ________ it
in at the most convenient ________ in your room, and then ________ it on. You normally
adjust the volume by turning a ________, and there are other ________ as well. It is
probably best to ________ the appliance when it is not in use. If you have any trouble with
it, ask an electrician to look at it or take it back to the ________ you bought it from.

controls - dealer - knob - lead - plug - socket - switch - unplug

The environment http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/environment.htm


When industrialization began, little thought was given to its _____________ effects. Raw,
untreated _____________ was allowed to pollute our seas and rivers. Animals were killed
for _____________ to the point of _____________. The loss of trees through uncontrolled
_____________ caused erosion and unstable _____________. Acid rain was caused by the
_____________ gases man sent into the _____________. _____________ in pesticides killed
animal life. Herbicides _____________ numerous plants. The _____________ of nature got
disturbed.
It is only now that we are _____________ up to the problem. More natural, _____________
farming is _____________. Legislation controls the _____________ of waste products into
our air and water.
Wildlife organizations are becoming more _____________ in their fight for animal rights.
Replanting _____________ in some parts of the world mean that our forests should in
future be _____________.
We can only hope that growing public _____________ and enlightened legislation will
produce a world which is _____________ for us and will provide a good quality of life for
future generations.

advocated - atmosphere - awareness - balance - chemicals - climate - deforestation - destroyed


- disposal - ecological - extinction - militant - organic - poisonous - policies - profit - safe sewage - sustainable - waking

Finance in the Third World http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/finance_third_world.htm


Calls for help reach the International ____________ Fund at each and every financial
crisis. After the debt ____________ of Mexico in 1982, the IMF had hoped that no other
country would ____________, though less developed countries ____________ the world
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found that that they had to repay ____________ that they thought would be rescheduled
for ever.
In 1997, with the ____________ of the baht, in Thailand and the ____________ of the crisis
throughout the South East banking systems, the IMF and the World Bank thought it was
time to ____________ ahead with reforms that will ____________ the return of crises that
put millions of people back into ____________ and ____________ the global economy. The
crisis ____________ the economy of Brazil and even affected Russia, which is suffering as
well from ____________ difficulties.
At a meeting in April 1999, Finance ministers and central bank governors of 182
countries members of theIMF, decided that ____________ were necessary.
One major ____________ to address is the sudden loss in ____________ of investors that
flee from one market to rush into another creating another ____________ crisis. Another
issue is the ____________ of mafia money. It makes account ____________ more difficult,
both in big banks and in big companies.

Collapse - confidence - crisis - currency - default - domestic - issue - jeopardized - laundering


loans - monetary - poverty - prevent - push - reforms - spreading - threatened - throughout transparency

Flats & houses http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/flats&houses1.htm


The first thing I had to do in London was find somewhere to live, if possible a small, one____________________ flat. I didn't want to ____________________ a kitchen or toilet; I
wanted to be independent in my own self-____________________ place. I decided I could
pay a ____________________ of 150 euros a week. I couldn't find what I wanted in the
newspaper ____________________ so I went to an ____________________. They offered me a
nice place. It was in a modern ____________________ on the third ____________________. I
had to pay the agency a ____________________, and the ____________________ wanted a big
____________________ and references from my ____________________ and bank manager.

accommodation - agency - bedroomed - block - classified ads contained - deposit - employer


fee floor- landlord - rent - share

Flats & houses (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/flats&houses2.htm


Tony and Sheila's first home was a _____________ house, one of a line of houses all
connected. But several years later when they had a small child, they found it rather
_____________ for three people. They wanted something more _____________ and so
decided to move. They went to an _____________ and looked at details of the houses he
had to offer. They looked at a _____________ house (one of a pair attached to each other),
liked it, and asked a _____________ to inspect it for them. He said that it was in good
_____________, and they therefore decided to buy it. Soon a _____________ firm was taking
all their _____________ and other possessions to their new home. But already, after a
couple of years, they are hoping to _____________ again: they want to get an
_____________ to design a modern, _____________ house for them, and a _____________ to
build it.
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architect - builder - condition - cramped - detached - estate agent - furniture moveremovals - semi-detached - spacious - surveyor - terraced

Industry http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/INDUSTRY.HTM
The health of a big, developed country's _________________ depends largely on its
industry.
_________________ have to keep busy. They must _________________ and sell their
_________________ in large quantities. _________________ must make and sell ships, car
_________________ must make and sell cars. A period of industrial success, when
everything goes well and large _________________ are made, is called a _________________.
On the other
_________________ a period when there is not much industrial activity is called
_________________.
To _________________ a high level of production is not simple. For example Japan, a very
successful industrialized country, has very few _________________ such as oil or coal, and
has to import those _________________ from other countries in order to keep its
industries going, and thus to _________________ needs at home and also to export its
goods to its _________________ markets.

boom - economy - factories - hand - maintain - natural resources - overseas - plants - produce
products - profits - raw materials -shipyards - slump - supply

International relations http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/international_relations.htm


The American President and the Russian leader have announced their intention to
____________ a summit ____________ in Vienna next month. The two countries have
already had preliminary ____________ and decided on an ____________ for the meeting.
The main ____________ will be a discussion about the fight against terrorism. At a news
conference held in Washington yesterday a government ____________ told journalists
that the unfortunate ____________ of last year's talks between the two countries had
been caused by disagreements over disarmament. He said the Vienna meeting would be
a chance for the two countries to settle their ____________.
____________ countries A and B had always had very good, ____________ relations, but in
1994, owing to a disagreement over the exact location of the ____________ between them,
a ____________ began to develop. Finally, in 1996, in ____________ at military activity by
country B near the border, country A announced its intention to break ____________
diplomatic relations with country B. Both countries ____________ their ambassadors and
the embassies in the two countries were ____________. It is hoped that a solution will be
found and that it will be possible to ____________ normal trade, cultural and diplomatic
____________ as soon as possible.

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agenda - border - breakdown - close - closed down - differences - hold item - links - meeting
- neighbouring- off - protest - resume - split - spokesman - talks - withdrew

The Internet http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/INTERNET.HTM


The Internet became increasingly accessible to the public with the ____________ of the
personal computer, and the development of Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML),
which in 1992 led to the World Wide Web (or Web). So, the Internet predates the Web by
many years.
The Web is a collection of ____________ that take advantage of the graphic abilities of the
new
____________, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer or Opera. A simple ____________ of the
mouse on a ____________ will take you to the linked page. To keep everyone working
together in peace an informal set of rules called Netiquette has evolved.
If you are looking for a specific topic, you can use a search ____________ such as Yahoo!
or Google. A search engine will give you a list of all the web pages containing information
about the subject that you are ____________. However, you should always check the
information since anyone can create his/her own site and write ____________ they want
in it.
With Facebook you can chat ____________ with other people, post and exchange
information. Facebook is not very private. If you dont use it with caution, anyone can
join a chat and read what you are writing about.
Sooner or later, everyone knew that business would become interested in this marketing
paradise. Individuals and agencies started sending unsolicited mails-also called
____________ , especially through newsgroups.
These are groups of ____________ who exchange messages about their common interests.
As online commerce becomes more common people have begun to worry that it may not
be safe to give information about their credit card through the Internet. In response to
this need, companies in partnerships with banks have developed means of securely
____________ this information to make online ____________ safe.

advent - anything - browsers - chat - click encrypting- engine - link online - researching sites spam surfers - transactions

Law and order http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/law&order.htm


A policeman was sent to ____________ the disappearance of some property from a hotel.
When he arrived, he found that the hotel staff had ____________ a boy in one of the rooms
with a camera and some cash. When the policeman tried to ____________ the boy, he
became violent and the policeman had to ____________ him. At the police station the boy
could not give a satisfactory explanation for his actions and the police decided to
____________ him with the theft of the camera and cash. They took his ____________,
locked him in a cell and ____________ him overnight. The next morning he appeared in
____________ before the magistrate. He took an ____________ and ____________ not guilty.
Two ____________, the owner of the property and a member of the hotel staff, gave
____________. After both sides of the case had been heard the boy was found
____________. He had to pay a ____________ of 250 euros and he was given a ____________
of three months in prison ____________ for two years.
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arrest - caught - charge - court - detained - evidence - fine - fingerprints - guilty - handcuff
investigate- oath - pleaded - sentence - suspended - witnesses

Medical care http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/medical_care.htm


When I go to the doctor, I tell the secretary my name and take a seat in the ____________.
My doctor is very busy so I have to make an ____________ before I go to ____________ him.
He asks me what's ____________ with me, I tell him the ____________ of my illness, for
example high ____________, difficulty in ____________, or pains, and then he will usually
____________ me. He'll listen to my heart with his ____________, he'Il hold my ____________
to feel my pulse. The problem is usually something simple and he might give me a
____________ for some medicine, which I take to the ____________. Of course, if I needed
more serious ____________ than just a ____________, I'd have to go to ____________. There
I'd be put in a bed in a ____________ with other ____________. If there were something
seriously wrong with me, I might need an ____________.

appointment - breathing - chemist - examine - hospital - medicine - operation - patients


prescription- see - stethoscope - symptoms - temperature - treatment - waiting room - ward wrist - wrong

Mobile phones http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/GSM.HTM


The telephone, whether _____________ or mobile, has become one of the most common
household
_____________. Here in Belgium, GSMs made their entrance on the
_____________ in 1994. GSM stands for Global System for _____________ Communications.
Their only _____________ was Proximus, a Belgacom owned _____________, until
_____________ Mobistar was _____________ an operations licence by the Belgian
government in 1995. Their network was _____________ in August 1996. Orange's
_____________ was launched in October 1998. Today GSMs come in a range of models,
sizes, _____________ and colours, all created to _____________ to the consumer at every
level of the market,
who is looking for a _____________ appliance. The operators also offer a wide range of
_____________ and pre-paid cards, possibly to confuse consumers in order to avoid an allout battle and a lowering of their _____________. They claim this is necessary to
_____________ the customers' varied needs. In Britain, _____________ of GSMs have
admitted that their products can cause _____________ risks to users, so called health
_____________. The radiation _____________ they emit are weak, but can lead to loss of
concentration, and, in the _____________ cases, _____________ tumours. This is a real
cause for
minutes at most a day.

