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A FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATES ARRAY CONTROLLER

BASED REAL TIME IMPLEMENTATION OF A


PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE

By
Souvik Dasgupta
Registration No. 210606001 of 2006-07
Roll No. 160606001
Under the Guidance of
Dr. Kaushik Mukherjee
And
Dr. Mainak Sengupta
A thesis
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Engineering (Electrical Engineering)
Specialization in Power Electronics and Drives

Department of Electrical Engineering


Bengal Engineering and Science University,
Shibpur
Howrah - 711 103
West Bengal, India

BENGAL ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE UNIVERSITY


HOWRAH-711103

FOREWORD
We hereby forward the thesis entitled A FIELD PROGRAMMABLE
GATES ARRAY CONTROLLER BASED REAL TIME IMPLEMENTATION OF A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
DRIVE submitted by Souvik Dasgupta(Registration No. 210606001of 20062007) under our guidance and supervision in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (Specialization:
Power Electronics and Drives) from this University.

(Dr. Kaushik Mukherjee)


Senior Lecturer
Dept.of Electrical Engineering
Bengal Engineering and Science University
Howrah-711103

(Dr. Mainak Sengupta)


Assistant Professor
Dept.of Electrical Engineering
Bengal Engineering and Science University
Howrah-711103

(Dr. S.P.Ray)
Professor and Head
Dept.of Electrical Engineering
Bengal Engineering and Science University
Howrah-711103

( Dr. M. Halder)
Professor and Dean, FEAT
Bengal Engineering and Science University
Howrah-711103

BENGAL ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE UNIVERSITY


HOWRAH-711103

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
The foregoing thesis entitled A FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATES
ARRAY CONTROLLER BASED REAL TIME IMPLEMENTATION
OF A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE
is approved as creditable study of an engineering subject carried out and presented
satisfactorily to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree of Master
of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (Specialisation: Power Electronics and
Drives) of this University. It is understood that by this approval the undersigned
do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or
conclusion drawn therein, but approve the thesis paper only for the purpose for
which it is submitted.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS

ii

BENGAL ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE UNIVERSITY


HOWRAH-711103

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to record his deep sense of gratitude to his supervisors, Dr. Kaushik Mukherjee and Dr. Mainak Sengupta, who have introduced the
present area of work and guided in this work. The author also wishes to thank
Dr. Prasid Syem ,Prof. Debjani Ganguly for helping him with different suggestions. The author is also thankful to Prof. S. P. Ray for permitting him to use
the instruments of the department. The author is also indebted to his classmates
Mr. Bhaskaran Barman, Mr. Prasanta Patra and NaMPET Project Assistant
Mr. Utpal Samanta and Mr. Avijit Ghosh for different constructive criticisms in
different phases of the work .The author is also thankful to his seniors Mrs. Anindita Jamatia , Mr. Sudhin Roy, Mr. Pabitra Kumar Biswas for their criticism
in different technical subjects and for their teachings in different power electronic
tools. The author also wishes to thank the NaMPET-FSS project for the funding. Last but not the least, the author is strongly indebted to the almighty for
presenting him worlds best parents, who are not only supportive but also helpful
in different phases of his life.

(Souvik Dasgupta)
Reg. No. 210606001
Roll No. 160606001
Bengal Engineering and Science University
Date:

iii

Dedicated to my parents,
Sri Sankar Dasgupta
and
Smt. Mamata Dasgupta

iv

Abstract
This thesis is directed towards analysis, design, digital computer simulation
and practical implementation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
drive. The drive is suited for a low voltage ( 48V ) high current ( 20A) application.
A three phase permanent magnet synchronous motor, having three hall position sensors, as available in laboratory, is used for the PMSM drive experiments.
The electrical parameters of this prototype machine is first experimentally determined. The adopted experimental method is deduced analytically on the basis of
coupled circuit concepts initially and experimentation has been performed accordingly.
Next, a basic PMSM drive, consisting of this machine and a self-commutated
IGBT based inverter, has been practically implemented. The inverter control
is done through field programmable gate array (FPGA) in 1200 conduction self
controlled mode by processing of the three position sensor signals inside FPGA
itself. A Detailed Numerical Model of this drive has been developed, by which
its starting, dynamic and steady-state performances are predicted. The steadystate performances are experimentally validated on the implemented prototype.
Subsequently, an Averaged Dynamic Model, based on an averaging technique, is
presented, which has the simplicity of that of a conventional separately excited DC
motor with mechanical commutator. This Averaged Dynamic Model is capable
of predicting both dynamic and steady-state behaviors of this drive. The performance as predicted by the Averaged Dynamic Model is validated experimentally,
as also with the Detailed Numerical Model. They are found to match closely.
Subsequent section of the thesis deals with the position sensorless operation
of the self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed the PMSM drive. Two schemes are
proposed and simulated. One scheme uses two voltage and two current sensors to
sense any two phase voltages and any two phase currents of the PMSM to derive
the rotor position information of the PMSM. This scheme is found to start the
machine and operate at any speed. The main disadvantage of this scheme is that,
before starting the machine the rotor must be brought to a particular position.
This scheme does not require almost negligible real-time computational effort. The
second scheme requires a Luenberger Observer realization in FPGA platform
and information of DC link voltage and DC link current, that is one current sensor
and one voltage sensor would be required for experimental implementation. The
observer is realized on the basis of the Averaged Dynamic Model of the PMSM,
derived earlier, in the work. The observer-based method can start the machine
from any arbitrary rotor position and operate at any speed. The observer has
digitally been programmed in F P GA platform.

Next, vector control of a PMSM drive is studied through digital computer


simulation. A Hysteresis Comparator based two-level voltage source inverter
(VSI)-fed drive as well as a Sine PWM VSI-fed drive are simulated. A position
sensorless vector controlled PMSM drive implementation is proposed and simulated.
Significant control blocks for experimental implementation of a vector-controlled
PMSM drive incorporating a two-level transistorized VSI are ultimately developed
and tested in an FPGA environment and real time simulation of a rotor-position
synchronized two-level VSI to feed a PMSM has been finally performed and tested.

vi

Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 General discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Operation of PMSM under Self control . . . . .
1.3 Need of digital controllers in drives application
1.4 Relevance of the work undertaken . . . . . . . .
1.5 Outline of the present work . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Organizations of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2 Determination of electrical parameters of the PMSM


2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Description of the test done in the laboratory . . . . . .
2.3 Test results of PMSM under test . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Merit of the process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Development of PMSM drive operated through
1200 conduction voltage source inverter
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 The machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 The power converter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Position sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 Inverter controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 The basic PMSM drive performance . . . . . . . .
3.4 Simulation studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Understanding the sensor position . . . . .
3.4.3 Simulation of the PMSM . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 System equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.5 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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a three-phase,
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15
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24
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4 Development of an analytical Averaged Dynamic Model of a PMSM


drive operated with a 1200 conduction self-controlled inverter
33
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.2 Development of Averaged Dynamic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.3 Validation of the model with the help of Detailed Numerical Model 37
4.4 Experiments performed to obtain Speed-Torque characteristics of
the test PMSM fed with self-controlled 1200 conduction inverter . 38
5 Study and simulation of schemes for position sensorless operation of a PMSM drive fed from a 1200 conduction self-controlled
inverter
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Description of the sensorless drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Speed observer based position sensorless operation . . . . .
5.2.2 Back emf estimation based position sensorless operation . .
6 Study of FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL of PMSM drive
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Understanding the Field Orientation of PMSM . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Simulation studies of different FIELD ORIENTATION processes .
6.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Different Vector Control strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Simulation of current control loop of vector control by hysteresis comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4 Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Voltage Source Inverter . . . . . . .
6.3.5 Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of POSITION
SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.6 Simulation of SPEED CONTROL of PMSM by VECTOR
CONTROL with SINE PWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . .

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7 Advanced aspects related to real time simulation and implementation of aspects of PMSM drive on FPGA platform
92
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
7.2 Real time simulation of RLC circuit and implementation of OBSERVER in FPGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.2.2 Simulating an RLC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7.2.3 Implementation of the Observer of PMSM . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.3 Towards the real-time implementation of VECTOR CONTROL WITH
SINE PWM INVERTER of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
in FPGA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
7.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

viii

7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6

Finding the performance of the encoder in running the PMSM


in 1200 conduction algorithm under self control . . . . . . .
Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Development of modules required in the process of vector
control of PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing of the different modules developed . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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103
105
113
117

8 Conclusions and scope of future work


126
8.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
appendices
A

129

130
A.1 Parameters and specifications of the machine . . . . . . . . 130

B Dynamic equations of the two operating modes of the PMSM


under 1200 conduction mode
131
B.1 Basic a-b-c frame equations of the PMSM . . . . . . . . . 131
B.2 MODE1 equations when two IGBTs and one freewheeling
diode D3 conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
B.3 MODE2 equations when two IGBTs conduct . . . . . . . . 132
C

133
C.1 Matlab program to generate the look-up table of switching
pattern for encoder based 1200 conduction logic . . . . . . . 133

ix

List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13

3.14

Armature MMF and Field MMF


synchronous machines . . . . . .
Armature construction of PMSM
Different axes of the Motor (abc
rotating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field under self control . . . . .

Condition at zero starting for a


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- stationary, dq - synchronously
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Power Circuit Of PMSM Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Hall pcb arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Experimental open circuit voltage of phase-C and three hall position
sensors output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter arrangement to eliminate unwanted glitches from position sensor output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA program to generate control pulses of the switches under
1200 conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position sensor signals and corresponding switching signals . . . .
The arrangement by which the DC link voltage of the inverter is
controlled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical loading arrangement of the PMSM by a separately excited DC generator connected to the shaft of the PMSM . . . . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,
Load Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .
Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,
Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .

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3.15 Conduction intervals for a particular phase for a particular sensor


lead angle s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.16 Algorithm for simulating 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM . . . . .
3.17 Conduction modes for PMSM drive (a) M ode1 with T 1T 2 pair, (b)
M ode2 with T 1T 2 pair, (c) M ode1 with T 3T 4 pair and (d) M ode2
with T 3T 4 pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.18 Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,
Load Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .
3.19 Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,
Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .
4.1

4.2
4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

5.1
5.2
5.3

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30

31

32

Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and DC link


current at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,
Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . . 35
Dynamic Equivalent circuit for PMSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged DC
link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link
voltage Vdc = 35V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged DC
link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link
voltage Vdc = 25V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link
voltage Vdc = 35V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link
voltage Vdc = 25V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Experimental MECHANICAL SPEED (in Rad/Sec)-LOAD TORQUE(in
Nm) characteristics of the PMSM, at different DC link voltage under self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Schematic diagram of speed observer based position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Algorithm for simulating the observer based position sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive . . . . . .
Simulated waveforms actual rotor position and estimated rotor position of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =
48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .

xi

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48

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5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7
5.8
5.9

5.10

5.11

5.12

5.13

5.14

6.1
6.2
6.3

Simulated waveforms of phase-a current and corresponding phase


voltage of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at
Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . .
Simulated waveforms actual replica of DC link current and estimated DC link current of PMSM under observer based sensorless
operation, at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m
Simulated actual mechanical speed and estimated mechanical speed
of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,
f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic diagram of back emf estimation based position sensorless
operation of the PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Algorithm for simulating the back emf estimation based position
sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive
Simulated transient waveforms of phase-A back emf and phase-A
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless
operation from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad,
TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link voltage Vdc =
48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated transient waveforms of phase-B back emf and phase-B
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless
operation from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad,
TL = 0N mwith the application of step DC link voltage Vdc =
48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated transient waveforms of phase-C back emf and phase-C
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless
operation, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . .
Simulated mechanical speed of PMSM from starting till steady state
under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc =
48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated DC link current of PMSM from starting till steady state
under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc =
48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A current and phaseA voltage of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless
operation, at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m
Fixed stator windings magnetic axis and rotating rotor windings
magnetic axis with rotor axis are rotating at electrical speed, r .
d-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame . . . . . . .
q-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame . . . . . . .

xii

49

50

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51
52

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53

54

54

55

56
58
59
60

6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

6.14

6.15
6.16
6.17

Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor at ids = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steady State phasor diagram of the PMSM under true vector control
(neglecting stator resistance rs ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL
by HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal structure of HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR controlled Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal structure of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor . . . .
Simulated transient waveforms (zooming the transient) of q-Axis
and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of
the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .
Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in
Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector
control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc
Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps) and
Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with
hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in Rad/Sec) of
the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .
Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic torque
(in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,
viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,
TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL
by SPWM INVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal structure of SPWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplified structure of q-axis stator winding for the design of current PI controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiii

61
62
63
64
64
65

66

67

68

69

70
71
72
73

6.18 Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of q-Axis


and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of
the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .
6.19 Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in
Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector
control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc
Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.20 Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps) and
Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with
Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.21 Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic torque
(in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,
viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,
TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.22 Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in Rad/Sec) of
the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in current
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .
6.23 Block diagram of current control method of POSITION SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER . . . . . . . .
6.24 Inside diagram of the block OBSERVER as mentioned in Fig.6.23
6.25 Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of q-axis
actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference
frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector
control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc
Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.26 Simulated transient waveforms of q-axis actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM
Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,
viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,
TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiv

74

75

76

77

78
79
80

81

82

6.27 Simulated steady state waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps) and


Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .
6.28 Simulated steady state waveforms of actual mechanical rotor position (thm in Rad) and estimated electrical rotor position(the
in Rad) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector
control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc
Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.29 Simulated transient waveform of actual electromagnetic torque (Nm)
of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,
Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.30 Simulated transient waveform of actual mechanical speed (Rad/sec)
of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,
Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.31 Block diagram of speed control method of in a Vector Controlled
PMSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.32 Simplified structure of mechanical loop of PMSM under true vector
control for the design of speed PI controller . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.33 Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical speed (in Rad/sec)
and electromagnetic torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector
control with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc
Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, passive load torque is changed from TL = 0.56N m to
TL = 3N m at time, t = 0.5Sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.34 Simulated transient waveform of phase-A voltage (in Volts) of the
PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m .
6.35 Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A voltage (in Volts) of
the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 3N m . . .

xv

83

84

85

86
87
87

88

89

90

6.36 Simulated steady state waveforms of phase-A current (in Amps)


and phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control
with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,
passive load torque, TL = 3N m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1
7.2
7.3

7.4

7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16

FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RLC circuit using
Eulers Integration method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RL circuit Eulers
Integration method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transient waveforms of per unit circuit current and per unit input
applied voltage for a R-L circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH for a step
voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . .
Transient waveforms of per unit capacitor voltage and per unit input
applied voltage for a R-L-C circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH,C =
4uF for a step voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec . .
FPGA design file showing clock and ADC outputs for observer implementation for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . .
FPGA design file showing Eulers method to solve variables to be
estimated for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the DC link current
for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical speed
for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical rotor
position for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design file showing equation method to generate switching
signals for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design files showing the digital inputs and outputs for the
program to evaluate the performance of the encoder . . . . . . . .
FPGA design files showing two sets of switching signals which are
multiplexed to switch the IGBTs of the two level inverter . . . . .
FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to run
the motor under 1200 conduction mode with hall sensor outputs. .
FPGA design files showing the changeover process from hall sensor
to encoder mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to run
the motor under 1200 conduction mode with single encoder output.
Switching signals are plotted individually with respect to the electrical rotor position when the PMSM was running under self controlled
1200 conduction algorithm with encoder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi

