Ideal Gases
JUNE 2002
1 
(a) 
(i) 
The kinetic theory of gases leads to the equation 

_{}_{} m<c ^{2} > = _{}_{} kT. 

Explain the significance of the quantity _{}_{} m<c ^{2} >. 

(ii) 
Use the equation to suggest what is meant by the absolute zero of temperature. 

[3] 

(b) 
Two insulated gas cylinders A and B are connected by a tube of negligible volume, as shown in Fig. 3.1. 
Fig. 3.1
1
Each cylinder has an internal volume of 2.0 × 10 ^{–}^{2} m ^{3} . Initially, the tap is closed and cylinder A contains 1.2 mol of an ideal gas at a temperature of 37 °C. Cylinder B contains the same ideal gas at pressure 1.2 × 10 ^{5} Pa and temperature 37 °C.
(i) 
Calculate the amount, in mol, of the gas in cylinder B. 

amount = 
mol 

(ii) 
The tap is opened and some gas flows from cylinder A to cylinder B. Using the fact that the total amount of gas is constant, determine the final pressure of the gas in the cylinders. 
pressure = 
Pa 
[6] 
2
NOVEMBER 2003
2 The volume of some air, assumed to be an ideal gas, in the cylinder of a car engine is 540 cm ^{3} at a pressure of 1.1 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 27 °C. The air is suddenly compressed, so that no thermal energy enters or leaves the gas, to a volume of 30 cm ^{3} . The pressure rises to 6.5 × 10 ^{6} Pa.
(a) 
Determine the temperature of the gas after the compression. 

temperature = …………………………… K [3] 

(b) 
(i) 
State and explain the first law of thermodynamics. 
[2] 

(ii) 
Use the law to explain why the temperature of the air changed during the compression. 
3
[4]
JUNE 2004
3 The pressure p of an ideal gas is given by the expression
p
=
1
3
Nm
V
<c ^{2} >.
(a) 
Explain the meaning of the symbol <c ^{2} >. 
[2] 

(b) 
The ideal gas has a density of 2.4 kg m ^{–}^{3} at a pressure of 2.0 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 300 K. 
(i) 
Determine the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) speed of the gas atoms at 300 K. 

r.m.s. speed = 
m s ^{–}^{1} [3] 

(ii) 
Calculate the temperature of the gas for the atoms to have an r.m.s. speed that is twice that calculated in (i). 
temperature =
4
K
[3]
JUNE 2005
4 
(a) 
State what is meant by an ideal gas. 

[2] 

(b) 
The product of pressure p and volume V of an ideal gas of density _{ρ} at temperature T is given by the expressions 

p 
= _{}_{} ρ<c ^{2} > 

and 
pV 
= NkT, 

where N is the number of molecules and k is the Boltzmann constant. 

(i) 
State the meaning of the symbol <c ^{2} >. 

[1] 

(ii) 
Deduce that the mean kinetic energy E _{K} of the molecules of an ideal gas is given by the expression 

E _{K} = _{}_{} kT. 

[2] 

(c) 
In order for an atom to escape completely from the Earth’s gravitational field, it must have a speed of approximately 1.1 × 10 ^{4} ms ^{–}^{1} at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere. 
(i) 
Estimate the temperature at the top of the atmosphere such that helium, assumed to be an ideal gas, could escape from the Earth. The mass of a helium atom is 6.6 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{7} kg. 

temperature = 
K [2] 

(ii) 
Suggest why some helium atoms will escape at temperatures below that calculated in (i). 
5
[1]
NOVEMBER 2005
5 The air in a car tyre has a constant volume of 3.1 × 10 ^{–}^{2} m ^{3} . The pressure of this air is 2.9 × 10 ^{5} Pa at a temperature of 17 °C. The air may be considered to be an ideal gas.
(a) 
State what is meant by an ideal gas. 
[2] 

(b) 
Calculate the amount of air, in mol, in the tyre. 
amount = ……………………………. mol [2] 

(c) 
The pressure in the tyre is to be increased using a pump. On each stroke of the pump, 0.012 mol of air is forced into the tyre. Calculate the number of strokes of the pump required to increase the pressure to 3.4 × 10 ^{5} Pa at a temperature of 27 °C. 
number = ……………………………. [3]
6
The cylinder is to be used to fill balloons. Each balloon, when filled, contains 7.24 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} of hydrogen at a pressure of 1.85 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 290 K.
Calculate, assuming that the hydrogen obeys the equation in (a),
(i) 
the total amount of hydrogen in the cylinder, 

amount = ……………………… 
mol [3] 

(ii) 
the number of balloons that can be filled from the cylinder. 
7
number = ………………………
[3]
JUNE 2008
7 
(a) 
Explain qualitatively how molecular movement causes the pressure exerted by a gas. 