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appeal - appliances - brain - competitor - concern - designs - fixed - granted - hazards - health
launched - manufacturers - market - meet - mobile - network operator- rates subscriptions subsidiary talking - user-friendly - waves - worst

Natural disasters http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/natural_disasters.htm


If a country has no rain for a long time, this dry period is called a __________. In
countries dependent __________ their agriculture, this can lead to a period of __________,
when there is not enough food and people actually __________ (die of __________). When it
rains very heavily and the land is under water, this is called a __________. In this
situation people and animals can __________. Sometimes helicopters have to drop food
__________ to people in areas which are cut off.
In some parts of the world, the ground shakes from time to time. This is called an
__________ and if it's a bad one, the number of __________ (dead and __________ people) is
sometimes large. Buildings often __________ and __________ teams have to search for
people who are __________ under the __________. Sometimes water __________ are
affected and there is an __________ of disease, called an __________. Medical teams are
sent by the government to help the sick. The death __________ can reach hundreds or
even thousands.

casualties - collapse - drought - drown earthquake- epidemic - famine - flood hunger injured on - outbreak - rescue - rubble - starve - supplies - supplies - toll - trapped

A new generation of consumers http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/new_consumers.htm


Among other things, the second half of the 20th century will go down in history as a
period of ____________ consumption. Never before had science and new technologies
____________ such an influence on our purchasing ____________. Nowadays, consumers
are both
____________ and more fickle, trade wars are being ____________ on globalized markets
and advertising gurus rule the roost in distribution ____________.
The year 2000 marked the arrival of a new generation of ____________: these are
involved in a relentless pursuit of their material comfort. Markets offer them a wide
____________ of items in supermarket ____________ while new trends ____________ in the
media push them to try new products and adopt new attitudes.
Organic food, cellular phones, "smart cars," TV ____________, let alone Internet shopping,
are just a few but glaring ____________ of today's various consuming trends that slowly
become ____________ .
For instance, a recent ____________ in Britain showed 81% of those interviewed
____________
genefoods and wanted producers to spend more money on developing ____________
livestock. In spite of recent campaigns denouncing the ____________ effects of cellular
phones on the human
____________, the sales of mobile phones have been ____________ for a decade to reach
unprecedented ____________ figures.
The countdown has also begun for the launch of "cyberhomes" ____________ with silicon
microchips... In future superstores, more electronic ____________ will save shoppers
precious time by cutting down waiting-lines at ____________. New shopping technology
like "smart" ____________ will eventually be as easy to operate as flicking a switch.
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Shopping on the Net is also in a position to change the face of ____________. Besides, the
growing success of interactive retail methods also means that shopping may no longer
involve a boring trip down to your local ____________: cable-TV and computers enable us
to ____________ through updated catalogues, place ____________ by means of a mouse and
get the goods ____________ to our homes within a few hours, which will undoubtedly
mark the start of a revolution in our shopping ____________..
High street shops are unlikely to resist this form of ____________.

aisles - booming - brain - browse - check outs - competition - condemned - consumers - delivered evil
- examples - exerted - fought - habits - habits - healthier - mainstream - mall - networks orders
packed - poll - range - retailing retailing- sales - set - skyrocketing - trolleys - wary wizardry

The new poor http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/NEW_POOR.HTM


Poverty has no strict definition and is often divided into "absolute" or "relative"
_____________. Absolute poverty is when people cannot _____________ their basic
needs: _____________, food and clothing.
Relative deprivation is linked to the notion of social _____________. Due to an
inadequate income, poor people live below the living _____________ of their society,
without the things generally owned by others.
The poverty line is an _____________ of less than half the national _____________. In 2012,
it affected 16% of the population in the U.S.A.
The concept of "new poverty' _____________ back to the 80s, when the _____________
crisis of the 70s_____________ many people who had had a decent way of life up to then
but were made
_____________, often because of _____________. The "new poor" were driven out of homes
they could no longer _____________ and forced to sell many of their _____________,
including their cars, which reduced their chances of getting another job.
In Europe, new poverty is often equated with long-term _____________. Likely victims are
young people
and _____________ mothers who rely on _____________ to survive. In the U.S.A., the new
poor are often the working poor, those who work but _____________ such low wages that
they cannot pay for food,
accommodation, health care, education for the children. Blacks and _____________
account for large shares of America's poor.
Poverty has always existed because decision makers have never dared or wished to
_____________ the right solutions.New poverty generally means relative poverty thanks
to the safety nets offered by state assistance (benefits, _____________ money). In
extreme situations though, especially when unemployment
is associated with a _____________ of the family unit (divorce, clash between parents and
children) or addiction, it may lead to absolute poverty and _____________.

accommodation afford average belongings benefits breakdown dates earn economic


exclusion Hispanics hit homelessness implement income meet poverty redundant
single standards streamlining unemployment welfare

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Newspapers

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http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/newspapers1.htm

A newspaper ______________ its money from the price people pay for it (when they buy it
from the ______________ or newsstand, or when they ______________ to it) and also from
the advertising it ______________. A popular newspaper with a ______________ of over five
million daily makes a lot of money. Less serious newspapers are probably read just for
______________. They carry big ______________ above the news stories, funny
______________ to look at and sensational pictures of violence. The ______________
columns are full of stories of the private lives of ______________ people.
No one takes the political ______________ of such papers very seriously. On the other
hand, in a free country where there is no ______________, serious newspapers are read
principally for their news, sent to them by their foreign ______________ round the world
and by the big ______________. People also read these newspapers for their ______________
of new books, films and plays written by some famous ______________, and for their
______________, which represent the ______________ of the newspaper itself about the
important ______________ and issues of the moment. The sports, travel, financial and TV
______________ of our ______________ are also widely read.

carries cartoons censorship circulation correspondents critic dailies editorials


entertainment events famous gossip headlines makes news agencies newsagent
opinion reviews sections subscribe views

Public Relations http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/PR.HTM


The primary goal of public relations is to ____________ a company's reputation and help
____________ public consent for its activities. Today's business environment has become
so ____________ that public consent can no longer be ____________; it must be
____________ continuously.
The term public relations is widely misunderstood and ____________. Part of the
confusion is due to the fact that PR covers a very broad ____________. Every
____________, organization, or government ____________ has relationships with groups of
people who are ____________ by what it does or says. They may be enployees,
____________, ____________holders, ____________, ____________, legislators, or the
community in which the organization resides. Marketing people refer to these as
____________ because they all have some vested ____________ in the company's activities.
Each of these groups is considered one of the organization's ____________, and the goal of
PR is to develop and maintain good-____________ with most, if not all of its publics.
____________ to do so may mean loss of customers and ____________, time lost dealing
with complaints or ____________, and loss of esteem (which weakens the organization's
brand ____________ as well as its ability to ____________ financing,
make sales, and expand.

Affected area assumed body build company competitive competitors - customers


earned equity Failure interest lawsuits manage misused publics revenues secure stakeholders stock - suppliers - will

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The press http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/PRESS.HTM


The press usually refers just to newspapers, also called ____________, but the term can be
extended to include magazines, i.e. ____________ or monthlies. Newspapers are either
tabloid, a format usually associated in the English-speaking world with the ____________
press (such as the Sun), or ____________, associated with quality journalism (such as the
Times). ____________ are sometimes referred to as the gutter press by people who
disapprove ____________ them.
Tabloids often have very large ____________ (numbers of copies sold) and even bigger
____________ (total number of people reading them). Papers such as these are often
referred to as mass circulation papers.
The people in charge of newspaper content are ____________. The people who write for
them are
____________. Someone who writes articles that appear regularly, usually in the same
place in the paper,
and often with powerfully expressed opinions, is a ____________. The British national
press is referred to as ____________ Street, although no national paper is now produced
in this London street.
Newspapers ____________ or ____________ articles or stories. ____________ give the
paper's opinion about the news of the day. In a quality paper, the most important
editorial is the leading article or ____________. These, and the other editorials, are
written by leader writers.
Governments that limit press freedom are accused of ____________ the press. This may
take the form a ____________ code of practice ____________ by a body referred to
informally as a ____________. If the watchdog is ineffective, it is described as toothless. If
this is not enough for the government, it may impose ____________ (legally enforceable)
controls. The authorities are then described as ____________ down or ____________ down
on the press. They may also be accused of press ____________ and of limiting press
____________ or the freedom of the press.

Broadsheet carry censorship circulations clamping columnist cracking - dailies


Editorials editors Fleet freedom gagging journalists leader of overseen popular readerships run statutory Tabloids voluntary watchdog - weeklies

Public transport http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/public_transport.htm


A taxi, also called a _____________, is the most comfortable way to travel. You simply
_____________ the taxi in the street or go to a taxi-_____________, where there are
several taxis waiting, for example at a station. At the end of your _____________, you
can see how much the _____________ is by looking at the meter. You add a
_____________ to this, and that's it. Very simple. But expensive! What about taking a
bus? If it has two _____________, it's called a double-decker and you can get a good
view from the _____________. Most buses have a two-person _____________: the
_____________, who drives, of course, and the _____________, who takes your money.
Keep your ticket because an _____________ might want to check it. You catch a bus by
waiting at a bus _____________, usually a bus _____________. You can see where a bus
is going because the _____________ is written on the _____________. But try to avoid
the _____________ hour. Quicker than the bus is the _____________ (called the tube in
London, the subway in New York and the metro in Paris and many other cities). You
buy your ticket at the _____________ Go down to the _____________ on the
_____________ or in the lift. The train comes. The _____________ doors open. You get
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on. Very simple. For longer distances take a train or a long-distance bus, usually
called a _____________, which is slower but cheaper. The train is very fast. Put your
_____________ on the _____________ and sit and wait till you arrive.