91
94
95

96

97
98
99
100
100
101
101
102
103
104
105
106

107

7.17 Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)


and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under
self controlled 1200 conduction mode with hall sensors in action
at DC Link Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient,
f = 0.0016N sec/Rad and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m . . 108
7.18 Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)
and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under
self controlled 1200 conduction mode with encoder in action at DC
Link Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f =
0.0016N sec/Rad and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m . . . . 109
7.19 FPGA design file showing the input and output of the control signal,
generation block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.20 FPGA design file showing the derivation of electrical rotor position
add[10..0] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.21 FPGA design file showing the computation process of different instantaneous trigonometric functions of electrical rotor position, add[10..0]111
7.22 FPGA design file showing the computation process of two components of each phase control signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7.23 FPGA design file showing the addition of all the components and
generation of actual three phase control signals of SINE PWM . . 112
7.24 FPGA design file showing the generation of triangular wave for implementing Sine-triangle PWM strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.25 FPGA design file showing the comparison of triangular wave with
each sine control signal for SINE PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.26 FPGA design file showing the blanking time between the upper and
lower switching signals of each phase of SPWM INVERTER . . . . 115
7.27 Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vq cosr at
mechanical speed of 1500rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.28 Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vd sinr at
mechanical speed of 1500rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
7.29 Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0] and
phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 270rpm . . . . . . . 118
7.30 Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0] and
phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 750rpm . . . . . . . 119
7.31 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T1 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm120
7.32 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T3 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm121
7.33 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T5 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm122
7.34 FPGA program files to simulate the switching process of the realtime-voltage source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

xvii

7.35 FPGA program files to simulate the generation of phase voltages of


the real-time-voltage source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.36 Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in PU)
and Phase-B voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage
source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.37 Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in PU)
and Phase-C voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage
source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

xviii

List of principal symbols

P M SM : Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


Te : Electromagnetic torque, Nm
Ma : Armature MMF, AT
Mf : Field MMF,AT
van , vbn , vcn : phase voltages of phase A, B, C respectively, V
ia , ib , ic : phase currents of phase A, B, C respectively, Amps
ra : per phase resistance of the machine, Ohm
Ls : per phase synchronous inductance, H
0 : Peak value of armature flux linkage due to permanent magnet, Wb-turns
r : Electrical speed of the machine, Rad/Sec
r : Electrical rotor position, Rad
m : Mechanical seed of the machine, Rad/Sec
P : Number of poles of the machine
a : Total flux linkage of Phase A, Wb-turns
Lls : Leakage inductance of each phase of the motor, H
Lmd : Direct axis mutual inductance, H
Lmq : Quadrature axis mutual inductance,H
s: Sensor lead angle, Rad
tstop : Simulation time, Sec
tstep : Step time of simulation,Sec
iapk : Peak of the fundamental armature current, Amps
ilink : Dynamic value of the averaged DC link current, Amps
f : Viscous friction co-efficient, Nm-Rad/Sec
TL : Passive load torque, Nm
J: Mechanical inertia of the machine, Kg m2
id
link : Estimated value of the cyclic average value of DC link current, Amps
cr : Estimated value electrical speed of the machine, Rad/sec

br : Estimated value of electrical rotor position, Rad


idc : Replica of DC link current only having the non-zero part, Amps
Sa , Sb , Sc : Switching functions of phase A, B, C respectively
pa , pb , pc : Zero Crossing Signals of phase A, B, C respectively
Vg : Per unit value of input applied voltage, pu
R : Per unit resistance, pu
L : Per unit inductance, pu
i : Per unit current, pu
Vb : Base value of voltage, V
Ib : Base value of current, Amps

xix

Rb : Base value of Resistance, Ohm


vc : Per unit capacitor voltage, pu
Lls : Leakage Inductance of the stator, H
L0lr : Leakage Inductance of the rotor referred to stator, H
L0dr : Self Inductance of d-axis damper referred to stator,H
L0qr : Self Inductance of q-axis damper referred to stator, H
L0f r : Self Inductance of main field referred to stator, H
Lmd : d-axis Magnetizing Inductance, H
Lmq : q-axis Magnetizing Inductance, H
Lqs : Self Inductance of q-axis stator, H
Lds : Self Inductance of q-axis stator, H
rs : Per phase stator resistance, H
0 , r 0 : Per phase rotor resistance referred to stator, Ohm
rr0 , rqr
dr

xx

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1

General discussions

The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)drive has several advantages


over other machines used as conventional servo-motors such as separately excited
dc motor, induction motor etc. As is well understood, the stator current of an
induction machine (IM) have to carry both the torque producing component of
current and the magnetizing current. But in a PMSM, placing a permanent magnet in the rotor relieves the stator from the need of carrying magnetising mmf
producing currents. Hence for the same power output, PMSMs will operate at
a higher power factor and its efficiency will be more than induction machines,
as currents flowing through the stator reduces. It may also be relevant to note
that conventional cylindrical rotor synchronous motor (SM) has a DC excitation
in the field, which requires brushes and slip rings in the rotor field winding. These
brushes and slip rings require regular maintenance and also produce extra losses
for their presence. The key reason for developing this PMSM was [1] to replace
the disadvantageous features of SM by placing a permanent magnet in the rotor. Hence PMSM has sinusoidal EMF distribution with respect to space and
requires sinusoidal input stator (armature) currents to produce steady ripple-free
torque. On the other hand, BLDC (Brushless DC Motor) has trapezoidal EMF
distribution with respect to space and requires trapezoidal input stator (armature)
currents to produce steady ripple-free torque [2]. For this PMSM has become the
most attractive competitor to other ac and dc drives for adjustable speed high performance drive applications[3, 4]. It may however be important to point out that
this advantage comes at the cost of a small but crucial disadvantage. One may
recall that the SM field gets weakened due to demagnetising armature ampereturns when operating at leading power factors and magnetised when operating at
lagging power factors. In a wound-field SM this is not a problem as there is no
scope for the permanent demagnetization of the field. In a PMSM this process
may cause irreversible demagnetisation of the permanent magnet. Hence one has

technically to incorporate schemes to ensure that demagnetising ampere-turns do


not cause such damage.
Many schemes have been proposed for the control of PMSM drive. Among
them one of the most attractive control scheme is the VECTOR CONTROL
scheme[5]. It is more suitable for PMSM drive as its control is totally through
stator side and there is no provision for rotor field excitation control. By this
vector control we can make such an arrangement that it can be operated in a same
manner as DC machine.
In the forthcoming chapters it is discussed, how PMSM can be used in conjunction with proper inverter switching configurations, to act just like a separately
excited DC motor.

1.2

Operation of PMSM under Self control

It is well known that a conventional synchronous motor has no starting torque.


At starting speed if we excite the synchronous motor armature (Stator) with a
balanced three phase supply of rated frequency the armature rotating magnetic
field will make an angle with rotor (field) magnetic field, which is time varying.
Therefore no net average torque is produced
as shown in Figure 1.1 So, at this
R
condition the average dc torque: Te = K 02 Ma Mf sin d = 0
A PMSM has a balanced 3-phase winding in the stator and a permanent magnet
as its rotor. The rotor permanent magnet field distribution is designed such that
its distribution is almost sinusoidal in space. The armature windings are also so
designed that the armature MMFs also vary almost as pure sinusoids in space.
The basic construction of a PMSM is shown in Figure1.2. This Figure 1.2 is
showing the three armature windings (phases), i.e. a, b and c with their axes
marked, along with the d-axis, which is the axis of the permanent magnet field
(rotor). Positive direction of rotation of the rotor is assumed anti-clockwise. The
q (quadrature)is an axis, assumed to be 900 ahead of the rotor d-axis and the
rotor position is defined as an angle r , as shown in Fig. 1.2. r is the angle
subtended between the stator (armature) a phase axis and the q-axis of the
rotor. It is positive in the counter clock wise direction, i.e. in powitive direction
of rotation (r ).
With the above assumptions, The cylindrical rotor PMSM machine armature
voltage equations (assuming machine neutral are isolated) are as follows:
van = ra ia + Ls pia + 0 r cos r

(1.1)

vbn = ra ib + Ls pib + 0 r cos(r 2/3)

(1.2)

Figure 1.1: Armature MMF and Field MMF Condition at zero starting for
a synchronous machines
vcn = ra ic + Ls pic + 0 r cos(r + 2/3)

(1.3)

where, van , vbn , vcn are three phase voltages, ia , ib , ic are three phase currents,0 is
the peak value of armature flux linkage due to permanent, ra and Ls are per phase
d
resistance and per phase synchronous inductance of the motor, p = dt
operator. r
is the electrical speed of the machine and the machine being synchronous is always
related to its mechanical rotor speed m by the expression shown in equation 1.4.
r =

P
m
2

(1.4)

where, P = Number of pole in the machine and m = mechanical rotor speed of


the motor.
Brushless DC Motors and / or PMSMs are generally analyzed in a-b-c or rotor
d-q reference frame [6]. Fig. 1.3 shows these two frames. The a,b and c axes are
fixed on the plane of the paper (stationary a-b-c frame) and the q-d axes (d-axis
is assumed the rotor permanent magnet field axis), maintaining quadrature with
each other, rotates with the rotor electrical speed r . Counter clock wise rotation
is assumed positive and at t=0, the q-axis is assumed to be aligned with the aphase axis.
Now, if it can be arranged by rotor position feedback that voltages feeding the
armature phases of the PMSM have the fundamental component of the phase
voltages which are function of electrical rotor position of the motor r ,then one

Figure 1.2: Armature construction of PMSM


can write:
van1 = Vm cos(r + z)

(1.5)

vbn1 = Vm cos(r + z 2/3)

(1.6)

vcn1 = Vm cos(r + z + 2/3)

(1.7)

van1 , vbn1 and vcn1 are fundamental components of the impressed phase voltages.
z is the constant angle maintained by the controller, i.e. this is the constant angle
set by the controller, by which the fundamental phase terminal voltage leads its
corresponding phase back emf.
Now, substituting equations 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 in equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 the fundamental
component of phase currents will be solved. Now, the form of solutions of those
currents will be of the forms as follows:
ia1 = Im cos(r + s)

(1.8)

ib1 = Im cos(r + s 2/3)

(1.9)

ic1 = Im cos(r + s + 2/3)

(1.10)

Figure 1.3: Different axes of the Motor (abc - stationary, dq - synchronously


rotating)
m sin(z)
where,s = tan1 [ Vm Vcos(z)
)] tan1 [ rraLs ] , Im =maximum value of phase cur0 r
rents and Vm = maximum value of phase voltages .

If now three phase to two phase transformation [6] is applied, it is seen that the
q andd axis components of armature MMF space phasor, Maq and Mad are as
shown in equation 1.11:

Maq
Mad

2
= ( )K
3

cos(r ) cos(r 2/3) cos(r + 2/3)


sin(r ) sin(r 2/3) sin(r + 2/3)

ia

ib (1.11)
ic

Where, k = per phase number of turns


If equations 1.8, 1.9, 1.10 are substituted in equation 1.11 it is obtained as:

Maq
Mad

= Im K

cos(s)
sin(s)

(1.12)

So, the armature MMF space phasor, M a can be written as:


Ma = Im.k[ sin(s) + j cos(s)]

(1.13)

The field (rotor) MMF space phasor, M f can be written as:


M f = [M f + j0]

(1.14)

Figure 1.4: Field under self control


Now, from equation 1.13 and 1.14 it can be noted that, under this circumstances, armature(stator) MMF, M a makes a time invariant angle = 2 + s
with the field (rotor) at all the speeds as shown in figure 1.4. So, motor will develop
an average (DC)torque at all the speeds. So, motor will also develop DC torque at
zero speed also. So, by this rotor position feedback control strategy, synchronous
motor can be started without the help of a pony or auxiliary motor. This method
is called Self Control [7] of synchronous motor. It can be noted that under self
control rotor speed will be always in synchronism with stator supply frequency,
starting from zero speed, because here, the stator current and voltage is made to
follow a frequency dictated by the rate of change of rotor position by having rotor
position feedback

1.3

Need of digital controllers in drives application

Now, it is understood that, to maintain the self-control principle, motor phase


voltages are to be dictated by the pattern of rotor position. Different such selfcontrol processes are available, viz. Self- Controlled 1200 conduction algorithm,
Self-Controlled 1800 Conduction algorithm, Vector Control.In actual PMSM

drive, equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 are implemented by feeding the motor through an
inverter with self commutated devices say IGBT. Now, generating the switching
signals depending on the rotor position feedback is a computation oriented work.
In most of the cases these computational works are done with the help of some high
performance processor. Previously Digital Signal Processors (DSP) were used for
this purpose [8]. But, as VLSI technology is improving, many more high performance controllers are emerging. Subsequently, the need of variable-architectureprocessor is felt in the field of drives research. The most successful variablearchitecture-processor came out with the name FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATES
ARRAY (FPGA). The main advantage of this FPGA is that, this processor can be
arranged like the processor of our choice depending upon the computational burden
required in the specific derives application.The modern day embedded controllers
can perform online complex computation very fast. This has become a requirement in power electronic applications, where a decision making is often to be made
very fast depending on a faster online mechanical computation and accordingly a
power device is ultimately to be turned on or off based on the information. This
calls for a digital environment which can solve differential equations with very high
frequency. This invariably needs a processor, which processes in parallel way of
computation. An FPGA is a suitable platform for implementing such systems.
The basic advantage of an FPGA is that it can be programmed to process data
in parallel. Thus the implementation of system equations on an FPGA, results in
very short execution time. The controller model in equation form is realized as a
combination of sequential and combinational logic elements. This digital circuit is
then programmed in to FPGA.

1.4

Relevance of the work undertaken

Induction motors (IM) are widely used in variable speed electric drives due to
their ruggedness mainly. On the other hand, DC machines, although not that
rugged, present most ideal characteristics amenable to easy control. Amongst AC
motors IM continued to hold sway over the synchronous motor (SM) due to inherent absence of starting torque. To the user who is always in search of best of
all world type of solutions therefore a machine with the practical advantages of
the AC machines and ease of control of DC machines would be ideal. The PMSM
with a shaft mounted position sensor is one such machine. It is fundamentally a
synchronous machine without the starting problems and on the other hand appears like a DC separately excited machine with constant excitation as far as its
control is concerned. To top it all, the presence of high energy permanent magnets
(instead of field winding as in case of the conventional SM) in the rotor, reduces
its size and weight. Thus a lot of work in the area of adjustable speed drives
now center around this particular machine. Interestingly one such machine was
designed and fabricated in the Power Electronics laboratory of this institute dur-

ing a previous post-graduate thesis work. The present author could hardly resist
the temptation to work in the area of PMSM drives with such a machine already
available. Hence this work. One permanent magnet synchronous motor was designed and made during one of the previous ME thesis works [9]. The motor was
designed to be Sinusoidal Permanent Magnet Rotor Flux Distribution.
The ratings of the motor, based on which theoretical design was done, are as follows: Input Inverters DC Link Voltage,Vdc =48 Volts, Maximum Output
Power Rating, Pout =1kW, Maximum Mechanical Speed, Nr =3000rpm.
The motor was designed to drive one electric bi-cycle. During the design of the
machine, the temperature aspects and flux aspects of the machine were solved by
AN SY S software and the results were compared with that found from different
empirical formulae.

1.5

Outline of the present work

The PMSM existing in the Power Electronics Laboratory is essentially a low


voltage( 48V olts) and high current( 20Amp) motor. So, the speed response of
the motor is very fast. In the present scope of work, different control algorithms
are simulated and some of them are validated experimentally. Before characterizing the motor, electrical parameters also have been experimentally found out.
Simulation studies uses these electrical parameters, as an input. The results found
in different stages are presented in few chapters.

1.6

Organizations of the thesis

The report is organized in six chapters.


After the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 is devoted to experimental determination of the electrical parameters of the PMSM available in the laboratory.
Chapter 3 presents the Development of PMSM drive operated through
a three-phase, 1200 conduction voltage source inverter. The details of the
simulation and subsequently the experimental validation of those simulated results
are presented here.
Chapter 4 presents the development of the Averaged Dynamic Model of a
PMSM drive operated through a three-phase, 1200 conduction voltage
source inverter . This averaged model is also validated in this chapter.
Chapter 5 presents simulation of different position sensorless operation schemes
of PMSM drives operated under 1200 conduction mode. Two such schemes are
simulated in this chapter.
Chapter 6 presents different vector control strategies and their simulation. Current and voltage controllers for those drives are also presented in this chapter.

Chapter 7 presents the development of real-time codes for different significant


functional blocks required for experimental implementation of a vector controlled
PMSM drive incorporating a sine PWM voltage source inverter.
Chapter 8 indicates the concluding comments on the work done so far and work
that can be taken up in future are also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 2
Determination of electrical
parameters of the PMSM
2.1

Introduction

The PMSM drive is efficiently used in different servo drive application. Those
drives are essentially vector controlled and the torque is highly dependent on
proper field orientation. But, if the process of vector control is concerned, it
can be seen that the process needs a very accurate mathematical model of the
system. To determine the mathematical model, it is required to know the exact
experimental and true value of electrical and mechanical parameters of the PMSM.
Several methods are proposed but many of them are not even realistic from the
magnetic circuit point of view of the PMSM.
PMSM is essentially a special kind of synchronous motor. So, scientists tried first
Armature Short Circuit test [10] on PMSM for its electrical parameter determination. But during this process, the armature MMF has a tendency to totally
demagnetize the rotor permanent magnet. The parameters of the PMSM can also
be determined by measuring the torque or power output by some torque transducer
or dynamometer [11]. But, this process will give inaccurate results if iron losses
have to be taken into account, especially in high cupper resistance motors, such
as low power motors. In many papers [12], some parameter identification method
is utilized to determine the parameters of the PMSM. In those papers an ANN
based or KALMAN filter based adaptive model is developed for the PMSM. Subsequently, those adaptive models are trained based on known results (say torque,
power etc) of some tests done in different load conditions. This method can not
be used for very fast vector controlled motors as these training methods are very
time consuming exercises.

