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Wong Wah Sang

BUILDING ENCLOSURE
IN HONG KONG

BUILDING ENCLOSURE
IN HONG KONG
Wong Wah Sang

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H O N G KONG U N I V E R S I T Y P R E S S

Hong Kong University Press


14/F Hing Wai Centre
7 Tin Wan Praya Road
Aberdeen, Hong Kong
Hong Kong University Press 1998
ISBN 962 209 449 X

All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced or


transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including
photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in Hong Kong by United League Graphic & Printing Co., Ltd.

CONTENTS
Foreword by Professor Eric K.C. Lye

vii

Preface

viii

Acknowledgements

ix

Part I: Introduction
1. Enclosures for Buildings in Hong Kong

Part II: Hong Kong Case Studies


Environmental Issues
2. Verbena Heights
3. Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi)
4. Public Toilet at Ngong Ping

9
25
35

5. The New Peng Chau Market

45

Small Building Design


6. Maple Garden Phase 3

55

Cladding and Glass Wall


7. The Peninsula Hotel Extension

65

8. The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

79

Curtain Wall
9. The Lee Gardens
10. The Centre
11. Titus Square

91
105
115

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Creative Expression
12. The British Consulate-General
13. The Peak Tower

125
139

14. St. Thomas the Apostle Church

153

Local Technology
15. Bishop Lei International House

163

Advanced Technology Expression


16. The New KCRC Station
17. The Hong Kong Stadium

173
187

18. The Hong Kong Coliseum

201

Prefabrication and Standardization


19. HauTak Estate

207

20. Sheung Tak Estate

217

Sophistication of Design
21. Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension
Bibliography

VI

225
245

FOREWORD
This publication is a significant first step in dealing with the problem of
building enclosure in Hong Kong. The hot, humid climate usually creates
many problems for enclosures, especially when air and water pollution affect
the outer surface of buildings. This is often compounded in Hong Kong by
condensation and poor exterior and interior maintenance.
I am happy to see that a publication of this kind has appeared. I hope it
sets a trend so that more technical feedback can help architects and clients
become more aware of the technical as well as aesthetic issues relating to
enclosures.
I am less concerned with the outer appearance of the enclosure as this is
largely a matter of cost and personal preferences. The appropriate use of
materials and their consequences is another factor that needs further
investigation.
For now, this book is an exceptionally good beginning.

Eric K.C. Lye


Chair Professor
Department of Architecture
The University of Hong Kong

View of Hong Kong Central from


Victoria Harbour.

PREFACE
This edition of Building Enclosure in Hong Kong is intended as an educational
tool for students of architecture or construction as well as an academic
exchange of practice methodology for fellow professionals. The aim is to
contribute to the advancement of architecture through education and practice.
The importance of the building enclosure as an expression of the building
form and functions is equal to that of the plan. Materials form components.
Components form the building envelope. Performance of the materials
influences various aspects of the enclosure including appearance, use and
maintenance. What also matters is the way to assemble these material parts
as details.
The case studies present 20 buildings from Hong Kong ranging from
small houses to large projects by local and foreign architects. In some cases,
technology is used to express symbolism or human advancement. In other
cases environmental concerns have been raised by architects and into the
design of the enclosure. Curtain wall and cladding continue to be used in
Hong Kong for commercial and institutional buildings to varied effect.
A splendid palette of examples can thus be seen in the enclosures for
buildings in Hong Kong. Continued development is expected in the search
for design excellence and sustainability.

VIM

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to the following architectural firms for their assistance
and permission to use their drawings in the case studies: All Arts Limited;
Anthony Ng Architects Ltd.; Architectural Services Department; Dennis Lau
& Ng Chun Man Architects & Engineers (HK) Ltd.; Foster Asia (Hong Kong)
Ltd.; The Hong Kong Housing Authority; HOK International (Asia/Pacific)
Ltd., Hong Kong; P & T Architects & Engineers Ltd.; Rocco Design Ltd.;
Terry Farrell & Partners; and Wong & Ouyang (HK) Ltd. (with S.O.M.).
In particular, the author would like to thank Mr W.H. Lam, Mr S.H. Ha
and Mr K.B. Fung of Wong & Ouyang; Mr Rocco Yim and Mr Hector Cheung
of Rocco Design Ltd.; Mr Donald Choi and Miss Holyoak of Foster Asia; Mr
Steven Smith of Terry Farrell; Mr Ernest Cirangle and Mr Julian KerrellVaughan of HOK; Mr Dennis Lau of L & N; Mr Stephen Poon and Mr Choi
of the Housing Authority, Mr Anthony Ng and Mr K.S. Wong of Anthony
Ng Architects; Mr S.H. Pau, Mr Macbeth and Mr Mau of ASD as well as Mr
Bernard Lim and Mr Martin Fung of P & T.
The author would also like to thank the British Trade Commision Hong
Kong for their permission to publish photographs of the British Consulate,
and The Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels Limited, for their permission to
publish photographs of the Peak Tower.
A lot of people have contributed to the making of this book. Many thanks
are due to Mr Yu Ying Sang for proofreading the manuscript, Miss Daisy
Lau So Man for typing the manuscript, Mr Pang Yee Hang, Mr Curry Tse
Ching Kan, Mr Chris Lam Po Wing, Mr Wong Kai Ming, Mr Wong Wan
Cheung, Miss Angela Lee Lap Chi, Mr Keith Kung Chi Ming, Mr Michael
Yen Koon Wai, Mr Albert Yiu Chi Wai and Mr Thomas Yuen Ka Yiu for
drafting the axonometrics.
Figures 4.3, 5.9, 8.6, 8.7, 9.1, 9.2, 10.2, 12.2, 12.3, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5,
18.1, and 18.2 were created by ArchiCAD.
Finally, the author gratefully acknowledges all the professional
consultants, clients and contractors involved in the case study projects for
their efforts and contribution to the advancement of architecture in Hong
Kong.

The New KCRC Station is a glass pavilion giving openness


to the interior space.

ENCLOSURES FOR BUILDINGS IN


HONG KONG
What is the enclosure of a building?
Le Corbusier wrote: 'A mass is enveloped in its surface, a surface which is
divided up according to the directing and generating lines of the mass; and
this gives the mass its individuality'.
The enclosure is the building skin or envelope covering the building mass
and forming the building elevation or facade. Creation and order are the
directing and generating lines from the building mass which means the plan
in three-dimensional form and space. The enclosure gives the architectural
expression which is unique to the building mass.
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE ENCLOSURE
The building enclosure has the following functions:
1. to act as a protective shelter for its inhabitants against wind and rain as
well as fire hazards.
2. to control the influence of the external environment like solar heat, light,
air and noise on the interior space, thus providing comfort.
3. to allow for the installation of building services and integration of the
structure if necessary.
4. to give an external appearance to the building.
The basic function of the building enclosure is to provide shelter. In Hong
Kong, providing shelter against typhoon and rain is not an easy task. Water
leakage is a common problem in buildings in Hong Kong. When water is
driven by wind, it is pressed into the building from all possible directions.
The building has to stand against both water penetration and wind load. So
waterproofing has to be done cautiously and structure design has to take into
acount various forms of loading. The shelter also needs to take account of
various forms of movement due to wind expansion and contraction, and
settlement of ground. Earthquake is not a factor to be considered in Hong
Kong.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Protection of inhabitants against fire is a function of building enclosure.


Spread of fire can be a horror, even in modern times. The building enclosure
should be able to stop or slow down the spread of fire whether from within
or outside. Materials for construction are tested and classified according to
various fire resisting periods to form construction components so that sufficient
time is given to the inhabitants to escape from a building on fire before the
components fail and collapse. In this respect, the internal planning and details
of individual space will matter, in addition to the various provisions/details
required by the building enclosure.
Another function of the building enclosure is to separate the external
environment and to contain an internal controlled environment suitable for
various human activities. We expect the external environment to vary but the
internal environment to be constant or varied within a certain range. Comfort
is attained when a stable internal environment is attained. What we ask for is
a controlled condition with moderate temperature, adequate light, pleasant
humidity, smooth air circulation and a certain degree of quietness. All are
simple demands but not easy to achieve. Therefore, the building enclosure
can contribute positively to provide a comfortable interior, designed together
with building services which means artificial lighting and mechanical
ventilation.
Structure and/or building services are sometimes incorporated into the
design of the building enclosure. This means a total integration of the different
building systems in the external wall.
In the relationship between structure and external wall, there are three
options:
1. Structure totally inside the building in this case, the external wall is a
simple skin and can be very light and elegant.
2. Structure forming part of the external wall in this case, the structure is
expressed as an integral part of building appearance and the external
wall consists of infill panels.
3. Structure distinct from the outside of the building this case is similar
to the first one in having two separate systems for the structure and external
wall. The external wall is self-supporting and appears light beneath a
layer of the building structure.
Different appearances and spatial experiences are created in these three
options. Building services can also be classified similarly. When mechanical
services are put outside the building, they can produce a striking impact.

Plate 1.2
The unique form of the Peak Tower enclosure identifies
the building as a landmark in Hong Kong.

Enclosures for Buildings in Hong Kong

Building services are usually connected to the external wall. These services
include the air intake and discharge of mechanical ventilation system, the fire
service inlets and other services' inlets, the observation lifts, lighting protection
systems, external lighting, and fire alarms as well as forms of service
mechanisms for environmental control.
The function of the enclosure to give the building a certain appearance is
mostly attended to by the designers, the building owner as well as plain
observers. Here the designer's ideas are consolidated and conveyed to people.
Whether the building expresses culture, technology, environment or sheer
engineering, it is the result of the efforts of many people acting both directly
and indirectly. Some clients may like to have a building of prestige and they
dictate styles for the designer to conform to. Only a good match of designer
and client can produce good buildings.
MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
Materials for enclosures include glass, metal, paint, natural stones, tiles,
concrete and timber. The choice of material depends on the appropriateness
of their performance characteristics in the particular situation. Such
performance criteria are considered in the light structural serviceability, safety,
habitability, durability, compatibility and aesthetics. Materials also combine
to form building components making up the construction of the external
wall.
When components meet each other, joints are formed between different
components. Special attention to these areas can produce good detailing in
respect to function and aesthetics. Points to be considered as regards detailing
are:
1. How components are constructed and put into other parts of the building
2. Joints to be adequate for structure (self-supporting or supported by other
systems)
3. Joints to be watertight and drainage to be provided
4. Actual operation procedure
5. Maintenance problems and method
6. Appearance of the component in relation to other building parts
7. Environmental benefits such as reducing heat gain to interior, enhancing
ventilation, using low embodied energy and recycling of materials or
component parts
Components of the enclosure include glazing, windows, roofing, parapets,
skylights, walls, doors, balconies, canopies, shop fronts and other projecting
features.

Plate 1.3
Maple Garden has a simple shelter of reinforced concrete.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

DESIGNING THE ENCLOSURE


The enclosure is designed to meet the functional requirement based on the
performance criteria of the materials and components.
To act as a basic shelter, reinforced concrete wall is commonly used in
Hong Kong. A thickness of 100 mm gives a minimum guarantee of
waterproofing. This 100 mm thickness will not function if workmanship is
poor with voids and 'honeycomb' defects. Increased thickness gives better
sheltering effect but decreases the valuable net usable floor area of the interior.
Cement sand rendering on the external surface enhances the sheltering
function. The concrete surface is applied with a coat of spatterdash before
cement sand rendering. When tiles are added on the rendering or using
adhesive, movement joints have to be introduced to allow for various types
of building movement.
Glass walls in the form of curtain wall or window wall can provide shelter.
Joints between the glass and metal frames are filled up with elastic sealants to
provide adhesion as well as certain degree of movement. Frames in the curtain
in wall have to allow for drainage of any water seeping in. Openable windows
are provided with neoprene gaskets. Gaps between the structural opening
and window frames are grouted to provide a water seal. Large glazing is
suspended by hangers. Tests can be carried out on glazing or window mockups to ascertain strength.
Metal cladding is also completed with sealants for waterproofing and
movement. Joints are designed by calculation of the thermal expansion
coefficient with the temperature range as well as possible deflection of the
building. Stone cladding is dry mounted and similarly sealed but waterproofing
usually relies on a protective layer that is applied to the concrete surface.

Plate 1.4
Metal cladding for the roof decking of the Lantau Toll
Plaza.

Checklist for specifying curtain wall and cladding:


1.

Scope of works to include design, supply, delivery, storage, erection,


connection, testing and maintenance
2. Preparation of shop drawings and dimensional co-ordination
3. Design warranty for performance period
4. Structural requirements for deadloads, live loads and wind loads as well
as differential movements

Enclosures for Buildings in Hong Kong

Plate 1.5
Sunshades for solar control at Verbena Heights.