Cab coach conductor - crew destination driver escalator fare floors front - hail
inspector journey luggage platform - rack rank rush shelter sliding stop - ticketoffice - tip top - underground

Reading http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/READING.HTM
I love books. I love reading. I'm a real ____________, and I love to ____________ in
bookshops, just looking briefly at one book after another. I look at the illustrations, the
photos or drawings and read the ____________ that explain these. If there are foreign or
technical words in the book, I look at the ____________ at the back for their meanings
(unless they're explained in ____________ at the bottom of the pages) and I look at the
____________, also at the back, which is a list of other books on the same subject. And I
use the ____________ a lot. I ____________ two or three books a week, and I have to pay a
____________ - if I return them late. Friends often ____________ books to me, and I also
read book ____________ in the newspapers. I ____________ always agree with them, but
anyway they let me
know what new books are being ____________.

Bibliography bookworm borrow browse captions - don't fine footnotes glossary


library published recommend - reviews

Shopping http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/SHOPPING.HTM
If you want to buy a __________ (or we sometimes say off-the-peg jacket), first find the
jackets in the shop and look at the __________ inside to see the __________, material and
make. For the price, look at the price __________. To see if it will __________ you, you can
__________ the jacket in front of a mirror.
If necessary an __________ will help you. You pay the __________, who you will find at the
__________. He or she will take your money, put it in the __________ and give you your
__________.
Make sure you also get a __________, which you should keep and bring back to the shop
with the jacket if something is wrong with it and you want to __________ it or ask for a
__________ of your money. In clothes shops you pay the fixed price, of course. You don't
__________. Or you can wait until the __________, when many goods are reduced in price.
If you don't like shops, you can stay at home, look at catalogues and newspaper
advertisements and do your shopping by mail __________.

assistant bargain cash-desk cashier change exchange fit label order - readymade receipt refund sales size - tag till - try on

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Sponsorship http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/sponsorship.htm
Commercial success depends very much on stars and big ____________ and the results
are sometimes uncertain. The World Cup is over but its marketing lessons are still being
assimilated. The ____________ of commerce into the beautiful game was more evident
than in any ____________ World Cup. Despite unprecedented television ____________ and
a growing appetite for football across gender and class divides, commercial success on
the back of the world's largest sporting event is very uncertain. In a ____________ in
Germany by advertising agency BDDO, Eurocard/Mastercard, Philips, Gillette, JVC and
Casio were recognised as event ____________ by less than 1 % of those polled. Even
Adidas chairman groused about the commercial ____________ that diluted the
____________ of sponsors, such as Adidas, that had paid top dollar. That's 20 million for
a seat at the table and probably the same again in ____________ and advertising around
the event.

Audiences clutter encroachment events impact previous promotion


sponsors - survey

Sports & money http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/sports&money.htm


Sport ___________ a huge part of our lives. Satellite and cable television have ___________
sports ___________, the BBC ___________ well over 100m on the subject. When Vic
Wakeling, the___________ of Sky Sports makes a decisions, it ___________ into the heart
of political power. In 1996, Michael Jordan brought home a grand total of $78.3m, not
bad for playing some basketball, ___________ for a few hot dogs, and letting a few
___________ put his face by their product and associate it with their ___________. But
although the public tends to ___________ on such players who ___________ the roost, real
power in sport is with the ___________ and ___________ who control them, their
___________, appearance money and rights to many of their ___________ events. In that
field nobody is more powerful than American Mark McCormack, head of a sports
management empire ___________ on the back of golf and now ___________ to all sports. In
horse racing Sheikh Mohammed has ___________ hundreds of
millions into the sport. He controls the ___________ of trainers, jockeys, agents and
shippers. Bernie Ecclestone ___________ every aspect of Formula One.

Agents brand channels companies controls - dedicated dominates extending


focus founded head incomes managers posing poured reaches rule spends
sponsorship - televised

Television http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/television.htm
The _______________ is a phrase often used to describe ways of giving information and
_______________ to very large numbers of people. It includes newspapers, magazines,
radio and, of course, television. In our countries people can _______________ to any of
over thirty different TV _______________ thanks to the cable or a _______________. Do
television _______________ influence our minds? Do they indoctrinate us?
_______________ the news completely objective, i.e. neutral, or is it _______________, i.e.
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considered from one particular _______________ ? Don't the _______________ for alcohol,
food and other goods _______________ our minds? Even the _______________ going on
week after week telling the story of one family or group of people, or _______________ amusing drama series - sometimes make us want to copy the life style we see on the
_______________. Also _______________ - which give people big _______________ for
answering simple questions can make us greedy. Some programmes are _______________
by tens of millions of _______________. This is how advertising _______________ on
television are calculated: the bigger the _______________, the more _______________ the
commercial. This type of research is knows as _______________.

Angle audience - audience rating biased channels commercials condition entertainment - Expensive Is - mass media prizes - programmes - quiz shows rates satellite dish - screen sitcoms - soap operas switch viewers - watched

Theatre http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/THEATRE.HTM
The person who directs the preparation of a play is the ____________. Sometimes the
____________, who wrote the play, works with him. One of the first things to be done is to
choose the ____________, i.e. the actors and actresses. For this purpose, ____________ are
held at which actors ____________ short pieces and the most suitable are chosen for the
____________ in the play. Before the play is ____________ in front of an ____________ of
hundreds of theatre-goers, of course there are a lot of ____________. At last, the
____________ ! When the ____________ goes down at the end, will there be enthusiastic
____________ ... or silence? Will the newspaper ____________ be good or bad? What will
the ____________ think? Everyone hopes for a ____________ that will ____________ for
months or even years, but the play might be a ____________ and only last a few days. It's
hard work in the theatre for a theatre ____________. There are evening ____________ - six
nights a week and afternoon shows, called ____________, once or twice as well.

Applause audience auditions cast company critics curtain director - first night flop - hit matines parts - perform performances performed playwright rehearsals
reviews - run

Time expressions http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/time_expressions.htm


(a) Her parties usually finish before midnight, but sometimes they go on
____________________.
(b) People who have ____________________ watches tend to say '7.50' rather than 'l 0 to 8'.
(c) The plane is due to reach Bangkok at 5.30 a.m. ____________________.
(d) If you cross Russia, you pass through eight different ____________________.
(e) Novels don't always describe events in ____________________. It can be confusing.
(f) The First World War took place in the second ____________________ of the XXth
____________________. That was in the second ____________________!
(g) After leaving university he had a ____________________ of teaching and then went
into industry.
(h) In British history the period 1837 to 1901 is known as the ____________________
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(i) But that happened at ____________________ of the century, around 1900. ! It was over
a hundred
years ago!
(j) I always get up at ____________________ to listen to the early birds singing in the trees.
(k) People born on a February 29th only get older every ____________________, don't
they?
(l) Their food is adequate; it includes meat at least ____________________, vegetables and
fruit every day.
(m) She's quite happy in Australia on the whole, but of course she misses her family
____________________.
(n) They're redecorating my digs, so for ____________________ I'm sleeping at a friend's.
(o) High Speed Trains are very punctual; they always leave ____________________.
(p) She set the alarm so she'd wake up ____________________ to give her son his
medication.
(q) He was ____________________ of his time employing ex-convicts and handicapped.
(r) She ran for the staircase and down the steps, taking two ____________________.
(s) The situation is calm for the time ____________________.
(t) When you start your studies, it is hard to imagine what'll happen in
____________________.
(u) If we're out, we always make sure we are back home in ____________________ to watch
the 10 o'clock news.
(v) She had ____________________ for me in the midst of her busy schedule.
(w) We were delayed last week, but are working hard to ____________________ lost time.
(x) Time ____________________ time television channels showed us pictures of the
collapsing towers
(y) For some it was awful, while for others, especially the young, it was the time
____________________.
(z) Their new commercial will run four times this week at ____________________ time.
(1) Reading the newspaper every day is a time ____________________ pursuit.
(2) The time ____________________ within which all this occurred was between July and
September last
year
(3) The time-____________________ between research and application may be very long.
(4) This proposal is a political ____________________ that could cost the government the
next elections
(5) The likelihood is that these companies will start showing profit on a two-year
____________________.
(6) The firemen got the children out in the ____________________. Less than a minute
later the building
collapsed.

After ahead - at a time - at times being century - chronological order consuming


dawn decade digital - every other day - five years' time frame - good time - in time - into
the small hours lag leap year - local time - made time - make up for millennium - nick of
time - of their lives - on time peak spell - the time being - the turn - time bomb - time scale time zones - Victorian era

Travelling (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/TRAVEL1.HTM


People have more money and more ________________ nowadays and even young people
can ________________ to go ________________. Many ________________ offer cheap
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________________ tickets for ________________ to all parts of the world with


________________ such as Virgin or Sobelair, so youngsters can avoid the
________________, well-known places and get to less famous areas which are off
________________. Instead of using public transport and hotels, they can travel by
________________ and stay at youth ________________. But most people prefer some kind
of ________________ holiday at a popular holiday ________________, which means that
everything is arranged for you by the ________________ and the price you pay includes
transport, food and ________________. Try to avoid taking your holiday during the busy
________________ season. It's more crowded and ________________. If possible, go in the
quieter ________________ period.