10

2.2

Description of the test done in the laboratory

The general voltage-current equation (Fig. 1.2 and 1.3) of Phase -A of a PMSM
[6] is:
van = ra ia + pa
(2.1)
Wherea = Total flux linkage of Phase-A Expression of a can be written as in
terms of ia , ib and ic :
{Lls + LA LB cos(2r )}ia
+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r 2
3 )}ib
a =
+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r + 2
3 )}ic
+0 sin(r )

(2.2)

Where,
Lls = Leakage inductance of each phase of the motor.
Lmd = 32 (LA + LB )= Direct axis mutual inductance.
Lmq = 32 (LA LB )= Quadrature axis mutual inductance.
Differentiating equation 2.2 with respect to time and putting r = pr it is found
that:
{Lls + LA LB cos(2r )}pia
+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r 2
3 )}pib
2
pa = +{0.5LA LB cos 2(r + 3 )}pic
+2LB r [ia sin(2r ) + ib sin 2(r 2
3 ) + ic sin 2(r +
+0 r cos(r )

(2.3)
2
3 )]

Now, analytical findings of these equations applied to certain experimental conditions as follows
CASE 1:
A small DC voltage is applied in Phase-A terminals (i.e. terminals a-n of Fig 1.2
and Fig 3.1). Such that phase-A and main field (d-axis) aligns with each other.
Now, the DC is withdrawn without disturbing the rotor position. A single phase
variable AC source is connected across phase-A (a-n), a small voltage is applied
and phase-A current is checked. So, this condition can be analytically stated as
follows:
r = 0
r = 2
(2.4)
ib = pib = 0
ic = pic = 0
Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.4,
van = ra ia + (Lls + LA + LB )pia

11

(2.5)

Say, frequency of the AC source is = s rad/sec, Then at steady state it is noted


that:
Van = [ra + js (Lls + LA + LB )]Ia
(2.6)
Where, all uppercase quantities are representing the RMS value of the corresponding quantities.
CASE 2:
Now, A.C. supply from phase-A(a-n) is removed without changing rotor position.
A small voltage is applied across phase-B(b-n). Phase B current and open circuit
voltage at phase A(a-n) is noted. This condition can be analytically stated as
below:
r = 0
r = 2
(2.7)
ia = pia = 0
ic = pic = 0
Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.7,
van = [(

LA + LB
)]pib
2

So, at steady state:


Van = [js (

LA + LB
)]Ib
2

(2.8)

(2.9)

CASE 3:
Now, A small DC voltage is applied across phase-B (b-n), so that Phase-B axis
gets aligned with that of main field axis (d-axis). Now, the same AC single phase
voltage source is applied across phase-C and open circuited voltage of Phase- A is
noted and current of Phase-C is also noted. So, analytically this condition can be
stated as follows:
r = 0
r = 7
6
(2.10)
ia = pia = 0
ib = pib = 0
Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.10 it is obtained:
van = [

LA
+ LB ]pic
2

So, at steady state:


Van = [js (

LA 2LB
)]Ic
2

(2.11)

(2.12)

CASE 4:
A small DC voltage is applied across phase-A (a-n) keeping other phases are kept
open and machine rotor field aligns with phase-A axis. Motor will not rotate
under this condition. The phase-A DC voltage and phase-A DC current is noted
and their ratio (van /ian ) gives the motor phase resistance.

12

With the noted experimental readings of Van , Ia , Van , Ib , Van , Ic , equations2.6,


2.9, and 2.12 are solved to get the values of LA , LB and Lls of the PMSM.

2.3

Test results of PMSM under test

RUN 1:
The following table reflects the test results of CASE 1 as mentioned in the previous
section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (Phase B and C kept open circuited):
Sl. No. Van(in mV) Ian(in Amps)
1.
220.4
2.02
2.
354.1
3.19
RUN 2:
The following table reflects the test results of CASE 2 as mentioned in the previous
section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (Phase A and C kept open circuited):
Sl. No. Van(in mV) Ibn(in Amps)
1.
24.46
1.81
2.
28.76
2.08
RUN 3:
The following table reflects the test results of CASE 3 as mentioned in the previous
section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (phase A and B kept open circuited):
Sl. No. Van(in mV) Icn(in Amps)
1.
16.06
1.23
2.
28.87
2.11
RUN 4:
The phase-A is excited with DC voltage and following data at the machine terminal are found by oscilloscope (Phase B and C were kept open circuited):
Sl. No. Van(in mV) Icn(in Amps)
1.
2.45
3.69
2.
1.99
3.04
From results of RUN 4, the DC resistance of per phase of the motor is as follows:
ra = 0.0655ohm. Due to skin effect ar 50Hz, ra (a.c.) = 1.1ra = 0.07205ohm.
Now, putting this value of per phase ac resistance and results of RUN 1, RUN
2 and RUN 3 ( at 50 Hz single phase AC source) in equations 2.6, 2.9 and 2.12
respectively it is found that the electrical parameters of the PMSM are as follows:

13

Stator Leakage Inductance=Lls = 1.771 104 H


LA = 8.63 105 H
LB = 0.06 105 H=negligible i.e the machine is almost non-salient
Stator magnetizing Inductance=Lmd = Lmq = 32 LA = 1.304 104 H
Per phase resistance=ra = 0.0655ohm
RUN 5:
The PMSM is rotated anticlockwise at no-load at different speeds with the help of
a prime-mover and hence the PMSM acts as a generator. Line Voltage rms (Vab )
is noted along with its electrical frequency (fr ) with an Oscilloscope. The results
are listed below:
SL NO. Vab (in Volts) fr (in Hz)
1.
13.832
33.23
2.
13.192
31.25
3.
11.96
28.10
4.
10.74
25.19
5.
9.35
21.86
6.
8.00
18.74
7.
6.30
14.77
A best-fit curve is drawn and its equation is found as:
Vab = 0.41fr + 0.3 0.41fr

(2.13)

from the theory of PMSM, is concerned, the line voltage, in terms of peak permanent magnet rotor flux linkage and electrical frequency can be written as:
q

Vab = (20 3/2)fr

(2.14)

Now, solving equations 2.13 and 2.14, peak of permanent magnet rotor flux linkage
is found to be:
0 = 0.0533wb turns
It is to be mentioned here that, the designed value of 0 of the test machine was
reported as 0 = 0.06wb turns [9].

2.4

Merit of the process

The description of the process suggests that, this process is very simple. There
is no chance of demagnetization of the permanent magnet in this test and yet
the significant machine inductance are found out. The calculations are also very
simple. The values of the parameters, thus obtained, would be in future used for
simulation and also for developing controllers for a complete PMSM drive. The
only demerit is that it can not account for the parameter uncertainties, which might
prove to be important while developing complex online indirect implementation
strategies viz. vector control, if based on value of a particular machines parameter.

14

Chapter 3
Development of PMSM drive
operated through a
three-phase, 1200 conduction
voltage source inverter
3.1

Introduction

This chapter is devoted to simulation studies, implementation details and experimental waveforms of the basic PMSM drive when the laboratory prototype PMSM
is fed from a self-controlled transistorized three-phase inverter operated under 1200
conduction of its devices. Initially each building block of the implemented drive
has been discussed. Afterwards the experimental results are presented and in the
last section some simulation details, to understand the significance of the observed
phenomena, are discussed.

3.2

System description

A self-controlled, three phase permanent magnet synchronous motor driven by a


self-commutated IGBT inverter is investigated in this report. The power circuit
diagram of the implemented drive was shown earlier in Fig. 3.1.
The PMSM has a permanent magnet as its rotor. The three-phase armature
of the synchronous machine is fed by a self-commutated inverter under 1200 conduction. The inverter is switched according to the rotor position signals of three
hall position sensors. The switching of the devices of the inverter is controlled
by the block marked as Inverter Controller as shown in Fig. 3.1. This block is

15

Figure 3.1: Power Circuit Of PMSM Drive


implemented inside a Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA)based development
board available in the laboratory.

3.2.1

The machine

The PMSM prototype used here is existing in the laboratory and has armature in
the stator and field in the rotor. The field is made of a permanent magnet. The
parameters of the machine were experimentally determined and checked through
rigorous experiments. The machine is essentially a high current (20 Amps) and
low voltage (48 Volts) design. The parameters and the ratings of the machine are
provided in Appendix A.

3.2.2

The power converter

The power converter panel used in the experiment is essentially a rectifier-inverter


assembly (Semikron make MD B6CI 600/415-10F stack). The rectifier is made of
three phase diode-bridge. The rectifier is fed from a three-phase transformer. The
output DC of the rectifier is terminated on a capacitor bank and the capacitor
is feeding the inverter. The panel needs to be supplied with a 15 Volts supply
from outside only. The control signals of the six- devices are given at six control
terminals of the inverter.

16

3.2.3

Position sensors

Three Hall position sensors are connected in the stator. A +15V olts regulated
DC power supply is needed to power up the PCB containing the sensors.Each
sensor produces a binary signal, high for 1800 and low for the remaining 1800 .
Each sensor signal is shifted from the other by 1200 as shown in Fig. 3.2, when
the PMSM is run as a generator by an external prime-mover (i.e. by the shaft
connected DC machine acting as motor as shown in Fig. 3.8), at a constant speed,
the hall effect position sensor outputs and the PMSMs armature induced phase
(C-phase) voltage are shown in Figure 3.3.
If the position sensor signals are

Figure 3.2: Hall pcb arrangement


noted carefully, it can be observed that the mutual electrical phase shifting of the
position sensor signals are not exactly 1200 . This is most probably due mechanical
inaccuracies at the time of mounting of the position sensor. It is reflected in the
current waveform of the machine, as well, as will be discussed later.

3.2.4

Inverter controller

The inverter-controller shown in Fig. 3.1 is totally implemented inside FPGA.


Three position sensor signals are first fed to wave-shaping-cum-filter circuit which
is made of 555 timer as shown in Fig 3.4, to eliminate the unwanted glitches in
the position sensor output. The X,Y and Z signals are crude signals which are
produced by the position sensors and X1, Y1 and Z1 are signals which are free
of glitches and are respective complements ofX,Y and Z signals. These are now
fed to the FPGA development board for processing. Now, the switching signals
for each IGBT of the inverter are generated from these X1, Y1 and Z1 signals
and fed to the gate terminals of the inverter IGBTs. The program is shown in
Fig. 3.5. The logic that is implemented inside FPGA is such that as soon as

17

Figure 3.3: Experimental open circuit voltage of phase-C and three hall
position sensors output
the phase induced emf of a particular phase passes from its positive zero crossing,
the IGBT of the inverter, that is connected to that phase and the positive DC
bus will be gated just 300 electrical after that, viz at r = 900 , the positive
zero crossing of phase-A induced emf comes and IGBT T1 is gated at r = 600 .
Under this circumstances the phase induced emf and the fundamental current of
that phase becomes co-phaser. This is called switching algorithm for Sensor Lead
Angle=Zero degree. This fact is validated in the subsequent sections. In Fig.
3.5, p,q and r are respectively X1,Y1 and Z1 signals. Output signal of 555
Timer is the inverted version of the corresponding input signal. To nullify this
inversion these signals are again inverted inside FPGA. In Fig. 3.5, s1,s2,s3, s4,
s5, s6 are the six switching signals as per generated truth-table, but to nullify
unwanted glitches, which may be generated due to FPGA interfacing card layout,
each switching signals are ANDed with one of the position sensor signals or its
inverted version, whose low to high going edge coincides with that of the switching
signal. The timer outputs and the switching signals are interfaced through digital
pins of FPGA. These signals are shown in Fig. 3.6.

3.3

The basic PMSM drive performance

While powering up, the DC link voltage, Vdc (Fig. 3.1) is slowly increased, and
system is kept under no-load condition and PMSM is started. The DC link voltage
is increased or decreased by changing the three phase voltages VR , VY and VB with
the help of a three phase variac as shown in Figure 3.7. The DC link voltage is
further increased to test the conditions of the drive at higher speeds. Subsequently,
the PMSM is loaded with generator loading arrangement as shown in Figure 3.8.

18

Figure 3.4: Filter arrangement to eliminate unwanted glitches from position


sensor output
The DC generator field current Ifdcgen is controlled by controlling the field voltage
and the load torque is controlled by controlling the load resistance Rload as shown
in Figure 3.8.
The experimental waveforms of important variables like phase voltage, corresponding phase currents and typical line voltages are presented in the report. The noload waveforms are shown in Fig. 3.9, Fig. 3.10, Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.12.
The
experimental waveforms of the drive under loaded conditions are shown in Fig.
3.13 and Fig.3.14.
The experimental results are quite satisfactory except at some parts of the waveforms. In one particular 1200 electrical conduction cycle of a particular phase,
two consecutive 600 conduction cycles are not symmetrical. The reason may be
(as already explained earlier) and are validated in Fig. 3.3, i.e. the Hall position
sensors outputs mutually are not exactly 1200 electrical apart. If the steady state
experimental waveforms are noticed carefully, it can be noted that the phase angle between the fundamental armature phase current and corresponding armature
phase back emf appears to be 00 . This is true irrespective the DC Link Voltage
and loading conditions applied, as expected in the sensor lead angle 00 condition.

3.4
3.4.1

Simulation studies
Introduction

The drive reported in this chapter is PMSM drive fed by an VSI inverter under
1200 conduction of switches. If the switching pattern of 1200 is concerned, it can

19

Figure 3.5: FPGA program to generate control pulses of the switches under
1200 conduction
be noted that, sometime two devices (two IGBTs) and sometimes three devices
(Two IGBTs and one freewheeling diode) are conducting. Hence all the three
phase voltages of the machine can not be predicted under this operating condition
at a time. So, d q axis modeling of the drive is difficult here. So, a Detailed
Numerical Model is developed. In this model the a-b-c frame equations of all
twelve switching (as will be described later) combinations are numerically solved
and the performance of the drive is predicted. In short, this Detailed Numerical
Model requires better insight of the drive under all possible switching conditions.

3.4.2

Understanding the sensor position

The sensor lead angle is defined by the variable, s. The definition and inner
meaning of sensor lead angle is described in previous section. These definitions
are depicted in Fig 3.15. Here 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM is considered. Anti-

20

Figure 3.6: Position sensor signals and corresponding switching signals


clockwise rotation of the rotor is considered positive and stator phases are fixed in
space. If the definition of sensor lead angle, given in previous section is considered,
for a specific sensor lead angle s the conduction pattern of a particular phase will
be as shown in Fig. 3.15. When q-axis coincides with OS+ line, positive current
conduction starts in the phase (as top switch connected to that phase is given
gate signal) and when q-axis coincides with OE+ line, positive current conduction
approaches to end (as gate signal of top switch connected to that phase is with
drawn). After 600 electrical rotation of field, when q-axis coincides with OS line,
negative current starts in the phase (as bottom switch connected to that phase
is given gate signal) and when q-axis coincides with OE line, negative current
approaches to end (as gate signal of bottom switch connected to that is with
drawn). This process repeats cyclically for all three phases. The sensor position
can be adjusted by locating the rotor position sensor properly with respect to the
stator frame. It is observable here that, sensor angle is coming out to be the angle
between phase induced e.m.f. and phase current.

3.4.3

Simulation of the PMSM

From the basic knowledge of 1200 conduction VSI fed load, the total electrical
conduction period can be divided into six conduction intervals. Each conduction
interval can be subdivided into two modes. In MODE 2 two switches, one from
three switches connected to positive DC bus and one from three switches connected
to negative DC bus, conduct. MODE 2 contributes to the maximum time of that
conduction period. Now, MODE 1 lasts for a very small time before MODE
2, when three devices (two of which are the switches already conducting and
will continue to do so in the incoming MODE 2 and one diode which is the

21

Figure 3.7: The arrangement by which the DC link voltage of the inverter is
controlled
freewheeling diode connected to the phase which is leaving conduction, not to
suddenly stop the conduction of the phase). Two such MODE1 and two such
MODE2 are shown in Figure 3.17. This MODE 1 is present when conduction is
switching from previous conduction interval to present conduction interval. This
MODE 1 is called Commutating Modeor Inter-switch Mode. MODE 1
lasts for the time up to which current through the phase which is outgoing persists
and free wheeling diode is on. When this current is zero operation is switched
to MODE 2. So, it is clear that throughout one complete electrical cycle there
are six MODE 1 and six MODE 2, which occur depending upon electrical rotor
positions. These six MODE 1 equations are similar but differ only w.r.t. some
functions relating electrical rotor position. The same can be told for six MODE
2 equations. The algorithm for simulating such drive is shown below in Fig.
3.16. In the algorithm shown the system equations are solved by FOURTH
ORDER RUNGE KUTTA method. And the variables like voltages, currents,
torque, and speed are updated in regular interval in each time step iteration. This
model is called DETAILED NUMERICAL MODEL [13] of PMSM drive. A
typical C code implementation of the above algorithm is done. The results of
the simulation is shown in subsequent sections.