5. Performance requirements for overall thermal transfer values, thermal


expansion, moisture resistance, water penetration, safety, acoustics,
condensation, fire resistance, distortion free and low maintenance
6. Tolerances for manufacture and installation
7. General materials and workmanship including glass, coatings, metal panels,
doors, fixing, joints, gaskets, sealants, lighting protection and earth bonding
8. Durable finishes
9. Samples and testing
10. Maintenance and repair
To allow for environmental control, an insulated air gap will be effective
for thermal and noise purposes when used on the curtain wall or claddings.
Increased thickness of the concrete wall does help to achieve better insulation
values. But sunshading devices or screens can be added on the external wall
for effective solar control. Louvres are useful for ventilation purposes.
Acoustical louvres can cut off machine room noise and help ventilation.
Designing the building enclosure has to follow the Building Regulations
and the Fire Services Requirements. These cover:
1. Structural adequacy
2. Objects to be prevented from falling
3. Fire safety with adequate fire resisting period and compartmentation
4. Limitation of openings near adjoining sites
5. Overall Thermal Transfer Value requirement
6. Means of Escape Code
The external appearance of the building can be a result of the above
considerations. A pattern of repeated components can give discipline and order
to an elevation. An irrational approach can produce very artistic impressions.
Elevations that can withstand the test of time usually blend in with the
surroundings or become inseparable from the site context. This becomes culture
in physical form. Environmentally friendly buildings can be of sustainable
designs passing on to future generations. Good detailing for the enclosure will
give buildings life and interaction with people.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Table 1.1 Performance Characteristics of Materials and Components for External Wall in Hong Kong
Material for
Enclosure

Components formed
by the Material

Structural
Serviceability

Safety

Glass

windows, glazing skylight

framed support or
structural sealant with
glass buttresses
special glazing system
available for large glass
area, usually with
suspension system
movement joint allowed
around glass
tempered glass for
better strength

broken glass can be


dangerous
laminated glass and
tempered glass for
safety
hired glass for fire rating
fire rated glass available

Metal (aluminium, copper,


steel, stainless steel)

w i n d o w frame, cladding,
frame for glazing, roofing

generally good
structural strength
anchored to structural
system of building
avoid common situation
weakening structural
strength

secured installation is
safe
steel with certain
thickness can afford fire
rating

Natural stones (granite,


marble, sandstone,
limestone, slate,
travertine)

cladding

hung on concrete wall


by steel anchors
normally heavy but can
combine with expanded
metal base to give lightweight panels

insecure fixing causes


falling hazards

Tiles

wall finish

stuck on wall by cement


sand rendering or
chemical adhesive which
gives stronger but more
flexible fixing
allow for movement
joints

insecure fixing also


causes falling hazards

Concrete

wall finish
insitu or precast as 'fair
faced' concrete

insitu concrete is intact


with structure
precast concrete is
mechanically fixed and
sealed with grouting or
insitu concreting

good workmanship for


insitu concrete
especially on
cantilevered structure
for safety

Timber

decorative wall finish as


facing boards

nailed or glued on
concrete wall
not all timber can be
used externally

treatment to avoid fire


hazards

Paint

spray paint or rolled


on paint as wall finishes

adhere to background
such as rendering
concrete finishes

some lead-based paint


is poisonous
some paint can provide
fire resistance

Enclosures for Buildings in Hong Kong

Table 1.2 Performance Characteristics of Materials and Components for External Wall in Hong Kong
Material for
Enclosure

Habitability

Durability

Compatibility

Aesthetics

glass can withstand reflective,


durable in normal
transparent
contact with most
use
or colour tinted
material
coating and tint can
coating on glass can
be worn off
be degraded through
especially during
contact with some
construction
chemicals

Glass

transmit heat and


light when clear,
absorptive when
tinted, reflective
when coated with
various chemicals
reflect sound
stops certain
amount of noise,
double glazing or
double w i n d o w is
insulative

Metal (aluminium,
copper, steel,
stainless steel)

durable in most
different metals
waterproofing at
cases
cannot be placed
joints is achieved by
oxidation for metals
together due to
sealants
is possible and may
galvanic action
insulative materials
resent to form a
can be added for
protective layer or
control heat or
corrode
sound
fainting of colouring
for certain coating

anodizing gives
colour to
aluminium
paint,
fluorocarbon
coating, power
coating and
enamel coating
can be applied
to produce
colours and
pattern
texture can be
made by
engraving,
embossing,
etching, grinding
or hammering

Natural stones
(granite, marble,
sandstone,
limestone, slate,
travertine)

low conductivity,
combines with air
gap to give
insulation
joints completed
with sealant and
background
applied with
waterproofing

some stones tend


to retain water and
should be installed
to allow water to
dry up and avoid
prolonged contact
with water

surface treatment
can be polished,
honed or flamed
range of natural
colours available

Tiles

not contribute much durable


for insulation
metallic surface
metallic tiles can
more easily worn
reflect solar
down
radiation

no problem
except for special
coating surface

wide range of
colours available,
glazed or
unglazed
corner tiles and
special shaped
tiles available

durable for most


stones
sandstone and
limestone more
susceptible to wear
and tear

Continued on p. 8

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Table 1.2 continued


Material for
Enclosure

Habitability

Durability

Compatibility

Aesthetics

Concrete

generally good
durable
ingredients and
insulator
surface can be
water have to be
increase in thickness
protected by paint
'clean' to avoid
to improve insulation rendering can be
contamination,
applied for
which may cause
protection but it
nesting to steel
changes the natural
reinforcement
appearance

fairface concrete
can take up
texture of
formwork
colour paints can
be applied

Timber

treatment to stop
termite and insert
growth

colour fading under no problem


use
paint protection

more natural

Paint

some products can


be heat/light
reflective

depends on
product
re-application of
paints may be
required after
certain period

wide range of
texture and colour
stone-like effects
available
degree of
glossiness
available

some products
specify the
preparation of the
base before
application

Plate 2.1
Verbena Heights as viewed from Po Hong Road.

VERBENA HEIGHTS
Architectural

Firm: Anthony

Ng Architects

Ltd.

GENERAL
This is a case study of a high-rise housing design
demonstrating different design strategies for dealing with
environmental problems. The basic technique is not
using sophisticated high-tech expensive products but
common local construction technology to achieve
environmental benefits by careful planning and
detailing. However, not all the design strategies have
been implemented in the final construction due to other
considerations. This design has already indicated an
environmental concern. It is envisaged that more
promotion and education on environmental protection
issues will be necessary to sustain the man-made
environment in Hong Kong.
LOCATION
This project is in the new town of Tseung Kwan O. The
site is within an area of residential buildings newly
developed or under development by private developers
or the government. A highway lies on one side, causing
noise problems for the high-rise flats. This project will
house 1894 saleable apartments and 971 rental units.
ENCLOSURE
The enclosure design alone will not be sufficient to deal
with environmental issues. This project consists of a
group of building blocks orientated to capture prevailing
wind for cooling in summer. To make this possible, wind
tunnel studies are made on the building model to obtain

the best disposition of the building blocks for optimum


natural ventilation. Some big openings are left in the
blocks to affect the wind flow. In addition, the floor
design on a linear layout gives better opportunities for
cross ventilation.
With such an environmentally positive layout, the
building enclosure is considered to further enhance
environmental protection. Basically the building wall
is a conventional reinforced concrete wall with bay
windows. An external shading device in the form of a
concrete grid is installed as inter-block shading will not
be sufficient. These sunshading screens also serve to
block off part of the traffic noise. Solar effects and noise
effects have been studied through computer modelling.
In order to effectively use energy as well as to save the
valuable internal space in this high density development,
solar heat is also used for external clothes drying. So
natural anodized aluminium perforated panels are
added in front of the drying racks as screens.
COMMENTS
Design strategies showing concern for the environment
is a matter of design attitude. The increase in
construction costs usually is only a few percent but this
will save much on future costs. The devices to save and
use energy as demonstrated in this case study are not
new inventions. What is important are the affectionate
thoughts and caring attitude in working out a scheme
that shows the possibilities beyond an otherwise
conventional design.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 2.1
Layout at the third floor showing saleable blocks at the north
and rental blocks at the south. Ventilation 'holes' are left to
create aesthetical interest.

Architect:
Anthony Ng Architects Ltd.
Project Location:
Po Hong Road, Mau Tai Road, Area 19B,
Tseung Kwan 0, T.K.O.T.L. No. 35
Materials for Enclosure:
Reinforced concrete structure, ceramic
tiles, aluminium framed windows,
reinforced concrete screen walls
Completion:
Scheduled at 1997

10

Verbena Heights

Plate 2.2
The completed central block from Po Hong Road - - scale of the high-rise blocks is broken down by varying
heights of the block.

11

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

ENERGY

ALTERNATIVE
Building layout
designed to
harness ambient
wind for space
cooling

NATURAL
VENTILATION

Wind tunnel
studies to optimize
wind-driven
ventilation for
apartment units
--

SOLAR SHADING
/ INSULATION

*External shading device and roof shading/


insulation to control heat gain

Computer modeling analysis to optimize


shading/daylighting design

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HARNESSING OF
SOLAR ENERGY
(ACTIVE)

Provision
designed for
apartment units
to incorporate
solar water
heating system

HARNESSING OF
SOLAR ENERGY
(PASSIVE)

Clothes drying space


with good solar/wind
exposure to encourage
use

Light-shelves to
optimize daylighting
to depth of room;
daylighting to
lobbies and other
communal areas

Building integrated solar collector for water


heating and photovoltaics for lighting, etc.

d-

I
MINIMIZATION
OF ELECTRIC
LIGHTING

"fife-

Ventilation stack
designed to
utilize solar
heating to drive
air movement

Daylighting design integrated with intelligent


control systems and photo/occupancy sensors

^Strategies executed or
partially executed in
Verbena Heights

Figure 2.2
Matrix of strategies towards sustainable housing design energy aspects.

MATERIALS
TROPICAL
WOODS
CONSERVATION

ALTERNATIVE

ADVANCE!

Alternative formwork materials


(e.g., steel, plastic,
softwoods) to be
used instead of
unlabelled tropical
woods

Standardization of
design & efficient
construction system
(e.g., components
prefabrication) to
optimize use of
form work materials

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sffl
f\

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DOA.IL

W "
WOODS
CONSERVATION

MATERIALS
REDUCTION

Alternative
wood products to
be specified (e.g.,
MDF board for
cabinets;
engineered wood
for structure)

Certified wood materials/products from


managed plantation source to be specified

Materials of durability matching expected


service life to be selected (e.g., terrazzo floor
tiling, Chinese granite paving)

Space designed to have increased flexibility


for the ease of future adaptations (e.g.,
convertible housing units)

SUSTAINABLY
ACQUIRED.OR
RENEWABLE
RESOURCE

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LOW EMBODIED
ENERGY

Materials with
low embodied
energy (e.g., some
local products) to
be specified where
appropriate

RECYCLED
CONTENT/
RECYCLABILITY

Products with recycled content to be used


where appropriate (e.g., play equipment using
recycled aluminum/plastics)

Life-cycle energy use (initial/recurring


embodied energy and operating energy) in
building to be assessed

,f%,
<><?>

iv>
V
^Strategies executed or
partially executed in
Verbena Heights

Figure 2.3
Matrix of strategies towards sustainable housing design materials aspects.

RECYCLED
CONTENT

RE-USEABIE,
SALVAGEABLE

RECYCLABLE

Building design to
be targeted with
increasing % of
recycled materials
and recyclable or
re-usable materials/
components

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

LIVABILITY
NOISE
MITIGATION

PEDESTRIAN
LEVEL WIND
CONTROL

ADVANCED

ALTERNATIVE

Acoustic model
tests to develop
facade-mounted
noise mitigation
devices

Block layout and


noise barrier walls
designed to reduce
flats exposed to
excessive traffic/
mechanical noise

High- and low-rise blocks juxtaposed to


reduce adverse wind impact on pedestrian area

Wind tunnel
modeling studies to
optimize building
design to safeguard
pedestrian comfort
& safety

1-

INDOOR AIR
QUALITY

Typical floor lobbies/corridors and car


parking space designed to promote natural
ventilation

Paints of VOCs
and other materials
containing "toxic"
substances (e.g.,
adhesives) to be
avoided for indoor
application

URBAN
GREENERY

Communal planting space extended to upper


levels for increasing amount of urban
greenery

Integrated facade design (an "environmental


filter") adapted for planting, solar shading,
noise mitigation, etc.

^Strategies executed or
partially executed in
Verbena Heights

Figure 2.4
Matrix of strategies towards sustainable housing design livability aspects.

Verbena Heights

1. cruciform plan (conventional)

2. 'linear' plan (saleable flats, Verbena Heights)

3. 'linear' plan (rental flats, Verbena Heights)

10M

Typical floor plans: cruciform vs. 'linear' forms adopted in Verbena Heights
Figure 2.5
Lighting and cross ventilation is created by openings along the corridor.

15

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 2.3
View of Verbena Heights sunscreens and roof screens create environmental and aesthetic values.

16

Verbena Heights

Plate 2.4
View of Verbena Heights an assembly of architectonics from environmental features.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

50 x 100 ceramic tiles


8 wide groove w/sealant pointing
external plaster w/finishes
Part elevation of rental block

A
unit type 3P2
50 x 100 ceramic tiles
50 x 50 x 100 corner ceramic tiles

Part plan of rental block

Figure 2.6
Part elevation of a rental block.

18

Verbena Heights

TTHT
S.F.L

-^-&
N^ o
^$

Plate 2.5
Roof feature and vertical fin at a rental
block.

i
Plate 2.6
Interior view of the bay w i n d o w and
screen wall.

is

4
. ;>
1. 175 x 650 RC beam in spray paint finish on
fairface concrete as wall colour
2. RC screen wall in colour B (rough dotto)
wall paint finish for rental block and colour
A (rough dotto) for saleable block

Figure 2.7
Detail section of R.C. screen wall.

1 > 1 ' *,

iffltii

Plate 2.7
R.C. screen wall in paint finish on facade
of the bay window.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 2.8
R.C. screen wall on the bay w i n d o w
facade.

Pi'f

i
I

j. i

P" I !

* i a

* *

- 1 :::

I'M

is

ft 5 I

ft

111 I ; I

Figure 2.8
Elevation of R.C. screen wall.

-Hh

D
D
425 | J [ 425 J, Q

1. RC beam behind
2. RC screen wall in colour B (rough dotto)
wall paint finish for rental block and colour
A (rough dotto) for saleable block
3. setting out point for openings (vertical)

20

gsiiD D

Elevation of R.C. screen wai

Verbena Heights

Plate 2 9

Drying racks of aluminium panel screen


supported by stainless steel pipe.

Figure 2.9
The drying rack detail of a rental block.

=LM

!
Typical screen side elevation for drying rack (for rental block only)

Typical fixing detail of screen 1:4

1. 3 mm thick aluminium perforated panel


w/natural colour anodized finish drying
rack
2. drying rack
3. 380 S/S pipe hairline finish
4. 140 x 100 x 4.5 thick M/S plate cast-in to
RC wall by fastener
5. 320 M/S pipe welded to M/S plate
6. 3 mm thick aluminium perforated panel
w/natural colour anodized finish

21

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 2.10
View of Verbena Heights the monotony of typical flats is offset by the varied use of sunscreens.

22

Verbena Heights

Figure 2.10
Isometric of wall section with sunscreens.

175x650 R.C.
beam

aluminium
window

aluminium bay
window

23

Plate 3.1
Aluminium sunscreens are used for solar control. Metallic glazed
tiles reflect excessive heat.

HONG KONG TECHNICAL COLLEGE (TSING YI)


Architectural

Firm: P & T Architects

& Engineers

Ltd.

GENERAL

ENCLOSURE

This case study presents another project that exploits


environmental techniques to construct an energy
efficient building. Site planning and massing are the
initial steps to consider for saving energy. Thus, the
buildings are planned with the short sides facing east
and west. Machinery rooms are placed on positions
with strong sun. This reflects the planning for
environmental control. The roof is an area with much
solar exposure. In this project, landscape planting, water
features and covered walkways are placed on the rooftop forming usable amenities as well as an insulating
layer.

To limit the effect of the absorbed solar heat on the


interior, deep recessed facades and sunshading fins are
techniques used in the elevations' window design. Some
windows are openable to allow natural ventilation when
possible. The reinforced concrete external walls are
covered with reflective metallic tiles to reduce solar heat
gain. Windows are constructed of a grey tinted glass
which absorbs some heat, thus reducing solar heat gain
to the interior.