Abroad accommodation afford airlines crowded - cut-price expensive flights hitch-hiking hostels leisure - off-peak package - peak resort - the beaten track - tour
operator - travel agents

Travelling (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/TRAVEL2.HTM


(a) For general advice about travel, go to a ____________.
(b) One day I would like to do the ____________ by train and ship across Russia to Japan.
(c) We're going on a ____________ of Europe, visiting 11 countries in five weeks.
(d) We went on a three-week ____________ round the Mediterranean. The ship
____________ at
Venice, Athens, Istanbul and Alexandria.
(e) He once went by ship to Australia. The ____________ took 3 1/2 weeks.
(f) l'm going on a business ____________ to Paris next weekend.
(g) Air France ____________ 507 from Paris to New York will be ____________ off in ten
minutes.
(h) The ____________ from Heathrow Airport to the centre of London takes about 45
minutes
____________ underground.
(i) On our first day in New York we went on a three-hour ____________ of the city by bus,
which showed
us the main ____________.
(j) During our stay in London we went on a day ____________ to Oxford, and another to
Windsor.

By called cruise flight journey journey sights taking tour - tour - travel agent trip - trip - voyage

Welfare http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/WELFARE.HTM
A country which helps its old, sick, ______________ and unemployed is called a
______________ state. ______________ people receive a state pension when they
______________ at the age of 60 or 65. People with low ______________ who cannot
______________ to buy or rent decent ______________ are given houses or flats with
______________ rents, which means that the government or local ______________ supports
the rent to keep it low. Sick people get free medical ______________ from their doctor or
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at the hospital. Mothers of small children get special state financial ______________, and
of course older children receive free ______________ and may be entitled to a
______________, or ______________, to study in higher education. Physically
______________ people, who cannot move normally, and mentally handicapped people,
whose minds are not fully developed, also receive special assistance and, if necessary,
special ______________ to help them live normal lives. People who are ______________ are
normally ______________ to receive unemployment ______________, which is paid by the
state. The social services (government departments responsible for. people's
______________) will help people who, financially, physically or psychologically, have
difficulty in ______________ with life and ______________ will visit such people in their
homes.

accommodation afford benefit benefits coping council disabled disabled Elderly


eligible equipment grant incomes - out of work retire scholarship - schooling social workers subsidized treatment welfare - well-being

Attitudes to work & leisure http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/work&leisure.htm


Most adults ______________ to more ______________ but, in fact, not many people have the
necessary initiative to use the free time they already have very ______________. The sad
fact is that we need work because it ______________ on us the discipline we need. Without
it, life may seem ______________ and we secretly look ______________ to our work again.
We dream about personal ______________ but probably find it more in our work than in
our leisure time. This depends ______________ age. The ______________ are free from work
and ______________, and freedom comes naturally to them. However, after they begin
jobs they become ______________ by work. They find they need it, however much they
______________ about its routine and regimentation. Obviously this again depends on the
kind of work. Those with ______________ jobs, or jobs which require creativity, receive
______________ satisfaction from their work, but most of us are in conventional
______________ jobs which offer little ______________ for imagination. Some leave their
work only to face leisure that they find difficult to ______________ with. Our mistake is in
______________ leisure as a chance to do nothing, whereas in fact it should be looked on
as a ______________.

9 to 5 aimless aspire challenge complain conditioned constructively cope


forward fulfilment genuine imposes leisure on regarding responsibility rewarding scope - young

Work (1) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/WORK1.HTM


In times of high unemployment there are usually many ______________ when a vacancy
is ______________. Sometimes large numbers of people ______________ in and send off
______________ forms for a single job. It is not unusual, in fact, for hundreds of people to
______________ to a firm for one post, sending in their application letter and CV, or
______________.
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This number is reduced to a ______________ of perhaps six or eight, from whom a final
choice is
______________ when they all ______________ an interview. Very possibly the people
interviewing will be interested in the ______________ the candidates gained at school or
university and what ______________ they have gathered in ______________ jobs. They will
probably ask for written ______________ by the candidates' teachers and ______________
employers, called ______________.

Advertised applicants applications apply - attend experience fill former - made


previous qualifications- referees references rsum - short-list

Work (2) http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/WORK2.HTM


Job _______________ is important but I have a wife and baby so I have to think about
money too. If a job interests me, I need to know what _______________ it offers and also
whether there are regular annual increases, called _______________. I want to know if I
will receive a pension when I _______________ at the age of 60 or 65. If the job is selling a
product, ask if I'll receive a percentage of the value of what I sell, called _______________.
It is also important to know if there are extra advantages, like free meals or transport,
or the free use of a _______________ car. These are called _______________ or
_______________. Are the future _______________ good? For example, is there a good
chance of _______________ to a better job, with more money and _______________? Is the
job near my home? If it isn't, l'Il have to _______________ every day and this can be
expensive. I am very keen to be successful. I don't want to stay _______________ the same
job all my life.

Commission - commute company fringe benefits in increments - perks - promotion


prospects responsibility retire salary - satisfaction

World population http://ihecs-langues.be/JPRhotpot/Menus/world_population.htm


The UN considers October 12th, 1999 the day on which there were 6 ___________ people
in the world, 247 babies being born every minute. The earth ___________ 80 million more
people each year, most of them living in the south. The developing world ___________ for
over 95% of population growth. Even if these ___________ look impressive, the so
dreaded population bomb is most unlikely to explode.
Optimistic ___________ are based on positive and negative factors: the positive ones are
the drop in the birth ___________ and in the population growth rate, partly due to better
use of contraceptives in ___________ countries. Since 1969, developing countries have
seen ___________ fall from six children per woman to three. By 2025, the US ___________
Bureau estimates that the fertility rate of the less developed countries will have
___________ to 2.4, which is very close to 2.1, considered to be the ___________ level.
The negative factors are the devastating effects of ___________ in Africa, where life
___________ has plummeted in the worst-hit countries. The main feature of this
demographic ___________ is an ageing of the population. It is estimated that ___________
the year 2050, 95% of the rise in the number of the ___________ will have taken place in
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developing countries, which should be a ___________ on the development of the countries


concerned. ___________ will also be a headache for western countries, which will have to
___________ about public ___________ and health ___________.
Demographic ___________ go together with questions of economic growth, wealth and its
distribution. Industrialized countries, that is 20% of the world's population, hold 80% of
the world's ___________. Because the ___________ of global growth have not been evenly
distributed, it has become urgent to help ___________ the economic growth of the
countries left behind.

Accounts Ageing - AIDS benefits billion boost brake by care Census counts
developing elderly expectancy fallen fertility figures forecasts issues pensions
rate replacement - slowdown wealth - worry