3.4.4

System equations

Two Mode 1 and two Mode 2 conditions are shown in Fig. 3.17. Four more
similar Mode 1 and Mode 2 conditions exist. In Mode 2, only one loop current

22

Figure 3.8: Mechanical loading arrangement of the PMSM by a separately


excited DC generator connected to the shaft of the PMSM
flows and all phase currents can be expressed in terms of this current only. In
Mode 1, an extra loop current,icom exists. Given below are Mode 1 equations
when T 1, T 2 and D3 conduct and Mode 2 equations when T 1 and T 2 conduct.
Mode 1 equations when T1, T2 and D3 conduct:
Basic equations of this mode are as below:

ian = im + icom
ibn = im
icn = icom
Vdc = van vcn
van = vbn

(3.1)

Now, putting equation 3.1 in equations 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 and using torque balance
equations it is found that the dynamic equations of M ode1 can be arranged as
follows:

pim = f11 (im , icom , r , r )

pi
com = f21 (im , icom , r , r )
(3.2)

pr = f31 (im , icom , r , r )


pr = f41 (r )
Where, currents im , icom are the currents as shown in Figure 3.17 and the functions
are discussed in Appendix B. These equations 3.2 are used to get the solution of
variables specified in M ode1 in the simulation.
Mode 2 equations when T1and T2 conduct:

23

Figure 3.9: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

ian = im
ibn = 0
icn = im
Vdc = van vcn

(3.3)

Now, putting equation 3.3 in equations 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 and using torque balance
equations it is found that the dynamic equations of M ode2 can be arranged as
follows:

pim = f51 (im , r , r )

(3.4)
pr = f61 (im , r , r )
pr = f41 (r )
Where, currents im , icom are the currents as shown in Figure 3.17 and the functions
are discussed in Appendix B. These equation 3.4 are solved to get the variables
specified in M ode2 in the simulation.

3.4.5

Simulation results

The algorithm for the DetailedN umericalM odel is tested for different operating
conditions and DC link voltages. The steady-state simulated results are shown
in Fig. 3.18 and Fig. 3.19. The results are closely tallying with that of the
experimental ones. The simulated results also verifying that, at sensor lead angle
00 , the phase angle between the fundamental component of armature phase current
and corresponding phase induced emf is 00 . In detailed numerical model the beck

24

Figure 3.10: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00
emf profile of the machine is assumed to be sinusoidal as shown in equations 1.1,
1.2 and 1.3. But, in the designed experimental lab prototype PMSM, the induced
emf profile is flat-topped with the flatness span of around 540 electrical as found
experimentally (seen from Fig. 3.3). Hence, when the PMSM is run as a motor
with self controlled 1200 conduction VSI, this is reflected as the less sharp peak
phase voltages as shown in Fig. 3.13 and Fig. 3.14. The two consecutive 600
electrical conduction intervals of machine phase are not exactly symmetrical. This
can be explained from Fig. 3.3, which reflects that the position sensor outputs are
not exactly 1200 electrical apart mutually, due to slight misalignment of the hall
effect based position sensors, as discussed before.

3.5

Conclusion

It can be noted that the operation of the PMSM that is explained in this chapter
is mainly under self controlled 1200 conduction mode. Now, for BLDC mode
of operation of PMSM drive the switching sequence of the inverter is that of
the 1200 conduction mode of the switches of a VSI. As a result, as explained
any two switches at a time conduct (if inter-switch transients of each mode are
neglected)causing the same current to flow through the conducting phases. In
actual DC motor due to the presence of brush segments, the armature current
enters into the pseudo stationary coil through one brush and the same current
leaves the pseudo stationary coil through other brush. As DC motor rotates,
the terminals of the same pseudo-stationary coil are formed with different set of
actual armature coil. In 1200 conduction mode VSI fed PMSM, the armature

25

Figure 3.11: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line
voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00
MMF phasor producing coil (at a time two phase coils are connected to form
the equivalent pseudo-stationary coil) set is changed as motor rotates due to the
presence of inverter. Other than this some extra advantages are also gained in
1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM. The main advantage of this is that, here as
soon as switch T 1 (Ref. Figure 4.14 starts conducting, the positive part of phaseA current will start building. Hence, if this start of conduction point of T 1 is
delayed or advanced, ia can be made to lead or lag the induced emf of phase A,
0 r cos(r ) . Thus the internal power factor (power factor w.r.t angle between
back emf and the corresponding phase current )of PMSM can be controlled directly
in 1200 conduction VSI configuration. The start of conduction point of T 1 can be
controlled by changings which is a constant of equation 1.8. In further analysis
it is shown that this s = sensor angle of 1200 conduction VSI fed of PMSM.
Analytically speaking this implies that, in this 1200 conduction VSI the angles
(Ref equation 1.8) which is the internal power factor angle (neglecting commutation
overlap), can be directly controlled, though it is a voltage source inverter. In effect
it can be seen that change on s can shift the space angle of armature MMF,
Ma (Ref.Figure 1.4). This is analogous to the space angle control of armature
MMF by brush shifting in conventional DC machine.

26

Figure 3.12: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line
voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

Figure 3.13: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00

27

Figure 3.14: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00

Figure 3.15: Conduction intervals for a particular phase for a particular


sensor lead angle s

28

Figure 3.16: Algorithm for simulating 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM

29

Figure 3.17: Conduction modes for PMSM drive (a) M ode1 with T 1T 2 pair,
(b) M ode2 with T 1T 2 pair, (c) M ode1 with T 3T 4 pair and (d) M ode2 with
T 3T 4 pair

30

Figure 3.18: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00

31

Figure 3.19: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase
voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00

32

Chapter 4
Development of an analytical
Averaged Dynamic Model of a
PMSM drive operated with a
1200 conduction self-controlled
inverter
4.1

Introduction

In the previous chapter Detailed numerical mode of the PMSM excited by a 1200
conduction self-controlled VSI has been developed. This model is more detailed as
each of 12 conduction modes are to device switchings is properly presented with
their guiding differential equations. But though detailed and more accurate, this
model is totally numerical in nature. Much physical insight inside the process is
not obtained with this model. Moreover the set differential equations itself changes
from one operating mode to another. Hence, if such an inverter controlled drive
is to be controlled for adjustable speed application, and the controller parameters
are to be ascertained, a transfer function and/ or state variable based linear timeinvariant model representing the inverter switched PMSM must be found out.
This necessitated the development of an analytical, state-space-based, averaged
dynamic model, which is discussed in this chapter [14, 15]. It is less accurate than
the detailed numerical model but much greater physical insight of the happening
phenomena is possible with this model. Additionally, if an adjustable speed drive
is planned, by varying the DC link voltage of the 1200 conduction inverter feeding
the PMSM with the help of a front-end controlled rectifier, then the overall drive
comprising of the controllers, the front-end rectifier, the inverter feeding the PMSM
can be analyzed mathematically and the controller gain settings can be analytically

33

determined.

4.2

Development of Averaged Dynamic Model

Now since the system is fed by a 1200 conduction VSI, the following assumptions
has been made for developing the averaged dynamic model:
1. Only fundamental component of armature current and the permanent magnet field MMF are responsible for producing average torque.
2. The dynamic value of the DC link current is assumed to be the cyclic average
of its DC component. The dynamic state is therefore modeled as a quasi
steady state, i.e. the DC link current is assumed to remain constant for one
electrical cycle of the armature current and change thereafter.
3. The armature current waveform is rectangular and therefore,

2 3
ilink = 1.103ilink
iapk =

(4.1)

where,iapk and ilink are peak of the fundamental armature current and dynamic value of the averaged DC link current respectively. This assumption
is done based on Fig. 4.1.
4. Due to self-control principle, the fundamental radian frequency of the armature current (r ) is locked with the mechanical speed (m ) of the motor,
i.e.
r = 0.5P m
(4.2)
, where P is the number of poles.
5. Inter-switching transient period (freewheeling period) is assumed small and
neglected.
6. Inverter losses are neglected.
7. Saturation and hysteresis effects are neglected.
8. PMSM armature is star connected and non-salient in nature.
Now, following these assumptions it can be written that:

ia = 1.103ilink cos(r t)

ib = 1.103ilink cos(r t 2/3)


ic = 1.103ilink cos(r t + 2/3)

(4.3)

It can be concluded that:


r = r t + r0

34

(4.4)

Figure 4.1: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and DC link
current at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load
Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00
Where, r0 = Value of electrical rotor position,r when ia attains its peak value.
Now, refereing to Fig. 3.15, it can be concluded that:
r0 = s

(4.5)

Now, as inverter is taken to be lossless it is well accepted that, input power to the
system is:
Poi = van ia + vbn ib + vcn ic = term1 + term2 + term3
(4.6)
Using equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 4.3 in equation 4.6, it can be found that:
term1 = ra (i2a + i2b + i2c ) = 1.82ra ilink

term2 = Ls (ia pia + ib pib + ic pic ) = 1.82Ls ilink pilink


2
2
)ib + 0 cos(r +
)ic
3
3
Now, using equations 4.4 and 4.3 in equation 4.9, it is obtained that:
term3 = 0 cos(r )ia + 0 cos(r

term3 = 1.6550 ilink cos(r0 )r

(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)

(4.10)

Using equations 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10, it can be obtained that:
2

Poi = 1.82ra ilink + 1.82Ls ilink pilink + 1.6550 ilink cos(r0 )r

35

(4.11)

Now considering inverter to be lossless, it can be noted that:


Poi = Vdc ilink

(4.12)

Comparing equation 4.11 and equation 4.12, it can be concluded that:


Vdc = 1.82ra ilink + 1.82Ls pilink + 1.6550 cos(r0 )r

(4.13)

So, the equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. 4.2: So, from Fig. 4.2, mechanical

Figure 4.2: Dynamic Equivalent circuit for PMSM


developed power:]
P
Pd = Te r = 1.6550 cos(r0 )( )m ilink
2
So, the electromagnetic torque is given by:
P
Te = 1.6550 cos(r0 )( )ilink
2
The torque-balance equation is given by:
2
2
Te = Jpm + TL = J( )pr + ( )f r + TL
P
P
So, the state-equations of this P M SM are given by:
pilink =

ra
0.90 cos(r0 )
0.55Vdc
ilink
r +
Ls
Ls
Ls

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

(4.17)

1 P 2
f
P TL
( ) 1.6550 cos(r0 )ilink r
(4.18)
J 2
J
2J
If equation 4.15 is closely scrutinized, it can be concluded that by changing sensor
angle, electromagnetic torque can be changed. This is similar to the process of
torque changing by brush shifting in a separately excited DC motor. The stateequations of the P M SM ( Equations 4.17 and 4.18) are found to be linear and
approximating the similarity of separately excited conventional DC machine with
constant excitation. The averaged dynamic model, thus poses the complex 1200
conduction inverter switched PMSM as a linear system.
pr =

36

4.3

Validation of the model with the help of


Detailed Numerical Model

In the previous chapter, the DetailedN umericalM odel is developed and validated.
If the previous chapter is noticed, it can be seen that the presence of all 12 complex conduction modes were validated. The detailed numerical model can predict
steady state as well as transient behavior of the PMSM drive under self controlled
1200 conduction mode. Now, equations 4.17 and 4.18, which are the equations of
the Averaged Dynamic Model, are solved numerically and the results are compared to that found from DetailedN umericalM odel under same dynamic conditions,viz same step voltage, same load torque condition as shown in Fig. 4.3, 4.4,
4.5 and 4.6.
It can be noted that plots obtained from dynamic average model have slightly
more value at steady state condition but in transient condition they are almost
same.The cause for this higher value is again hidden in Fig. 4.1. It is noted that
at commutating sections ia is more than ilink , but for simplicity, here it is taken
for granted that at those conditions also ilink is a replica of ia . This causes slightly
higher ilink value and consequently electromagnetic torque (DC component) is also
slightly higher causing the speed also to be slightly higher.

Figure 4.3: Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged


DC link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,
TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 35V olts
applied at t=0sec

37

Figure 4.4: Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged


DC link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,
TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 25V olts
applied at t=0sec

4.4

Experiments performed to obtain SpeedTorque characteristics of the test PMSM


fed with self-controlled 1200 conduction
inverter

Now the PMSM is started under the self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm
and subsequently it is loaded with mechanical load torque under different DC
Link voltage, Vdc and SPEED-TORQUE characteristics at different DC link voltage were found out. The speed torque characteristics are shown in Figure 4.7.
Now, if best fit curves are drawn from these characteristics, equations of those
characteristics will be as shown in 4.19, 4.20 and 4.21. In the equations, mechanical speed is expressed in Rad/Sec (m ) and Load Torque is expressed in Nm (TL )
For , VDC = 35V olts,
m = 14TL + 180
(4.19)
For , VDC = 30V olts,
m = 18TL + 160

(4.20)

m = 10TL + 120

(4.21)

For , VDC = 25V olts,


Now, if equations 4.17 and 4.18 are employed to find the MECHANICAL SPEED
-LOAD TORQUE characteristics (neglecting rotational losses and other losses),

38

Figure 4.5: Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged


mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,
TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 35V olts
applied at t=0sec
the equation of the characteristics is shown in equation 4.22.
m =

1.82ra
Vdc
TL +
P
2
(1.655 2 0 )
1.655 P2 0

(4.22)

Now, comparing equation 4.19, 4.20, 4.21 and 4.22, it can be calculated that:
0 = 0.0504wb m2 , ra = 0.2137ohm
If these parameters are compared with the measured (ref. chapter 2) it can be
concluded that the peak value of flux linkage of any phase due to permanent magnet
is almost same as that of the measured previously. But, the per phase resistance
found in the current chapter is nearly three times more than the measured value
at the previous chapter. This is not surprising, actually, during the determination
process of the speed-torque characteristics, motor parameter s that the inverter
will see are from the inverter terminals, and some electrical wires are connected
in between the motor phases and the inverter terminals. The PMSM armature
number is so small that resistance of wires seem comparable and even more. If
the proper length of the wire is taken into consideration the resistance found
is=ra (motorphase) + Rwire . The actual motor phase resistance, ra is so small
(as shown in previous chapter) that, the wire resistance, Rwire has eclipsed the
PMSMs armature resistance per phase.

39

Figure 4.6: Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged


mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,
TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 25V olts
applied at t=0sec

40

Figure 4.7: Experimental MECHANICAL SPEED (in Rad/Sec)-LOAD


TORQUE(in Nm) characteristics of the PMSM, at different DC link voltage
under self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm

41

Chapter 5
Study and simulation of
schemes for position sensorless
operation of a PMSM drive fed
from a 1200 conduction
self-controlled inverter
5.1

Introduction

Sensorless operation is an important aspect of electrical drives [17]. Shaft


mounted position and/ speed sensors form a weak mechanical link for the high
performance or high torque electrical drive. So, continuous efforts are going on
to implement a drive where position and/speed information can be obtained from
the terminal variables, such as terminal currents or terminal voltages. Now for
permanent magnet synchronous motor drive, SEN SORLESS operation means
position sensorless operation. Position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive of
described configuration ensures more ruggedness of the drive.

5.2

Description of the sensorless drive

The position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive calls for estimating the rotor
position of the motor from the terminal variables of the motor, such as motor
terminal voltages and terminal currents. Two such schemes have been described
here. In the first method a speed observer is utilized to estimate the speed of the
motor and that speed is utilized to integrate the position information of the motor.
In the second method the phase back emf of the motor is utilized to estimate the
rotor position of the motor.

42

5.2.1

Speed observer based position sensorless operation

Introduction:
Fig. 5.1 presents the schematic diagram of the speed observer based position
sensorless operation of the transistorized PMSM drive. The position estimator

Figure 5.1: Schematic diagram of speed observer based position sensorless


operation of the PMSM drive
here is essentially a full order Luenberger speed observer. The rotor position
of the drive is integrated from this estimated speed. The Averaged Dynamic
Model of the drive is taken as the linearized equations of the plant (PMSM drive).
The observer of the plant is designed on the basis of the poles of this averaged
dynamic model of the plant. As described, the states of the plant are Averaged
DC link current and electrical speed of the motor. The averaged dc link
current is taken as the output of the plant and electrical speed is taken as the
state to be estimated. Now, this estimated speed is integrated to get the electrical
rotor position of the drive.
Design of The Observer :
According to the Averaged Dynamic Model, the state equations are shown in
equations 4.17 and 4.18. Now, putting all the values of the parameter as shown
in the appendix for the laboratory prototype PMSM and using f = 0.022N m
sec/rad (full load value) and TL = 0N m, the state equations are coming out to

43

be:

pilink
pr

213 157.73
257.18 16.03

ilink
r

1788.62
0

Vdc

(5.1)

The output equations are:

1 0

y=

ilink
r

(5.2)

The observability matrix is as follows:

V =

C CA

C
CA

(5.3)

Where, A, C are the state matrices of the system. Putting values from equations
5.1 and 5.2, the determinant, det(V ) = 11.82 6= 0. So, it can be concluded that,
system (A,C) is fully observable.
Now, the eigenvalues of equation 5.1 are : 114.52 j175.69
The observer eigenvalues are chosen almost 10 times faster than that of the plant
eigenvalues, i.e. the observer eigenvalues are chosen at: -2000 and -3000.