[3] 

(b) 
The density of neon gas at a temperature of 273 K and a pressure of 1.02 × 10 ^{5} Pa is 0.900 kg m ^{–}^{3} . Neon may be assumed to be an ideal gas. 

Calculate the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) speed of neon atoms at 

(i) 
273 K, 

speed = 
m s ^{–}^{1} [3] 

(ii) 
546 K. 

speed = 
m s ^{–}^{1} [2] 

(c) 
The calculations in (b) are based on the density for neon being 0.900 kg m ^{–}^{3} . Suggest the effect, if any, on the rootmeansquare speed of changing the density at constant temperature. 
8
[2]
NOVEMBER 2009
8 An ideal gas occupies a container of volume 4.5 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} at a pressure of 2.5 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 290 K.
(a) 
Show that the number of atoms of gas in the container is 2.8 × 10 ^{2}^{3} . 

[2] 

(b) 
Atoms of a real gas each have a diameter of 1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{1}^{0} m. 

(i) 
Estimate the volume occupied by 2.8 × 10 ^{2}^{3} atoms of this gas. 

volume = 
m ^{3} [2] 

(ii) 
By reference to your answer in (i), suggest whether the real gas does approximate to an ideal gas. 
9
[2]
JUNE 2010
9 (a)
Some gas, initially at a temperature of 27.2 °C, is heated so that its temperature rises to 38.8 °C. Calculate, in kelvin, to an appropriate number of decimal places,
(i)
the initial temperature of the gas,
(ii)
the rise in temperature.
initial temperature =
K [2]
(b)
rise in temperature =
K [1]
The pressure p of an ideal gas is given by the expression
p
1
= _{3} ρ c ^{2}
where ρ is the density of the gas.
(i)
State the meaning of the symbol c ^{2} .
(ii)
[1]
Use the expression to show that the mean kinetic energy <E _{K} > of the atoms of an ideal gas is given by the expression
<E _{K} > =
3
2
kT.
Explain any symbols that you use.
10
[4]
(c)
Helium4 may be assumed to behave as an ideal gas. A cylinder has a constant volume of 7.8 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} and contains helium4 gas at a pressure of 2.1 × 10 ^{7} Pa and at a temperature of 290 K.
Calculate, for the helium gas,
(i) 
the amount of gas, 

amount = 
mol [2] 

(ii) 
the mean kinetic energy of the atoms, 

mean kinetic energy = 
J [2] 

(iii) 
the total internal energy. 

internal energy = 
J [3] 
11
JUNE 2011
10 
(a) 
State what is meant by the Avogadro constant N _{A} . 
[2] 

(b) 
A balloon is filled with helium gas at a pressure of 1.1 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 25 °C. The balloon has a volume of 6.5 × 10 ^{4} cm ^{3} . Helium may be assumed to be an ideal gas. 
Determine the number of gas atoms in the balloon.
number =
12
[4]
JUNE 2011
11 
(a) 
State what is meant by a mole. 
[2] 

(b) 
Two containers A and B are joined by a tube of negligible volume, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1. 
The containers are filled with an ideal gas at a pressure of 2.3 × 10 ^{5} Pa. The gas in container A has volume 3.1 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} and is at a temperature of 17 °C. The gas in container B has volume 4.6 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} and is at a temperature of 30 °C.
Calculate the total amount of gas, in mol, in the containers.
amount =
13
mol [4]
NOVEMBER 2011
2 
(a) 
One assumption of the kinetic theory of gases is that gas molecules behave as if they are hard, elastic identical spheres. 
State two other assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases. 

1. 

2. 

[2] 

(b) 
Using the kinetic theory of gases, it can be shown that the product of the pressure p and the volume V of an ideal gas is given by the expression 
1
pV = _{3} Nm <c ^{2} >
where m is the mass of a gas molecule.
(i) 
State the meaning of the symbol 
1. N, 

[1] 

2. <c ^{2} >. 