LOCATION

This project uses simple means but careful planning and


design to achieve an energy efficient building. The
overall thermal transfer value is of 10.27 w/m 2
performance, compared with general curtain wall
buildings of 80 w/m2. Site planning, functional planning,
circulation, wall design and selection of materials all
contribute to the success of this project.

The site is a six-hectare site on Tsing Yi Island. It is a


rather rural site with a hill as its backdrop. A highway
lies on one side and a high-rise residential estate is
nearby. The project takes advantage of natural resources
and aims to capture the summer sea breeze by elevating
the south side of the main building to facilitate natural
ventilation.

COMMENTS

25

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 3.1
The diagrams here illustrate environmental concepts the planning of the site, design of elevation and selection of materials all
contribute to energy efficiency.

Main Sjtaircore

2hI^C'' "-

ifT

BIOCK

iSiiiw* ^

SKY^DB

Sea Breeze fk>m thej


South East direction

CONCOURSE LEV,EL

Basic Teaching
Wing

Natural Ventilated Courtyard

Orientation of Basic Teaching Wing

South Elevation

Architect:
P & T Architects & Engineers Ltd.
Project Location:
Tsing Yi Road and Sai Shan Road,
Tsing Yi Island
Materials for Enclosure:
Reinforced concrete frame,
aluminium windows with grey
t i n t e d glass, m e t a l l i c lustre
reflective ceramic tiles, aluminium
sunshading fins
Completion:
1993

26

Sunshading Fins

Use of Waste A/C Air

EVEL

Room Depth and Cross Ventilation

Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi)

Photo by courtesy of P & T Architects & Engineers Ltd.

f ya fess
"HE R5SSS

IBS! jS|9

*^*u ^tiiisL'
* i*!.

3(

Plate 3.2
View of the Technical College the rational character of the elevation is a reflection of modular planning.

27

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 3.3
View of the bridge connection and deep overhang.

28

Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi)

Plate 3.4
An overall view of the Technical College shows juxtaposition of blocks perpendicular to the linear site.

Photo by courtesy of P & T


Architects Engineers Ltd.
Plate 3.5
The metallic industrial look of the entrance canopy reflects the technical character of the institution.

29

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 3.6
Interior view of the sports hall natural ventilation is made possible by installing remote-controlled
louvres on the walls.

Photo by courtesy of P & T


Architects Engineers Ltd.
Plate 3.7
Interior view of the workshop.

30

Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi)

Figure 3.2
Isometric showing the wall section with
the sunshading device.

-aluminium window

-planter

335x75 mm
-aluminium box
section sun fin

600 x 600 mm R.C.


sun fin

31

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 3.3
Elevation of the main entrance.

liili

**!

Plate 3.8
Roof garden with covered walkway.

32

Plate 3.9
Variation of sunshades on elevation.

Plate 3.10
The main entrance.

pit

Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi)

I
^

Plate 3.11
Aluminium sunshading device.

Plate 3.12
Openable windows for ventilation.

Plate 3.13
Natural ventilated courtyard.

33

Plate 4.1
View of the public toilet showing its rural setting.

PUBLIC TOILET AT NGONG PING


Architectural

Firm: P & T Architects

& Engineers

GENERAL
This is a small project using simple environmental
strategies to enclose the building, allowing natural
lighting and cross ventilation. The two blocks of public
toilet demonstrate simplicity of the design and illustrate
the possibilities for environmental control.
LOCATION
This is a rural site next to the Po Lin Monastery and
the Buddha Statue on Lantau Island on Ngong Ping
Road. In this location, vernacular principles are used
to derive the building enclosure as well as to monitor
the interior environment.
ENCLOSURE
This is a one-storey building; the design of the roof is
therefore a major consideration for the building
enclosure. To allow light penetration and natural
ventilation, an elevated pitched roof is used. This creates

Ltd.

an opening at high level allowing diffused lighting and


natural cross ventilation. Air intake at low level is
possible through grilled openings in the cubicles and
on the external wall. Such devices create a simple stack
effect for air movement.
For construction materials, steel I-beams are used
to support the elevated roof instead of traditional timber
brackets. But clay tiles form the roof finish to provide
the rural character. The external wall is finished with
simple spray paint on rendering. Reinforced concrete
columns are chiselled fairface concrete. Slate tiles form
the finish for the dado. A natural look is achieved using
simple materials.
COMMENTS
A small project can exploit grand concepts. This simple
building illustrates that the concept of environmental
design can be incorporated into the building enclosure.
The building is integrated with the natural process to
create harmony between humankind and nature.

35

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

^**ABMJ.w
Plate 4.2
Exterior view of the roof and wall construction.

36

M.

V >VAV

W1-

i\

Public Toilet at Ngong Ping

Plate 4.3
A view from Ngong Ping Road illustrating its vernacular character.

Plate 4.4
Interior view of the toilet a pleasant and neat appearance is created.

37

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 4.5
Exterior view showing its vernacular character.

38

Public Toilet at Ngong Ping

Figure 4.1
Diagrams illustrating environmental
s t r a t e g i e s n a t u r a l l i g h t i n g and
ventilation are incorporated through a
single design method.

"

cross ventilation
stack ventilation

ventilation concept

diffused light

T^"
lighting concept

Architect:
P & T Architects & Engineers Ltd.
Project Location:
Ngong Ping Road, Lantau Island
Building Enclosure:
Steel structure, chiselled finished fairface
concrete for the columns, slate and spray
paint for walls
Completion:
1995

39

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 4.2
Layout plan showing the toilet blocks
staggered to achieve good ventilation.

40

Public Toilet at Ngong Ping

Figure 4.3
Isometric of wall section showing simple construction for environmental concern.

41

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

powder coated alum, fins


stucco finish in-fill panel
fairface concrete chiselled finish
S.S. grille gate
G.M.S. roof bracket system
roofing tiles
powder coated alum, lattice
12 mm thick tempered stained glass panel
12 mm thick tinted tempered glass panel
12 mm thick tempered glass panel with etched pattern laid
in S.S. frame

Figure 4.4
Elevations.

42

11. G.M.S. bracket system painted


12. 100 mm S.Q. C.I. rainwater spout
13. fairface concrete chiselled finish
14. powder coated alum, lattice
15. 25 mm 0 S.S. rod fixed to G.M.S. bracket system
16. 10 mm thick tinted tempered glass panel laid in S.S. frame
17. G.M.S. planter box framed with timber lattice structure
18. roofing tiles
19. louvre detail
20. fairface concrete chiselled finished

Public Toilet at Ngong Ping

1. G.M.S. bracket system painted


2. 100 mm S.Q. C.I. rainwater spout
3. fairface concrete chiselled finish
4. G.M.S. roof bracket system painted
5. roofing tiles as specified
6. powder coated alum, fins
7. fairface concrete chiselled finish
8. S.S. grille gate
9. roof tile
10. powder coated alum, fins
11. powder coated alum, louvre
12. G.M.S. planter box framed with timber lattice structure
13. finish expansion joint
14. louvre detail

Figure 4.5
Elevations.

Figure 5.1
Elevation of the main entrance.

THE NEW PENG CHAU MARKET


Architectural

Firm: P & T Architects

& Engineers

GENERAL
This is another case study of a building enclosure which
focuses on environmental control. The project is a threestorey building housing the market stalls in the lower
two levels. The machinery rooms are on the top floor.
This offers a thermal insulation buffer against the solar
heat gain on the roof.
LOCATION
The site is located on the outlying island of Peng Chau.
With the last natural environment around the site, the
project is designed to be environmental friendly.
ENCLOSURE
The building is mechanically ventilated but can also be
naturally ventilated. This is facilitated by a mechanically
operable louvre system within the external wall which
can be used at night when the market is closed. The

Ltd.

external wall is finished with spray paint and ceramic


wall tiles. Fixing is by means of bonding agent to ensure
a good contact for the concrete base. The columns are
of fairfaced concrete structure finished with waterproof
coating.
The roof is designed with deep overhangs to shield
off solar heat. A fibre glass cladding system is designed
for the roof overhangs.
The cover part of the building is designed to be
finished with timber panels to give a natural appearance.
Special varnish coats the timber to stop deterioration
and insect growth.
COMMENTS
Again, careful planning makes a building different. With
the budget and functions almost u n c h a n g e d ,
environmental consideration improves the energy
efficiency of a building, making it more sustainable and
c r e a t i n g h a r m o n y between its users and the
environment.

45

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 5.2
First floor plan at 8.65 m.p.d.
/ ^ J

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

meat stall
wet goods
dry goods
switch room
male toilet
female toilet
lift
vegetable sorting area
refuge collection
office
A.H.U. room
store room
escalator
deck

Figure 5.3
Ground floor plan at 4.00 p.m.d.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11
12

fish
poultry
lift
disabled's toilet
plant room
transformer room
newspaper
LP.G. store
void
refuge collection
scalding room
loading & unloading

Architect:
P & T Architects & Engineers Ltd.
Project Location:
Wing On Street, Peng Chau
Materials for Enclosure:
Spray paint and ceramic tiles on reinforced
concrete wall, fairfaced concrete nonwaterproof sealer on columns. Fibre glass
cladding system and mineral coating
system for the roof
Completion:
Scheduled for 1998.

46

^Kyj

PROMENADE

The New Peng Chau Market

Figure 5.4
Roof plan at 16.30 m.p.d.

Figure 5.5
Mezzanine floor plan at 12.45 m.p.d.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11
12
13

generator room
lift machine room
FH/HR
sprinkler tank
F.S. pump room
void
scrubber area
pump room
pau unit
condenser room
translucent canopy
escalator cover
roof

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

*%ffi~~r~~~.'

'- ^r A

r *r

'r

~- , -

\ %^ , . ., , , .

Figure 5.6
Elevation fibre glass cladding and mineral coating are specified for the roof, timber panels for the walls.

48

* -,'/ *-

The New Peng Chau Market

J.*y--r^-\-'::^

49

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 5.1
Model study for the building form and enclosure.

50

The New Peng Chau Market

Figure 5.7
Sections showing deep overhangs for sunshading.

\A

M 1% * iff

PROMENADE

<mifl u

T"

L J

Figure 5.8
Sections showing deep overhangs for sunshading

+J

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

channel
metal decking on surface and suspended
fibre on bottom side
planter box
external spray paint to circular column
planter box

Drawn bv ArchiCADs
Figure 5.9
Isometric section of the roof and wall

52

The New Peng Chau Market

G.M.S. pole
mineral coating
fibre glass cladding

openable window
external spray paint to external wall
fairface concrete finish

Drawn by ArchiCADs
Figure 5.10
Isometric section of the roof and wai

53

Plate 6.1
Frameless bay windows for Maple Gardens Phase 3.

MAPLE GARDEN PHASE 3


Design Architectural

Firm: Wong Wah Sang Architect

Project Architectural

Firm: Hsin Yieh Architects

as Consultant

& Associates

GENERAL
This case study is an example of a small house design
using local construction techniques. The two-storey
h o u s e is i n t e n d e d for single family living.
Accommodation includes three bedrooms, a living/
dining area and a kitchen. The total floor area of the
two storeys is only about 70 m2. A small garden with
carpark is also provided.
LOCATION
The site is amidst a group of houses in a residential
area in Yuen Long. Ten houses are located on this site
which is elevated on a level platform to give a better
view and exposure.
ENCLOSURE
The enclosure for the house expresses a wish to extend

with All Arts

Limited

Ltd.

the spatial feeling beyond the physical boundaries of


the external wall. The cylindrical solid form is a circular
staircase which is expressed by the staggered glass
blocks. The glass cylindrical block is an enclosure for
the living room on the ground floor and the master
bedroom on the first floor. On top of this cylinder is an
elliptical skylight to continue the space upwards.
Bay windows are designed as an all-glass buttjointed construction to provide intimate contact with
the surroundings. Concrete sunshades give some solar
protection. Concrete air-conditioning hoods give both
functional protection and aesthetical effect.
COMMENTS
This enclosure is a simple design with articulation
generated by the plan without any excessive elaboration.
The geometrical details are used to break through the
otherwise rigid rectangular block.

55

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 6.1
The ground floor plan and the window
design.

R.C. WINDOW HOOD


R.C. FIN PROJECTION ABOVE-

ni

200

10S0

IL

Plate 6.2
Frameless bay windows for the extension
of the interior into the exterior.

Architect:
Wong Wah Sang Architect All Arts Limited
Project Architect:
Hsin Yieh Architects & Associates Ltd.
Project Location:
San Tin, Yuen Long
Materials for Enclosure:
Reinforced concrete load, bearing wall,
clear glass window and aluminium frame.
Completion:
1997

56

750

B/W

FRAMELESS VERTICES

Maple Garden Phase 3

Figure 6.2
The first floor plan and the skylight design.

I 380X380
WALL OPENING
FOR GAS
BALANCE FLUE

s s
f- AS A/C

L,

e*
Plate 6.3
Interior view of the skylight and windows.

57

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 6.4

mm
'!f

Plate 6.5

Views of the bay window elevation showing its simplicity of design.

58

*i>

wmV>Mr

Maple Garden Phase 3

11

IS

Plate 6.6
Another view of the bay window elevation showing its simplicity of design.

59

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 6.7
View of the curved surface elevation.

Plate 6.8
View of the curved wall with glass blocks enclosing the staircase.

li
K

818

' *

ft:
K

Plate 6.9
Another view of the curved wall with glass blocks end

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

TOP OF PARAPET
21.73 (S.F.L)

-25

ROOF LEVEL
20.45 (S.F.L.)

FIRST FLOOR LEVEL


7.80 (S.F.L.)

GRpUND FLOOR LEVEL


15.10 (S.F.L.)

FORMATION LEVEL

Figure 6.3
Wall sections through the roof to ground slab showing the window construction.

62

Maple Garden Phase 3

Figure 6.4
Isometric showing the elliptical skylight
and the curve wall.

1. metal railing
2. roof tile on waterproofing layer
3. inverted beam
4. elliptical skylight
5. curve wall
6. window wall
7. aluminium cladding

63

Figure 7.1
Elevation of the new exterior on the existing hotel building.

THE PENINSULA HOTEL EXTENSION


Architectural

Firm: Rocco Design

Ltd.