So, the F ullOrderLuenberger observer matrix is coming out to be:

4771
37276

So, the observer equations are:

pid
link
cr
p

213 157.73
257.18 16.03

id
link
cr

1788.62
0

Vdc +

4771
37276

(yyb)
(5.4)

The output equations of the observer are:

yb =

1 0

id
link
cr

(5.5)

Where, the variables with hat are estimated value of the corresponding non-hatted
variables.
So, the equations implemented inside the block of Position Estimator as shown
in Fig. 5.1 are shown in equation 5.6:

cr + 1788.62Vdc + 4771ilink
pid = 4984id
link 157.73
link

d
cr 37276ilink
pr = 37533.18ilink 16.03

cr
pbr =

(5.6)

So, to implement this Position Sensorless operation, an F P GA or DSP


based environment is required for the P ositionEstimator, whose input will be the

44

Actual DC Link voltage and DC Link Current, and the position estimator will
calculate the estimated electrical rotor position by solving the equation 5.6 online
and will give the switching signals to the inverter assembly.
Simulation of the scheme:
The proposed observer-based implementation is simulated using a C code. The
algorithm of the simulation sequence is shown in Fig. 5.2. The difference in
this algorithm from that of shown in Fig. 3.16 is that, in sensorless scheme,
the position estimator equations (equation 5.6) are simultaneously solved with
equations of each mode and the control sequences are changed on the basis of the
estimated rotor position. The initial rotor position of the estimator is taken as 00
irrespective of the initial rotor position of the PMSM.
Simulation results of the scheme:
Three phase currents information of the PMSM are required for taking different
protection measures. So, at least two current sensors are required. An additional
current sensor is required for sensing the DC link current. But, it is assumed in
the averaged Dynamic Model(Fig. 4.1) that, the DC link current is the replica
of each phase current, when that current is positive (i.e. into the armature). So,
a new variable idc is introduced which is the instantaneous summation of all the
positive parts of the phase currents. This idc is fed inside the position estimator
instead the actual DC link current.
idc = ia Sa + ib Sb + ic Sc

(5.7)

where, Sx = 1, when ix > 0 and Sx = 0, when ix 0


The scheme is simulated using the algorithm shown in Fig. 5.2 and results are
shown in Fig. 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6.
Interpretation of the results:
The striking feature of this sensorless implementation is that the estimated rotor
position always leads the actual rotor position by about 300 electrical (Fig. 5.3) at
steady state. The effect of this is that, the phase back emf lags the phase current
by 300 electrical (Fig. 5.4) at steady state. It can be remembered that, the steady
state value of the speed obtained from detailed numerical model is a bit lesser
that that obtained from averaged dynamic model (Fig. 4.5 and 4.6). The speed
found from the speed observer is integrated to get the estimated rotor position. So,
theoretically the estimated rotor position should lead the actual rotor position and
the lead should go on increasing monotonically. But, the estimated rotor position
is used to change the switching modes of the PMSM affecting directly the variable,
idc and this idc is the state whose error is minimized in the process. Due to the
above mentioned reason the error between the actual rotor position and estimated

45

rotor position can not go beyond limit and stabilizes. It can also be noted that, if
initial position of the rotor is other than 00 , position estimator first reaches that
value and then speed build-up starts (Fig. 5.3, 5.6).
It can also be remembered that, inAveraged Dynamic mode the DC link current
is the cyclic average of the actual DC link current, but in the simulation, the
position estimator takes the raw DC link current along with all its ripples as
the input from the solution by Detailed Numerical Model. This phenomena is
reflected as the introduction of ripples in the estimated speed of the PMSM drive.
This is clear from the simulated result of the estimated speed (Fig. 5.6).

5.2.2

Back emf estimation based position sensorless


operation

Introduction:
Fig. 5.7 presents the schematic diagram of emf sensing based position sensorless
operation of the 1200 conduction inverter fed PMSM drive. If ideal rectangular
currents are assumed for 1200 conduction of the devices, then Fig. 3.18 3.19,
3.13 and 3.14 suggest that, for s = 00 , the peak of the armature phase current
fundamental and the corresponding phase induced emf coincides. This indicates
that if s = 300 lead is maintained, the positive zero crossing of the induced emf
and the positive going edge of the rectangular armature current of a particular
phase coincide. Therefore it can be concluded that, whenever the induced emf of
a particular phase crosses zero, no current was flowing through that phase for the
past electrical 600 (as it is coming in conduction). At those instants, the terminal
voltage of that phase is same as its induced emf i.e. zero crossing of a terminal
voltage of a phase is same as that of the induced emf of that phase. This relation
is utilized for implementing the sensorless operation [18]. A zero crossing detector
(ZCD) signals for each phase will be derived from the phase currents and phase
voltages information. Each of this signals is a zero crossing detecting signal of the
corresponding phase back emf, i.e. for each phase, the ZCD signal is high when
back emf if 0 and ZCD signal is low when back emf if < 0. From these three
ZCD signals, six switching signals for six IGBT will derived for sensor lead angle,
s = 300 .
The difficulty in implementing such a scheme is the presence of commutation
spikes, which arise at the instant of switching after every 600 interval. So, zero
crossing detectors can not be very easily employed for detecting the zero crossing
of the phase back emf by detecting the zero crossing of the phase voltage. So,
some special additional techniques are used here to detect the zero crossing of the
back emf satisfactorily.
Strategy and simulation of the scheme:

46

Some boolean variables are introduced : pa , pb and pc . The status of these variables are changed when ia = 0, ib = 0 and ic = 0 respectively. Otherwise, their
values are not changed, their old values are retained. Now, if van 0, pa = 1
else pa = 0. This is applicable for other two phases also. These pa , pb and pc are
three ZCD signals of back emf, i.e. pa = 1 when phase-A back emf if 0 and
pa = 0 when phase-A back emf if < 0. The same is applicable for other two phases
also. Before starting the PMSM in this sensorless scheme, IGBT, T5 and IGBT, T6
will be initially switched, so the PMSM rotor will assume r = 00 position. Now,
boolean variables are given an initial value corresponding to the r = 00 position,
i.e. pa = 1, pb = 0 and pc = 0. Now, the PMSM is ready to start in this sensorless
scheme. The logic is formed in such a ways that at the advent of pa =1, pb =0 and
pc =0 edge, IGBT T2 will be switched on and subsequently other switches will be
made on /off depending on the status of ZCD signals.
The simulation results of this sensorless scheme are shown in Fig. 5.9, 5.10, 5.11,
5.12, 5.13 and 5.14.
Interpretation of results:
Fig. 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11 reflect that, the ZCD signals are exact substitutes of the
Hall position sensor output. These ZCD signals are also mutually 1200 electrical
apart. The speed buildup process is also very smooth as shown in Fig. 5.12. As
shown in Fig. 5.14, it can be noticed that, the fundamental component of armature
current is leading the corresponding phase back emf by 300 electrical.

47

Figure 5.2: Algorithm for simulating the observer based position sensorless
operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive

48

Figure 5.3: Simulated waveforms actual rotor position and estimated rotor position of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =
48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

Figure 5.4: Simulated waveforms of phase-a current and corresponding


phase voltage of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =
48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

49

Figure 5.5: Simulated waveforms actual replica of DC link current and estimated DC link current of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation,
at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

Figure 5.6: Simulated actual mechanical speed and estimated mechanical


speed of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,
f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

50

Figure 5.7: Schematic diagram of back emf estimation based position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive

51

Figure 5.8: Algorithm for simulating the back emf estimation based position
sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive

52

Figure 5.9: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-A back emf and phase-A
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation
from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the
application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

Figure 5.10: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-B back emf and phase-B
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation
from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N mwith the
application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

53

Figure 5.11: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-C back emf and phase-C
ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation,
at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link
voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

Figure 5.12: Simulated mechanical speed of PMSM from starting till steady
state under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,
f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m
54

Figure 5.13: Simulated DC link current of PMSM from starting till steady
state under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,
f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

55

Figure 5.14: Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A current and phaseA voltage of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation,
at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

56

Chapter 6
Study of FIELD ORIENTED
CONTROL of PMSM drive
6.1

Introduction

It is discussed in the previous chapters that how a PMSM drive can be used as
a variable speed drive. Researches are going[19, 8] on how to create an Electronically Commutated DC Motor, whose brush shifting effect can be easily achieved
only by changing the stator current command in the controller and the flux can
be easily controlled in magnitude and space angle. To be brief, by this sort of
control essentially the SPATIAL ANGLE of the machine is controlled. The SPATIAL ANGLE is actually the angle between FIELD FLUX and the ARMATURE
MMF.For FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL, the SPATIAL ANGLE is controlled
to the value of 900 . If SPATIAL ANGLE is controlled to some value other than
900 , it is called SPACE ANGLE CONTROL.

6.2

Understanding the Field Orientation of


PMSM

To understand the field orientation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor,


the basic dynamic equations of a wound field synchronous motor are to be studied.
To describe the equations of the wound field synchronous motor, all the equations
will be referred to stator and equations will be written in a rotating reference frame
fixed to the rotor, as shown in Fig. 6.1. In the process of framing equations it is
assumed that armature is kept at stator and field is kept at rotor. The synchronous
motor is assumed to have DC field and d-axis damper as well as q-axis damper.
From this generalized Synchronous motor theory the theory of vector control of a
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is derived subsequently. The
d and q axis equivalent circuits of the wound field synchronous motor in the

57

Figure 6.1: Fixed stator windings magnetic axis and rotating rotor windings
magnetic axis with rotor axis are rotating at electrical speed, r
rotor reference frame are shown in Figure 6.2 and 6.3[6].
The respective voltage equations are shown in equations 6.1. It is assumed
that rotor dampers are short circuited. All the primed quantities are taken to be
referred to stator.

vqs = rs iqs + pqs + r ds


v = r i + p
ds
s ds
r qs
ds
(6.1)
0

0 i0 + p 0 = 0
vqr = rqr

qr
qr
0 = r 0 i0 + p 0 = 0
vdr
dr dr
dr
Equation set 6.2 is showing the flux linkage equations of q-axis Stator, d-axis
Stator, q-axis damper, d-axis damper and main field winding (in d axis) starting from the top.

qs = Lqs iqs + Lmq i0qr

ds = Lds ids + Lmd (i0 + i0 )

dr
fr

0
0
0
(6.2)

qr = Lmq iqs + Lqr iqr

0
dr = Lmd ids + L0dr i0dr + Lmd i0f r
f0 r = Lmd ids + Lmd i0dr + L0f r i0f r
Where, Lls =Leakage Inductance of the stator

58

Figure 6.2: d-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor
rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame
L0lr =Leakage Inductance of the rotor referred to stator
L0dr =Self Inductance of d-axis damper referred to stator
L0qr =Self Inductance of q-axis damper referred to stator
L0f r =Self Inductance of main field referred to stator
Lmd =d-axis Magnetizing Inductance
Lmq =q-axis Magnetizing Inductance
Lqs = Lls + Lmq =Self Inductance of q-axis stator
Lds = Lls + Lmd =Self Inductance of q-axis stator
rs =Per phase stator resistance
0 = r 0 =Per phase rotor resistance referred to stator
rr0 = rqr
dr

59

Figure 6.3: q-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor
rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame
The respective instantaneous electromagnetic torque equation is expressed in
equation 6.3.
3 P
(6.3)
Te = . (ds iqs qs ids )
2 2
Where P is number of poles of the motor. If equations 6.2, 6.1 and 6.3 are observed
closely, the torque production process can be expressed in a block diagram as shown
in Figure 6.4. The block diagram is clearly reflecting the coupling between the d
axis and q axis flux linkages and currents. Significant effect of induced currents
can also be seen in the generated torque. In brief it can be stated that a change in
either component of stator current, ids or iqs will induce rotor damper currents i0dr
or i0qr creating a lag in the torque response. Now if it can be ensured that ids = 0
for all operating conditions then the torque production block will change as shown
in Fig. 6.5. A change in iqs will induce transient q-axis component of damper
current, but torque will be unaffected provided ids remains zero. This ids is
measured with respect to synchronously rotating reference frame, so maintaining
ids = 0 inherently calls for flux (field) position information i.e. r as shown in
Fig. 6.1. Instantaneous torque is now directly proportional to iqs and ds as
in dc-machine with brushes in mechanical neutral position. So, modified torque
equation is shown in Fig. 6.4.
3 P
Te = . Lmd (i0dr + i0f r )iqs
2 2

(6.4)

So, SPATIAL ANGLE =900 is obtained with this ids = 0 operation. This is
called true FIELD ORIENTATION condition. Now, if main field current (i0f r )
of the synchronous motor is kept constant, the direct axis damper current (i0dr )
will also be constant and instantaneous torque will be directly proportional to
iqs . This effect can be gained from a synchronous motor if the rotor is made of

60

Figure 6.4: Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor
a permanent magnet having no dampers. Now the instantaneous torque equation
will be changed as shown in Fig.6.5.
3 P
Te = . 0 iqs
2 2

(6.5)

Where 0 is maximum flux linkage of any of the armature phases due to permanent
magnet rotor.
If Field Orientation process is looked into more deeply, the steady state time-space
phasor of the motor under this true Vector Control can be viewed as shown in Fig.
6.6. Where Vs andIs are the terminal voltage and terminal current of the PMSM
at steady state.
It can be concluded from Fig.6.6 that under true vector control the motor operates
under lagging terminal power factor.

6.3
6.3.1

Simulation studies of different FIELD ORIENTATION processes


Introduction

This section deals with the simulation studies of different Field Orientation processes of a PMSM excited by a voltage source inverter. First of all the current
control method of each of these processes are studied. Next Position Sensorless

61

Figure 6.5: Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor at ids = 0
Operation of Field Orientation is studied[20].Then speed control method is discussed [8]. As it can be explained that the speed control is done by adjusting the
q-axis component of stator current in rotor reference frame.

6.3.2

Different Vector Control strategies

True Vector Control calls for the the process so that, the d -axis component of
the stator current in rotor reference frame is zero. This has been ensured in this
work in two different ways. The most easy way is to implement this process with
a HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR and the second is to implement this with the
help of a SINE PWM INVERTER.

6.3.3

Simulation of current control loop of vector control by hysteresis comparator

In this scheme the current is controlled with the help of a hysteresis comparator. The scheme is simulated totally in the MATLAB-SIMULINK environment.
The block diagram of the current control scheme is shown in Fig. 6.7. If Fig.
6.7 is concerned it can be seen that iq is given a finite reference value and id is
given a reference value zero. This current references are given to a TWO PHASE
TO THREE PHASE TRANSFORMATION BLOCK , where with the information electrical rotor position instantaneous phase current references are calculated

62

Figure 6.6: Steady State phasor diagram of the PMSM under true vector
control (neglecting stator resistance rs )
and these phase current references are passed to the input of the HYSTERESIS
PWM INVERTER block. The details of the block is shown in Fig. 6.8. It can
also be noted from this inverter block is that the DC LINK Voltage is taken as
Vdc =48Volts. It can be seen in the Inverter Block that, three hysteresis comparator
are used to generate the switching signals of each phase of the two-level inverter.
The logic inside the hysteresis is such that, say for phase A, when (ia ia ) > ,
upper switch of Ph-A of a two level inverter is switched on. When (ia ia ) < ,
lower switch of Ph-A of inverter is switched on. The equations that are realized
in the Inverter block are shown below:
van = Vdc 2Sa (S3 b +Sc )
vbn = Vdc 2Sb (S3c +Sa )
vcn = Vdc 2Sc (S3 a +Sb )

(6.6)

Where, Sa , Sb and Sc are the switching functions of the phase a, b and c respectively. So, the variable k, as shown in Figure 6.8, has a value of 13 .
Here, ia is instantaneous reference value of phase-A current, ia is actual instantaneous value of phase-A current and is the tolerance value within which actual
phase current can deviate from phase current reference. The same logic is followed
in other two phases also. Now, the phase voltages are fed to Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor block. The details of this block is shown in Fig. 6.9. The
speciality of this PMSM block is that, in this block three phase a-b-c frame equations of the cylindrical rotor PMSM are implemented. Next the PMSM is tuned
with the values of parameters of the existing lab-prototype PMSM, as shown in
appendix. In the torque generating function, instantaneous q-axis component of

63

Figure 6.7: Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL by HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR

Figure 6.8: Internal structure of HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR controlled


Inverter
actual simulated value of each phase current is calculated and added with the help
of electrical rotor position as shown in Fig. 6.9.

