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Distinctive Features of Leadership and Managers and their Practices

1) Introduction
Both these terms leadership and managers imbricate each other and it is important to know
the concept of these two terms: leadership and manager. In different scenarios these
terms has same meaning. For instance, in any organization whether it is a multinational
company or in an educational institution, individual assumes that those who are in
management position they tend to be leaders. Is this assumption correct? While other
contradicts with this concept and in fact they argue that managers cannot be leaders and
leaders cannot be managers. In addition to this, some scholars indicate the fact that leadership
and managers have linear convergence and, these two terms are having different perspective.
(Bass, 2010).
Form the past it is evident that the role of leaders and managers are different. The primary
roles of managers are administrators-someone who runs the department, determine the budget
plan and look forward to the growth of an organization. On the other hand, Leaders leads the
organization by following IEEE (Inspire, Enable, Empower, and Engage) principles. In fact it
holds true and another distinct feature between leader and manager is that managerial skills
are required for proper functioning of any business, leaders are guide who stimulate an
organization (Maccoby, 2000).
This assignment work is going to discuss the aspects and difference between the leadership
and managers. Investigate the statement that managers can be leaders if not how they can be
nurtured to leaders. Finally, leaders are good managers.
1) Concept of Leadership
There are multifaceted definitions of leadership. As Stogdill says that based on leaders
vision and mission many number of definitions has been made to define the term leadership.
Also, Peter Drucker defines that a person is said to be leader who has followers. Leaders
should have integrity and influential traits to make their followers. (Yulk, 1989). Some of the
ideologue conceives that leadership is a process of not only influencing a member in a group
but also to lead the group effectively.

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Northhouses (2007, p3) define the leadership work is to influence an individual or group to
attain an aim and guide the organization in such a way it become more united and ordered.
Hence, leaders responsibility is to influence a group of person to achieve a mutual goal.
(Jago, 1982)
Leaders execute this process and accomplishes by applying their skills and knowledge. This
is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). Despite of all these we know that there are traits
which can influence actions. This is known as Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in this he
conceives that leaders have natural talent rather than nurtured.
Furthermore, the definitions of leadership can be summarised to know the meaning and
concept of leadership which includes:
Need for influence: Through a study it can be realize that a person is said to be leader who
can motivate and influence an individual or a group. Leadership has been depicted for
instance, as a process of influencing the person actions and behaviour individually or a
group to carry out their goals in specified time. (Hersey et al. 2007, p.3). This is determined
by skills and ideas for practicing influence. (Spicker, 2011).
Personal Characteristic is a reason for leadership: Having a broad perspective a leaders
should have potential understanding of the characteristic which includes being charisma
(Morris et al), emotional intelligence (Samollan, 2006), enthusiasm, toughness, fairness,
warmth, confidence (Thomas, 1998, p.120), dedication, magnanimity, creativity, openness
(Bennis, 1989), humility, integrity (in both Thomas, 1998, and Bennis, 1989) and the list
seems endless. To summarize the vital characteristic of leadership is related to mental ability,
accomplishment, responsibility, and involvement. (Bass, 1990).
Leadership in management: Many theorist claims that leadership concerns about to bring the
change where as management is supposed to be status quo. (Kotter, 1990). Leaders accept the
risk but managers avoid taking the risk. (Zalenik, 1992). Leadership carries out in a wickedly
manner and management conduct in a disciplined way. (Grint, 2005). Leadership focus about
future whereas management is about execution, governs effectiveness and efficiency.
(Hafford-Letchfield et al).
In addition to this leadership associated with a organizational authority and have their roles.
In the former statement leaders are responsible for running the things. Leaders are identified
to take the responsibility for a collective function of an organization where as in the later
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statement leaders act as a role model for the followers. Moreover, followers depend on the
ideas of their leader to shape their behaviours which establishes a set of moral values and
ethics in a organization. (Spicker, 2011, p 34-37)
2) Concept of Manager
The management principle has been applied over centuries. For example, when a group of
people worked or engaged in any work like from cultivating the crop to buy and sell the
management principle lies over there. Although the concept of management is universal but
there is not any single definition and the managers define it in several ways to suit their
understandings. Moreover, this term interchangeably used with administration and states
that administrators are managers.
According to (Appleby, 1981) these two terms management and administration are used
according to their own requirements and intention. For instance, to execute a program in an
organization administration becomes a part of management. The administration is precisely
explained as (Appleby, 1981) the process of management group to decide their major goals
and policies.
In a brief and conceptual way the role of manager involves (i) Process and planning (ii)
coordinating and staffing (iii) controlling and problem solving.
(i)

Process and Planning: It is the basic foundation for all managers of organizations.
For example, as people works in a group and to get the outcome effectively they
have to be aware of the task has to be carried out which is mainly refers to a) how

(ii)

b) what and c) when, operation. (Lunenburg, 2011).


