Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY

Arrhenius

Acid
Base

dissociates to produce H+ in water


dissociates to produce OH- in water

Bronsted-Lowry

Acid
Base

proton donor (give H3O+ in water)


proton acceptor (give OH- in water)

Acid
Base

electron pair acceptor (cation or electron deficient)


electron pair donor (anion or contains lone pair)

Lewis
Focus on B-L
Acids (HA)

Bases (B)_______________________

H something

Metal hydroxides and oxides


Neutral N-containing compounds
Anions

H-Cations
Conjugates
HA + H2O H3O+ + A-

Acid

Base B + H2O OH- + BH+

A- is CONJUGATE BASE of HA
BH+ is CONJUGATE ACID of B

Equilibrium
For acid:

Ka = [H3O+][A-] [HA]

All concentrations at equilibrium

For base:

Kb = [OH-][BH+] [B]

All concentrations at equilibrium

The bigger the K, the stronger the acid or base


Strong Acids (all go to H3O+

Strong Bases (all go to OH)

HCl
HBr
HI

Group 1 hydroxides (oxides)


Group 2 hydroxides (oxides)
NH2- (amide)
H- (hydride)

HNO3
H2SO4
HClO4

CH3- (alkides, hydrocarbon anion)


CH3O- (anions from alcohols)

Factors Affecting Strength


Binary acids (HnX) e.g. H2O, HF, HCl
Look at X

further to the right or further down in periodic table, stronger the acid

Oxyacids (HnXOm) e.g. H3PO4, H2SO4, HNO3


To compare acids:

If X different; more to the right or up in periodic table, stronger acid


If X same, the more O, stronger the acid

Ions in water
Anions are basic UNLESS FROM STRONG ACID
Cations are acidic UNLESS FROM STRONG BASE
Equilibrium constants related to neutral conjugate
Anion + H2O OH- + HAnion

Kb = Kw Ka(HAnion) (Kw = 1 x 10-14)

BaseH+ + H2O H3O+ + Base

Ka = Kw Kb(Base) (Kw = 1 x 10-14)

Polyprotic Acids
More than one Hydrogen (H3PO4, H2SO4), More than one equilibrium and Ka (Ka1, Ka2 etc)
To get pH, use ONLY first K (Ka1), To get ion concentrations, [acid] from first K, [mono-anion]
from first K, [dianion] = Ka2
Buffers
Solutions whose pH is resistant to change by small amounts of added acid or base
Consist of neutral WEAK acid or base TOGETHER with its CONJUGATE
Titrations
Add acid to base or base to acid
Equivalence point

when enough mixed to NEUTRALIZE

Strong acid + strong base


Strong acid + weak base
Weak acid + strong base
Weak acid + weak base

pH = 7
pH < 7 (conjugate ACID left)
pH > 7 (conjugate BASE left)
pH depends on which is stronger

Use INDICATORS to tell (weak acids whose conjugate base is different color)

Calculations
p means - log of
pH = -log[H3O+]
pKa = -log Ka

pOH = -log [OH-]


pKb = -log Kb

pH + pOH = 14 at 25 C

Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 10-14 at 25 C

To find K from pH

Equilibrium problem; pH gives you "x"

To find pH, pOH or simply concentrations:


1)

write all amounts as molarities


(if mixture, new mol = old mol x old volume / total volume)

2)

eliminate spectator ions (don't forget CHARGE)


(group 1 cations, group 2 cations, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, HSO4-, ClO4-, ClO3-)

3)

NEUTRALIZE

H3O+ and OH- cancel


Base or anion and H3O+ leave CONJUGATE ACID
Acid or H-containing cation and OH- leave CONJUGATE BASE

4)

If nothing left, pH = 7

5)

Any H3O+ or OH- left:

Use to get pH or pOH directly

Must find equilibrium to work with!


Neutral weak acid?

Use equilibrium reaction and Ka to get [H3O+]


Watch out for initial [conjugate]

Neutral weak base?

Use equilibrium reaction and Ka to get [OH-]


Watch out for initial [conjugate]

Anion?

React with water to give OH- and Conj. Acid.


Use Kb = Kw Ka(HAnion) for K

Cation?

React with water to give H3O+ and Conj. Base.


Use Ka = Kw Kb(Base) for K