64

Figure 6.9: Internal structure of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


It can be seen from Fig.6.10 and 6.11 that, mean value of both direct and
quadrature axis currents are following the reference values right from the startup.
It can also be noted that both the currents have ripples of the span dictated by
the tolerance value of the hysteresis comparator. Fig. 6.12 is verifying the fact
that phase-A back emf and phase-A current are in phase right from startup. This
is the verification of true vector control. Generation of electromagnetic torque and
speed build up are shown in Fig. 6.14 and 6.13 respectively.
It can be concluded from the simulated results that hysteresis controller is a very
rugged controller. But, the main disadvantage of this controller is that, if the
hysteresis band width is too small, then, to track the actual phase current the
switching frequency of the phase switches may go much beyond the switching
frequency limit, which may be detrimental for the IGBTs of the two-level inverter.

65

Figure 6.10: Simulated transient waveforms (zooming the transient) of qAxis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the
PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode
with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

6.3.4

Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Voltage Source
Inverter

If equation 6.2 for a wound field synchronous motor are modified for the Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor the equations will change its form to equation 6.7.

qs = Lqs iqs
ds = 0 + Lds ids

(6.7)

Now the stator voltage equations for a PMSM are shown in equations 6.8.

vqs = rs iqs + Lqs piqs + r 0 + r Lds ids


vds = rs ids + Lds pids r Lqs iqs

66

(6.8)

Figure 6.11: Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link
Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
The basic process of using SPWM inverter to make ids = 0 is to maintain equation
6.9.
vds = r Lqs iqs
(6.9)
It can be seen from equation 6.8 that, maintaining equation 6.9 will ensure ids = 0
right from startup. The value of iqs is controlled by controlling the voltage value
vqs . The block diagram for this scheme is shown in Fig. 6.15.

67

Figure 6.12: Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps)


and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control
with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm
It can be noted in Fig.6.15 that, the difference between iqs (iqs reference) and
.
actual iqs is fed to the input of a Proportional-Integral controller to generate vqs
The block Sine Inverter in Fig. 6.15 is essentially a two phase to three phase
transformation block, where with the help of electrical rotor position information,
three phase stator reference voltages are generated that will ensure proper value
of stator current vector. Inside SINE PWM Inverter block actually these three
phase stator reference voltages are normalized to use as the control signals of the
sine PWM inverter. In the same block the SPWM inverter is also realized. The
details of this SINE PWM Inverter is shown in Fig. 6.16. The frequency of the
triangular waves are taken to be 10KHz. So, the switching frequency of the SINE
PWM inverter will be 10KHz.

68

Figure 6.13: Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in


Rad/Sec) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in
current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
The design of Current PI controller is done based on certain considerations.
The current loop is much faster that mechanical time constant (i.e. mechanical
inertia,J is assumed to be large). This assumption will turn the q axis loop to
its simplified form as shown in Fig.6.17 [6].

69

Figure 6.14: Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic


torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller
in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
Refereing to Fig. 6.17, the following guide lines are followed to design the
current controller:
Try to cancel the armature circuit pole with PI controller zero.
Kii
Kii
Mathematically, (s + K
) = (s + Lrsq ). i.e. K
= Lrsq .
pi
pi
The Bandwidth of the current loop is taken to be 1KHz, almost
switching frequency of the PWM VSI.
Lq
1
So, Kpi
= 21000

1
10 th

of the

Following the rules, the parameters of the Current PI controller of the PMSM
under test are found to be: Kpi = 1.9321 and Kii = 411.5530.

70

Figure 6.15: Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER
The system is simulated and the results are noted. It can be seen from Fig.6.18
and 6.19 that, mean value both direct and quadrature axis currents are following
the reference values. The speciality of this SPWM VSI fed vector control is that,
the mean value of the quadrature axis stator current is reaching its reference value
after some finite delay unlike the Hysteresis Comparator fed Vector control as can
be seen from Fig. 6.18. But, the mean value of the direct axis stator current is zero
right from the startup. Fig. 6.20 is verifying the fact that phase-A back emf and
phase-A current are in phase almost right from startup. This is the verification of
true vector control. Generation of electromagnetic torque and speed build up are
shown in Fig. 6.21 and 6.22 respectively.
If pair of figures Fig. 6.11, 6.19 and Fig. 6.12, 6.20 are compared then it can be
concluded that the harmonics content of the phase current of the machine fed from
Sine PWM inverter is much higher. But, the switching frequency of the IGBTs
of the Sine PWM inverter is fixed to the frequency of the triangular wave used
for the PWM. One very interesting result with respect to Sine PWM Inverter fed
Vector Controlled PMSM is that, as mechanical speed is increasing the ripple span
is also increasing in currents. This is happening due to the shifting of harmonics
content towards high frequency range as the speed of the machine is increasing.

71

Figure 6.16: Internal structure of SPWM Inverter

6.3.5

Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of POSITION SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by


SINE PWM Inverter

If true vector control operation is concerned, it can be noticed that throughout


the operation of PMSM d-axis stator current in rotor reference frame is forced
to be zero. So, q-axis stator voltage equation in rotor reference frame is shown
in equation 6.10.
diqs
+ r 0
(6.10)
vqs = rs iqs + Lq
dt
Equating generated electromagnetic torque and load torque the torque-balance
equation is:
P
2 dr
2
1.5 0 iqs = J
+ f r + TL
(6.11)
2
P dt
P
So, the total state-space equation of the vector-controlled PMSM can be written
as shown in equation 6.12.

0
piqs = Lrss L
r + Lqss
s
pr = 1.5 J1 ( P2 )2 0 iqs Jf r

(6.12)

P
2J TL

If equation 6.12 is seen from a linear time-invariant second


order system point of

!
rs
view, it can be concluded that, the state matrix is x =
, input matrix is u =
Ls

vqs
TL

, A =

213 173.33
233.09 1.166

, B =

72

3252
0
0
1457.7

, C =

1 0

Figure 6.17: Simplified structure of q-axis stator winding for the design of
current PI controller
and D = 0. Now, the state equations refereed are equations 6.13.

x = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du

(6.13)

The numerical values of the matrices can be found by placing numerical values
of the parameters of the PMSM under test as given in the appendix. It can also
be noticed that the system described by equation 6.12is observable. Now, if a
LUENBERGER OBSERVERis designed so that the value of electrical speed,
r can be continuously observed (estimated) by minimizing the error between
actual iqs and estimated iqs , i.e ic
qs . By integrating this estimated electrical speed,
cr , the electrical rotor position, r can be estimated (ref. Fig. 6.1). So, the use

of rotor position sensors can be eliminated. This can be referred as POSITION


SENSORLESS OPERATION OF VECTOR CONTROL OF PMSM DRIVE. The
block diagram of position sensorless vector control can be shown in Figure 6.23.
Assuming the poles of the observer are 10times faster than system poles, the
equation of the observer are shown in equation 6.14.

c
cr + 4786iqs + 3252vqs
pic
qs = 4999iqs 173.33

c
c
c
p

=
34582
i

1.166

r
qs
r 34349iqs 1457.7TL
cr
pbr =

(6.14)

These equation 6.14 are implemented inside the block OBSERVER. The inside
of this observer block can be seen at the Figure 6.24. If Fig. 6.23 is noticed
closely, it can be seen that the actual iq is calculated with measured value of three
phase stator currents and with the estimated electrical rotor position, br . So, to

73

Figure 6.18: Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of qAxis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the
PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode
with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
start the machine in this method, the electrical rotor position has to be taken to
zero value. Since the observer is trained with initially zero electrical rotor position
value. In a previous section, one method is described to align the rotor to electrical
zero position. Now, this method is simulated and the actual and estimated q-axis
value of stator current is shown in Fig.6.25 and 6.26. It can be noted that the mean
value of the actual q axis stator current and the estimated q axis stator current
are same right from the start up. The true vector control operation is seen from
the phase current and phase back emf plot as shown in Figure 6.27 The comparison
of actual rotor position and estimated rotor position can be seen in Figure 6.28.
The result is as expected to be in mathematical relation, i.e. as the number of
poles of the PMSM is 4, the actual mechanical rotor position is exactly half of
the estimated electrical rotor position. The generated electromagnetic torque and
actual mechanical speed wave forms are shown in Figure 6.29 and 6.30 respectively.
The interesting feature of this sensorless vector control is that, here the actual
value of the q and d axis stator currents are calculated with estimated electrical
rotor position as shown in Fig. 6.23. But, as the estimated rotor position has
been merged with the actual rotor position (as shown in Fig. 6.28), the sensorless
process can be stated to be successful.

74

Figure 6.19: Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link
Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

6.3.6

Simulation of SPEED CONTROL of PMSM by


VECTOR CONTROL with SINE PWM Inverter

In the previous parts of this section, it is discussed that how the PMSM can operate
as a motor whose direct and quadrature axis stator currents in synchronously rotating reference frame can be controlled independently. In short, by these methods
PMSM can operate as current fed machine, where the magnitude and phase angle
of the current can be independently controlled. In this part it will be discussed
that how the speed can be controlled in such a machine with true vector control in
operation. Actually, in such a method, the quadrature axis stator current reference
is generated from the output of the speed Proportional Integral controller. The
input of this sped PI controller will be the difference of mechanical speed reference
and actual mechanical speed reference. The block diagram of the scheme is given
in Fig. 6.31. Now, during the design process of the speed proportional-integral
controller, it is assumed that current loop is very fast with respect to speed loop
and as soon as one current reference is generated, immediately after that the actual stator currents follow that reference value. So, in the process of vector control
the mechanical loop of the PMSM can be approximated as shown in figure 6.32.
So the open loop transfer function of the system shown in Figure 6.32 is shown in

75

Figure 6.20: Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps)


and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control
with Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm
equation 6.15.

sKp + Ki 3 P
1
. . .0 .
(6.15)
s
2 2
Js
Where, Kp and Ki are the parameters of the speed proportional integral controller. Equation 6.15 can be further modified to equation 6.16.
GOL (s) =

GOL (s) =

1 + s
Ka
s2

(6.16)

Where, = Kp
and Ka = 32 . P2 .0 . KJi
i
So, the close loop transfer function of the system shown in figure 6.32 is given in
equation 6.17.
(1 + s )Ka
GCL (s) = 2
(6.17)
s + sKa + Ka

76

Figure 6.21: Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic


torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter
in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
If equation 6.17 is written in pole zero form the equation 6.17 will be changed to
equation 6.18.
(s + 1 )Ka
GCL (s) =
(6.18)
s(s + 1 ) + s(Ka 1 ) + Ka
If it can be maintained that 2 Ka 1, then it can be approximated that
1

Further more it can be written that,

Ka
Ka 1

Ka
Ka 2 1

= 1 .

By using this approximation, the close loop transfer function can be further modified to the equation shown in Fig. 6.19.
GCL (s) =

(s + 1 )Ka
(s + Ka 1 )(s + 1 )

(6.19)

Now, pole-zero cancelation is possible. The only pole of denominator can be set
in such a way that the time-constant produces a close loop Bandwidth of 100Hz

77

Figure 6.22: Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in


Rad/Sec) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in
current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm
(10 time slower than current loop). So, the constraints to get the parameters of
the speed controller are shown in equation 6.20.
(Ka 1 ) = 2 100
2 Ka = 1000

(6.20)

By solving equations 6.20, the parameters of the speed controller can be found
out.
For the PMSM under test if the electrical and mechanical parameters are placed
properly, the parameters of the speed PI will come out to be Kpw = 5.43 and
Kiw = 3.44. Now the system shown in figure 6.31 is simulated with a step change
in mechanical speed reference 200rad/sec at t = 0Sec and the passive load torque
is changed from 0.56N m to 3N m at t = 0.5Sec. The mechanical speed and
electromagnetic torque are shown in figure 6.33. The transient and steady state
waveforms of the phase voltages are shown in figure 6.34 and 6.35 respectively. If
Figure 6.34 is viewed closely, it can be seen that in the starting parts (near about

78

Figure 6.23: Block diagram of current control method of POSITION SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER
t ' 0.1Sec) of the phase voltage waveform, there is no trace of modulation and
the shape has become like simple 1800 conduction inverter output phase voltage.
This is due to the fact that, at those time durations (near about t ' 0.1Sec)
the control signals of the SPWM was such that it was operating in the strong
overmodulation range of the Sine PWM inverter. Hence operation in those instants were highly non-linear due to over modulation and the limiter present in
the speed PI controller. The same non-linear phenomenas are also reflected in the
mechanical speed and generated EM torque waveforms in figure 6.33. Now, the
phase current and corresponding phase-back emf waveforms are shown in figure
6.36. The fact that is reflected from the figure 6.36 is that, the phase current and
corresponding phase back emf are in same phase. This ensures true vector control
operation of the PMSM.

79

Figure 6.24: Inside diagram of the block OBSERVER as mentioned in


Fig.6.23

80

Figure 6.25: Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of qaxis actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference
frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm

81

Figure 6.26: Simulated transient waveforms of q-axis actual and estimated


currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under
position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in
current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

82

Figure 6.27: Simulated steady state waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps)


and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under position sensorless
operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode
with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

83

Figure 6.28: Simulated steady state waveforms of actual mechanical rotor position (thm in Rad) and estimated electrical rotor position(the in
Rad) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm

84

Figure 6.29: Simulated transient waveform of actual electromagnetic torque


(Nm) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm

85

Figure 6.30: Simulated transient waveform of actual mechanical speed


(Rad/sec) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control
with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load
torque, TL =0.56Nm

86

Figure 6.31: Block diagram of speed control method of in a Vector Controlled


PMSM

Figure 6.32: Simplified structure of mechanical loop of PMSM under true


vector control for the design of speed PI controller

87

Figure 6.33: Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical speed (in Rad/sec)


and electromagnetic torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control
with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage,
Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load
torque is changed from TL = 0.56N m to TL = 3N m at time, t = 0.5Sec.

88

Figure 6.34: Simulated transient waveform of phase-A voltage (in Volts)


of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed
control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m

89

Figure 6.35: Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A voltage (in


Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in
speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping
friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 3N m

90

Figure 6.36: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase-A current (in Amps)
and phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine
PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,
viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL =
3N m

91

Chapter 7
Advanced aspects related to
real time simulation and
implementation of aspects of
PMSM drive on FPGA
platform
7.1

Introduction

In one of the previous chapters, FPGA is already introduced to run the PMSM
drive under self-controlled 1200 conduction mode. But, in that chapter only some
simple logics (say NOT, OR, AND etc.) are implemented to found out the switching signals of the IGBTs of the Inverter from the hall position sensors outputs.
But, the real power of the FPGA can be realized in the processes where, online
solving of differential equations, online calculations of complex functions (say realization of trigonometric functions) etc. are done. To tackle this high computation
burden high memory support as well as high digital word support are essential.
FPGA gives a perfect environment for this. In this sections these aspects of FPGA
will be discussed. The FPGA used in this project is an ALTERA Cyclone chip,
named EP 1C12Q240C8 with version 0 interfacing board.

92

7.2
7.2.1

Real time simulation of RLC circuit and


implementation of OBSERVER in FPGA
Introduction

In the current section the real-time simulation of the RLC circuit is done. The
differential equations are perunitized so that normalized state-variables are solved
through the programming in FPGA. In the last part of the section, the POSITION
OBSERVER is realized in FPGA to run the PMSM under self-controlled 1200
conduction mode.