[1] 

(ii) 
Use the expression to deduce that the mean kinetic energy <E _{K} > of a gas molecule at temperature T is given by the equation 
where k is a constant.
<E _{K} > =
14
3
2
kT
[2]
(c)
(i)
State what is meant by the internal energy of a substance.
[2]
(ii) Use the equation in (b)(ii) to explain that, for an ideal gas, a change in internal energy ΔU is given by
_{Δ}_{U} ∝ΔT
where _{Δ}_{T} is the change in temperature of the gas.
15
[2]
JUNE 2012
13 (a)
The kinetic theory of gases is based on some simplifying assumptions. The molecules of the gas are assumed to behave as hard elastic identical spheres. State the assumption about ideal gas molecules based on
(i) 
the nature of their movement, 

[1] 

(ii) 
their volume. 

[2] 
16
(b)
A cube of volume V contains N molecules of an ideal gas. Each molecule has a component c _{X} of velocity normal to one side S of the cube, as shown in Fig. 2.1.
Fig. 2.1
side S
The pressure p of the gas due to the component c _{X} of velocity is given by the expression
pV = Nmc _{X}
2
where m is the mass of a molecule.
Explain how the expression leads to the relation
pV =
1
_{3}
Nm<c ^{2} >
where <c ^{2} > is the mean square speed of the molecules.
(c)
[3]
The molecules of an ideal gas have a rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) speed of 520 m s ^{–}^{1} at a temperature of 27 °C.
Calculate the r.m.s. speed of the molecules at a temperature of 100 °C.
r.m.s. speed =
17
m s ^{–}^{1}
[3]
NOVEMBER 2012
14 An ideal gas has volume V and pressure p. For this gas, the product pV is given by the expression
1
pV = _{3} Nm <c ^{2} >
where m is the mass of a molecule of the gas.
(a) 
State the meaning of the symbol 

(i) 
N, 

[1] 

(ii) 
<c ^{2} >. 

[1] 

(b) 
A gas cylinder of volume 2.1 × 10 ^{4} cm ^{3} contains helium4 gas at pressure 6.1 × 10 ^{5} Pa and temperature 12 °C. Helium4 may be assumed to be an ideal gas. 
(i) Determine, for the helium gas,
1. the amount, in mol,
2. the number of atoms.
amount =
number =
mol [3]
[2]
(ii)
Calculate the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) speed of the helium atoms.
r.m.s. speed =
m s ^{–}^{1}
[3]
JUNE 2013
15 
(a) 
State what is meant by an ideal gas. 
[3] 

(b) 
Two cylinders A and B are connected by a tube of negligible volume, as shown in Fig. 2.1. 
tube
Fig. 2.1
Initially, tap T is closed. The cylinders contain an ideal gas at different pressures.
(i) Cylinder A has a constant volume of 2.5 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} and contains gas at pressure 3.4 × 10 ^{5} Pa and temperature 300 K.
Show that cylinder A contains 0.34 mol of gas.
(ii)
Cylinder B has a constant volume of 1.6 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} and contains 0.20 mol of gas. When tap T is opened, the pressure of the gas in both cylinders is 3.9 × 10 ^{5} Pa. No thermal energy enters or leaves the gas.
Determine the final temperature of the gas.
temperature =
K [2]
(c) By reference to work done and change in internal energy, suggest why the temperature of the gas in cylinder A has changed.
[3]
JUNE 2013
16 (a) The volume of an ideal gas in a cylinder is 1.80 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m ^{3} at a pressure of 2.60 × 10 ^{5} Pa and a temperature of 297 K, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1.
The thermal energy required to raise the temperature by 1.00 K of 1.00 mol of the gas at constant volume is 12.5 J.
The gas is heated at constant volume such that the internal energy of the gas increases by 95.0 J.
(i)
Calculate
1. the amount of gas, in mol, in the cylinder,
amount =
2. the rise in temperature of the gas.
temperature rise =
mol [2]
K [2]
(ii)
Use your answer in (i) part 2 to show that the final pressure of the gas in the cylinder is 2.95 × 10 ^{5} Pa.
[1] 

(b) 
The gas is now allowed to expand. No thermal energy enters or leaves the gas. The gas does 120 J of work when expanding against the external pressure. 

State and explain whether the final temperature of the gas is above or below 297 K. 