GENERAL
This is a project using modern materials to match with
the details of an existing old landmark. The scale of the
much larger extension is broken down by dividing the
elevation into smaller parts. This is made possible by
using vertical stripes of dark colour curtain wall. The
result is an integrated composition of old and new.
LOCATION
The site is at Salisbury Road in Tsimshatsui near the
harbour front. The height of the building allows it to
stand out from its neighours and become visible from
across the harbour. Due to such prominence, even
lighting for the elevation is carefully considered at night.
ENCLOSURE
The existing finish to the hotel is a light grey rendering
in stretcher bond pattern. In order to match this outlook,

a light grey embossed aluminium cladding with recessed


horizontal lines is used. Full-height windows are
incorporated with this cladding.
A tinted glass curtain wall is used for the corner
and central vertical stripes. Projecting eaves on the roof
are designed with a gondola track to facilitate
maintenance of the building enclosure.
On the top floor is a harbour-view restaurant. Here
the enclosure is changed to a 6-metre, high-glass wall
which is supported by glass fins so as not to interfere
with the sea view.
COMMENTS
Modern materials and old building techniques can be
placed together either in harmony or subtle contrast by
means of careful proportioning, detailing and material
selection. Appropriate design can prolong the life of an
old building which is also an environmental benefit and
energy efficient consideration.

65

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 7.2
Regulating lines to relate the new extension with the existing hotel.

Architect:
Rocco Design Ltd.
Project Location:
Salisbury Road & Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon
Materials for Enclosure:
Embossed aluminium cladding and curtain wall, glass wall for
top floor restaurant
Completion:
1995

66

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

ip

<f

<p

(S) <j>

. 30

th

F O0R_

_29

'h

FLOOR.

. 75

-^

FLOOR

_ 27Jil

FLOOR

26

th

FLOOR

_ 25

th

FLOOR

24

FLOOR

23

rd

FLOOR

22

nd

. 2J_L

20

th

:h

FLOOR

J-QOR_

FLOOR

FLOOR

_ GROUND

FLOOR

Figure 7.3
North elevation.

67

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 7.1
View of the hotel from Nathan Road.

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

S 5

a.

Pi
i

:l'

-r;f "

- *

if
'^jfl>aaBi

Plate 7.2
View of the extension as an outstanding building from Victoria Harbour.

69

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

nr

~-

Mifflin
!

m
-

HI JR H jlMW
mmm

Plate 7.3
View of the roof showing the glass wall, cladding and curtain wall.

,.

r\

II Hi' IK

| | [,] li I S i *
Plate 7.4
Close-up of the curtain wall and cladding.

%?mmm

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

ii 11 if i II

f I

MmW'

Plate 7.5
Another view of the hotel from Nathan Road.

71

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

= ! r - ^ - ^ i rl

is iii i i in iii e j i ui i in

SECTION A -

1 =T1

Figure 7.4
Compressed section of the building.

72

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

1. general line of external curtain wall/cladding


2. external centre curtain wall
3. inclined props both sides
4. external cladding wall
5. glass canopy
6. retractable doors in closed position
7. fixed glass balustrade
8. stair glass balustrade

Figure 7.5
Building section through the new swimming pool deck and the existing building.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 7.6
Building section through the restaurant on the twenty-seventh floor and the helipad stairway

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11

74

gondola tracks
cast alum, fascia beyond
4 mm alum, cornice beyond
4 mm alum, soffit
min. 4 mm thick alum, ornamental
bracket
min. gap for gondola arm support
cast alum, ornamental louvre grille
embossed alum, cladded column
beyond
alum, louvre
150 R.C. wall
sliding glass door enclosure

12 granite balustrade similar proportion to


existing ones
13 structural sealant glazing
14. glass fin
15 granite paving
16 600 x 600 x 50 mm P.C. cone, paving pea
gravel drainage course
filter fabric
50 mm rigid insul. type 1
W.P. membrane type 2
screed to drain min. 1% slope
17. gondola tracks
18. safety net beyond

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

cast alum, fascial beyond


4 mm alum, cornice
4 mm alum, soffit
4 mm alum, cornice beyond
louvre
150 R.C. wall
provide 'tell-tale' drain to void space
glass fin
structural sealant glazing
granite sill
planter
embossed alum, column beyond

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

Figure 7.7
Wall section through the twenty-seventh floor restaurant glazing.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

65 mm granite sill
19 mm vision glass
anchor fixing
sealant
alum, transom
opacified spandrel glass
mullion anchor
64 rigid insulation metal air/V.B.

9. 6 mm DIA 'tell tale' weep holes at next


to each glass fin
10. 30 mm deflection gap
11. 19 mm vision glass
12. sealant
13. 6 mm stainless steel
14. granite sill
15. sealant joint

16. epoxy base wearing course


17. planter drain with screed and filter
18. 19 or 25 mm glass fin beyond
19. pack solid with grout
20. 50 insulation
plastic corrugated drain
waterproof membrane screed
slope to drain, min 1%

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 7.8
Isometric of the wall section aluminium
e m b o s s e d c l a d d i n g w i t h recessed
horizontal lines reflects the scale of the
bond pattern on the existing hotel.

1. embossed aluminium panel


2. ceiling on suspended frame
3. aluminium head
4. vision glass
5. embossed aluminium cladding
6. vertical movement joint
7. aluminium sill
8. 13 mm thick wall board
9. metal stud
10. internal floor finish
11. concrete screeding
12. fire stop insulation

76

The Peninsula Hotel Extension

Figure 7.9
Isometric of wall section curtain wall is
used to relieve the solid massing of the
new extension.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11
12

opacified spandrel glass


aluminium transom
vision glass
aluminium transom cap splice
metal stud
13 mm thick wall board
internal floor finish
concrete screeding
opacified spandrel glass
aluminium transom
opacified spandrel glass
fire stop insulation

77

Plate 8.1
Aluminium cladding for enclosing the Administration Building.

THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AT LANTAU


ISLAND CROSSING
Architectural Firm: Architectural Services Department

GENERAL
This is a special building alongside the highways for
controlling vehicular passage from the new Tsing Ma
Bridge to Lantau Island. The building is a simple fourstorey rectangular block. A cantilevered glass enclosure
forms the control room. A steel structure with metal
decking forms a workshop and fuel depot. Pollution
from traffic is the key problem for the enclosure so
aluminium cladding is selected in consideration of the
ease of maintenance.
ENCLOSURE
The aluminium cladding is planned in two basic
modules of 2100 mm (height) x 2000 mm (width) and
1050 mm (height) x 2000 mm (width) in alternate
horizontal patterns. The 3 mm thick cladding is
supported by galvanized mild steel angles. Between the

concrete wall and cladding surface, a thickness of 200


mm is allowed for installation. Windows and louvres
are incorporated with the modules of the cladding.
The control room for observing the traffic is
enclosed by 12 mm thick green tinted tempered glass.
This is slanted outwards at the top to reduce glare from
solar radiation. Glass fins are used as vertical buttresses
to allow an unobstructed view.
COMMENTS
The simplicity of the design and a good selection of
materials make this a good functional building which
needs only minimal maintenance. This is a building
designed to be simple without elaborate detail. The
practicality of the design will make the building last
longer functionally and aesthetically in this particular
environment.

79

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

91
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f^^fcj.g m r

w
Plate 8.2
View of the whole building on top of the railway tunnel.

Plate 8.3
View of the administration building on the Lantau Toll Plaza

The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

Plate 8.4
Roof cladding of the workshop.

Plate 8.5
The ancillary pavilion as the workshop.

81

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

v:

r
Plate 8.6
Construction of the cladding on the building facade.

82

The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

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Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

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1400

1480

1480

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1. 3 mm thick silver aluminium panel


2. 3 mm thick silver aluminium panel
3. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
glass
4. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
5. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
6. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
7. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered

Figure 8.2
Part elevation and wall section of the curtain wall.

84

.A

spandrel
glass
glass
glass
glass

1500

1500

1500

1300

8. 3 mm thick silver aluminium panel


9. 6 + 1 + 6 mm thick clear laminated tempered
glass
10 10 mm thick green tinted tempered spandrel
glass
11 6 + 1 + 6 mm thick clear laminated tempered
glass
12 3 mm thick silver aluminium panel

The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

Figure 8.3
Details of capping at the parapet for the
curtain wall.
a.

r7.

Outside

R.C PARAPET WALL

1. backer rod
2. silicone sealant
3. M6 x 15 mmL S/S tapped bolt
(0 25OmmC/C)
4. 50 mm thick thermal insulation
material
5. 10 mm thick tempered glass
6. 3 mm thick aluminium panel
7. 12 mm thick treated plywood
backing support
8. M6.0 S/S screw
9. G.M.S. angle support frame
10 60 x 60 x 5 mm thick aluminium
angel (L-94 mm)
11 stainless steel clip
12 0 18x66 mmL slot hole

13. 50 x 50 x 5 mm thick G.M.S. square


washer
14. 4 mm fillet weld (L=50 mm)
15. M16x 125 mmL bolt & nut
16. 127 x 76 x 8 mm thick G.M.S. angle
bracket (L=100 mm)
17. G.M.S. angle bracket (L=50 mm)
18. M6 anchor bolt
19. to earthing point
20. 4m-filletweld (L=100 mm)
21. caulking sealant
22. driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
23. 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. fixing lug
(0 300 mm C/C)
24. finish (by others)

Architect:
Architectural Services Department
Project Location:
Lantau Toll Plaza, Lantau
Materials for Enclosure:
Natural anodized aluminium wall panels
and louvre panels, laminated glass
windows and part curtain wall for the
entrance
Completion:
1997

85

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 8.4
Details of the curtain-wall system 10
mm-thick tempered glass is used with
aluminium frame.

1. 3 mm thick aluminium panel


2. thermal insulation material
3. M6 x 15 mmL S/S tapped bolt
(0 250 mm C/C)
4. 38 x 25 x 2 mm thick aluminium
channel
5. M4.5 x 20 mmL S/S screw (0 300 mm
C/C) (sealant to seal bolt head)
6. setting block
7. backer rod
8. silicone sealant
9. backer rod
10. M6 x 15 mmL S/S tapped bolt
(0 250 mm C/C)
11. 3 mm thick aluminium
12. 60 x 60 x 5 mm thick aluminium angle
(L=94mm)
13. M6.0 S/S screw
14. extruded aluminium transom section
15. 10 mm thick tempered glass
16. 10 mm thick tempered glass
17. silicone sealant
18. gasket (continuous)
19. setting block
20. gasket (continuous)
21. extruded aluminium transom section
22. M6.0 S/S screw
23. 60 x 60 x 5 mm thick aluminium angle
24. 100 mm thick 2 hours fire protection
material
25. driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
26. internal finish
27. 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. bracket
28. driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
29. 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. fixing lug
(0 300 mm C/C)
30. 3 mm thick aluminium panel
31. silicone sealant
32. false ceiling
33. silicone sealant
34. treated softwood backing
35. 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. fixing lug
(0 300 mm C/C)
36. driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
37. finish

86

The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

Figure 8.5
Details of double glazing used at the
computer software office.

1. 3 mm thick aluminium panel


2. thermal insulation material
3. M6 x 15 mmL S/S tapped bolt
(0 250 mm C/C)
4. gasket (continuous)
5. silicone sealant
6. setting block
7. silicone sealant
8. gasket (continuous)
9. silicone sealant
10. backer rod
11. M6 x 15 mmL S/S tapped bolt
(0 250 mm C/C)
12. 3 mm thick aluminium panel
13. 60x 60 x 5 mm thick aluminium
angle (L=94 mm)
14. M6.0 S/S screw
15. extruded aluminium transom
section
16. extruded aluminium mullion profile
17. 6+12 + 6 mm thick air gap
tempered glass
18. 6+12 + 6 mm thick air gap
tempered glass
19. extruded aluminium mullion profile
20. extruded aluminium transom
section
21. M6.0 S/S screw
22. 60 + 60 + 5 mm thick aluminium
angle
(L=94mm)
23 100 mm THK. 2 hours fire protection
material
24 driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
25 finish
26 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. bracket
27 driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
28 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. fixing lug (0
300 mm C/C)
29 3 mm thick aluminium panel
30 treated soft wood backing
31 1.5 mm thick G.M.S. fixing lug
(0 300 mm C/C)
32 driven pin (0 300 mm C/C)
33 finish
34 silicone sealant
35 false ceiling
36 3 mm thick aluminium panel
37 silicone sealant

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 8.6
Isometric of the aluminium cladding

1. aluminium panel on 12 mm thick


plywood backing
2. extruded aluminium transom
section
3. G.M.S. section
4. silicone sealant
5. R.C. wall
6. 127 x 76 x 8 mm thick G.M.S. angle
bracket welded to insert anchor
7. 3 mm thick silver anodized
aluminium panel
8. extruded aluminium mullion
section
9. 75 x 127 x 8 mm thick G.M.S. angle
bracket
10 angle bolt
11 400 x 125 x 8 mm thick G.M.S. base
plate
12. extruded aluminium transom
section
13. bonntile
14. external floor finish

88

The Administration Building at Lantau Island Crossing

Figure 8.7
Isometric of the aluminium cladding.

1. 3 mm thick silver anodized aluminium


panel
2. aluminium panel on plywood backing
3. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
spandrel glass
4. false ceiling
5. 10 mm thick green tinted tempered glass
6 6 + 1 + 6 mm th ick clear laminated
tempered glass
7 3 mm thick silver anodized aluminium
panel
8 10 mm thick green tinted tempered
spandrel glass
9 6 + 1 + 6 mm th ick clear laminated
tempered glass

89

Plate 9.1
A study model of the triangular tower illustrates its form related to the urban
fabric.

THE LEE GARDENS


Architectural Firm: Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man
Architects & Engineers (H.K.) Ltd.

GENERAL
Curtain wall is a favourite expression for most office
buildings in Hong Kong. The Lee Gardens project is a
fifty-storey office building. The tower block is generated
from a stable, triangular structural plan. The podium
has five levels and it houses the main entrance of the
building.
LOCATION
The site is in Causeway Bay, a busy commercial and
shopping district in Hong Kong. The fifty-storey
building stands out among its neighourhood buildings.
By using the curtain wall to reflect the sky, the building
is made less obtrusive in the high density situation of
Hong Kong.
ENCLOSURE
The curtain wall is framed by clear anodized aluminium
frames. Ten millimetre-thick reflective glass is used for

both vision and spandrel panels. Green laminated glass


is used to create some green horizontal stripes on the
elevation.
At the corners of the triangular plan are semicircular projections finished with curved glass 19 mm
thick.
Near the top of the building, a large opening acts
as an urban window in the cityscape.
At the podium, there are glass walls for the
enclosure allowing a transparency of activities and a
continuous flow of spatial feeling. The highest glass
wall is over 2 1 m supported by a suspension system.
The glazing is braced by glass fins forming a large glass
surface. To complete the installation, a gondola system
is built for maintenance.
COMMENTS
Modernity and openness are enhanced by the use of
glass. The reflective property of glass is used for the
tower while its transparent property is used for the
podium of this building.

