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To determine the
faradays law of
induction using a copper
wire wound over an iron
rod and a strong magnet

This is to certify that the PHYSICS project titled
successfully completed by sreevishnu of Class XII in
partial fulfillment of curriculum of CENTRAL BOARD OF
SECONDARYEDUCATION (CBSE) leading to the award
of annual examination of the year 2013-2014.



It gives me great pleasure to express




Physicsteacher MR P N SINGH for his

guidance, support and encouragement





Without her motivation and

help the successful completion of this

project would not have been possible.



Insulated copper wire

A iron rod
A strong magnet and
A light emitting diode


araday's law of induction is a basic law

of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will
interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive
force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle
of transformers, inductors, and many types
of electrical motors and generators.

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael

Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to
publish the results of his experiments. Faraday explained
electromagnetic induction using a concept he called lines of
force.These equations for electromagnetics are extremely important
since they provide a means to precisely describe how many natural
physical phenomena in our universe arise and behave. The ability to
quantitatively describe physical phenomena not only allows us to
gain a better understanding of our universe, but it also makes
possible a host of technological innovations that define modern
society. Understanding Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction
can be beneficial since so many aspects of our daily life function
because of the principles behind Faradays Law. From natural
phenomena such as the light we receive from the sun, to
technologies that improve our quality of life such as electric power
generation, Faradays Law has a great impact on many aspects of
our lives.

Faradays Law is the result of the experiments of the English chemist

and physicist Michael Faraday . The concept of electromagnetic
induction was actually discovered simultaneously in 1831 by
Faraday in London and Joseph Henry, an American scientist working
in New York , but Faraday is credited for the law since he published
his work first . An important aspect of the equation that quantifies
Faradays Law comes from the work of Heinrich Lenz, a Russian
physicist who made his contribution to Faradays Law, now known as
Lenzs Law, in 1834 (Institute of Chemistry).

Faradays law describes electromagnetic induction, whereby an

electric field is induced, or generated, by a changing magnetic field.
Before expanding upon this description, it is necessary to develop
an understanding of the concept of fields, as well as the related
concept of potentials.
Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic
induction (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite
sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a
modern toroidal transformer) to induce current

Figure 1 Faraday's First Experiment

Some physicists have remarked that Faraday's law is a single

equation describing two different phenomena: the motional
EMF generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire (see Lorentz
force), and the transformerEMF generated by an electric force due to
a changing magnetic field (due to the MaxwellFaraday
equation). James Clerk Maxwell drew attention to this fact in his
1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. In the latter half of part II of
that paper, Maxwell gives a separate physical explanation for each
of the two phenomena. A reference to these two aspects of
electromagnetic induction is made in some modern textbooks.

Magnetic flux:

The magnetic flux (often denoted or B) through a surface is the

component of the B field passing through that surface. The SI unit of
magnetic flux is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and
the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic flux is usually measured with
a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics that
evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate
the magnetic flux.
If the magnetic field is constant, the magnetic flux passing through
a surface of vector area S is

where B is the magnitude of the magnetic field (the magnetic flux

density) having the unit of Wb/m2 (Tesla), S is the area of the
surface, and is the angle between the magnetic field lines and
the normal (perpendicular) to S.
For a varying magnetic field, we first consider the magnetic flux
through an infinitesimal area element dS, where we may consider
the field to be constant

From the definition of the magnetic vector potential A and
the fundamental theorem of the curl the magnetic flux may also be
defined as:

where the line integral is taken over the boundary of the surface S,
which is denoted S.

The most widespread version of Faraday's law states:

The induced electromotive force in any closed

circuit is equal to the negative of the time rate of
change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.
This version of Faraday's law strictly holds only when the closed
circuit is a loop of infinitely thin wire,and is invalid in other
circumstances as discussed below. A different version, the Maxwell
Faraday equation (discussed below), is valid in all circumstances.
When the flux changesbecause B changes, or because the wire
loop is moved or deformed, or bothFaraday's law of induction says
that the wire loop acquires an EMF , defined as the energy
available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop (the
unit of EMF is the volt).Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be
measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and
attaching a voltmeter to the leads.
According to theLorentz force law (in SI units),

the EMF on a wire loop is:

where E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field (aka magnetic

flux density, magnetic induction), d is an infinitesimal arc
length along the wire, and the line integral is evaluated along the
wire (along the curve the conincident with the shape of the wire).

The MaxwellFaraday equation states that a time-varying magnetic

field is always accompanied by a spatially-varying, non-

conservative electric field, and vice-versa. The MaxwellFaraday

equation is

is the curl operator and again E(r, t) is the electric
field and B(r, t) is the magnetic field. These fields can generally be
functions of position r and time t.
The four Maxwell's equations (including the MaxwellFaraday
equation), along with the Lorentz force law, are a sufficient
foundation to derive everything inclassical electromagnetism.
Therefore it is possible to "prove" Faraday's law starting with these
equations. Faraday's law could be taken as the starting point and
used to "prove" the MaxwellFaraday equation and/or other laws.)

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction, first
observed and published by Michael Faraday in the
mid-nineteenth century, describes a very
important electro-magnetic concept. Although its
mathematical representations are cryptic, the
essence of Faradays is not hard to grasp: it relates
an induced electric potential or voltage to a
dynamic magnetic field. This concept has many
far-reaching ramifications that touch our lives in
many ways: from the shining of the sun, to the
convenience of mobile communications, to
electricity to power our homes. We can all
appreciate the profound impact Faradays Law has
on us.