[3] 
NOVEMBER 2013
17 The product of the pressure p and the volume V of an ideal gas is given by the expression
pV =
1
_{3} Nm < c ^{2} >
where m is the mass of one molecule of the gas.
(a) 
State the meaning of the symbol 

(i) 
N, 

[1] 

(ii) 
< c ^{2} >. 

[1] 

(b) 
The product pV is also given by the expression 

pV = NkT. 

Deduce an expression, in terms of the Boltzmann constant k and the thermodynamic temperature T, for the mean kinetic energy of a molecule of the ideal gas. 

[2] 

(c) 
A cylinder contains 1.0 mol of an ideal gas. 
(i) 
The volume of the cylinder is constant. Calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of the gas by 1.0 kelvin. 

energy = 
J [2] 

(ii) 
The volume of the cylinder is now allowed to increase so that the gas remains at constant pressure when it is heated. Explain whether the energy required to raise the temperature of the gas by 1.0 kelvin is now different from your answer in (i). 
[2]
NOVEMBER 2013
18 (a) (i)
State what is meant by the internal energy of a system.
[2]
(ii) Explain why, for an ideal gas, the internal energy is equal to the total kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas.
[2]
(b) The mean kinetic energy <E _{K} > of a molecule of an ideal gas is given by the expression
<E _{K} > =
3
2
kT
where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the thermodynamic temperature of the gas.
A cylinder contains 1.0 mol of an ideal gas. The gas is heated so that its temperature changes from 280 K to 460 K.
(i) Calculate the change in total kinetic energy of the gas molecules.
change in energy =
J [2]
(ii)
During the heating, the gas expands, doing 1.5 × 10 ^{3} J of work. State the first law of thermodynamics. Use the law and your answer in (i) to determine the total energy supplied to the gas.
total energy =
J
[3]
JUNE 2014
19 (a)
Explain what is meant by the Avogadro constant.
(b)
Argon40 ( ^{4}^{0} Ar) may be assumed to be an ideal gas.
18
[2]
A mass of 3.2 g of argon40 has a volume of 210 cm ^{3} at a temperature of 37 °C.
Determine, for this mass of argon40 gas,
(i) 
the amount, in mol, 
amount = 

(ii) 
the pressure, 
pressure = 

(iii) 
the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) speed of an argon atom. 
r.m.s. speed =
mol [1]
Pa [2]
m s ^{−}^{1}
[3]
JUNE 2014
20 A constant mass of an ideal gas has a volume of 3.49 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} at a temperature of 21.0 °C. When the gas is heated, 565 J of thermal energy causes it to expand to a volume of 3.87 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} at 53.0 °C. This is illustrated in Fig. 2.1.
(a) 
Show that the initial and final pressures of the gas are equal. 

[2] 

(b) 
The pressure of the gas is 4.20 × 10 ^{5} Pa. 

For this heating of the gas, 

(i) 
calculate the work done by the gas, 

work done = 
J [2] 
(ii)
use the first law of thermodynamics and your answer in (i) to determine the change in internal energy of the gas.
change in internal energy =
J [2]
(c) Explain why the change in kinetic energy of the molecules of this ideal gas is equal to the change in internal energy.
[3]
Ideal Gases
1
2
3
(a) 
(i) 
mean kinetic energy of the atoms / molecules / particles 
(ii) 
at absolute zero, atoms have no kinetic energy 
(b) (i) p V = n RT n = (1.2 x 10 ^{5} x 2.0 x 10 ^{}^{2} )/(8.31 x 310) = 0.93 mol
(ii) total amount = (1.20 + 0.93)
(1.20 + 0.93) = (4.0 x 10 ^{}^{2} x p)/(8.31 x 310)
p
= 1.37 x 10 ^{5} Pa
Ml
A1
Bl
Cl
Cl
A1
Cl
Cl
Al
(a) 
pV/T = constant 
C1 

T 
= (6.5 x 10 ^{6} x 30 x 300)/(1.1 x 10 ^{5} x 540) 
C1 

= 985 K 
A1 
[3] 

(if uses °C, allow 1/3 marks for clear formula) 

(b) 
(i) 
∆U = q + w 

symbols identified correctly 
M1 

directions correct _{A}_{1} [2] 