91

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

1'iaic
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.mmmm&jbL
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Plate 9.2
Installation of the curtain wall and roof pinnacle in progress.

92

The Lee Gardens

Plate 9.3
Curtain wall installed with the unitized system on the steel structure.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 9.4
The completed curtain wall system.

94

The Lee Gardens

l
f

Plate 9.5
View of the building from Hysan Avenue a glass wall for the tower.

95

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 9.6
The new 50-storey tower amidst buildings in Causeway Bay.

96

The Lee Gardens

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Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 9.7
A computer rendering of the lobby space with the glass wall and granite columns.

The Lee Gardens

Plate 9.8
A computer rendering of the lobby at night.

99

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 9.9
View of the podium from Yun Ping Road granite and glass are used to give a modern prestigious look.

Plate 9.10
View of the glass suspension system.

00

The Lee Gardens

Plate 9.11
Details of various parts of the glass suspension system.

101

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 9.1
Isometric of the suspension glass details.

351 x245x 10 mm thick


G.M.S. splice plate
suspension clampat of
face glass

600 x 400 x 22 x 36 S.G.S.I

50 x 50 x 5 mm thick
G.M.S. angle frame
2 mm thick S.S. cladding

16 mm diameter S.S.
suspension rod
Architect:
Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man Architects &
Engineers (H.K.) Ltd.
Project Location:
33-37 Hysan Avenue, Causeway Bay, Hong
Kong
Materials for Enclosure:
10 mm reflective glass for clear anodized
aluminium framed curtain wall, 19 mm
clear glass for curve feature, 19 mm
suspended float flass for wall at podium,
25 mm granite cladding for podium
Completion:
1997

102

guide rail for external


gondola system
19 mm thick clear float
face glass
15 x 15 mm recess

Drawn bv ArchiCADR

The Lee Gardens

Figure 9.2
Isometric of the suspension glass system
details.
19 mm thick clear
float face glass.

19 mm thick clear tempered


horizontal glass fin

Drawn by ArchiCAD!

103

Figure 10.1
Model of the tower a curtain wall is used to enclose the building. The groundfloor space is opened up by concentrating the development mass on the 73storey tower.

THE CENTRE
Architectural
Architects

Firm: Dennis Lau & Ng Chun

& Engineers

(H.K.)

Man

Ltd.

GENERAL
This is an example of a curtain wall system used in a
high-rise building of 73 storeys built to withstand an
inward wind pressure of 4.3 kpa and outward pressure
of 8.5 kpa.
LOCATION
The site is in Central, a busy and crowded area for
people as well as for buildings. The building is designed
as a tall structure to free the ground-floor space for
street-level activities and to afford a splendid sea view
for the top floor tenants. The latter is mainly from an
economical consideration for better market value.
ENCLOSURE

and natural anodized aluminium frames. This curtain


wall is designed to contain a lighting system of selfilluminating horizontal strips installed in the frames.
These will form a lighting effect of gradual accumulation
at the roof top.
In order to facilitate future maintenance work, an
automatic cleaning gondola system has been designed.
This incorporates computer-controlled robots which are
able to clean the entire exterior of the building.
COMMENTS
Advances in technology can generate more sophisticated
building enclosures when environmental control,
lighting effect and automation of maintenance are
designed as one total system. Such combination has the
benefits of the various supporting systems and thus
saving excessive material cost and resources.

The curtain wall is made of reflective laminated glass

105

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

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Steel structure under construction the steel structure allows 'top-down' construction.

106

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The Centre

Plate 10.2
View of the steel structure with buildings in Central District and Central Plaza in the distance.

107

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 10.3
Four tower cranes on top of the steel structure manoeuvre works on site. A total of 730 days is scheduled to build the structure.

108

The Centre

Plate 10.4
The site has limited accessibility so many components have to be prefabricated for assembly on site. An example is the unitized
curtain wall system.

109

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 10.5
To speed up construction, installation of the curtain wall goes along with the steel structure.

110

The Centre

Figure 10.2
Isometric of the curtain wall details.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

12 mm thick tempered glass panel


extruded aluminium transom section
extruded aluminium mullion section
fire stop
structural steel I beam with fire
proofing spray
6. 50 mm thermal insulation
7. sill finish
8. aluminium facing plate
9. finished floor
10. false ceiling

Architect:
Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man Architects &
Engineers (H.K.) Ltd.
Project Location:
99 Queen's Road Central, Hong Kong
Materials for Enclosure:
Curtain wall system of reflective glass and
aluminium frames incorporating lighting
strips
Completion:
Scheduled at the end of 1997

111

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 10.6
The curtain wall installation in progress.

112

5?S*

The Centre

Plate 10.7
The curtain wall installation in progress.

113

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 10.3
Part section of the tower top.

114

&!%***

AT u>w l e v e l -

Figure 11.1
This is a conceptual sketch of Titus Square which is related
to local context.

TITUS SQUARE
Architectural

Firm: Rocco Design

Limited

GENERAL
This is a case study of an office building with its curtain
wall serving as the enclosure. A shading device is
incorporated for solar control. Minor articulation in
the plan form produces variation in the building facade.
LOCATION
The site is within the busy urban fabric adjacent to
Nathan Road in Tsimshatsui. As it is located in a corner
site fronting two streets, a plan form of a circular
quadrant is selected. This plan generates a massing with
maximum view from the offices.
ENCLOSURE
The curtain wall for the tower incorporates two main
types of panel. The first type has one-third of its height
as the vision panel and the other two-thirds as the
spandrel panel. The second type has a full-height vision
glass incorporating a 200 mm high fan light for smoke
extraction. This latter type is more open to the view

but less resistant to solar heat gain. To improve this, a


shading device of fluorocarbon-coated aluminium
overhangs 765 mm from the external wall.
The overall thermal transfer value (OTTV) for the
tower is calculated to be 20-22 W/s.m. which is a good
calculation compared to the limit of 35 W/s.m.
The skylight covers the shopping arcade and defines
the pedestrian route underneath. This is constructed of
12 mm thick laminated glass with a shading coefficient
of 0.5. Bracing is by steel tension rods. The OTTV
calculated for the podium is 33.71 W/s.m. which is much
lower than the limit of 80 W/s.m.
COMMENTS
Detailing and selection of materials can improve the
environmental quality of a curtain wall system both
technically and aesthetically. This case study has covered
the design of an office building in the urban fabric. By
careful consideration of the building enclosure, an
energy efficient building can be obtained even using an
all glass design.

115

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 11.2
Orientation key plan.

' U" I

FAR EAST MANSION

1. Construction of wall
W1 Curtain wall glass on 230 mm
reinforced concrete beam
75 mm air gap
75 mm mineral wool insulation
230 mm reinforced concrete beam
10 mm plaster with white paint
W2 Curtain wall with spandrel glass
panel only
8 mm silver coated glass
75 mm air gap
75 mm mineral wool
10 mm plaster with white paint
W3 60 mm reinforced wall
5 mm light grey tile on external surface
10 mm cement sand render
600 mm reinforced concrete wall
Plain concrete internal surface
W4 450 mm reinforced wall
5 mm light grey tile on external surface
10 mm cement sand render
450 mm reinforced concrete wall
Plain concrete internal surface
W5 125 mm reinforced wall
5 mm light grey tile on external surface
10 mm cement sand render
125 mm reinforced wall
Plain concrete internal surface
W6 450 mm vitreous enamelled panel
5 mm enamelled tile on external
surface
450 mm reinforced concrete wall
10 mm plaster with white paint
W7 125 mm vitreous enamelled panel
5 mm enamelled tile on external
5 mm enamelled tile on external
surface
125 mm reinforced concrete wall
10 mm plaster with white paint

116

MIDDLE ROAD

2. Glass
Tower:
F1 Wired clear glass
- 12 mm thick
- Shading coefficient = 0.5
- No external shading device
F2 Curtain wall glass (visual panel
8/F-13/F
- 8 mm thick
- silver coated
- shading coefficient = 0.35
- External aluminium overhang
shading device
F3 curtain wall glass (visual panel
15/F-27/F)
- 8 mm thick
- silver coated
- Shading coefficient = 0.35
- external aluminium overhang
shading device
F4 sandblasted Clear Glass
- 12 mm thick
- shading coefficient = 0.5
- no external shading device
Podium:
F5 Clear glass
- 12 mm thick
- Shading coefficient = 0.5
- no external shading device

on

as
on

as

3. Roof Construction
Tower:
R1 14/F and tower flat roof
30 mm concrete tile
20 mm cement sand screed
50 mm reinforced screed
50 mm roofmate insulation board
3 mm waterproofing membrane
125 mm reinforced concrete slab
10 mm plaster with white paint
R2 4/F flat roof
20 mm cement sand screed
50 mm reinforced screed
50 mm roofmate insulation board
3 mm waterproofing membrane
200 mm reinforced concrete slab
10 mm plaster with white paint
Podium:
R1 1/F and 2/F flat roof
30 mm concrete tile
20 mm cement sand screed
50 mm reinforced screed
50 mm roofmate insulation board
3 mm waterproofing membrane
125 mm reinforced concrete slab
10 mm plaster with white paint
RL1 Clear glass
- 12 mm thick
- shading coefficient = 0.5
- no external shading device

Titus Square

Figure 11.3
Model of Titus Square the variation of the curtain wall design and plan form breaks down the scale of the building mass.

117

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

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EAST ELEVATION

( FACING SERVICE LANE )

(FACING ADJOINING LOT)

Figure 11.4
North elevation facing the service lane and east elevation facing the adjoining lot.

118

Titus Square

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SOUTH ELEVATION

WEST ELEVATION

( FACING MIDDLE ROAD )

( FACING NATHAN ROAD )

mm

xH?

Figure 11.5
South elevation facing Middle Road and west elevation facing Nathan Road.

119

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 11.6
Part elevation showing the curtain wall design.

1. curtain wall (type A) silver coated on clear


glass + alum, cap rail with fluorocarbon
coating
2. glass balustrade
3. curtain wall (type A) silver coated on clear
glass + alum, cap rail with fluorocarbon
coating
4. curtain wall (type B) silver coated on clear
glass + alum, cap rail with fluorocarbon
coating
5. prefin. alum, cap rail fluorocarbon coating
6. prefin. alum, column cover panel with silver
colour fluorocarbon coating
7. curtain wall (type A) silver coated on clear
glass + alum, cap rail with fluorocarbon
coating
8. curtain wall (type A) silver coated on clear
glass + curved alum, cap rail with
fluorocarbon coating

Architect:
Rocco Design Ltd.
Project Location:
26, Nathan Road and Middle Road, Tsimshatsui,
Kowloon
Materials for Enclosure:
Silver coated glass curtain wall with aluminium
frames for tower, vitreous enamelled panels
and glass walls for podium, clear glass for
podium skylight
Completion:
Under construction in 1997

120

Titus Square

glass fin

aluminium transom

tempered glass panel

white fluorocarbon
coated aluminium
cladding
tempered laminated
glass skylight

76 mm G.M.S.
channel member

opacified tempered
glass panel

S.S. drainage
channel grating

Figure 11.7
Isometric showing the skylight construction with tension bracing.

121

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 11.8
Isometric of the aluminium fin and the
curtain wall.

.aluminium fin with


fluorocarbon coating

tempered clear glass


"with silver reflective coating

Plate 11.1
S i t e m o c k - u p of t h e s u n s h a d i n g
aluminium fin and the curtain wall.

122

Titus Square

Figure 11.9
Isometric of the curtain wall

heat strengthened
spandrel glass with silver

prefinished aluminium
cap with white fluorocarbon
coating

false ceiling

aluminium mullion

tempered clear glass with


silver reflective coating

123

Plate 12.1
Canopy for the entrance to the British Council.

THE BRITISH CONSULATE-GENERAL


Architectural Firm: Terry Farrell & Partners

GENERAL
This case study is a building complex consisting of the
British Consulate-General, the British Council and a
residential quarters. This enclosure is important to give
an impression to the public of the 'British' outlook, yet
at the same time responding to the site context. The
complex is erected from a simple geometrical plan form.
This internal order generates the external identity.
LOCATION
The site is adjacent to a group of high-rise office
buildings and hotels in Admiralty. The curved site allows
a good exposure of the building frontage acting as a
public face for visitors. The 10-storey height is relatively
low compared with the adjacent high-rise buildings.
ENCLOSURE
To express 'Britishness', the facade is designed as a neat,
detailed and disciplined composition. The base used

solid granite, a white crystal granite curved to suit the


road and bush-hammered at two courses and hand
chiselled at every third course. Open slots form a pattern
on this screen wall. Further up, more glazing is
incorporated with the main wall finished with a darker
grey granite. Near the top part of the building, more
glazed windows are incorporated. Thus the design has
a progression of more glazing at the top.
The main entrance to the consulate-general is an
important place by which the public enter the building.
This is marked by a portal frame of white crystal bushhammered granite infilled with glazing and aluminium
capping. The other entrance to the British Council is
framed by Kirkstone slate with an aluminium canopy.
COMMENTS
The enclosure with a layered design that gradually
changes its contents from solid to void gives an
expressive progression and a sense of depth on the
elevation.

125

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 12.2
View of the residential block from Justice Drive a simple geometric pattern generates a disciplined design.

126

The British Consulate-General

Plate 12.3
View of the British Consulate-General with a layered elevation.

127

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 12.4
View of the British Consulate-General from Justice Drive.

128

The British Consulate-General

129

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 12.5
View of the entrance to the British Consulate-General the granite portal framed the glazed panelled door.

130

The British Consulate-General

S MS
11 *
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Ill

Plate 12.6
View of the British Council from Supreme Court Road.

131

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 12.7
Interior view of the British Council showing skylight.

Plate 12.8
Interior view of a corner window of the 1/F British Council.

132

The British Consulate-General

Figure 12.1
Layout of the British Council showing the internal courtyard.

Architect:
Terry Farrell & Partners
Project Location:
Supreme Court Road and Justice Drive Admiralty, Central,
Hong Kong
Materials for Enclosure:
Granite panels in various textures of bush-hammered,
polished, hand chiselled and honed finish, slate cladding, clear
glazing with natural anodized aluminium frames
Completion:
1997

133

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 12.2
Isometric of the entrance to the British
Council.

1. white crystal bush-hammered curved


granite panel
2. hand chiselled white crystal curve
granite panel
3. clear glazed panel
4. honed finish kirkstone silver crag
slate frame
5. clear glazed panel
6. clear glazed panel
7. stainless steel panel
8. metal cladding
9. glazed door
10 stainless steel frame

Plate 12.9
View of the entrance to the British Council

134

The British Consulate-General

Figure 12.3
Isometric of the upper external wall to the
British Council.