Coordinating and staffing: Organizing and Recruiting of people in an organization
is a continuous process. When aim, vision and mission, policies and strategy has
been formulated for implementation then in the next management process the

(iii)

groups are formed to achieve the goal. (Lunenburg, 2011).


Controlling and Problem solving: It is the function to ensure that each department
in an organization should have consistency with the vision and mission. For
instance, any error or deviations happens in the process then it has to be
investigated and necessary action plan has to be taken. (Lunenburg, 2011).

4) Traits of Leadership and Manager


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Based on my studies and understandings leaders and managers have the skills of leadership
and managerial skills from their childhood that is from their birth. However, from several
studies it has been revealed that person can acquire a skill of other by experience. Below
table 1 shows the difference between leadership and managers.
Table 1: Classifying Leaders and Managers based on personality
Manager
Leadership
They have subordinates
They have followers
Focus on short range, stability, making the Focus on long range,horizon,strategy, rule
rules, organization system and structure
formulation and people
They tend to be rigid, planning and They tend to be Innovators, flexible, look
budgeting, directing and controlling, reward for

opportunities,

having

vision,

and

and punish people


Admit status quo
Does not take risk and deals with complexity
They have to be in the organizational

motivate people.
Challenges the status quo
Takes risk and manages the uncertainty
Thinking out of the box, working for

boundaries, task and functional oriented


Managers are problem solvers
Managers make the things right
They are the initiators

objective of the goal.


Leaders develop innovative ideas
Leaders make the right things
They are the originators

5) Leadership qualities are natural or nurtured


We are well versed that person having leadership qualities are not created, it is natural. An
academic report published from University College London has stated that the person having
leadership qualities are partially from their ancestral genes. (Williams, 2013). According to
the study of twins which was published in the years 2102, and the research was conducted by
(Neve et al, 2013) has focused on does the hereditary influence person to develop the
leadership skills and believes genes plays an important role and described genes plays four
roles for developing the leadership skills. Firstly, thinking mechanism in brain gets influenced
by the genes and by which their behaviour changes. Secondly, the genetic factors also
influences the person to occupy leadership position for example, the personality attributes
inculcate traits like sociable and impudicity and which helps them to develop leadership
qualities in future. Furthermore, environmental factor plays a vital role favouring them
develop the leadership skills. Finally, the gene-environment stimulates individuals for the role
of leadership. Overall, the research has shown that 24 % of the leadership skills comes from
the hereditary and other leadership skills are attained through experience and training.
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6) Managers can be leaders


In every organization we see the manager who manages the organizations and are the pillars
for the growth and success of organizations. As from above we have seen the traits of
managers are that they are not risk takers and often they do mistakes. These managers are
associated with subordinates and guide them in a positive direction to achieve the
organizational goal. Managers can achieve the leadership attributes by adopting the
transformational leadership skills. In a broad way thinking the transformational approach
states that (Northhouse, 2001) it is the power to change an individual to conduct and by
which they make a path to success to satisfy their needs and values. For example, founder of
Wal-mart, Sam Walton visits wal-mart across the country and meet his associates and express
his gratitude and tells them their importance for the success of the company and these
transformational leaders are known for 4Is. They are Idealized Influence, Inspirational
motivation, Intellectual stimulation and Individual consideration. (University of Florida)
7) Are leaders good Managers
From the above understanding leaders and mangers possess different skills and we appreciate
the leaders for their outstanding achievements and vision. Leaders are not actually good
managers. No doubt there is some leaders who bevel eschew management completely.
Leaders doesnt have accountant and technical skills as managers have they need to depend
on managers. For instance, Mark Zuckerberg the founder of Facebook who appointed Sheryl
Sandberg as COO for looking out the account details. But in real scenario we cannot have the
individuals who have skill in both leaders and managers. (Forbes)
8) Conclusion
Based on the textual readings and by the research findings we have seen that in some context
the term manager and leadership meanings are synonymous but their personality trait varies.
Despite being the similarities or differences they are the two sides faces of the same coin.
These two components are essential for the growth and success of an organization. Both of
these terms are old and observed from the past is that it is practiced in day to day life to make
a complete structure. For example, leadership skills aim to make a follower and to influence
them to change their thinking, behaviour and attitudes which make them effective leaders.
An important aspect of this work is to find out that managers can be leaders and it has found
that leadership skills can be achieved by managers by giving them proper training and
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providing knowledge and furthermore by the mechanism of transformational leadership


which motivates them to be a future leader. As we know that managers are followers of
leaders. In contrast it has been found that leaders cannot be managers.

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