(ii) 
q 
is zero 
B1 

w 
is positive OR ∆U = w and U increases 
B1 
(a)
(b) (i)
(ii)
∆U is rise in kinetic energy of atoms and mean kinetic energy ∝ T (allow one of the last two marks if states ‘U increases so T rises’)
M1
A1
[4]
mean (value of the) square of the speeds (velocities) of the atoms/particles/molecules
1
3
p =
<c ^{2} > = 3 x 2 x 10 ^{5} /2.4 = 2.5 x 10 ^{5} r.m.s speed = 500 ms ^{}^{1}
new <c ^{2} > = 1.0 x 10 ^{6} or <c ^{2} > increases by factor of 4 <c ^{2} > ∝ T or 3/2 kT = 1/2 m<c ^{2} >
T
ρ
<
c
2 >
= {(1.0 x 10 ^{6} ) / (2.5 x 10 ^{5} )} x 300
= 1200 K
M1 

A1 
[2] 

C1 

C1 

A1 
[3] 

C1 

C1 

A1 
[3] 

Total 
[8] 
18
[3]
[6]
4 
(a) 
obeys the law pV/T = constant or any two named gas laws at all values of p, V and T or two correct assumptions of kinetic theory of ideal gas (B1) third correct assumption (B1) 
M1 

A1 
[2] 

(b) 
(i) mean square speed 
B1 
[1] 

(ii) mean kinetic energy = ½m<c ^{2} > ρ = Nm/V and algebra leading to [do not allow if takes N = 1] ½m<c ^{2} > = 3/2 kT 
M1 

M1 

A0 
[2] 

(c) 
(i) ½ × 6.6 × 10 ^{}^{2}^{7} × (1.1 ×10 ^{4} ) ^{2} = 3/2 × 1.38 × 10 ^{}^{2}^{3} ×T T = 1.9 × 10 ^{4} K 
C1 

A1 
[2] 

(ii) Not all atoms have same speed/kinetic energy 
B1 
[1] 

5 
(a) 
obeys the law pV = constant × T ……………………… 
M1 

……………… at all values of p, V and T ………………………………………………. 
A1 
[2] 

(b) 
n = (2.9 × 10 ^{5} × 3.1 × 10 ^{–}^{2} ) / (8.31 × 290) … ……………… ……… 
C1 

= 3.73 mol ………………………………………………………………. 
A1 
[2] 

3 . 4 290 

(c) 
at new pressure, n _{n} = 3.73 × _{2} _{.} _{9} ^{×} 300 

= 4.23 mol ….………………………………………. 
C1 

change = 0.50 mol ……………………………………………………….… C1 

number of strokes = 0.50 / 0.012 = 42 (must round up for mark) 
……. 
A1 
[3] 

6 
(a) 
e.g. fixed mass/ amount of gas ideal gas (any two, 1 each) 
B2 
[2] 

(b) 
(i) n = pV / RT 
C1 

= (2.5 × 10 ^{7} × 4.00 × 10 ^{4} x 10 ^{}^{6} ) / (8.31 × 290) 
C1 

= 415 mol 
A1 
[3] 

(ii) volume of gas at 1.85 × 10 ^{5} Pa = (2.5 × 10 ^{7} × 4.00 × 10 ^{4} ) / (1.85 × 10 ^{5} ) 

= 5.41 × 10 ^{6} cm ^{3} so, 5.41 × 10 ^{6} = 4.00 × 10 ^{4} + 7.24 × 10 ^{3} N N = 741 (answer 740 or fails to allow for gas in cylinder, max 2/3) 
C1 

C1 

A1 
[3] 
19
7
8
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
molecule(s) rebound from wall of vessel / hits walls 
B1 
change in momentum gives rise to impulse / force 
B1 
either
or
(many impulses) averaged to give constant force / pressure
the molecules are in random motion
(i)
(ii)
p
=
_{3} ρ<c ^{2} >
1
1.02 × 10 ^{5}
=
_{3} ^{1} × 0.900 × <c ^{2} >
<c ^{2} >
c
_{R}_{M}_{S}
=
=
3.4 × 10 ^{5} 580 m s ^{–}^{1}
either <c ^{2} > ∝
T
or <c ^{2} >
=
2 × 3.4 ×10 ^{5}
B1
C1
C1
A1
C1
[3]
[3]
c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 830 m s ^{–}^{1} (allow 820) 
A1 
[2] 

c _{R}_{M}_{S} depends on temperature (alone) so no effect 
B1 

B1 
[2] 

either pV = NkT 
or pV = nRT and n = N / N _{A} 
C1 

clear correct substitution e.g. 2.5 × 10 ^{5} × 4.5 × 10 ^{3} × 10 ^{}^{6} = N × 1.38 × 10 ^{}^{2}^{3} × 290 
M1 