1. drainage channel
2. natural anodized aluminium roof
cladding
3. anodized finish aluminium panel
4. natural anodized aluminium panel
5. natural anodized aluminium transom
6. clear single glazed panel
7. fixed blinds
8. internal floor finish
9. insulated aluminium panel (natural
anodized)
10 granite parapet coping (white crystal
bush-hammered)
11 natural anodized aluminium weather
sill
12 external roof finish
13 natural anodized aluminium lining
panel

135

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Plate 12.10
Elevation details of different texture and finishes

from the material palette of granite and glass,

Figure 13.1
The Peak Tower was conceived as a bowl flowing on the continuous Hong Kong skyline

THE PEAK TOWER


Architectural

Firm: Terry Farrell & Partners

GENERAL
This is a case study illustrating how the enclosure
projects an i m p o r t a n t identity to the public.
Construction technique and selection of materials
enhance the contrast in building expression. This
building also houses the tram terminal in the lower part
of the building. The upper parts are restaurants and
shops.
LOCATION
The site is a prominent location on the Peak forming
part of the skyline of Hong Kong. To avoid a bulky
building, the building is divided into two parts. The
upper part is elevated and shaped like a bowl to give a
floating effect. The lower part is more attached to the
original landform and skyline.
ENCLOSURE
The 'bowl' shaped upper part is constructed of
aluminium panel cladding and clear double glazing.

Double glazing is used to stop any condensation which


might block the view. The lower base portion is of spray
paint on rendering finish. These create a contrast with
a more modern technology-based appearance for the
top and a more solid and stable outlook for the bottom
portion.
The elevated 'bowl' has been conceived as an
expression of local culture symbolizing an elevated rice
bowl. It looks as if it is stretching out welcoming hands
with its upturned eaves of traditional Chinese
architecture. The lower portion gives the massive look
of a wall rampart.
To install floodlighting for the building, large
'lanterns' are constructed at the base of the building.
Finishes for these features are ceramic tiles, translucent
glazing and aluminium frames.
COMMENTS
Cultural expression can be given by the appropriate
types of building technique, form and detailing. Contrast
of technique within a building can produce designated
highlights while it remains an integrated building.

139

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

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Figure 13.2
Diagrams showing the concept that leads to the external form.

140

The Peak Tower

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Plate 13.1
View of the Peak Tower from Victoria Harbour.

,3J?

EE

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 13.2
View of the south elevation from Findlay Road.

142

The Peak Tower

Plate 13.3
Another view of the south elevation from Findlay Road.

143

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 13.4
View of the north elevation showing cladding and glass wall construction of the 'bowl' and the more solid look of the podium with
paint finish on rendering.

The Peak Tower

**0t

145

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 13.5 (left)


A l u m i n i u m louvres at the
north elevation.
Plate 13.6 (right)
Supporting pillars finished
with glazed tiles.

Plate 13.7 (left)


Square features in glazed tiles
and paint finish at the podium.
Plate 13.8 (right)
S t a i r c a s e s in f a i r f a c e d
concrete f i n i s h and glass
panelled balustrade.

Plate 13.9 (left)


Lantern at the ground level.
Plate 13.10 (right)
Gondola for maintenance of
the 'underside' of the bowl.

Architect:
Terry Farrell & Partners
Project Location:
The Peak
Material for Enclosure:
Aluminium panels, clear glass
glazing, back-enamelled glass
spandrel for special areas,
p a i n t and r e n d e r i n g f o r
p o d i u m , ceramic tiles for
colour effect.
Completion:
1996

146

The Peak Tower

r~^
Plate 13.11
Gondola on the roof for maintenance of the external wai

Plate 13.14
Stainless steel railing and glass panel for balustrade at the
podium deck.

/ !

7/

L>j|

Plate 13.12
Glazing at the north elevation.

Plate 13.15
Glazing and cladding at the west elevation 'bowl'

Plate 13.13
View of the roof showing air conditioning plants and the
gondola track.

Plate 13.16
Lantern and podium pillars finished in glazed tiles and spray
paint.

147

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 13.17
Open staircase finished in a thin concrete slab with glass panel balustrade for transparency and openness.

148

The Peak Tower

Figure 13.3
Isometric showing the construction of the
lanterns at ground level.

ceramic tile

aluminium cladding

aluminium probing
blades

natural anodized
aluminium transom
shear wa

50 mm deep recess

ceramic tile

Drawn by ArchiCADR

149

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 13.4
Isometric of the wall section for the north
elevation of 'bowl' cladding and glass wall.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

aluminium panel
Translucent glazing
S.S. bolt fitting to glass
aluminium panel
double glazed unit (clear)
S.S. bolt fitting to glass
S.S. spliceplate with S.S. cover plate
(sandblasted finish)
8. S.S. coverplate (sandblasted finish)
9. aluminium panel
10. 10 mm deep recess

150

The Peak Tower

Figure 13.5
Isometric of the wall section for the south
elevation of 'bowl' cladding and glass wall.

1. aluminium capping
2. aluminium panel
3. PVF2 aluminium weather louvres
4. aluminium louvres (special profile)
5. false ceiling
6. aluminium panel
7. vision panel (inward opening)
8. aluminium panel
9. 10 mm deep recess
10. aluminium panel

151

Plate 14.1
Model of the Church.

ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE CHURCH


Architectural Firm: Wong Wah Sang as Design Consultant with All Arts Limited

GENERAL

ENCLOSURE

Spiritual expression is another form of presentation for


the building enclosure. Religion as a spiritual subject is
transformed into a physical architecture. In other words,
architecture becomes a frozen spiritual symbol. This
case study is about a building addressing such spiritual
issues in additon to functional and environmental issues.

The entrance to the building is abstracted from the


asymmetrical Chinese word for door 'P^\ This marks
the start of an axis from the exterior to the interior of
the building, asymmetrical both at the interior and
exterior. Brick tiles and fairfaced concrete are used to
finish the building. These are chosen to give a solid feel
of the material texture.
Aluminium sunshades and recessed windows are
used for solar control at the west elevation. Skylights
are introduced to create a stack effect and cross
ventilation for the church hall. Solar heat gain is thus
controlled and energy efficiency is achieved.

LOCATION
The site is at the new town of Tsing Yi Island amidst
high-rise residential buildings. It is close to a park and
a community centre with a bus terminus. The site is
relatively open on the boundaries; the enclosure will
thus be quite visible when constructed.
The irregular five-sided shape of the site positively
generates the plan and the elevations. Adjacent to a
park, the north elevation of the church hall at the upper
floor is designed with a glass wall for views in and out.
This matches with the concept of a more open and
inviting religion.

COMMENTS
Functional, environmental and spiritual approaches can
be integrated into the enclosure design and presented
as an expressive image of a building. Sustainability in
the sense of both physical and spiritual aspects can be
realized by the concern for both aspects and transformed
into building plans and elevations.

153

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 14.2
View of the model the north elevation with a glass wall for the church contrasts with the east elevation of a brick-tiled solid wall

154

St. Thomas the Apostle Church

Plate 14.3
Model of the church complex the entrance, the skylight to the baptistry and the cross define an axis to the interior procession for
the church.

155

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 14.4
Model showing the north elevation with a glass wall expressing the open attitude of the church; the staggered
windows are installed for movement of the staircase.

Plate 14.5
Study model of the interior of the Church showing the large glass wall.

56

St. Thomas the Apostle Church

Figure 14.1
Diagram showing further
development of the skylight as
v e n t i l a t o r to p r o v i d e n a t u r a l
l i g h t i n g and stack effect for
ventilation. Modification for the
skylight to exceed site coverage
limitation was accepted by the
Building Authority in view of the
environmental benefits.

heat accumulated and heat up the church


hall interior by convention

initial submission

up-lifted skylight with enhanced cross


ventilation

^nrrm
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later submission

Architect:
W o n g Wah Sang as D e s i g n
Consultant with All Arts Limited
Project Location:
T.Y.T.L. no. 133, Tsing Luk Street,
Tsing Yi
Materials for Enclosure:
Brick tiles and fairfaced concrete
walls, tinted glass and anodized
aluminium frame for w i n d o w s ,
clear glass for glass wall, tempered
glass for skylight
Completion:
1988

157

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

NON-EXCLUSIVE
RIGHT OF WAY
(BROWN AREA)

Figure 14.2
The west elevation showing the entrance to the church.

158

St. Thomas the Apostle Church

Figure 14.3
The north elevation showing the glass wall system.

159

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 14.4
Isometric of the skylight system over the
baptistry.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11

160

tempered grey tinted glass panel


aluminium cladding
tempered grey tinted glass panel
tempered grey tinted glass fin
fairface concrete finish
side hung aluminium window
external wall tile finish
tempered clear glass panel
formwork joint
entrance doorframe
font

St. Thomas the Apostle Church

Figure 14.5
Isometric of the construction for the
external wall.

1. inverted beam
2. S.S. circular section sunshading device
3. aluminium window
4. S.S. railing bar
5. external wall tile finish
6. R.C. projection
7. fairfaced concrete finish
8. aluminium cladding
9. top hung aluminium window
10. R.C. projection
11. recessed uplight
12. aluminium cladding
13. metal frame projection
14. suspended glass panel (tempered
glass)
15. glass fin
16. sliding window
17. roller shutter
18. aluminium false ceiling
19. R.C. projection
20 surface U-channel

161

Figure 15.1
The east elevation has a lantern-like appearance with stonelike spray paint.

BISHOP LEI INTERNATIONAL HOUSE


Architectural

Firm: Wong Wah Sang Architects

as Consultant

GENERAL
This is a case study of a high-rise, 24-storey block. In
addition, it has two semi-basements using conventional
local building techniques to complete the external
elevations. The difference lies in the exploitation of the
plan form and feature details to make an otherwise
standard hostel design a special building with its own
identity.
LOCATION
Located within a large site adjacent to various properties
owned by the Roman Catholic Church of Hong Kong,
this building is intended to give a dialogue with the
existing Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception on
the site. Motifs and details of the old Cathedral are
'symbolized' into the building and these have become
various functional parts.
ENCLOSURE
The east elevation facing the harbour develops from a
staggered and symmetrical plan with an axis along the
east-west direction. This layout allows a sort of corner
window for the rooms extending the spatial feeling and
allowing better view. Windows are designed in full
height from ceiling to floor with green tinted glass and
fluorocarbon-coated aluminium giving a look of curtain
wall. This is achieved by recessing the structural beam
from the building envelope to allow a 'shallow'
appearance for the spandrel portion which is finished

with All Arts

Limited

with a green colour stone-like spray paint.


The west elevation facing Robinson Road has
limited views so the design of the enclosure is kept simple
and focused on the entrance. An archway finished with
granite marks both the vehicular and pedestrian
entrance to the building. However, the focus of this
elevation is a wall relief artwork at the central axis of
the elevation. This is formed by using corner glazed
tiles as a relief against the background of plain white
glazed tiles (95 mm x 45 mm).
The north and south elevations are finished with
white glazed tiles. Adhesive is used for the installation
base to provide flexibility and strong adhesion due to
building movement. In this respect, movement joints
are provided at every storey of the building.
Details on the enclosure are abstracted from
religious images from the Cathedral. For example, the
metal grilles covering the air conditioners are made of
aluminium bars, fluorocarbon coated in a green colour
and designed in pattern of triangles and circles. The
roof mast reflects the pinnacles on the existing
Cathedral. The entrance archway is related to the
Cathedral buttresses.
COMMENTS
These are numerous design opportunities created by
using local conventional building techniques. This study
illustrates how artwork can be combined with building
functions and components. While the building does not
obtrusively stand out from the surroundings, it retains
an individual identity.

163

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 15.2
Typical plan imposed on section showing
guest rooms on the typical floor and the
podium functions.

Architect:
Wong Wah Sang as consultant with All
Arts Limited
Project Location:
4 Robinson Road, Mid-Levels, Hong Kong
Materials for Enclosure:
Reinforced concrete structure, green tinted
glass with fluorocarbon-coated aluminium
frames, stone-like spray paint, and white
glazed tiles
Completion:
1995

164

Bishop Lei International House

Plate 15.3
View of Bishop Lei International House from the north-east with the Catholic Church in the foreground harmonizing with the
environment is a key strategy in the elevation design.

165

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

rriEi
^ *t ~T? Mm

m:iTi

Plate 15.4
View of the west elevation from Robinson Road the facade is in a pattern of full-height glazing and window air-conditioning
units.

166

Bishop Lei International House

Plate 15.5
View of the west elevation and part of the granite portal frame for the entrance.

167

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 15.6
Night view- floodlights light up the facade and the roof mast feature.

168

Bishop Lei International House

Plate 15.7
At the centre of the west elevation, corner tiles are used to build up a simple geometric pattern as a wall mural.

Plate 15.8
View of the podium and the granite portal frame for the entrance.

169

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 15.3
Isometric of construction for the roof
f e a t u r e . F i n i s h i n g is in a l u m i n i u m
cladding.

aluminium cladding to pinnacles

-Aluminium Cladding

Plate 15.9
View of the roof mast.

170

Bishop Lei International House

Figure 15.4
Isometric of the window construction.

1. 300 mm thick RC wall


2. platform for A/C outdoor unit
3. 100 mm thick RC wall
4. aluminium transom
5. pilmet board
6. metal louvres
7. false ceiling
8. moulding
9. carpet flooring

Plate 15.10
View of the f u l l - h e i g h t w i n d o w and
aluminium grille-covered window unit at
the east elevation.

Plate 15.11
Part view of the west elevation.

171

Plate 16.1
View of the wave roof under construction.

THE NEW KCRC STATION


Architectural Firm: Foster Asia (Hong Kong) Ltd.

GENERAL
This is a case study of the extension of the existing Hung
Horn terminus of the Kowloon and Canton Railway,
which takes the form of a simple rectangular glass
pavilion that gives lightness and openness.
LOCATION
This site is on the roof deck of the railway station; a
lightweight pavilion structure of steel and glass is
therefore a suitable solution. The pavilion is supported
by steel columns that distribute the structural load to a
steel raft on the existing deck.

natural lighting. By using full-height glass walls, much


energy required for lighting can be reduced. To
supplement the skylight, artificial lights are incorporated
to control the light intensity inside the pavilion. The
wave roof also forms deep eaves to shade excessive solar
heat from the pavilion.
The steel wave roof is finished with metal decking
and dense rigid mineral wool for insulation. The upper
surface is finished with PVC waterproof membrane. The
ceiling is constructed of perforated steel infill panels
and eaves completed with aluminium panels.
The glass walls are independent of the pavilion
structure and stand on a structural grid of 3 m with an
infill panel module of 3 m x 1.22 m. Clear toughened
glass is used.