7.2.2

Simulating an RLC Circuit

Implementation method
The differential equations of a series RLC circuit are as shown in equations 7.1
and 7.2.
Vg = Ri + Lpi + vc
(7.1)
i = Cpvc

(7.2)

Where, Vg , R, L, C, i and vc are the applied voltage, series resistance, series inductance, series capacitance, the circuit current and capacitor voltages respectively.
Equations 7.1 and 7.2 are a pair of first-order linear differential equations that
can be solved using any of the numerical solution method. The equations are first
normalized with the help of arbitrary values Vb , Rb , where Ib = Vb /Rb .
R i
L i
vc
Vg
=
+
p +
Vb
Rb Ib Rb Ib Vb

(7.3)

i
vc
= CRb p
Ib
Vb

(7.4)

With the following abbreviations, Vgb = Vg , Iib = i ,


CRb = CR , a nondimentsional equation results:

LR pi
CR pvc

R 1
1
0

i
vc

R
Rb

= R ,

1
0

vc
Vb

= vc ,

L
Rb

= LR ,

Vg

(7.5)

Say, the parameters of the circuit are: Vg = 100V , R = 10, L = 20mH, C = 4uF
So, the base values of the quantities are shown below:
Voltage(Vb )
100V
Current(Ib )
10A
Rb
100/10 = 10
LR
2e3
CR
40e6
Step time(dT )
25.6us

93

The p.u. (per unit) values chosen are shown below and the negative value are
taken as the ones complement of its corresponding positive value.
pu value Equivalent digital Value Equivalent decimal value
2pu
7F F Fh
32767d
1pu
3F F Fh
16383d
0pu
000h
0d
-1pu
C000h
49152d
-2pu
8000h
32768d

FPGA design files


The equation 7.5 are implemented in FPGA platform under different conditions
as shown in Fig. 7.1 and 7.2

Figure 7.1: FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RLC circuit using
Eulers Integration method
Results
Different variables of the R-L circuit are shown in Fig. 7.3 and different variables
of the R-L-C circuit are shown in Fig. 7.4. The results of the variables are fed to

94

Figure 7.2: FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RL circuit Eulers
Integration method
DAC and seen in the oscilloscope as shown in Fig.7.4 and 7.3:

7.2.3

Implementation of the Observer of PMSM

Implementation Method
If the equations 5.6 are rearranged it can be obtained:

d
cr + Vdc + 2.7ilink
0.0006pid
link = 2.7ilink 0.1

d
cr = ilink 0.0004
cr ilink
0.00003p

cr
pbr =

(7.6)

In parameter form equation 7.6 can be written as:

d
cr + Vdc + cilink
mpid
link = ailink b

d
cr = ilink d
cr ilink

np
b
cr
ypr =

95

(7.7)

Figure 7.3: Transient waveforms of per unit circuit current and per unit input
applied voltage for a R-L circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH for a step voltage
of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec
Where, a, b, c, d, m, n and y are the parameters of the differential equations which
are to be per-unitized in order to implement in FPGA.
Different base values that chosen are shown below:

96

Figure 7.4: Transient waveforms of per unit capacitor voltage and per unit
input applied voltage for a R-L-C circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH,C = 4uF
for a step voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec
cr b

d
i

415Rad/s

Vdcb

20Amps
48V olts

c
rb

link b

Vdcb

ab

id
link b

=2.4

bb

Vdcb
=0.1
br

cb

ab =2.4

1 =

m
ab

0.0002sec

2 =

n
db

0.0006sec

3 = by
rb

0.015sec

r
b

dt
25.6us
The pu values chosen are shown below and the negative value are taken as the
ones complement of its corresponding positive value.

97

pu value Equivalent digital Value Equivalent decimal value


2pu
7F F Fh
32767d
1pu
3F F Fh
16383d
0pu
000h
0d
-1pu
C000h
49152d
-2pu
8000h
32768d
So, totally per-unitized equations which are non-dimensional are shown in equation
7.8

d
d c
+ 1.1i
0.0002pilink
= 1.1ilink
r + Vdc
link

(7.8)
c
c
0.0006p = ilink 0.008 i

c
0.015pcr =
r

link

Equation 7.8 can be easily implemented in FPGA plat form.

FPGA design files


The program to implement equation 7.8 are shown in Fig 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9 and
7.10.

Figure 7.5: FPGA design file showing clock and ADC outputs for observer
implementation for observer based sensorless operation

7.3

7.3.1

Towards the real-time implementation of


VECTOR CONTROL WITH SINE PWM
INVERTER of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in FPGA environment
Introduction

It is easily understood from the simulation results of the Vector Control process
that to implement this, continuous monitoring of the electrical rotor position is required. But, previously all the experiments are done with the help of three position

98

Figure 7.6: FPGA design file showing Eulers method to solve variables to
be estimated for observer based sensorless operation
hall sensors. With the help of three hall sensors, continuous monitoring of electrical
rotor position with good resolution is not possible. So, one incrementalencoder
giving 2500puls/mechanicalrevolution is installed with the shaft of PMSM drive.
This encoder gives very high resolution in the measurement of electrical rotor position. In the subsequent section experimental waveforms of different experiments
are presented. Those experiments are dedicated to the development of different
modules, that are required in Vector Control, in EP1C12Q240C8, CYCLONE,
FPGA environment. In the first section to get the feel of the encoder, some known
programs are rewritten and it is assumed that hall sensors are not there and the
same program is executed with single encoder signal.

99

Figure 7.7: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the DC link
current for observer based sensorless operation

Figure 7.8: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical
speed for observer based sensorless operation

7.3.2

Finding the performance of the encoder in running the PMSM in 1200 conduction algorithm under self control

Programme structure in FPGA


The encoder is coupled with the shaft of the PMSM. This encoder is an incremental encoder. Hence, this encoder can find the incremental change in electrical rotor
position once the motor is running. If motor is at rest, encoder can not give any
output. So, first of all the PMSM is started with some other algorithm and when
electrical rotor position zero degree is ensured, FPGA switches to encoder based
algorithm. The programme structure is shown in typically five segments. All the
segments are the parts of the same FPGA programme.
The digital inputs that are taken inside FPGA are hall sensor outputs, encoder
output, one changeover (active low) signal, system clock and the outputs of the
programme are six switching signals as shown in Figure 7.11. The relative phase

100

Figure 7.9: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical
rotor position for observer based sensorless operation

Figure 7.10: FPGA design file showing equation method to generate switching signals for observer based sensorless operation
relations of these hall sensor outputs with respective phase induced emfs are shown
in Figure 3.3. Two sets of switching signals arrays are generated. Those two sets
of arrays are mutually ORed to get the actual switching signals as shown in Figure
7.12. First array of switching signals (i.e. T[6..1]) are generated from the 1200 algorithm with the three hall sensor outputs. Second array of switching signals (i.e.
T/[6..1])are generated from the 1200 algorithm with the encoder output. When
one array will be giving the switching signals other array will be giving zero depending on which mode is selected.
Figure 7.13 is showing the traditional FPGA program to run the PMSM in self
controlled 1200 conduction algorithm. The same program is discussed in Chapter
3. The only difference that is undertaken in the program of the current chapter is
that, here, hall sensor outputs are directly inputted into FPGA and the glitches
of the hall sensor outputs are taken care of in the FPGA itself by passing those
three signals through a D F lipF lop unlike the program of chapter 3, where these
glitches are eliminated by an external 555 timer based SMITH TRIGGER circuit.
Now, all the inputs are given to FPGA except the changeover-signal as shown

101

Figure 7.11: FPGA design files showing the digital inputs and outputs for
the program to evaluate the performance of the encoder
in Figure 7.11, which is made floating. So, change signal, as shown in Figure
7.14, will be low. Hence D-FilpFlop bldc-dff3 will be disabled and subsequently
over will be low and notover will be high as shown in Figure 7.14. So, switching
signals coming from the hall sensor program will be active and this will start and
run the PMSM.
After PMSM is started, changeover-signal is given low externally. Now, if the
logic in Figure 7.14 is followed, it can be said that change goes high, then both
the blocks bldc-counter1 and bldc-dff3 become active. Now, comparator bldccompare0 gives a low to high transition when sen[2..0]=101Binary=5Decimal.
This condition occurs when hall sensor output take the shape that h1 = 1, h2 =
0, h3 = 1. This condition will take place when electrical rotor position of the
PMSM will be satisfying the condition, 00 r < 600 . Now, bldc-counter1 will
start counting. When its count value will be 2, output of lpm-compare2 will take
low to high transition. bldc-dff3 will be clocked for the first time and the output
of this instrument will be high for the first time and hold this condition for the
rest of the time of the program execution. The state of this instrument will be
sustained due to the reason that after this instant the clock of the D-F/F will
vanish and the clock will again come after one mechanical revolution, but then
input of the bldc-dff3 is held at VCC i.e high state. Hence, signal over will
be high and notover will be low. Thus program with hall sensor, as shown in
Figure 7.13, will be disabled and with the the advent of r = 00 , program with
the encoder, as shown in Figure 7.15 will be enabled. The reason for leaving the
first sen[2..0]=5D edge is that, it may so happen that when changeover-signal
is given, PMSM may be somewhere in the middle of 00 r < 600 interval, so
program with encoder signal can not be initialized with r = 00 if changeover takes
place at the first edge.

102

Figure 7.12: FPGA design files showing two sets of switching signals which
are multiplexed to switch the IGBTs of the two level inverter
Program with encoder signal, as shown in Figure 7.15, is utilizing the concept of
lookup table. Actually, the incremental encoder is giving 1250pules /electrical revolution. This fact is utilized to make one counter, bldc-counter4,which is counting
the electrical rotor position from 0 to 1249 pulses. This counting corresponds to
counting of electrical rotor position 00 to3600 . These 1250 pulses are divided in
six sections, each section corresponds to one 600 durable switching interval. So,
the counter bldc-counter4 is counting up and making the electrical rotor position
starting from zero. This digital electrical rotor position information if fed to a
ROM, bldc-rom0. The ROM is so formed that, six bit output of the ROM will
give six switching signals for different 600 intervals. The MATLAB program to
make the entries inside the ROM is given in the appendix. The LOOK-UP-TABLE
, that is burnt in the ROM is given below.

7.3.3

Experimental results

The programme is executed in both the modes under identical operating conditions
and the results can be seen from the waveforms. The variable theta, that is the
electrical rotor position information (as seen from Figure 7.15) are fed to a Digital
To Analog converter and six switching signals individually are plotted with this
electrical rotor position value. The switching signals can be seen from Figure 7.16.

103

Figure 7.13: FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to


run the motor under 1200 conduction mode with hall sensor outputs.
I/P(in DEC)
0-207
208-415
416-623
624-831
832-1039
1040-1249

POSITION(in DEGREE)
0-60
60-120
120-180
180-240
240-300
300-360

S1
1
0
0
0
0
1

S2 S3
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

S4 S5
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0

S6 O/P(in DEC)
0
48
0
24
0
12
0
6
1
3
1
33

Table 7.1: The lookup table to run the PMSM under self controlled 1200
algorithm with encoder signal
The PMSM is started under self controlled 1200 algorithm with hall sensors
and then subsequently switched to self controlled 1200 algorithm with encoder.
Both the stages are noticed under similar operating conditions. The waveforms
are shown in Figure 7.17 and 7.18.

104

Figure 7.14: FPGA design files showing the changeover process from hall
sensor to encoder mode.
Now, the effect of encoder can be strongly viewed from Figure 7.18. From
Figure 7.17, it can be seen that, in both phase current and phase voltage waveforms, the two consecutive 600 conduction intervals of IGBT 5 (in Figure 4.14, it
is refereed as T5) are not symmetrical due to asymmetrical placing of hall sensors
as explained in chapter 3. But, from Figure 7.18, it can be concluded that those
asymmetry has been eliminated almost with the help of encoder. This is due the
the reason that, in encoder operation, the very high resolution of the encoder pulse
makes it possible to maintain the exact switching pattern in all six 600 electrical
switching intervals easily. This symmetry is expected as can be seen from the
simulated results shown in Figures 3.18, 3.19 etc.

7.3.4

Development of modules required in the process


of vector control of PMSM drive

Introduction
The full logic requirement of a total Speed Controlled Vector Controlled PMSM
drive can be seen from Figure 6.31. This process incorporates Sine PWM Inverter
for the true Field Orientation of the PMSM drive. If one short description of
the total process is taken, the total logic flow can be easily understood. The
true Vector control is ensured by the fundamental sine voltages impressed on the
machine phases. The magnitude and phases of the phase voltages are dependent on
the sinusoidal control signals of the SINE PWM process. These sinusoidal control

105

Figure 7.15: FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to


run the motor under 1200 conduction mode with single encoder output.
signals are developed from the q-axis stator voltage reference, vq , d-axis stator
voltage reference, vd and Electrical rotor position, r , with the help of THREE
is generated by
PHASE TO TWO PHASE TRANSFORMATION [6]. The vds
is generated by the output of Current Proportional
utilizing equation 6.9. vqs
Integral Controller. The input of this current PI controller is the error of qaxis stator current, iqs . The reference of q-axis stator current, iqs is generated
from the output of the Speed Proportional Integral Controller. The input of this
Speed Proportional Integral controller is the mechanical speed error. The total
control logic is to be implemented in EP 1C12Q240C8, ALTERA CYCLONE,
FPGA.Development and subsequent hardware testing of these control modules
will be discussed in this section.

Deriving electrical rotor position from encoder output to get synchronized sine-waves as the control signals of the SINE PWM
It is explained that to run the PMSM in SPWM algorithm, the sine voltages that
are falling in each phase of the PMSM, have to be in synchronism with the electrical
rotor position. To sustain this condition, the control signals that will be used for
the SPWM control signals. Now, as explained, the encoder used is actually an
incremental encoder giving 2500 pules /mechanical revolution. So, electrically, it
will give 1250 pulses/electrical revolution for the lab-prototype 4pole PMSM. So,

106

Figure 7.16: Switching signals are plotted individually with respect to the
electrical rotor position when the PMSM was running under self controlled
1200 conduction algorithm with encoder.
total electrical 3600 will be divided into 1250 division and each division will be
of discreet 0.30 . So, the electrical rotor position that will be calculated will have
the resolution of 0.30 . The incremental encoder will give a TTL logic pulse-train.
Figure 7.19 is showing the inputs and outputs of the control block. The details
of this Control Block is given in the subsequent sections This pulse-train will be
taken inside FPGA with the help of digital i/o pin. This pulse-train will be used
as the clock of a MODULO UP COUNTER as shown in Figure 7.20. One very
interesting thing is that, this block shown in Figure 7.20 will derive the electrical
rotor position from electrical zero position (r = 00 ) and there after the theta will
be synchronized with actual electrical rotor position irrespective of the speed. It
will start calculating rotor position online from the instant when the rotor q axis
gets aligned with the a-phase axis (i.e.r = 00 ). Thereafter, add[10..0] variable
will be a measure of actual rotor position, i.e. thetar . Thus the add[10..0] variable
of Fig. 7.20 gets synchronized in space in real time. So, before starting the PMSM
with this SPWM algorithm machine has to be started with self-controlled 1200
conduction algorithm (with hall sensors) and subsequently switched to SPWM
algorithm at one r = 00 position and subsequently, encoder output will only be
used to find synchronized electrical rotor position. The change-over logic that is
to be used is similar to as shown and explained in Figure 7.14.

107

Figure 7.17: Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)
and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under self
controlled 1200 conduction mode with hall sensors in action at DC Link
Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f = 0.0016N sec/Rad
and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m
Generation trigonometric functions for PARKS transformation
The electrical rotor position information is used to generate different trigonometric
2
2
2
functions like cosr , cos(r 2
3 ), cos(r + 3 ), sinr , sin(r 3 ), sin(r + 3 ).
These trigonometric functions will generate these instantaneous outputs with the
input of r from modulo up counter, sync-upcounter0. The function generation
is shown in Figure 7.21.

108

Figure 7.18: Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)
and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under self
controlled 1200 conduction mode with encoder in action at DC Link Voltage,
Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f = 0.0016N sec/Rad and
passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m
It can be noted that these trigonometric functions are realized with six ROM
tables. The six roms that are shown in Figure 7.21 are changing the output values
of the function depending on the input, theta[10..0]. The values are changed in
each low-to-high going edge of the encoder-pulse-train. Other than that outputs
are latched. The functions that are used can be viewed in the order shown in
Table 7.2. These trigonometric functions would be utilized to form three phase
synchronized sine control signals from their two phase values instantaneously using
PARKS transformation as will be explained next.

FUNCTION
cosr
)
cos(r 2
3
2
cos(r + 3 )
sinr
sin(r 2
)
3
sin(r + 2
)
3

CORRESPONDING DIGITAL SIGNAL


costh[15..0]
cosdth[15..0]
cosddth[15..0]
sinth[15..0]
sindth[15..0]
sinddth[15..0]

Table 7.2: Table showing the correspondence of signals with trigonometric


functions

109

Figure 7.19: FPGA design file showing the input and output of the control
signal, generation block

Figure 7.20: FPGA design file showing the derivation of electrical rotor position add[10..0]
Development of two phase to three phase transformation block in
FPGA
It is explained previously that, the two phase stator voltages, in rotor reference
frame, vq and vd are transformed to three phase static (real) stator voltages by the
relation shown in equation 7.9.

!
cosr
sinr
va
vq

2
2
vb = cos(r 3 ) sin(r 3 )
vd
2
vc
cos(r + 2
3 ) sin(r + 3 )

(7.9)

But, to generate the desired phase voltages SINE PWM will be used. So, if the
d and q axis voltages are perunitized and the same PARKS transformation as
shown in equation 7.9 is used, the three voltages that will come out will be actually
perunitized and these three voltages can be utilized as the three control signals of
the SINE PWM. The hardware implementation of this two-phase to three-phase

110

Figure 7.21: FPGA design file showing the computation process of different
instantaneous trigonometric functions of electrical rotor position, add[10..0]
transformation block is shown in Figure 7.22 and 7.23. These three control signals

Figure 7.22: FPGA design file showing the computation process of two components of each phase control signals
will be used to generate the actual SPWM switching pulses of the INVERTER.