N = 2.8 × 10 ^{2}^{3} (allow 1 mark for calculation of n = 0.467 mol) 
A0 [2] 

(i) 
volume = (1.2 × 10 ^{}^{1}^{0} ) ^{3} × 2.8 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
or 
_{3} ^{4} πr ^{3} × 2.8 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
C1 

= 4.8 × 10 ^{}^{7} m ^{3} 
2.53 × 10 ^{}^{7} m ^{3} 
A1 
[2] 

(ii) 
either 4.5 × 10 ^{3} cm ^{3} >> 0.48 cm ^{3} or ratio of volumes is about 10 ^{}^{4} justified because volume of molecules is negligible 
B1 

B1 
[2] 
20
[Total: 6]
9 
(a) 
(i) 
27.2 + 273.15 or 27.2 + 273.2 
C1 

300.4 K 
A1 
[2] 

(ii) 
11.6 K 
A1 
[1] 

(b) 
(i) 
(<c ^{2} > is the) mean / average square speed 
B1 
[1] 

(ii) 
ρ 
= Nm/V with N explained 
B1 

so, pV = 1/3 Nm<c ^{2} > 
B1 

and pV = NkT with k explained 
B1 

so mean kinetic energy / <E _{K} > = ½m<c ^{2} > = 3/2 kT 
B1 
[4] 

(c) 
(i) 
pV = nRT 

2.1 × 10 ^{7} × 7.8 × 10 ^{–}^{3} 
= 
n × 8.3 × 290 
C1 

n 
= 68 mol 
A1 
[2] 

(ii) 
mean kinetic energy 
= 
3/2 kT 

= 
3/2 × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 290 
C1 

= 
6.0 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{1} J 
A1 
[2] 

(iii) 
realisation that total internal energy is the total kinetic energy 
C1 

energy 
= 6.0 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{1} × 68 × 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
C1 

= 
2.46 × 10 ^{5} J 
A1 
[3] 

10 
(a) 
number of atoms of carbon12 
M1 

in 0.012 kg of carbon12 
A1 
[2] 

(b) 
pV = NkT or pV = nRT 
C1 

substitutes temperature as 298 K 
C1 

either 
1.1 × 10 ^{5} × 6.5 × 10 ^{–}^{2} = N × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 298 

or 
1.1 × 10 ^{5} × 6.5 × 10 ^{–}^{2} = n × 8.31 × 298 and n = N / 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
C1 

N = 1.7 × 10 ^{2}^{4} 
A1 
[4] 

11 
(a) 
amount of substance 
M1 

containing same number of particles as in 0.012 kg of carbon12 
A1 
[2] 

(b) 
pV = nRT 
C1 

amount = (2.3 × 10 ^{5} × 3.1 × 10 ^{–}^{3} ) / (8.31 × 290) + (2.3 × 10 ^{5} × 4.6 × 10 ^{–}^{3} ) / (8.31 × 303) 
C1 

= 0.296 + 0.420 
C1 

= 0.716 mol 
A1 
[4] 
(give full credit for starting equation pV = NkT and N = nN _{A} )
21
12 (a)
e.g. moving in random (rapid) motion of molecules/atoms/particles no intermolecular forces of attraction/repulsion volume of molecules/atoms/particles negligible compared to volume of container time of collision negligible to time between collisions (1 each, max 2)
1.
number of (gas) molecules
2. mean square speed/velocity (of gas molecules)
B2 
[2] 

B1 
[1] 

B1 
[1] 

M1 

A1 
[2] 

M1 

A1 
[2] 

B1 

is 

B1 
[2] 

B1 
[1] 

M1 

A1 

(M1) 

(A1) 
[2] 

M1 

M1 

A1 

A0 
[3] 

C1 

C1 

A1 
[3] 
(b) (i)
(ii) 
either pV = NkT or pV = nRT and links n and k and <E _{K} > = ½m<c ^{2} > 

3 

clear algebra leading to 
<E _{K} > = 
_{2} kT 

(i) 
sum of potential energy and kinetic energy of molecules/atoms/particles reference to random (distribution) 