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KEY
_______________________________
Advertising (1)
Advertisements are everywhere, from columns of small classified advertisements for
houses, jobs, cars etc. in newspapers to big posters on walls and enormous
advertisements on hoardings by the side of the road. The job of the advertising agencies
is to advertise the products and services of their clients, the advertisers. They design
eye-catching advertisements and make television or radio commercials to persuade us
to buy, or purchase, them. The advertising media include broadcast media, such as TV
and radio, and print media, such as dailies and weeklies, but also cinema, hoardings,
point-of-sales displays, sponsorship, mail shots, telemarketing and many more. All these
media may carry the advertising message and put it across to the adequate target
audience.
Advertising (2)
Modern advertisements contain hidden messages. Implicit in the advertisement
showing the pretty girl in the new car or the smiling children round the packet of
washing powder is the message that if we buy the product, we also achieve success and
happiness. It is a subtle approach since it seeks to exploit our secret dreams, and it is
inescapable since advertising is ubiquitous. Giant street hoardings and catchy jingles on
television bombard us from all sides. They brainwash us into believing that we can
realise our ambitions quickly and easily. On the other hand, defenders of advertising say
that it is beneficial. Advertising is informative. Advertisements tell us about useful new
products. They brighten our lives with colour and music. They increase demand,
stimulate industry and so keep prices down. Whether for or against advertising, most
people would agree that some kind of watchdog , appointed by the government or by the
advertising industry itself, is necessary to maintain standards of honesty and to
discourage the more blatant types of misleading advertisements.
Air Travel (1)
When travelling by air you have to get to the airport early in order to check in about an
hour before your flight. If you have a lot of luggage, you can put it on a trolley and push it
to the check-in desk, where someone will check your ticket and weigh your luggage. If
you have excess luggage, it can be expensive. Your heavy luggage is put on a conveyor
belt and carried away. A light bag is classed as hand luggage and you can take it with you
onto the plane. An immigration officer looks at your passport and a security guard
checks your hand luggage before you go into the departures lounge to wait till your flight
is called. If you want to, you can buy some cheap duty free goods here. Then you see on
the departures board or you hear an announcement that you must board your plane.
You go through the departure gate, then there is sometimes a security check before you
actually enter the plane. When all the passengers are on board, and when the captain
and his crew are ready in the cockpit, the plane begins to taxi to the end of the runway.
Finally, permission is received from the control tower and the plane moves faster and
faster in order to take off .
Air travel (2)
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Flying is fun. I like being in a big airliner with the crew, i.e. the stewards and
stewardesses looking after me. They walk up and down the aisle - bringing meals and
drinks; and if the flight is going through some turbulence, such as an air pocket, they
warn everybody that it might be a bit bumpy and ask us to fasten our seat belts. On a
long flight I like listening to music through the headphones available to all passengers,
and sometimes I have a sleep. I enjoy it all so much that I never want the plane to land.
Activism
The British have long been concerned about animal welfare and were among the first to
call for legislation on this matter. There are three main concepts reflecting different
approaches to the topic: Conservation may be defined as the protection of wildlife and
endangered species.
Animal welfare refers to the well-being of animals. Welfarists call for the "best possible
conditions" for animals, free from cruelty or unnecessary bodily harm. Animal rights
covers conservation and animal welfare plus the more radical idea that animals should
not be held in captivity (on farms, in zoos or in circuses) or eaten. Animal rights
activists are either vegetarians or vegans (i.e. they do not eat meat, fish, poultry, animal
milk, cheese or eggs).
The move to protect animals has led to the creation of cruelty-free products, i.e.
products which have not been tested on animals. In Britain, animal activists have
successfully waged a campaign for such cosmetics. This resulted in a bill passed in
November 1998 which bans all cosmetics tested on animals in Britain, although it does
not apply to imported products. Anita Roddick owns The Body Shop, which
manufactures cosmetics and toiletries, and was a key figure in raising public awareness
about the issue. These products have become hugely popular. The firm Beauty Without
Cruelty bas pursued a similar aim though with less commercial success. Another
sensitive issue is the use of animals by the fur trade. Anti-fur campaigns have led to a
sharp decline in fur sales and there is now a stigma attached to wearing fur in Britain.
In January 2002 Parliament agreed to outlaw the remaining 13 mink farms, offering
them financial compensation.
Art
One of the most creative things anyone can do is to make a work of art, whether it's a
sculptor carving a sculpture or a painter painting pictures. Amateur artists do it for
their own satisfaction and pleasure, but professional artists have to make a living from
their art and they are dependent on dealers to sell their works in city galleries. I myself
have a Picasso. Of course, it's a reproduction, not an original, as I can't afford that! A lot
of people buy a camera just to take holiday snapshots. They have prints made and put
them in an album or sometimes they prefer slides, which they can show on the wall or
screen with a projector. Other people are more serious. They develop and print their
films themselves in their own darkroom at home. If they want big pictures they make
enlargements.
Banking
It's very simple to open a bank account in Britain. There are very few formalities. Just
go to your local branch, fill in a few forms, and that's it. You will probably only have to
pay bank charges if there is no money in your account or if you borrow money from the
bank, in other words if you have an overdraft or want a loan or a mortgage. For regular
everyday use most people prefer a current account. This normally earns no or little
interest. A deposit account earns some interest but it's not so easy to withdraw your
money. You sometimes have to give a week's notice.
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At regular intervals, perhaps monthly, you will receive a statement from the bank,
giving details of each deposit (money you put in) and withdrawal (money you take out).
If you're not sure how much money you have in your account, you can just go to your
bank and ask what your balance is. If you have to make a regular payment, like rent, you
can ask the bank to pay this amount for you automatically. This arrangement is called a
standing order. Today you no longer depend on bank opening hours to cash money, as
you can witdraw plastic money from cash machines (also called cash dispensers) and
can transfer money through electronic banking. Some people spend more money than
they earn. In other words, their expenditure is greater than their income. If you take
more money out of the bank than you have in your account, you are overdrawn.
Censorship
The amount of offensive material we are exposed to in films nowadays is surely
excessive. Most people accept that scenes of sex and violence are sometimes necessary
to tell a story, but all too often these scenes are gratuitous; they are unnecessary and
simply inserted in the film to appeal to the baser human instincts. Censorship is
necessary, especially to protect children from the corrupting influence of such scenes,
often masquerading as art, in our cinemas. There should also be censorship of
pornographic and paedophilic magazines produced by unscrupulous people willing to
cater for the perverted tastes of a small minority. Such materials destroy the innocence
of the young and degrade all who read it. On the other hand, there are those who say
that something which is banned becomes desirable, so censorship is counter-productive,
and that censorship infringes on our freedom of choice. However freedom is not merely
freedom to do what we want but freedom from attempts to destroy society's moral
standards. Censorship provides the safeguards by which society protects itself.
Cinema & films (1)
Marlon Brando is a superb actor and in 'On the Waterfront' he gave his finest
performance. It is his best-known role. The cast also included Eva Marie Saint and Karl
Malden. The film's director, Elia Kazan, never made a better film. Parts of the film were
shot in the studios in Hollywood, but a lot was made on location in the streets of New
York, which makes it at times like a documentary. The critics loved the film but it was
not only a critical success. It was a great box-office success as well, and made an
enormous profit. The plot is about a young man's attempt to be a boxing champion.
Cinema & films (2)
Fiona and I went to the cinema the other day to see 'Boyhood' at UGC. The review by the
"Libre Belgique" critic was good, and we decided to go to the 8 o'clock performance. When
I arrived, Fiona was waiting for me in the foyer, looking at a poster for 'Boyhood' on the
wall. The usherette took our tickets and showed us to our seats. I don't like to be too
close to the screen and I usually sit in the back row if possible, and I prefer a seat on the
aisle so I can stretch my legs. Before the main film there was a Mickey Mouse cartoon,
then a trailer for the following week's film. "Boyhood" was an outstanding film and we
enjoyed it tremendously.
City life
Most people in developed countries are city-dwellers, many drawn by the irresistible
lure of the metropolis. The attractions of the city are many: the cosmopolitan
atmosphere, foreign restaurants, different languages, international companies, the
stimulation of cultural events or the simple hope of finding work. All too many find,
however, that the glamorous facade is false. One can be very alone in the city and the
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anonimity which at first seems to give freedom and protection later leaves just
loneliness., experienced very painfully by the elderly. There is a lot to do but everything
is expensive. The cost of living, food and accommodation, is high. There is pollution not
only of the physical but also of the moral environment and the various pressures
of urban life cause cities to breed crime and violence. Above all, perhaps, it is the daily
stresses and strains of the city which make life there a matter of survival rather than
enjoyment. Many a commuter struggling to work through the rush-hour congestion
probably wonders 'Is it worth it?'
Computers
Just imagine what the world would be without computers. A computer is an electronic
machine that performs calculations and processes data automatically at high speed. A
computer cannot work without software--i.e., a programme--which controls the different
hardware components of the computer. Desktop computers can be placed on top of a
desk but are not very transportable, while portable computers are light enough to be
easily transported. A personal computer typically has a keyboard and a mouse as its
input unit, while output units are the screen, the printer, the loudspeakers. There are
many application programmess that individual users can conveniently run. Desktop
publishing is the creation of pages for publication using personal computers.
Spreadsheet programs are the most popular programs for business calculations. They
allow the user to enter columns and rows of digits. Database management is the quick
search and retrieval of needed information from a collection of data --i.e., a database.
Crime
The good news is that crime has fallen markedly in recent years. Statistics may not
reflect people's
experience or fear of crime but the figures speak for themselves: in America, crime rates
have never been so low since the government started keeping records 25 years ago.
Criminologists and politicians from all over the world have flocked to America to learn
about law-enforcement. If the media are to be believed, America's tough approach can be
credited for the sharp drop in crime rates. These did not start falling, it is frequently
argued, until strict sentencing was introduced.
Strict law enforcement and mandatatory sentences did much to deter potential
criminals. And the drop in crime is steepest in the South, where laws are especially
strict: Texas has the highest incarceration rate in the US and a crime rate at a 20-year
low. In 1997, the murder rate was down 10% on 1996. Another popular concept based on
the "broken windows" theory is zero tolerance. Stop petty offenders, lock them away and
they will not graduate to more serious crime. Still other tough techniques such as teen
curfews now being tested in Britain or France down well with voters who like their
politicians to sound and act tough on crime. Whether such measures really work is more
debatable. Experts say the crime rate in the US started going down before they became
effective. Civil rights activists claim they often result in racial bias if not outright
discrimination. Interestingly, a more softly-softly approach seems to be working just as
well, even if it does not make for sensational newspaper headlines. Neighbourhood
policing based on community contacts has done much to reclaim the streets of
Washington or Boston, while the Maori-inspired concept of restorative justice-bringing
criminals and their victims face to face-has greatly reduced the number of juveniles
brought to court for reoffending. What is certain is that the current drop in crime is
attributable to the end of the crack epidemic and to demographics as well as to any of
the policies mentioned above.