ENCLOSURE
COMMENTS
The enclosure aims to create a spacious, generous and
well-lit interior by means of simplicity of layout. The
rectangular layout is denoted by peripheral columns
supporting steel torsion 'spire' beams which then hold
the steel wave beams with profiled metal decking.
The wave roof is used to incorporate skylights as

A simple, open design is always effective for large


buildings intended for movement of people. Both
aesthetic and environmental aspects of design are dealt
with by the use of the simple wave roof in this pavilion
building.

173

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Drawing by courtesy of Foster Asia

NORTH-SOUTH SECTION
Plate 16.2
Diagram of the design concept showing lighting control of the concourse.

CAD by courtesy of Foster Asia

Architect:
Foster Asia (Hong Kong) Ltd.
Project Location:
Cheong Wan Road,
Kowloon Station, Kowloon
Materials for Enclosure:
Steel c o l u m n s + beams
s u p p o r t i n g steel decks
c o m p l e t e d w i t h mineral
wool insulation + PVC finish,
glass walls of steel frames
and clear toughened glass.
Completion:
Under construction in 1997,
scheduled completion in
1998

174

Plate 16.3
CAD of the exterior view of the pavillion.

Photo by courtesy of Foster Asia

Plate 16.4
Aerial view of the model showing the wave roof.

Photo by courtesy of Foster Asia

Plate 16.5
View of the model showing the interior and the roof of the pavilion.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

wH

trftijiFii

-*'1

iL
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iff}

f^

j I

Plate 16.6
View of the glass pavilion under construction.

176

The New KCRC Station

177

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 16.7
Construction of the glass wall and wave roof the glazing is set as an independent enclosure from the columns supporting the
wave roof.

178

The New KCRC Station

Plate 16.8
View of the external glazing under construction.

Plate 16.9
View of the wave roof with roof lights and metal decking under construction.

179

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 16.10
View of the joint for the column and wave beam metal decking forms the basic roof enclosure.

180

The New KCRC Station

Figure 16.1
The wall and roof section cuts through
the roof light which provides natural
l i g h t i n g and is s u p p l e m e n t e d by
artificial lighting.

1. perforated steel infill 'planks' with


acoustic insulation
2. extruded aluminium louvres by
lighting works contractor
3. skylight
4. cantilevered glazing
5. steel wave beam
6. steel torsion 'spine' beam
7. clerestory glazing
8. fabricated steel T section with
tapered end
9. steel column
10 internal flooring
11 propiled metal decking
12 column cladding panel
13 decants rigo mineral wool insulation

181

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 16.2
Part elevation of the corner of the building.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10

182

steel T section fascia


roof steel work
steel torsion 'spine' beam
160 x 70 aluminium channel
extruded aluminium panel system with glazed infill 1500
x 1220 module
steel column
external paving
sunshade
clerestory glazing
flexible movement gasket

The New KCRC Station

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

drainage channel
PVC waterproof membrane
dense rigid mineral wool insulation
profiled metal decking
cantilevered glazing
steel split wave beam
skylight

8. fabricated steel fascia I section


9. extruded aluminum panel system with glass infill
10. fabricated steel I section with tapered end
11. steel column
12. peripheral channel
13. external paving
14. steel torsion spine beam

Figure 16.3
Isometric of the wai and roof construction.

183

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 16.11
The wave beam anchored on the circular spine
beam supported by columns.

184

The New KCRC Station

Plate 16.14

Plate 16.17

Plate 16.18

Plate 16.16
Plates 16.14-16
External view of the erection procedure of the roof structure
and decking.

Plate 16.19
Plates 16.17-16.19
Internal view of the erection procedure of the roof structure
and decking.

185

Figure 17.1
A three-dimensional study of the form of roof cover.

THE HONG KONG STADIUM


Architectural

Firm: HOK Sports Facilities Group, Kansas City, Missouri,


(Asia/Pacific) Ltd., Hong Kong

GENERAL
This is a case study of a large span megastructure
forming the fabric roof cover of the sports stadium.
This stadium provides 40 000 seats surrounding an
international-size football pitch.
LOCATION
The site is at the lower part of a valley with tall buildings
close by and adjoining other sports field and facilities.
The creation of excessive noise can pose environmental
problems.
ENCLOSURE
With anchor points extending beyond the stadium, a
pair of elegant arches span 240 m from the prime
structure to answer the client's brief for unobstructed
view. From these main arches, secondary trusses span
to the rear wall of the upper terrace. The structure of
the basic frame is a stiff pin supported portal frame
and the terrace is formed as a reinforced concrete frame
for spanning the secondary trusses to the main arches.
The structural elements are basically circular hollow
steel sections.

USA, and HOK

International

The roof surfacing is a fibre-reinforced Teflon fabric


with a cable support system. This fabric is translucent
under strong daylight or evening floodlights. Floodlights
are installed on the main structural arch. About 300
metal halide floodlights of 1800 W are used to give an
illumination of 1400 lux to the football pitch. This can
be tuned down for various occasions. The general
seating is lit up by other floodlights on the roof structure
giving an illumination of 300 lux.
The design of the acoustics mainly focuses on sports
use and enhances the perception of the crowd noise
without excess reverberation. The semi-open roof
enclosure allows noise to escape from the stadium.
Integrated with life safety and fire alarm systems, the
sound system consists of satellite cluster type
loudspeakers located underneath the front edge of the
roof system.
COMMENTS
Structure and building services can be integrated into
the building enclosure to produce an elegant design.
This case study has been a formidable technical
challenge representing an extraordinary design
expression of an enclosure.

187

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 17.2
Layout plan for the Hong Kong Stadium.

Architect:
HOK Sports Facilities Group, Kansas City,
Missouri, USA and HOK International
(Asia/Pacific) Ltd., Hong Kong
Project Location:
Eastern Hospital Road, Causeway Bay
Materials for Enclosure:
Fibre-reinforced Teflon fabric roof surface
supported by steel arch and tension ties,
reinforced concrete stadium
Completion:
1995

188

1. office building roof below


2. ramps below
3. entry plaza below
4. insulated glass entry pyramid below
5. access road below
6. ramps below

The Hong Kong Stadium

Photo by courtesy of HOK

Plate 17.1
Study model of the stadium.
Photo by courtesy of HOK

Plate 17.2
View of the stadium under construction.

189

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 17.3
Part view of the roof and seating steel truss supports the Teflon sheeted roof as well as the lighting system.

190

The Hong Kong Stadium

Plate 17.4
Part view of the stadium.

191

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

:
Plate 17.5
View of the Hong Kong Stadium set in a valley overlooking Causeway Bay and Victoria Harbour.

192

The Hong Kong Stadium

l i;

mm

193

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

-tfasr^''
Plate 17.6
View of the stadium from Eastern Hospital Road.

194

The Hong Kong Stadium

Photo by courtesy of HOK

Plate 17.7
Views of the stadium at night from Eastern Hospital Road showing the illumination system.

195

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Photo by courtesy of HOK

Plate 17.8
Night view of the lit-up stadium seating is lit up at a level of 300 lux.

196

CD

o
7\
O
=5
CD

CO

CD
^1

Figure 17.3
Longitudiual building section looking east and transverse building section looking north of the preliminary scheme.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 17.9
Lighting mounted on the steel truss.

Plate 17.10
Joint of the roof system onto the top of
seating.

Figure 17.4
Section through the stadium and office for the final design.

Plate 17.11
Pin point of steel truss anchored onto the
ground.

198

The Hong Kong Stadium

Plate 17.12
Back of the concrete finished seating.

1. precast steps
2. main beams cast to seating
profile
3. precast terrace
4. precast terrace
5. new terrace seating (precast)
6. perforated pipe
Figure 17.5
Section through the seating showing the structure concept.

199

Plate 18.1
Part view of the coliseum on the railway station podium.

THE HONG KONG COLISEUM


Architectural

Firm: Architectural

Services

Department

GENERAL
This is a case study of a single enclosure which can
house 15 000 people. Imaginative engineering skills are
used to make the roof cover with the external part of
the spectator stand as part of the building envelope.
LOCATION
The site is on the roof deck of the Hunghom railway
station, therefore a heavy structure is not possible. Even
during construction, heavy loading has to be avoided.
The building is located at the middle of the roof deck
with ample space surrounding it for circulation and
dispersal of people. As the building is remote and usually
operates in the evenings, there is little environmental
problem regarding noise or energy.
ENCLOSURE
A space frame of 100 x 100 m is used as the roof
structure. To construct this, the steel frame was built

on the ground and then raised to the roof position by


four temporary supporting towers. This procedure is
used to save the huge amount of scaffolding thus
reducing the construction weight on the podium deck.
Then a prestressing technique was used to construct
the reinforced-concrete grandstand. This structure was
then used to support the roof space frame.
The roof space frame was covered by precast
reinforced concrete panels with plastic sheets as a
vapour barrier and foamed polystyrene sheets as
insulation. A layer of reinforced concrete acts as a thick
screening to finish the roof top.
The slanting wall enclosure is formed by the
spectator stand concrete wall. This is off-form concrete
finished with paint.
COMMENTS
A bold statement to complete a large assembly building
is effective in both functional and aesthetic aspects. The
imaginative engineering is the determining design factor
for the success of this enclosure.

201

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 18.1
Procedure for construction and erection of
the roof truss.
i.
Steel roof trusses were assembled at
the ground level.
ii. Temporary supporting towers and
working platforms were erected.
iii. The roof structure was raised to the
top.
iv. The roof trusses then rested on the
four supporting towers with
additional bracing cables.
v. C o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e e n c l o s u r e
commenced with the stadium wall.
vi. Completion of construction.

Architect:
Architectural Services Department.
Project Location:
Salisbury Road,
Cheong Wan Road, Kowloon
Materials for Enclosure:
Paint on grand stand external wall, roofing
membrane on precast concrete slabs
covering the roof space frame.
Completion:
1983

202

The Hong Kong Coliseum

Plate 18.2
View of the Hong Kong Coliseum on top of the KCRC railway station.

203

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 18.2
Section through the coliseum roof and
seating,

roof slab with waterproofing


and insulation layers

steel tension rod

space truss roof structure

staircase as entrance
to interior

R.C. mega structure

Drawn by ArchiCAD18

204

The Hong Kong Coliseum

t-fW-

Plate 18.3
Views of the colesium from the podium plaza.

205

Plate 19.1
View of Hau Tak Estate with 39-storey residential blocks.

HAU TAK ESTATE


Architectural

Firm: Housing

Department

GENERAL
Housing for the community is the responsibility of the
H o u s i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Here flat sizes can be
standardized to cater for different family sizes. Also due
to this standardization of plans, elevation design can
be standardized to allow production of precast concrete
facades.
LOCATION
Located in Tseung Kwan O new town, this project
provides over 7000 flats for 25 000 people. Buildings
for residential purposes are designed based on the
'Harmony F blocks which form 39-storey cruciform
towers. The site also provides community/amenity
facilities and schools for the residents.
ENCLOSURE
Standardization and modular design allows for building
of the precast facades. The advantages of this
construction technique are:

1. Finishes can be prepared in the precasting yard for


ease of quality control.
2. Steel windows can be cast together with the external
wall to minimize water leakage through joints.
3. Overall economics through using standard units.
4. Repeated use of steel moulds for prefabrication
saves timber formwork for in situ works.
5. Less in situ works allow ease of programming the
site progress.
6. Accuracy of construction can be achieved without
in situ tolerances for workmanship.
Besides the main elevation as prefabrication, the
structural shear walls and floors are cast on site.
COMMENTS
A particular building type can make use of special
construction techniques to improve the construction
standards and to decrease possible causes of building
defects. The large number of standard units required
on a public housing estate makes the technique of
prefabrication possible for the enclosure.

207

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 19.2
View of Hau Tak Estate with its school and community centre.

208

Hau Tak Estate

209

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 19.3
View of the completed cruciform harmony blocks.

210

Hau Tak Estate

Figure 19.1
Design elevation for the Harmony blocks.
Floor-to-floor height is set to be 2700 mm.
Fit-i=tti=f " U=m

SMBUS

S1!

iff E BE
3^1; SB [IF

_!t_

Architect:
Housing Department
Project Location:
Po Ning Road & Sheung Ning Road,
Tseung Kwan 0, NT.
Materials for Enclosure:
Mosaic tiles spray paint on reinforced
concrete, steel windows
Completion:
1994

211

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

fl ^T

>.1RY?*%
Plate 19.4
Completed Harmony blocks with mosaic tile finish.

212

Hau Tak Estate

Figure 19.2
Part section of a Harmony block from the ground floor to the roof level.

213

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 19.5
Views of part elevation of the completed precast facade.

Hau Tak Estate

Plate 19.6
Close-up view of the inhabited precast
I facade w i t h c l o t h e s d r y i n g and air
conditioners installed.
J

215

Plate 20.1
View of the Harmony Block under construction.

SHEUNG TAK ESTATE


Architectural

Firm: Housing

Department

GENERAL
Further to the case study in chapter 19, this project is
of similiar nature but focus is on the erection procedure
of the enclosure. Again the Harmony Block Concept is
used for standardization and thus makes prefabrication
possible.
LOCATION
The site is also in Tseung Kwan O, a residential district
with various types of public or private high-rise building
blocks.

concrete along the steel window frames using steel


moulds. This procedure gives precise construction and
ensures no water leakage between the window frame
and exterior walls. Mosaic tiles are then built onto the
precast elevation unit.
This unit is then delivered to the top of the building.
Casting is done with the adjoining load bearing wall
and floor, minimizing any possible joining problems.
The next precast unit will be placed on top and sealed
with polysulphide sealant.
The floors and shear walls are cast on site by using
table and wall formwork which saves time in erection.
COMMENTS

ENCLOSURE
The standard elevation unit is approximately 2.9 m x
4.7 m staggered 800 mm (approx.) towards the centre
to provide variation in the plan and elevation. The
elevation unit is cast at the site precasting yard, with

Construction techniques continuously improve and


develop to suit increased qualities of living. Good
standards of construction avoids future nuisance which
might affect the residents. Construction of technique is
only a means to improve conditions of life.

217

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 20.1
Isometric of the precast concrete facade
showing a section of the window.

Architect:
Housing Department
Project Location:
Area 59, Tseung Kwan 0
Materials for Enclosure:
Mosaic tiles on precast facade, acrylic paint
on walls, hot-dip galvanized steel windows
Completion:
Under construction in 1997, scheduled
completion in 1998

218

1. in situ R.C. floor slab


2. A/C hood
3. aluminium window
4. precast R.C. wall panel

Sheung Tak Estate

Figure 20.2
Isometric of the precast concrete facade
showing a section of the air conditioner
support hood.

in situ R.C. floor slab

aluminium window

A/C hood

precast R.C. wall panel

219

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 20.2
View of the construction site showing tower cranes in operation.