(ii) 
no intermolecular forces so no potential energy 
(i)
(change
proportional to (change in ) T
in)
internal
energy
is
(change
in)
kinetic
either
or
random motion constant velocity until hits wall/other molecule
energy
and
(ii) (total) volume of molecules is negligible compared to volume of containing vessel or radius/diameter of a molecule is negligible compared to the average intermolecular distance
molecule has component of velocity in three directions
c ^{2}
=
c _{X} ^{2}
+
c _{Y} ^{2}
+
c _{Z}
^{2}
(c)
this
13
(a)
(b) either
or
random motion and averaging, so <c _{X} ^{2} > = <c _{Y} ^{2} > = <c _{Z} ^{2} >
<c ^{2} > = 3<c _{X} ^{2} > so, pV = ⅓Nm<c ^{2} >
(c) <c ^{2} > ∝ T or
c _{r}_{m}_{s}
∝
temperatures are 300 K and 373 K c _{r}_{m}_{s} = 580 m s ^{–}^{1} (Do not allow any marks for use of temperature in units of ºC instead of K)
22
14 
(a) 
(i) 
number of molecules 
B1 
[1] 

(ii) 
mean square speed 
B1 
[1] 

(b) 
(i) 
1. 
pV = nRT 
C1 

n 
= (6.1 × 10 ^{5} × 2.1 × 10 ^{4} × 10 ^{–}^{6} ) / (8.31 × 285) 
C1 

n 
= 5.4 mol 
A1 
[3] 

2. 
either N = nN _{A} 

= 5.4 × 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
C1 

= 3.26 × 10 ^{2}^{4} 
A1 

or 

pV = NkT 

N 
= (6.1 × 10 ^{5} × 2.1 × 10 ^{4} × 10 ^{–}^{6} ) / (1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 285) 
(C1) 

N 
= 3.26 × 10 ^{2}^{4} 
(A1) 
[2] 

(ii) 
either 6.1 × 10 ^{5} × 2.1 × 10 ^{–}^{2} = ^{1} / _{3} × 3.25 × 10 ^{2}^{4} × 4 × 1.66 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{7} × <c ^{2} > 
C1 

<c ^{2} > = 1.78 × 10 ^{6} 
C1 

c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 1.33 × 10 ^{3} ms ^{–}^{1} 
A1 

or ^{1} / _{2} × 4 × 1.66 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{7} × <c ^{2} > = ^{3} / _{2} × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 285 
(C1) 

<c ^{2} > = 1.78 × 10 ^{6} 
(C1) 

c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 1.33 × 10 ^{3} ms ^{–}^{1} 
(A1) 
[3] 

15 
(a) 
obeys the equation pV = constant × T or pV = nRT 
M1 

p, V and T explained 
A1 

at all values of p, V and T/fixed mass/n is constant 
A1 
[3] 

(b) 
(i) 
3.4 
× 10 ^{5} × 2.5 × 10 ^{3} × 10 ^{–}^{6} = n × 8.31 × 300 
M1 

n 
= 0.34 mol 
A0 
[1] 

(ii) 
for total mass/amount of gas 

3.9 
× 10 ^{5} × (2.5 + 1.6) × 10 ^{3} × 10 ^{–}^{6} = (0.34 + 0.20) × 8.31 × T 
C1 

T = 360 K 
A1 
[2] 

(c) 
when tap opened 

gas passed (from cylinder B) to cylinder A 
B1 

work done on gas in cylinder A (and no heating) 
M1 

so internal energy and hence temperature increase 
A1 
[3] 
16 
(a) (i) 
1. 
pV = nRT 

1.80 × 10 ^{–}^{3} × 2.60 × 105 = 
n × 8.31 × 297 
C1 

n = 0.19 mol 
A1 
[2] 

2. 
∆q = mc∆T 95.0 = 0.190 × 12.5 × ∆T 
B1 

∆T = 40 K (allow 2 marks for correct answer with clear logic shown) 
A1 
[2] 

(ii) 
p/T = constant 

(2.6 × 10 ^{5} ) / 297 = p / (297 + 40) 
M1 

p = 2.95 × 10 ^{5} Pa 
A0 
[1] 

(b) 
change in internal energy is 120 J / 25 J 
B1 

internal energy decreases / ∆U is negative / kinetic energy of molecules decreases 
M1 

so temperature lower 
A1 
[3] 

17 
(a) 
(i) 
N: (total) number of molecules 
B1 
[1] 