Generation of switching signals of the INVERTER IGBTs


These three control sine waves are compared with the triangular wave and the
respective switching signals are generated. The generation of triangular wave is
shown in Figure 7.24 and the comparison of three sine control signals with this
triangular wave is shown in figure 7.25. If figure 7.24 is noted closely, spwmcounter1 is a modulo up counter counting up to 2048 DECIMAL. So, its output,
count[11..0] will be a ramp with positive slope with peak value 2048 DECIMAL
= 7FF HEX. Now, this count[11..0] is subtracted from its constant peak value
in the block spwm-add-sub1 block to generate sub[11..0], which is a ramp with
negative slope with same peak value. Now, these two ramps are multiplexed with

111

Figure 7.23: FPGA design file showing the addition of all the components
and generation of actual three phase control signals of SINE PWM
clock counter11, which is a 5KHz clock, in spwm-mux1 block to generate the
triangular wave triangular[11..0]. So, the triangular wave will be unidirectional
having a span from 0 (000 HEX) pu to 2pu (7FF HEX) and its frequency will
be 5KHz. So, the control sine waves that are generated in 32bit format (ref.
Figure 7.23) are truncated in 12bit format and they are also shifted 1pu (1023
DECIMAL=3FF HEX) to be compared with the triangular wave. The shifting of
these control sine-waves are shown in Figure 7.25. Now, these three control signals
are individually compared with this triangular wave giving rise to the switching
signals the upper IGBTs of the VSI which would feed PMSM armature( IGBT
1,3,5 as shown in Figure 4.14). The switching signals for the lower IGBTs are
generated primarily by inverting the switching signals of upper IGBTs respectively.
Subsequently, 10sec blanking time is given between the switching signals of the
IGBTs of each phase. The blanking time is given by delaying each switching signal.
These delayed switching signals are further ANDed with their mother signal and
the ultimate output switching signals are generated from the output of those AND
gates as shown in figure 7.26.

112

Figure 7.24: FPGA design file showing the generation of triangular wave for
implementing Sine-triangle PWM strategy.

7.3.5

Testing of the different modules developed

Introduction
The incremental encoder is mounted on shaft of the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The PMSM is now rotated with the shaft connected DC machine
run as a motor. The encoder is powered up. Now, the Sine PWM program, as
described previously, is executed in the FPGA kit. DC motor is started in such a
way that the forward rotation of the PMSM is taken place. So, the FPGA SPWM
program is taking encoder digital pulse-train inside and giving six switching signals as output. Now, different blocks, as described, are generating intermediate
signals, those signals will be tested in different condition. Now, the FPGA program is generating the switching signals to develop the phase voltages depending
on the control signals and the electrical rotor position (calculated from encoder
output signal). Now, under this condition the blocks inside FPGA are tested and
the results are presented in the subsequent sections.

Testing of synchronized sine waves and two-phase-to-three-phase


transformation block
If figures 7.20, 7.21, 7.22 and 7.23 are closely viewed, it can be marked that these
blocks together are generating electrical rotor position, add[10..0], and three control sine voltages, va =Va[31..0], vb =Vb[31..0] and vc =Vc[31..0]. During the testing
process, the two phase reference voltages are kept at a constant value, vq = 0.8pu
and vd = 0.6pu. Now, first the results will be presented of the operation of two
phase to three phase transformation block. After that the synchronizing effect of
those control sine waves will be presented.
The, sine control signals and the cosine and sine components of vd and vq are
fed in a multichannel DAC and the outputs of the DAC are shown in Fig. 7.27
and 7.28. The scaling is done in such a way that when a digital bit combination
of 1pu magnitude acts as the input to the DAC, the DAC output is 5 Volts. Now,

113

Figure 7.25: FPGA design file showing the comparison of triangular wave
with each sine control signal for SINE PWM
theoretically, va = vq cosr + vd sinr , now putting values of different constants, it
can be calculated that, va = cos(r 36.90 ). Now, if figure 7.27 is concerned, it
can be concluded that, va lags vq cosr by near about 36.90 . Figure 7.28 depicts
that, va leads vd sinr by near about 520 . Peak value of different sine waves are
also in accordance with the expectations.
Now, if electrical rotor position, add[10..0] and the phase-a sine control voltage
are given given to a DAC, the DAC outputs, as obtained are shown in figures
7.29 and 7.30. It can be concluded that online derived electrical rotor position
and the control sine waves are always synchronized irrespective of speed of the
motor. From both the figures 7.29 and 7.30, it can be summarized that, at both
the speeds, va is having its peak value at electrical rotor position, r 360 , which
is essentially the evidence of synchronous property of the control sine wave. From
figure 7.20, it can be noted that, add[10..0] can range between 0 to 1249 DECIMAL value. Now, DAC is programmed in such a way that, correspondingly 1249
DECIMAL input, which is equal to 1.23 pu (as 3FF HEX = 1pu = 5Volts), DAC
output will be 6 Volts. This can be observed in in the experimental waveform of
theta[10..0] presented in Fig. 7.29 and 7.30.

Testing of switching signals


Different switching signals, generated by the program shown in Figures 7.24, 7.25,
are plotted with different phase control sine waves. The plots are shown in figures
7.31, 7.32 and 7.33. In these figures the control signals are arithmetically shifted
1pu to make those switching signals unidirectional ti be compared with unidirec-

114

Figure 7.26: FPGA design file showing the blanking time between the upper
and lower switching signals of each phase of SPWM INVERTER
tional triangular waves as shown in Figures 7.24, 7.25. It can be concluded that
the switching signals are having correct phase relation with the phase-A control
signals.
Now, to test the switching signals further, one real-time inverter is real-time simulated inside FPGA and that real-time-inverter is switched with these generated
switching signals. The generated phase voltages of that real-time-inverter is shown
in the oscilloscope to check their relative phase relation and shape.
Now, if figure 3.1is noted,
vao = Vdc Sa
vbo = Vdc Sb
(7.10)
vco = Vdc Sc
where, vao is the voltage of point a with respect to -ve DC link bus. Similar
nomenclature is also applicable for other two phases. Now, Sa , Sb , Sc are switching
functions of the respective phases and also are the switching signals of T 1, T 3, T 5
respectively. So, Sa =1 when, T1 is ON and, Sa = 0 when, T4 is ON. Similar logic
is applicable for other two phases. Now,
van = vao vno
vbn = vbo vno
vcn = vco vno
van + vbn + vcn = 0

115

(7.11)

Figure 7.27: Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vq cosr


at mechanical speed of 1500rpm
So, it can be calculated that
vno =

vao + vbo + vco


3

Hence inverter phase voltages can be expressed as: van = vao


2vao vbo vco
ac
= vab v
3
3
So, in terms of line voltages, the phase voltages can be written as:
van =
vbn =
vcn =

vab vac
3
vbc vba
3
vca vcb
3

(7.12)
vao +vbo +vco
3

(7.13)

Equation 7.10 is realized in FPGA as shown in figure 7.34. Equations 7.11, 7.12
and 7.13 are assembled and they are also realized in FPGA as shown in figure
7.35.

116

Figure 7.28: Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vd sinr


at mechanical speed of 1500rpm
Now, the phase voltages of the real-time-voltage source inverter are shown in
figures 7.36 and 7.37. The phase voltages are having theoretically expected shape
and their respective relative phase relations are also proper in accordance with the
theory.

7.3.6

Conclusion

The test results of the algorithm of Sine PWM process suggests that, the PMSM
drive can be run with Sine PWM algorithm as described in this chapter.

117

Figure 7.29: Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0]


and phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 270rpm

118

Figure 7.30: Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0]


and phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 750rpm

119

Figure 7.31: Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and


switching signal of T1 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

120

Figure 7.32: Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and


switching signal of T3 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

121

Figure 7.33: Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and


switching signal of T5 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

Figure 7.34: FPGA program files to simulate the switching process of the
real-time-voltage source inverter

122

Figure 7.35: FPGA program files to simulate the generation of phase voltages
of the real-time-voltage source inverter

123

Figure 7.36: Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in


PU) and Phase-B voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage
source inverter

124

Figure 7.37: Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in


PU) and Phase-C voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage
source inverter

125

Chapter 8
Conclusions and scope of future
work
8.1

Conclusions

This thesis presents analysis, offline simulation, real-time simulation and experimental implementation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive operated
under self-control with different control strategies.
First, electrical parameters of a laboratory prototype PMSM are experimentally found out. The generalized three phase equations of the PMSM form the
basis of the analysis and procedure to determine the electrical parameters of the
PMSM. It is worth mentioning here that if this procedure is followed for determination of the electrical parameters, then there would be no chance of demagnetizing
of the permanent magnet material of the rotor.
Next, a detailed numerical model of the PMSM operating under self control with a voltage source inverter under 1200 conduction mode is developed. This
model is capable of predicting transient as well as steady-state behaviors of the
PMSM drive. The name suggests that, in this model, each of the twelve possible
complex switching modes of the inverter feeding the PMSM, is individually modeled with the guiding differential equations and solved numerically. The model is
quite accurate, but, physical understanding of the drive behavior is very difficult
as it is totally numerical in nature. An existing laboratory prototype PMSM is
subsequently made to run with the help of a voltage source inverter operating under 1200 conduction mode, under self-control with three hall-effect based absolute
position sensor. The control algorithm has been developed under an FPGA environment with an FPGA development board. The experimental results and the
ones as predicted by the detailed numerical model are compared.

126

An averaged dynamic model of the PMSM operating under same scheme,


as mentioned earlier, is next developed. This model is less accurate compared to
the detailed numerical model but is a linear time invariant state-space based
one. It offers the advantage that the detailed system, characterized by twelve
complex switching modes, each with a different set of differential equations, is
ultimately reduced to a simplified set of two differential equations predicting the
same behavior with slightly lesser accuracy, as compared to the previous model.
However, this model provides much deeper insight about how the PMSM, without
a mechanical commutator, ultimately behaves similar to that of a conventional DC
machine. The results predicted by both these models are compared under identical operating conditions in transient as well as steady state and they are found
to be close. The averaged dynamic model forms the basis of analyzing a complete
PMSM drive if the DC link voltage at the input of the voltage source inverter is
controlled by incorporating a front-end controlled rectifier operated with a outer
speed loop and an inner current loop. Controller designs can also be done following conventional linear control system tools as the inverter-cum-machine has been
reduced to a linear time invariant system.
Subsequently, two position sensorless operation of the drive under self controlled 1200 conduction mode are proposed and simulated. The first one takes
help of Luenburger Observer to estimate the rotor position of the motor. The
averaged dynamic model is utilized to develop the equations of the observer. In
the second method, back emf of each phase of the armature of the PMSM is sensed
and hence the rotor position information is derived and accordingly the inverter
devices are switched.
A detailed study of the field oriented control of the PMSM is done next. Field
orientation with the help of a hysteresis PWM comparator and then with a sine
PWM inverter are simulated for the laboratory prototype PMSM. A new Position
sensorless field orientation strategy is proposed and simulated.
Next, an FPGA-based controller has been developed which initially accepts
the rotor position information from three hall-effect based absolute position sensors to generate the switching signals of a 1200 conduction mode VSI, but, finally
makes a changeover to accept a shaft-mounted incremental position encoder signal
to generate the same switching signals. The PMSM is thus run and experimental
results are presented.
Last but not the least, substantial work is performed in developing real-time
codes for different significant functional blocks required for experimental implementation of a vector controlled PMSM drive incorporating a sine PWM voltage
source inverter, under an FPGA environment. Real-time simulation of a rotor
position synchronized sinusoidal pulse width modulated inverter has been finally

127

done with the FPGA controller.


To summarize, the salient features of this thesis are:
Electrical parameters of the PMSM are experimentally found out following
simple coupled circuit concepts.
A detailed numerical model of self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM
is developed and experimentally validated with a laboratory prototype.
An analytical averaged dynamic model of the drive is developed and verified
experimentally with the help of an FPGA-based controller, developed in the
thesis.
An observer based position sensorless operation of self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM is proposed and simulated, both offline and in real
time.
A back emf sensing based position sensorless operation of self controlled 1200
conduction VSI fed PMSM is proposed and offline simulated .
Field orientation schemes of the laboratory prototype PMSM with and without position sensor are proposed and offline simulated .
Real time simulation of significant control blocks to be employed for field
orientation control of a PMSM drive with a SPWM inverter are made and
tested in FPGA and they are tested experimentally.
A part of the work, presented in this thesis, has been published and presented
in the IEE-organized International Conference, PEMD 2008, held at York, United
Kingdom, in April this year [14].

8.2

Future work

The following activities related to the development of the PMSM drive, whose
foundation stone has been laid in this thesis, may be undertaken in future:
Real-time implementation of a vector-controlled PMSM drive incorporating
a SPWM VSI controlled through an FPGA-based controller platform.
Real-time implementation of the sensorless strategies proposed and simulated in this work on a PMSM drive through an FPGA-based controller
platform.
Estimating the torque of the PMSM specially at dynamic condition by FEM
based techniques.

128

Simulation and experimental investigation of the regeneration processes of


the PMSM drive.

129

Appendix A

A.1

Parameters and specifications of the machine

The ratings and parameters of the machine are shown below:


4-pole, 1KW, 48Volts (DC), 2000rpm
stator-Armature: 3-phase, star-connected, per phase synchronous inductance(Ls )=3.075
104 H, per phase resistance(rs )=0.0655.
rotor-Field: permanent magnet with peak value of per phase flux linkage(0 )=0.0533wb
turnes
J = 0.001372Kg m2 , fnl = 0.0016N m sec/Rad, Tnl = 0.56N m

130

Appendix B
Dynamic equations of the two
operating modes of the PMSM
under 1200 conduction mode
B.1

Basic a-b-c frame equations of the PMSM

The phase voltages of a PMSM are denoted by, van , vbn and vcn . The corresponding
phase currents are denoted by, ia , ib and ic . Now, referring to Fig. 1.3, the basic
phase equations of the cylindrical rotor PMSM (LB =0) can be written as [6]:

van

vbn =

vcn

rs + (Lls + LA )p
12 LA p
21 LA p

12 LA p
rs + (Lls + LA )p
12 LA p

21 LA p
12 LA p

0 cosr

0 cos(r 2
3 )

rs + (Lls + LA )p 0 cos(r + 2
3 )

(B.1)
Significance of the parameters and the constants are discussed in the previous
chapters.
Now, the electromagnetic torque equation of the cylindrical rotor PMSM can be
written as[6]:

P
3
1
1
Te = 0 [(ia ib ic )cosr +
(ib ic )sinr ]
(B.2)
2
2
2
2

131

ia
ib
ic
r

B.2

MODE1 equations when two IGBTs


and one freewheeling diode D3 conduct

Figure 3.17 shows two loop currents when two IGBTs T1, T2 and one freewheeling
diode D3 conduct. Application of Kirchoffs voltage law in these two loops yields:
)]
Vdc rs (im +icom )0 r [cosr cos(r + 2
3
= C1
Lls + 32 LA
2
r (2i +i
) [cos cos(r 3 )]
picom = s m com L 0+r3 L r
= C2
ls 2 A

pim + 2picom =
2pim +

Applying Cramers rule to the equation set B.3,

pim = f11 (im , icom , r , r ) =

C1 2
C2 1

1
2

1
2

picom = f21 (im , icom , r , r ) =

!
!

2
1
!
C1
C2

1 2
2 1

(B.3)

(B.4)

Electromagnetic torque is given by:


2
Te = P2 0 [ia cosr + ib cos(r 2
3 ) + ic cos(r + 3 )
= P2 0 [ 32 (im + icom )cosr + 23 (im + icom )sinr ]

(B.5)

P
2f
[Te TL
r ]
2J
P
pr = f41 (r ) = r

pr = f31 (im , icom , r , r ) =

B.3

(B.6)
(B.7)

MODE2 equations when two IGBTs


conduct

Figure 3.17 shows one loop current when two IGBTs T1, T2 conduct. Application
of Kirchoffs voltage law in this loop yields:
pim = f51 (im , r , r ) =

Vdc 2rs im 0 r [cosr cos(r +


2Lls + 3LA

2
3 )]

(B.8)

Electromagnetic torque:
Te =

P
2 0 [ia cosr

+ ib cos(r 2
+ 2
3 ) + ic cos(
3 )
r
3
P
3
= 2 0 [ 2 im cosr + 2 im sinr ]

pr = f61 (im , r , r ) =

P
2f
[Te TL
r ]
2J
P

132

(B.9)
(B.10)

Appendix C

C.1

Matlab program to generate the look-up


table of switching pattern for encoder
based 1200 conduction logic

clear
clc
i=0;
k=1;
while i < 1250
if (i 0)and(i < 208)
a(k+i)=48;
end
if (i 208)and(i < 416)
a(k+i)=24;
end
if (i 416)and(i < 624)
a(k+i)=12;
end
if (i 624)and(i < 832)
a(k+i)=6;
end
if (i 832)and(i < 1040)
a(k+i)=3;
end
if (i 1040)and(i < 1250)
a(k+i)=33;
end
i=i+1;
end
c=abs(bin2dec(dec2bin(a,6)))

133

134

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