Plate 20.3
Erection of the concrete structure and external wall in progress.

220

Plate 20.4
The precast facade is placed on site and joined to the walls by in situ concreting.

Plate 20.5
Steel formwork with working platform is used for construction of the shear wall

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 20.6
The construction of the elevation.

222

Sheung Tak Estate

Plate 20.7
View of the shearwall, the elevation, the precast facade in place, the precast facade on site, the precast wall and concrete blocks.

223

Plate 21.1
View of the west elevation
from Victoria Harbour.

HONG KONG CONVENTION AND EXHIBITION


CENTRE EXTENSION
Architectural

Firm: Wong & Ouyang (HK) Ltd. in Association

GENERAL
The extension of the Hong Kong Convention and
Exhibition Centre (HKCEC) is a complex case. It will
house 28 000 m2 of exhibition/convention space and
3000 m2 of meeting rooms. Also included on the top
floor is a conference hall with 4500 seats. The
complexity of its size and urgency of the project
contribute to the sophistication of this case study.
LOCATION
A 6.5 hectare man-made island at the north sea front
of the existing HKCEC is the special site of this
development. The prominent nature of the site leads to
the importance of the roof form for this medium-rise
building. The design takes on a sculptural curve roof
form like a flying seabird on the harbour.
ENCLOSURE

with Skidmore,

Owings & Merrill,

USA

roof. Several shells are supported by truss systems to


build up the 3-dimensional curves. On the top floor,
these shells form the roof of the main conference hall
with a steel truss spanning 80 m. Two layers of
waterproofing membrane give protection to the roof
which is finished with aluminium cladding and
insulation.
The wall enclosure consists of granite, glazing or
cladding. Granite is installed using the dry method.
Glazing is mainly installed with suspension systems
supported by steel trusses. The large area of glazing
requires allowance for movement due to settlement and
other factors.
COMMENTS
A variety of building technologies can be combined to
make an impressive enclosure. Modern materials can
be transformed into innovative components. This
project has used sophisticated techniques to build up
an architectural image.

The most complex part of the enclosure is the curved

225

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 21.2
East elevation under construction.

Plate 21.3
West elevation under construction.

226

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Plate 21.4
Part view of the west elevation under construction.

227

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

& ~ M

^ i @ 5 : - - * ;''$:if;;i#5>/Sw-v,,. *'-

Plate 21.5
North elevation under construction.

Plate 21.6
West elevation under construction.

228

Miguel

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Plate 21.7
North tip of the roof and wall in progress.

229

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

I LEVELS

> EL i l K
t

LEVEL2

@
(^Gp
i i i i

J jJ

Figure 21.1
North elevation and west elevation.

230

^Hy

i f !

H-J

H-l

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Figure 21.2
Part elevation of the north tip soffit and
wall.

Architect:
Wong & Ouyang (HK) Ltd. in association
with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, USA
Project Location:
Convention Avenue, Wanchai North, Hong
Kong
Materials for Enclosure:
Aluminium cladded curve roof, glass walls
and granite cladding for external wall
Completion:
1997

231

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

@ I

I; ^
._.|j_
|

1 ROOFING WIND LOAD


KEY DIAGRAM
MO

-
@

NBN
\m?m
\m<m
IHIII

r/x<w
|EI

LOAD Orfo) C5UCTO0


-33

-*B

/ +2JS

-2JS

- U / 4 U
/

4-ZB

^3L4 /

-la

*2J8

-2J /

+2.6

LOACS ARE OENMD FROM THE * K > TUNNBL STUDY


CONDUCTED BY TVC BOUNDARY LAYER W O TXMCL
LABORATORY. LONDON. ONTARO. CANADA.
LOADS ARE APPUCABJE TO E L B O f f S ABOVE TVC
STRUCTURAL DECK OR SLAB. SEE ORAWC 3703 FOR
STRUCTURAL OESGN LOADS.
LOADS OUTSOE T> EXTEROR WAU. L f C ARE 120
T t C 5 TVe -ARCHTECTLRAL SEAMED ROOF UQAOS"
O O T E D N THE W O TUNNEL RETORT.

LOW ROOF

Figure 21.3
Diagram showing wind load to roof:

The architectural roof is a completed system under one


specialist contractor including structural metal deck,
thermal and acoustical insulation, underlay, waterproofing,
membranes, metal cladding, fasteners, sealants, joining
and miscellaneous pieces to form a high quality, airtight
waterproof and structurally sound enclosure.
The metal roof system maintains a minimum of STC-50
over occupied areas.

232

Expansion and contraction joints based on an area not to


exceed 10 m 2 or 9 m in any one direction are provided.
The roof as the building enclosure is designed to provide
a U-factor of 0.35.
The roof is also designed to accommodate building
maintenance equipment and safety tie-back loading.

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

CLADDING

WIND

PRESSURE

NOTES:
1.

2.

3.

LOADS ARE APPLICABLE TO


EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENTS
ONLY. SEE ORAWING 3 7 0 3 FOR
THE BUILDING STRUCTURE
DESIGN LOADS.
LOADS ARE PERPENDICULAR TO THE
PLANE OF THE WALL WITH NEGATIVE
VALUES APPLIED OUTWARD (SUCTION)
AND POSITIVE VALUES INWARD
(PRESSURE).
LOADS ARE THE MAXIMUM 'PEAK
LOCAL DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES"
AS GIVEN IN THE WIND TUNNEL
REPORT.

DIAGRAM

PRESSURE/
SUCTION kPo

rr%?V"Sjd

+3.07-4.3
-3.0/-3.3
+2.8/-2.0
+2.V-2.8
+2.3/-2.0
+ 1.7/-1.7

Figure 21.4
Cladding pressure on the west and east elevation.
The exterior wall is a complete system including all
primary and secondary lateral anchors and kickers,
stiffeners, fasteners, sealants and joining to form a high
quality airtight, waterproof and structurally sound
enclosure.
The exterior wall system has two distinct but separate lines
of protection against water leakage. Both lines of
protection are on the exterior side of the insulation. A weep
system is provided to drain the cavity created by the two
separate lines of protection at each component part of
the exterior wall.
For granite s u p p o r t i n g systems between support
connections to the building framing system, the deflection
is limited to L/360 or 13 mm maximum in any direction.

The exterior wall is designed to accommodate building


maintenance (window washing) equipment and safety tieback loading supplied by the building maintenance
consultant.
The building enclosure is designed to provide the
following U-factors (watts/deg c/sq. m.):
Typical floor vision glass:
Winter: 6.0
Summer: 6.0
Ground floor entrances and storefront vision glass:
Winter: 6.0
Summer: 6.0
Skylights:
Winter: 6.0
Summer: 6.0
Exterior walls or portions of walls other than vision
glass: 1.0
Floors over unheated spaces: 1.0

233

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 21.5
Feature roof axonometric.

MAIN ROOF GEOMETRY

to be fabricated. The deck spanning across the purlins will be


flat, parallel edged panels and be perpendicular to them.

General Description
The soaring winged form of the main roof appears to be the
result of a very complex, compound curve geometry. However,
the form is generated by using a simple concept that will be
relatively easy to build. The main roof consists of six
components: the upper roof which is the vaulted shape oriented
to the north (area 'A'), the east and west mid-roof wings (area
'B', 'C'), and the east and west lower roofs wing (area 'D', 'E'),
and the south roof (area T').
Generating Geometry
The upper roof (area 'A') is a series of segments cut from a
tube form. This roof is on the axis of the relative to the ground
plan. Since the roof segments are a section of a tube, each
segment is buildable with straight, parallel-sided roof deck
panels spanning across purlins that are curved to match the
curve of the main tube form.
The halves of the mid and low roof wings are mirror
images of each other. They can be described as vaults
generated as multiple curved forms that have a constant profile
along their length. These curved forms are tilted and rotated
relative to the ground plane, then located in as indicated. The
vaults are then clipped using clipping geometries shown or
intersections with adjacent roofs and/or curtain walls. A roof
form generated in this manner is relatively easy to build. Roof
purlins that have the curved profile of the basic roof form are

234

Construction
Since the axis of the basic curved form is rotated relative to
the building axis, the purlins will be oblique to the orthogonal
geometry of the primary trusses and the secondary structural
framing. Connectors that can accommodate varying spaces
between the purlins and the primary and secondary structural
framing below are to be used.
Since the basic curved shape is rotated and tilted relative
to the building axis and the ground plane, the flow of rain water
over the surface will be oblique to the edges of the metal panels
that form its finished surface. The joints between the metal
roof panels are to be designed to permit large volumes of water
to flow over them without leaking.
The roof construction will consist of a sandwich of
materials as follows. A metal deck will function as the structural
diaphragm for the roof. This metal deck will also form the
finished ceiling surface for the exhibition and convention halls
located below. Sound absorption qualities will be achieved by
perforating the metal deck and providing a layer of fibre glass
insulation above it. Thermal insulation, a vapour barrier, a
furring layer of fire-resistant plywood, a self-healing, fully
adhered waterproof membrane or roofing felts depending on
the slope of the roof and stainless steel, or aluminium roof
with a PVF2 finish complete the sandwich.

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Figure 21.6
Wall type T'.
G e n e r a l : Wall t y p e 'F' c o n s i s t s of
alternating 1600 mm high bands of azurlite
and 900 mm high bands of azurlite, clear
glass with a patterned, ceramic frit coating
or insulated aluminium panels. The glass
is supported at the top and bottom edges
by a l u m i n i u m m u l l i o n s . An exterior
mullion cap mechanically holds the glass
in place. The vertical joints between the
glass panes are butt glazed.

1. roof truss
2. 15 mm racking due to differential
settlement
3. suspension points for the weight of the
wall anchor to the building structure
4. vertical trusses for mullion support
5. anchor points for vertical plates
6. mullions
7. azurlite and clear fritted glass
8. building column
9. anchor points for lateral loads
10 differential movement due to floor
imposed load deflections and column
shortening:
- 15 mm + 15 mm. movement is to be
taken at the base of the wall
11 differential movement between
columns due
to concrete creep and differential
settlements
+/- 5 mm

' tSt

"TPIMBP"^

w^m
8

Mmmi.

mmm 'mmm* \
iff,

Plate 21.8
Wall type T'.

235

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Figure 21.7
Wall type'A'.
General: Wall type 'A' consists of 625 mm
high horizontal bands of solex (green
tinted) glass and insulated aluminium
panels. The glass and aluminium panels
are supported at their top and bottom
edges by horizontal mullions. An exterior
mullion cap mechanically holds the glass
and panels in place. The vertical joints
between the glass panes are butt glazed.
The ratio of glass and aluminium bands
varies along the length of the wall as the
wall decreases in transparency from south
to north.
The support system: The support structure
for this w a l l consists of h o r i z o n t a l
aluminium mullions connected to vertical
steel trusses spaced at a nominal 2700 mm
to 3000 mm centres. The trusses consist
of double steel plate vertical chords,
cruciform shaped horizontals and are
attached to the vertical plates. The steel
trusses are designed to resist the lateral
loads of the wind and to carry the gravity
load of the wall to the roof or floor
structure above.
The wall receptors and mullions at the
base of each wall segment are detailed to
a l l o w for v e r t i c a l m o v e m e n t w h i l e
restraining horizontal movement.

tttesDRi

1. 15 mm racking due to differential


settlement
2. suspension points for the weight of
the wall and for lateral loads anchor
to the building structure
3. vertical truss for mullion support
4. anchor points for vertical plates
5. building column
6. mullions
7. solex glass and aluminium panels
Plate 21.9
Wall type 'A'.

236

anchor points for lateral loads


differential movement due to floor
imposed load deflections and column
shortening:
- 15 mm + 5 mm movement is to be
taken up at the base of the wall
10, differential movement between
columns due to concrete creep and
differential settlements +/- 5 mm

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Figure 21.8
Wall type 'C\
General: Wall type consists of 1875 mm
high bands of clear glass retained and
supported at their top and bottom edges
by horizontal mullions. An exterior mullion
cap mechanically holds the glass in place.
The vertical joints between glass panes are
butt glazed.
The support frame for the wall: it consists
of light-weight pipe, plate and rod trusses
that span horizontally between building
columns (10 to 15 metres). The trusses are
spaced vertically at 1875 mm centres
(equal to the height of the glass bands).
The trusses are designed primarily to
resist the lateral loads of the wind. The
gravity loads of the glass and the truss
supports are transferred vertically via a
suspension rod system to the roof
structure above.
The truss connectors to the building
structure and the wall receptors and
mullions at the base of each wall segment
are detailed to allow for vertical movement
while restraining horizontal movement.

suspension points for weight of trusses


anchor to the building structural
system
15 mm racking due to differential
settlement
suspension points for weight of glass
panes and trusses, anchor to the
building structural system
building column
anchor points for horizontal trusses
and system tensioning
the weight of the glass panes are

supported by the lower truss, ties to


the upper truss serve only to restrain
lateral movement
7. horizontal trusses with tension rods
8. differential movement due to floor
imposed load deflections and column
shortening: - 15 mm movement is to
be taken up at the base of the wall
9. differential movement between
columns due to concrete creep and
differential settlements +/- 5 mm
Plate 21.10
Wall type ' C .

237

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plate 21.11
Construction of the roof structure special techniques are required to build the curved roofing system.

238

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Plate 21.12
Structure of the steel truss supporting the central roof.

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

OB

,:':,

Plate 21.13
View of the whole development on the artificial island from Victoria Harbour with Wanchai and Causeway Bay as the backdrop.

240

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

241

Building Enclosure in Hong Kong

Plates 21.14
Fixing various types of external wai

242

Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Extension

Plates 21.15
Fixing details for the glass panel.

243

BIBLIOGRAPHY
REFERENCES
Brooks, A.J. and C. Grech. 1990. The Building Envelope.
Butterworth Architecture.

England:

Building Department. 1995. Code of Practice for Overall Thermal Transfer


Value in Building. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
HKIA Journal, issue no. 8.9. 1997. Hong Kong: Pale Publication Ltd.
Rosen, H.J. and T. Heineman. Architectural Materials for Construction.
Wong, W.S. 1991. Building Materials & Technology in Hong Kong. Hong
Kong: All Arts Ltd.

FURTHER READING
Button, D. and B. Pye. 1994. Glass in Building. England: ButterworthHeinemann Ltd.
Goulding, J.R., J.O. Lewis and T.C. Steemers. 1992. Energy Conscious Design.
UK: Batsford Ltd.
Randall Thomas. 1992. Environmental Design. UK: E & FN Son.