(ii) 
<c ^{2} >: mean square speed/velocity 
B1 
[1] 

(b) 
pV = ⅓Nm<c ^{2} > = NkT 

(mean) kinetic energy = ½ m<c ^{2} > 
C1 

algebra clear leading to ½ m<c ^{2} > = (3/2)kT 
A1 
[2] 

(c) 
(i) 
either energy required = (3/2) × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 1.0 × 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} 
C1 

either 
A1 
[2] 

or 
energy required = 12.5 J (12J if 2 s.f.) energy = (3/2) × 8.31 × 1.0 
(C1) 

or 
energy = 12.5 J 
(A1) 

(ii) 
energy is needed 
to 
push 
back 
atmosphere/do 
work 
against 

atmosphere 
M1 

so total energy required is greater 
A1 
[2] 

18 
(a) 
(i) 
sum of kinetic and potential energies of the molecules 
M1 

reference to random distribution 
A1 
[2] 

(ii) 
for ideal gas, no intermolecular forces 
M1 

so no potential energy (only kinetic) 
A1 
[2] 

(b) 
(i) 
either change in kinetic energy = 3/2 × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 1.0 × 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} × 180 
C1 

= 
2240 J 
A1 
[2] 

or 
R = kN _{A} energy = 3/2 × 1.0 × 8.31 × 180 
(C1) 

= 2240 J 
(A1) 

(ii) 
increase in internal energy = heat supplied + work done on system 
B1 

2240 = energy supplied – 1500 
C1 

energy supplied = 3740 J 
A1 
[3] 
19 
(a) 
the number of atoms 
M1 

in 12 g of carbon12 
A1 
[2] 

(b) 
(i) 
amount = 3.2/40 = 0.080 mol 
A1 
[1] 

(ii) 
pV = nRT 

p 
× 210 × 10 ^{–}^{6} = 0.080 × 8.31 × 310 
C1 

p 
= 9.8 × 10 ^{5} Pa (do not credit if T in °C not K) 
A1 
[2] 

(iii) 
either 
pV = 1/3 × Nm <c ^{2} > N = 0.080 × 6.02 × 10 ^{2}^{3} (= 4.82 × 10 ^{2}^{2} ) 

and m = 40 × 1.66 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{7} (= 6.64 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{6} ) 
C1 

9.8 
× 10 ^{5} × 210 × 10 ^{–}^{6} = 1/3 × 4.82 × 10 ^{2}^{2} × 6.64 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{6} × <c ^{2} > 
C1 

<c ^{2} > = 1.93 × 10 ^{5} c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 440 m s ^{–}^{1} 
A1 
[3] 

or 
Nm = 3.2 × 10 ^{–}^{3} 
(C1) 

9.8 
× 10 ^{5} × 210 × 10 ^{–}^{6} = 1/3 × 3.2 × 10 ^{–}^{3} × <c ^{2} > 
(C1) 

<c ^{2} > = 1.93 × 10 ^{5} c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 440 m s ^{–}^{1} 
(A1) 

or 
1/2 m<c ^{2} > = 3/2 kT 
(C1) 

1/2 × 40 × 1.66 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{7} <c ^{2} > = 3/2 × 1.38 × 10 ^{–}^{2}^{3} × 310 
(C1) 

<c ^{2} > = 1.93 × 10 ^{5} c _{R}_{M}_{S} = 440 m s ^{–}^{1} 
(A1) 

(if T in °C not K award max 1/3, unless already penalised in (b)(ii)) 

20 
(a) 
use of kelvin temperatures 
B1 

both values of (V / T) correct (11.87), V / T is constant so pressure is constant 
M1 
[2] 

(allow use of n R1. Do not allow other values of n.) 

(b) 
(i) 
work done R p∆V R 4.2 × 10 ^{5} × (3.87 – 3.49) × 10 ^{3} × 10 ^{–}^{6} 
C1 

R 160 J 
A1 
[2] 

(do not allow use of V instead of ∆V) 

(ii) 
increase / change in internal energy R heating of system 

N 
work done on system 
C1 

R 
565 – 160 

R 405 J 
A1 
[2] 

(c) 
internal energy R sum of kinetic energy and potential energy / E _{K} N E _{P} 
B1 

no intermolecular forces 
M1 

no potential energy (so ∆U R ∆E _{K} ) 
A1 
[3] 
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