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Issues in education
It is interesting that in some countries which are socialist and therefore supposedly
classless , the educational system is based on streaming , which means that children are
educated according to their ability, with the more gifted children separated from the
others. Supporters of this system say that more intelligent children will be helped to
achieve their full potential in this way and that these children will be held back if they
have to share lessons with less clever pupils. Opponents of this system, on the other
hand, maintain that it creates an educated elite, a special class of privileged people who
are encouraged to think of themselves as superior to the others. Similarly the others
may, as a result of being labelled second-rate, develop some kind of inferiority. In a word,
such a system is divisive, since it creates a division between people. Another important
issue in education is the amount of freedom and choice children should be given at
school. The conservative view is that a conventional system of strict rules is best.
However, critics of this attitude say it causes regimentation, as in the army, and
discourages children's natural imagination and creativity. We must ask ourselves what
the purpose of education is : to cram children's heads
with facts or to encourage them to develop their natural skills in their own way?
Education (2)
When children are two or three years old, they sometimes go to a nursery school, where
they learn simple games and songs. Their first real school is called a primary school. In
Britain children start this school at the age of five. The academic year in Britain begins
in September and is divided into three terms. Schools break up for the summer holiday
in July. Secondary education begins at the age of about eleven. In Britain education is
compulsory from five to 16 years of age, but many children choose to remain at school
for another two or three years after 16 to take higher exams. Most children go to state
schools, which are maintained by the government or local education authorities, but
some children go to private schools, which can be very expensive. University courses
normally last three years and then students graduate, which means they receive their
degree. At university, teaching is by tutorial (an individual lesson between a teacher and
one or two students), seminar (a class of students discussing a subject with a teacher),
lecture (when a
teacher gives a prepared talk to a number of students) and of course private study. Most
people who receive a university place are given a grant by the government to help pay
their fees and living expenses.
Elections and government (1)
People sometimes try to predict the result of an election weeks before it takes place.
Several hundred people are asked which party they prefer, and their answers are used
to guess the result of the coming election. This is called an opinion poll. Meanwhile each
party conducts its election campaign with meetings, speeches, television commercials,
and party members going from door to door encouraging people to support their party.
In Britain everyone over 18 is eligible to vote. The place where people go to vote in an
election is called a polling station and the day of the election is often known as polling
day. The voters put their votes, also called ballots, in a ballot box and later they are
counted. The candidate with the most votes is then declared the winner.
Elections and government (2)
In most countries, except one-party states, there are several different political parties.
The one with the majority of seats normally forms the government, and the parties
which are against the government are called the opposition. Sometimes no single party
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wins enough seats, and several parties must combine together in a coalition to form a
government. The principal ministers in the government form a group called the cabinet.
The leader of this group, and of the government, is the prime minister. Of course, there
are many different kinds of parties and governments. A socialist or communist party is
often described as left-wing. A conservative party on the other hand, is usually said to be
right-wing. Political situations are always changing. Sometimes in a party or between
two parties there is a big argument or deep difference of opinion. This is
called a split. When, on the other hand, two parties work together, this is sometimes
called an alliance.
Electrical appliances
When you buy a television or radio make sure it has a long enough lead. Plug it in at the
most convenient socket in your room, and then switch it on. You normally adjust the
volume by turning a knob, and there are other controls as well. It is probably best to
unplug the appliance when it is not in use. If you have any trouble with it, ask an
electrician to look at it or take it back to the dealer you bought it from.
The environment
When industrialization began, little thought was given to its ecological effects. Raw,
untreated sewage was allowed to pollute our seas and rivers. Animals were killed for
profit to the point of extinction. The loss of trees through uncontrolled deforestation
caused erosion and unstable climate. Acid rain was caused by the poisonous gases man
sent into the atmosphere. Chemicals in pesticides killed animal life. Herbicides
destroyed numerous plants. The balance of nature got disturbed. It is only now that we
are waking up to the problem. More natural, organic farming is advocated. Legislation
controls the disposal of waste products into our air and water. Wildlife organizations are
becoming more militant in their fight for animal rights. Replanting policies in some parts
of the world mean that our forests should in future be sustainable. We can only hope that
growing public awareness and enlightened legislation will produce a world which is safe
for us and will provide a good quality of life for future generations.
Finance in the Third World
Calls for help reach the International Monetary Fund at each and every financial crisis.
After the debt crisis of Mexico in 1982, the IMF had hoped that no other country would
default, though less developed countries throughout the world found that that they had
to repay loans that they thought would be rescheduled for ever. In 1997, with the
collapse of the baht, in Thailand and the spreading of the crisis throughout the South
East, banking systems, the IMF and the World Bank thought it was time to push ahead
with reforms that will prevent the return of crises that put millions of people back into
poverty and threatened the global economy. The crisis jeopardized the economy of Brazil
and even affected Russia, which is suffering as well from domestic difficulties. At a
meeting in April 1999, Finance ministers and central bank governors of 182 countries
members of the IMF, decided that reforms were necessary. One major issue to address is
the sudden loss in confidence of investors that flee from one market to rush into another
creating another currency crisis. Another issue is the laundering of mafia money. It
makes account transparency more difficult, both in big banks and in big companies.
Flats & houses
The first thing I had to do in London was find somewhere to live, if possible a small, onebedroomed flat. I didn't want to share a kitchen or toilet; I wanted to be independent in
my own self-contained place. I decided I could pay a rent of 150 euros a week. I couldn't
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find what I wanted in the newspaper classified ads so I went to an accommodation


agency. They offered me a nice place. It was in a modern block on the third floor. I had to
pay the agency a fee, and the landlord wanted a big deposit and references from my
employer and bank manager.
Flats & houses (2)
Tony and Sheila's first home was a terraced house, one of a line of houses all connected.
But several years later when they had a small child, they found it rather cramped for
three people. They wanted something more spacious and so decided to move. They went
to an estate agent and looked at details of the houses he had to offer. They looked at a
semi-detached house (one of a pair attached to each other), liked it, and asked a
surveyor to inspect it for them. He said that it was in good condition, and they therefore
decided to buy it. Soon a removals firm was taking all their furniture and other
possessions to their new home. But already, after a couple of years, they are hoping to
move again: they want to get an architect to design a modern, detached house for them,
and a builder to build it.
Mobile phones
The telephone, whether fixed or mobile, has become one of the most common household
appliances. Here in Belgium, GSMs made their entrance on the market in 1994. GSM
stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. Their only operator was Proximus,
a Belgacom owned subsidiary, until competitor Mobistar was granted an operations
licence by the Belgian government in 1995. Their network was launched in August
1996. Orange's network was launched in October 1998. Today GSMs come in a range of
models, sizes, designs and colours, all created to appeal to the consumer at every level of
the market, who is looking for a user-friendly appliance. The operators also offer a wide
range of subscriptions and pre-paid cards, possibly
to confuse consumers in order to avoid an all-out battle and a lowering of their rates.
They claim this is necessary to meet the customers' varied needs. In Britain,
manufacturers of GSMs have admitted that their products can cause health risks to
users, so called health hazards. The radiation waves they emit are weak, but can lead to
loss of concentration, and, in the worst cases, brain tumours. This is a real cause for
concern, and doctors are warning users to limit the amount of talking time to 20
minutes at most a day.
Industry
The health of a big, developed country's economy depends largely on its industry.
Factories have to keep busy. They must produce and sell their products in large
quantities. Shipyards must make and sell ships, car plants must make and sell cars. A
period of industrial success, when everything goes well and large profits are made, is
called a boom. On the other hand a period when there is not much industrial activity is
called a slump. To maintain a high level of production is not simple. For example Japan,
a very successful industrialized country, has very few natural resources such as oil or
coal, and has to import those raw materials from other countries in order to keep its
industries going, and thus to supply needs at home and also to export its goods to its
overseas markets.
International relations
The American President and the Russian leader have announced their intention to hold
a summit meeting in Vienna next month. The two countries have already had
preliminary talks and decided on an agenda for the meeting. The main item will be a
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discussion about the fight against terrorism. At a news conference held in Washington
yesterday a government spokesman told journalists that the unfortunate breakdown of
last year's talks between the two countries had been caused by disagreements over
disarmament. He said the Vienna meeting would be a chance for the two countries to
settle their differences. Neighbouring countries A and B had always had very good, close
relations, but in 1994, owing to a disagreement over the exact location of the border
between them, a split began to develop. Finally, in 1996 in protest at military activity by
country B near the border, country A announced its intention to break off diplomatic
relations with country B. Both countries withdrew their ambassadors and the embassies
in the two countries were closed down. It is hoped that a solution will be found and that
it will be possible to resume normal trade, cultural and diplomatic links as soon as
possible.
The Internet
The Internet became increasingly accessible to the public with the advent of the
personal computer, and the development of Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML),
which in 1992 led to the World Wide Web (or Web). So, the Internet predates the Web by
many years. The Web is a collection of sites that take advantage of the graphic abilities of
the new browsers, such as Netscape, Internet Explorer or Opera. A simple click of the
mouse on a link will take you to the linked page. To keep everyone working together in
peace an informal set of rules called Netiquette has evolved. If you are looking for a
specific topic, you can use a search engine such as Yahoo! or Google. A search engine will
give you a list of all the web pages containing information about the subject that you are
researching. However, you should always check the information since anyone can create
his/her own site and write anything they want in it. With Facebook you can chat with
other people, post and exchange information. Facebook is not very private. If you dont
use it with caution, anyone can join a chat and read what you are writing about. Sooner
or later, everyone knew that business would become interested in this marketing
paradise. Individuals and agencies started sending unsolicited mails-also called spam ,
especially through newsgroups. These are groups of surfers who exchange messages
about their common interests. As online commerce becomes more common people have
begun to worry that it may not be safe to give information about their credit card
through the Internet. In response to this need, companies in partnerships with banks
have developed means of securely encrypting this information to make online
transactions safe.
Law and order
A policeman was sent to investigate the disappearance of some property from a hotel.
When he arrived, he found that the hotel staff had caught a boy in one of the rooms with
a camera and some cash. When the policeman tried to arrest the boy, he became violent
and the policeman had to handcuff him. At the police station the boy could not give a
satisfactory explanation for his actions and the police decided to charge him with the
theft of the camera and cash. They took his fingerprints, locked him in a cell and
detained him overnight. The next morning he appeared in court before the magistrate.
He took an oath and pleaded not guilty. Two witnesses, the owner of the property and a
member of the hotel staff, gave evidence. After both sides of the case had been heard the
boy was found guilty. He had to pay a fine of 250 euros and he was given a sentence of
three months in prison suspended for two years.
Medical care
When I go to the doctor, I tell the secretary my name and take a seat in the waiting room.
My doctor is very busy so I have to make an appointment before I go to see him. He asks
me what's wrong with me, I tell him the symptoms of my illness, for example high
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temperature, difficulty in breathing, or pains, and then he will usually examine me. He'll
listen to my heart with his stethoscope, he'Il hold my wrist to feel my pulse. The problem
is usually something simple and he might give me a prescription for some medicine,
which I take to the chemist. Of course, if I needed more serious treatment than just a
medicine, I'd have to go to hospital. There I'd be put in a bed in a ward with other
patients. If there were something seriously wrong with me, I might need an operation.
Natural disasters
If a country has no rain for a long time, this dry period is called a drought. In countries
dependent on their agriculture, this can lead to a period of famine, when there is not
enough food and people actually starve (die of hunger). When it rains very heavily and
the land is under water, this is called a flood. In this situation people and animals can
drown. Sometimes helicopters have to drop food supplies to people in areas which are
cut off. In some parts of the world, the ground shakes from time to time. This is called an
earthquake and if it's a bad one, the number of casualties (dead and injured people) is
sometimes large. Buildings often collapse and rescue teams have to search for people
who are trapped under the rubble. Sometimes water supplies are affected and there is
an outbreak of disease, called an epidemic. Medical teams are sent by the government to
help the sick. The death toll can reach hundreds or even thousands.
A new generation of consumers
Among other things, the second half of the 20th century will go down in history as a
period of booming consumption. Never before had science and new technologies exerted
such an influence on our purchasing habits. At the beginning of this new millennium,
consumers are both wary and more fickle, trade wars are being fought on globalized
markets and advertising gurus rule the roost in distribution networks. The year 2000
marked the arrival of a new generation of consumers: these are involved in a relentless
pursuit of their material comfort. Markets offer them a wide range of items in
supermarket aisles while new trends set in the media push them to try new products
and adopt new attitudes. Organic food, cellular phones, "smart cars," TV retailing, let
alone Internet shopping, are just a few but glaring examples of today's various
consuming trends that slowly become mainstream. For instance, a recent poll in Britain
showed 81% of those interviewed condemned genefoods and wanted producers to spend
more money on developing healthier livestock. In spite of recent campaigns denouncing
the evil effects of cellular phones on the human brain, the sales of mobile phones have
been skyrocketing for a decade to reach unprecedented sales figures. The countdown has
also begun for the launch of "cyberhomes" packed with silicon microchips... In future
superstores, more electronic wizardry will save shoppers precious time by cutting down
waiting-lines at check outs. New shopping technology like "smart" trolleys will
eventually be as easy to operate as flicking a switch. Shopping on the Net is also in a
position to change the face of retailing. Besides, the growing success of interactive retail
methods also means that shopping may no longer involve a boring trip down to your
local
mall: cable-TV and computers enable us to browse through updated catalogues, place
orders by means of a mouse and get the goods delivered to our homes within a few
hours, which will undoubtedly mark the start of a revolution in our shopping habits..
High street shops are unlikely to resist this form of competition.
The new poor
Poverty has no strict definition and is often divided into "absolute" or "relative" poverty.
Absolute poverty is when people cannot meet their basic needs: accommodation, food
and clothing. Relative deprivation is linked to the notion of social exclusion. Due to an
inadequate income, poor people live below the living standards of their society, without
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the things generally owned by others. The poverty line is an income of less than half the
national average. In 2012, it affected 16% of the population in the U.S.A. The concept of
"new poverty' dates back to the 80s, when the economic crisis of the 70s hit many people
who had had a decent way of life up to then but were made redundant, often because of
streamlining. The "new poor" were driven out of homes they could no longer afford and
forced to sell many of their belongings, including their cars, which reduced their chances
of getting another job. In Europe, new poverty is often equated with long-term
unemployment. Likely victims are young people and single mothers who rely on benefits
to survive. In the U.S.A., the new poor are often the working poor, those who work but
earn such low wages that they cannot pay for food, accommodation, health care,
education for the children. Blacks and Hispanics account for large shares of America's
poor. Poverty has always existed because decision makers have never dared or wished
to implement the right solutions.New poverty generally means relative poverty thanks
to the safety nets offered by state assistance
(benefits, welfare money). In extreme situations though, especially when unemployment
is associated with a breakdown of the family unit (divorce, clash between parents and
children) or addiction, it may lead to absolute poverty and homelessness.
Newspapers (1)
A newspaper makes its money from the price people pay for it (when they buy it from
the newsagent or newsstand, or when they subscribe to it) and also from the advertising
it carries. A popular newspaper with a circulation of over five million daily makes a lot of
money. Less serious newspapers are probably read just for entertainment. They carry
big headlines above the news stories, funny cartoons to look at and sensational pictures
of violence. The gossip columns are full of stories of the private lives of famous people.
No one takes the political views of such papers very seriously. On the other hand, in a
free country where there is no censorship, serious newspapers are read principally for
their news, sent to them by their foreign correspondents round the world and by the big
news agencies. People also read these newspapers for their reviews of new books, films
and plays written by some famous critic, and for their editorials, which represent
the opinion of the newspaper itself about the important events and issues of the
moment. The sports, travel, financial and TV sections of our dailies are also widely read.
Public Relations
The primary goal of public relations is to manage a company's reputation and help build
public consent for its activities. Today's business environment has become so
competitive that public consent can no longer be assumed; it must be earned
continuously. The term public relations is widely misunderstood and misused. Part of
the confusion is due to the fact that PR covers a very broad area. Every company,
organization, or government body has relationships with groups of people who are
affected by what it does or says. They may be enployees, customers, stockholders,
competitors, suppliers, legislators, or the community in which the organization resides.
Marketing people refer to these as stakeholders because they all have some vested
interest in the company's activities. Each of these groups is considered one of the
organization's publics, and the goal of PR is to develop and maintain good-will with most,
if not all of its publics. Failure to do so may mean loss of customers and revenues, time
lost dealing with complaints or lawsuits, and loss of esteem (which weakens the
organization's brand equity as well as its ability to secure financing, make sales, and
expand.
The press
The press usually refers just to newspapers, also called dailies, but the term can be
extended to include magazines, i.e. weeklies or monthlies. Newspapers are either
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tabloid, a format usually associated in the English-speaking world with the popular
press (such as the Sun), or broadsheet, associated with quality journalism (such as the
Times). Tabloids are sometimes referred to as the gutter press by people who disapprove
of them. Tabloids often have very large circulations (numbers of copies sold) and even
bigger readerships (total number of people reading them). Papers such as these are
often referred to as mass circulation papers. The people in charge of newspaper content
are editors. The people who write for them are journalists. Someone who writes articles
that appear regularly, usually in the same place in the paper, and often with
powerfully expressed opinions, is a columnist. The British national press is referred to
as Fleet Street, although no national paper is now produced in this London street.
Newspapers run or carry articles or stories. Editorials give the paper's opinion about the
news of the day. In a quality paper, the most important editorial is the leading article or
leader. These, and the other editorials, are written by leader writers. Governments that
limit press freedom are accused of gagging the press. This may take the form a
voluntary code of practice overseen by a body referred to informally as a watchdog. If
the watchdog is ineffective, it is described as toothless. If this is not enough for the
government, it may impose statutory (legally enforceable) controls. The authorities are
then described as cracking down or clamping down on the press. They may also be
accused of press censorship and of limiting press freedom or the freedom of the press.
Public transport
A taxi, also called a cab, is the most comfortable way to travel. You simply hail the taxi in
the street or go to a taxi-rank, where there are several taxis waiting, for example at a
station. At the end of your journey, you can see how much the fare is by looking at the
meter. You add a tip to this, and that's it. Very simple. But expensive! What about taking
a bus? If it has two floors, it's called a double-decker and you can get a good view from
the top. Most buses have a two-person crew: the driver, who drives, of course, and the
conductor, who takes your money. Keep your ticket because an inspector might want to
check it. You catch a bus by waiting at a bus stop, usually a bus shelter. You can see
where a bus is going because the destination is written on the front. But try to avoid the
rush hour. Quicker than the bus is the underground (called the tube in London, the
subway in New York and the metro in Paris and many other cities). You buy your ticket
at the ticket-office Go down to the platform on the escalator or in the lift. The train
comes. The sliding doors open. You get on. Very simple. For longer distances take a train
or a long-distance bus, usually called a coach, which is slower but cheaper. The train is
very fast. Put your luggage on the rack and sit and wait till you arrive.
Reading
I love books. I love reading. I'm a real bookworm, and I love to browse in bookshops, just
looking briefly at one book after another. I look at the illustrations, the photos or
drawings and read the captions that explain these. If there are foreign or technical
words in the book, I look at the glossary at the back for their meanings (unless they're
explained in footnotes at the bottom of the pages) and I look at the bibliography, also at
the back, which is a list of other books on the same subject. And I use the library a lot. I
borrow two or three books a week, and I have to pay a fine - if I return them late. Friends
often recommend books to me, and I also read book reviews in the newspapers. I don't
always agree with them, but anyway they let me know what new books are being
published.
Shopping
If you want to buy a ready-made (or we sometimes say off-the-peg jacket), first find the
jackets in the shop and look at the label inside to see the size, material and make. For the
price, look at the price tag. To see if it will fit you, you can try on the jacket in front of a
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mirror. If necessary an assistant will help you. You pay the cashier, at the cash-desk. He
or she will take your money, put it in the till and give you your change. Make sure you
also get a receipt, which you should keep and bring back to the shop with the jacket if
something is wrong with it and you want to exchange it or ask for a refund of your
money. In clothes shops you pay the fixed price, of course. You don't bargain. Or you can
wait until the sales, when many goods are reduced in price. If you don't like shops, you
can stay at home, look at catalogues and newspaper advertisements and do your
shopping by mail order.
Sponsorship
Commercial success depends very much on stars and big events and the results are
sometimes uncertain. The World Cup is over but its marketing lessons are still being
assimilated. The encroachment of commerce into the beautiful game was more evident
than in any previous World Cup. Despite unprecedented television audiences and a
growing appetite for football across gender and class divides, commercial success on the
back of the world's largest sporting event is very uncertain. In a survey in Germany by
advertising agency BDDO, Eurocard/Mastercard, Philips, Gillette, JVC and Casio were
recognised as event sponsors by less than 1 % of those polled. Even Adidas chairman
groused about the commercial clutter that diluted the impact of sponsors, such as
Adidas, that had paid top dollar. That's 20 million for a seat at the table and probably
the same again in promotion and advertising around the event.
Sports & money
Sport dominates a huge part of our lives. Satellite and cable television have dedicated
sports channels, the BBC spends well over 100m on the subject. When Vic Wakeling,
the head of Sky Sports makes a decisions, it reaches into the heart of political power. In
1996, Michael Jordan brought home a grand total of $78.3m, not bad for playing some
basketball, posing for a few hot dogs, and letting a few companies put his face by their
product and associate it with their brand. But although the public tends to focus on such
players who rule the roost, real power in sport is with the agents and managers who
control them, their sponsorship, appearance money and rights to many of their televised
events. In that field nobody is more powerful than American Mark McCormack, head of a
sports management empire founded on the back of golf and now extending to all sports.
In horse racing Sheikh Mohammed has poured hundreds of millions into the sport. He
controls the incomes of trainers, jockeys, agents and shippers. Bernie Ecclestone
controls every aspect of Formula One.
Television
The mass media is a phrase often used to describe ways of giving information and
entertainment to very large numbers of people. It includes newspapers, magazines,
radio and, of course, television. In our countries people can switch to any of over thirty
different TV channels thanks to the cable or a satellite dish. Do television programmes
influence our minds? Do they indoctrinate us? Is the news completely objective, i.e.
neutral, or is it biased, i.e. considered from one particular angle ? Don't the commercials
for alcohol, food and other goods condition our minds? Even the soap operas going on
week after week telling the story of one family or group of people, or sitcoms - amusing
drama series - sometimes make us want to copy the life style we see on the screen. Also
quiz shows - which give people big prizes for answering simple questions can make us
greedy. Some programmes are watched by tens of millions of viewers. This is how
advertising rates on television are calculated: the bigger the audience, the more
expensive the commercial. This type of research is knows as audience rating.

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Theatre
The person who directs the preparation of a play is the director. Sometimes the
playwright, who wrote the play, works with him. One of the first things to be done is to
choose the cast, i.e. the actors and actresses. For this purpose, auditions are held at
which actors perform short pieces and the most suitable are chosen for the parts in the
play. Before the play is performed in front of an audience of hundreds of theatre-goers, of
course there are a lot of rehearsals. At last, the first night ! When the curtain goes down
at the end, will there be enthusiastic applause ... or silence? Will the newspaper reviews
be good or bad? What will the critics think? Everyone hopes for a hit that will run for
months or even years, but the play might be a flop and only last a few days. It's hard
work in the theatre for a theatre company. There are evening performances six nights
a week and afternoon shows, called matines, once or twice as well.
Time expressions
(a) Her parties usually finish before midnight, but sometimes they go on into the small
hours.<br />(b) People who have digital watches tend to say '7.50' rather than 'l 0 to
8'.<br />(c) The plane is due to reach Bangkok at 5.30 a.m. local time.<br />(d) If you
cross Russia, you pass through eight diffrent time zones.<br />(e) Novels don't always
describe events in chronological order. It can be confusing.<br />(f) The First World War
took place in the second decade of the XXth century. That was in the second
millennium!<br />(g) After leaving university he had a spell of teaching and then went
into industry.<br />(h) In British history the period 1837 to 1901 is known as the
Victorian era.<br />(i) But that happened at the turn of the century, around 1900. ! It
was over a hundred years ago!<br />(j) I always get up at dawn to listen to the early
birds singing in the trees.<br />(k) People born on a February 29th only get older every
leap year, don't they?<br />(l) Their food is adequate; it includes meat at least every
other day, vegetables and fruit every day.<br />(m) She's quite happy in Australia on the
whole, but of course she misses her family at times.<br />(n) They're redecorating my
digs, so for the time being I'm sleeping at a friend's.<br />(o) High Speed Trains are very
punctual; they always leave on time.<br />(p) She set the alarm so she'd wake up in time
to give her son his medication.<br />(q) He was ahead of his time employing ex-convicts
and handicapped.<br />(r) She ran for the staircase and down the steps, taking two at a
time.<br />(s) The situation is calm for the time being.<br />(t) When you start your
studies, it is hard to imagine what'll happen in five years' time.<br />(u) If we're out, we
always make sure we are back home in good time to watch the 10 o'clock news.<br />(v)
She had made time for me in the midst of her busy schedule.<br />(w) We were delayed
last week, but are working hard to make up for lost time.<br />(x) Time after time
television channels showed us pictures of the collapsing towers.<br />(y) For some it was
awful, while for others, especially the young, it was the time of their lives.<br />(z) Their
new commercial will run four times this week at peak time.<br />(1) Reading the
newspaper every day is a time consuming pursuit.<br />(2) The time frame within which
all this occurred was between July and September last year.<br />(3) The time-lag
between research and application may be very long.<br />(4) This proposal is a political
time bomb that could cost the government the next elections.<br />(5) The likelihood is
that these companies will start showing profit on a two-year time scale.<br />(6) The
firemen got the children out in the nick of time. Less than a minute later the building
collapsed.
Travel (1)
People have more money and more leisure nowadays and even young people can afford
to go abroad. Many travel agents offer cheap cut-price tickets for flights to all parts of
the world with airlines such as Virgin or Sobelair, so youngsters can avoid the crowded,
well-known places and get to less famous areas which are off the beaten track. Instead of
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using public transport and hotels, they can travel by hitch-hiking and stay at youth
hostels. But most people prefer some kind of package holiday at a popular holiday resort,
which means that everything is arranged for you by the tour operator and the price you
pay includes transport, food and accommodation. Try to avoid taking your holiday
during the busy peak season. It's more crowded and expensive. If possible, go in the
quieter off-peak period.
Travel (2)
(a) For general advice about travel, go to a travel agent.
(b) One day I would like to do the journey by train and ship across Russia to Japan.
(c) We're going on a tour of Europe, visiting 11 countries in five weeks.
(d) We went on a three-week cruise round the Mediterranean. The ship called at Venice,
Athens, Istanbul and Alexandria.
(e) He once went by ship to Australia. The voyage took 3 1/2 weeks.
(f) l'm going on a business trip to Paris next weekend.
(g) Air France flight 507 from Paris to New York will be taking off in ten minutes.
(h) The journey from Heathrow Airport to the centre of London takes about 45 minutes
by underground.
(i) On our first day in New York we went on a three-hour tour of the city by bus, which
showed us the main sights.
(j) During our stay in London we went on a day trip to Oxford, and another to Windsor.
Welfare
A country which helps its old, sick, disabled and unemployed is called a welfare state.
Elderly people receive a state pension when they retire at the age of 60 or 65. People
with low incomes who cannot afford to buy or rent decent accommodation are given
houses or flats with subsidized rents, which means that the government or local council
supports the rent to keep it low. Sick people get free medical treatment from their doctor
or at the hospital. Mothers of small children get special state financial benefits, and of
course older children receive free schooling and may be entitled to a grant, or
scholarship, to study in higher education. Physically disabled people, who cannot move
normally, and mentally handicapped people, whose minds are not fully developed, also
receive special assistance and, if necessary, special equipment to help them live normal
lives. People who are out of work are normally eligible to receive unemployment benefit,
which is paid by the state. The social services (government departments responsible for.
people's well-being) will help people who, financially, physically or psychologically, have
difficulty in coping with life and social workers will visit such people in their homes.
Attitudes to work & leisure
Most adults aspire to more leisure but, in fact, not many people have the necessary
initiative to use the free time they already have very constructively. The sad fact is that
we need work because it imposes on us the discipline we need. Without it, life may seem
aimless and we secretly look forward to our work again. We dream about personal
fulfilment but probably find it more in our work than in our leisure time. This depends on
age. The young are free from work and responsibility, and freedom comes naturally to
them. However, after they begin jobs they become conditioned by work. They find they
need it, however much they complain about its routine and regimentation. Obviously
this again depends on the kind of work. Those with rewarding jobs, or jobs which require
creativity, receive genuine satisfaction from their work, but most of us are in
conventional 9 to 5 jobs which offer little scope for imagination. Some leave their work
only to face leisure that they find difficult to cope with. Our mistake is in regarding
leisure as a chance to do nothing, whereas in fact it should be looked on as a challenge.
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Work (1)
In times of high unemployment there are usually many applicants when a vacancy is
advertised.
Sometimes large numbers of people fill in and send off applications forms for a single job.
It is not unusual, in fact, for hundreds of people to apply to a firm for one post, sending in
their application letter and CV, or rsum. This number is reduced to a short-list of
perhaps six or eight, from whom a final choice is made when they all attend an
interview. Very possibly the people interviewing will be interested in the qualifications
the candidates gained at school or university and what experience they have gathered in
previous jobs. They will probably ask for written references by the candidates' teachers
and former employers, called referees.

Work (2)
Job satisfaction is important but I have a wife and baby so I have to think about money
too. If a job interests me, I need to know what salary it offers and also whether there are
regular annual increases, called increments. I want to know if I will receive a pension
when I retire at the age of 60 or 65. If the job is selling a product, ask if I'll receive a
percentage of the value of what I sell, called commission. It is also important to know if
there are extra advantages, like free meals or transport, or the free use of a company
car. These are called perks or fringe benefits. Are the future prospects good? For
example, is there a good chance of promotion to a better job, with more money and
responsibility? Is the job near my home? If it isn't, l'Il have to commute every day and
this can be expensive. I am very keen to be successful. I don't want to
stay in the same job all my life.
World population
The UN considers October 12th, 1999 the day on which there were 6 billion people in the
world, 247 babies being born every minute. The earth counts 80 million more people
each year, most of them living in the south. The developing world accounts for over 95%
of population growth. Even if these figures look impressive, the so dreaded population
bomb is most unlikely to explode. Optimistic forecasts are based on positive and negative
factors: the positive ones are the drop in the birth rate and in the population growth
rate, partly due to better use of contraceptives in developing countries. Since 1969,
developing countries have seen fertility fall from six children per woman to three. By
2025, the US Census Bureau estimates that the fertility rate of the less developed
countries will have fallen to 2.4, which is very close to 2.1, considered to be the
replacement level. The negative factors are the devastating effects of AIDS in Africa,
where life expectancy has plummeted in the worst-hit countries. The main feature of
this demographic slowdown is an ageing of the population. It is estimated that by the
year 2050, 95% of the rise in the number of the elderly will have taken place in
developing countries, which should be a brake on the development of the countries
concerned. Ageing will also be a headache for western countries, which will have to
worry about public pensions and health care. Demographic issues go together with
questions of economic growth, wealth and its distribution. Industrialized countries, that
is 20% of the world's population, hold 80% of the world's wealth. Because the benefits of
global growth have not been evenly distributed, it has become urgent to help boost the
economic growth of the countries left behind.

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