An FPGA Controller Based Real Time Implementation of a PMSM Drive

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An FPGA Controller Based Real Time Implementation of a PMSM Drive

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PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE

By

Souvik Dasgupta

Registration No. 210606001 of 2006-07

Roll No. 160606001

Under the Guidance of

Dr. Kaushik Mukherjee

And

Dr. Mainak Sengupta

A thesis

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Engineering (Electrical Engineering)

Specialization in Power Electronics and Drives

Bengal Engineering and Science University,

Shibpur

Howrah - 711 103

West Bengal, India

HOWRAH-711103

FOREWORD

We hereby forward the thesis entitled A FIELD PROGRAMMABLE

GATES ARRAY CONTROLLER BASED REAL TIME IMPLEMENTATION OF A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

DRIVE submitted by Souvik Dasgupta(Registration No. 210606001of 20062007) under our guidance and supervision in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of Master of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (Specialization:

Power Electronics and Drives) from this University.

Senior Lecturer

Dept.of Electrical Engineering

Bengal Engineering and Science University

Howrah-711103

Assistant Professor

Dept.of Electrical Engineering

Bengal Engineering and Science University

Howrah-711103

(Dr. S.P.Ray)

Professor and Head

Dept.of Electrical Engineering

Bengal Engineering and Science University

Howrah-711103

( Dr. M. Halder)

Professor and Dean, FEAT

Bengal Engineering and Science University

Howrah-711103

HOWRAH-711103

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

The foregoing thesis entitled A FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATES

ARRAY CONTROLLER BASED REAL TIME IMPLEMENTATION

OF A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE

is approved as creditable study of an engineering subject carried out and presented

satisfactorily to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree of Master

of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (Specialisation: Power Electronics and

Drives) of this University. It is understood that by this approval the undersigned

do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or

conclusion drawn therein, but approve the thesis paper only for the purpose for

which it is submitted.

BOARD OF EXAMINERS

ii

HOWRAH-711103

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to record his deep sense of gratitude to his supervisors, Dr. Kaushik Mukherjee and Dr. Mainak Sengupta, who have introduced the

present area of work and guided in this work. The author also wishes to thank

Dr. Prasid Syem ,Prof. Debjani Ganguly for helping him with different suggestions. The author is also thankful to Prof. S. P. Ray for permitting him to use

the instruments of the department. The author is also indebted to his classmates

Mr. Bhaskaran Barman, Mr. Prasanta Patra and NaMPET Project Assistant

Mr. Utpal Samanta and Mr. Avijit Ghosh for different constructive criticisms in

different phases of the work .The author is also thankful to his seniors Mrs. Anindita Jamatia , Mr. Sudhin Roy, Mr. Pabitra Kumar Biswas for their criticism

in different technical subjects and for their teachings in different power electronic

tools. The author also wishes to thank the NaMPET-FSS project for the funding. Last but not the least, the author is strongly indebted to the almighty for

presenting him worlds best parents, who are not only supportive but also helpful

in different phases of his life.

(Souvik Dasgupta)

Reg. No. 210606001

Roll No. 160606001

Bengal Engineering and Science University

Date:

iii

Dedicated to my parents,

Sri Sankar Dasgupta

and

Smt. Mamata Dasgupta

iv

Abstract

This thesis is directed towards analysis, design, digital computer simulation

and practical implementation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)

drive. The drive is suited for a low voltage ( 48V ) high current ( 20A) application.

A three phase permanent magnet synchronous motor, having three hall position sensors, as available in laboratory, is used for the PMSM drive experiments.

The electrical parameters of this prototype machine is first experimentally determined. The adopted experimental method is deduced analytically on the basis of

coupled circuit concepts initially and experimentation has been performed accordingly.

Next, a basic PMSM drive, consisting of this machine and a self-commutated

IGBT based inverter, has been practically implemented. The inverter control

is done through field programmable gate array (FPGA) in 1200 conduction self

controlled mode by processing of the three position sensor signals inside FPGA

itself. A Detailed Numerical Model of this drive has been developed, by which

its starting, dynamic and steady-state performances are predicted. The steadystate performances are experimentally validated on the implemented prototype.

Subsequently, an Averaged Dynamic Model, based on an averaging technique, is

presented, which has the simplicity of that of a conventional separately excited DC

motor with mechanical commutator. This Averaged Dynamic Model is capable

of predicting both dynamic and steady-state behaviors of this drive. The performance as predicted by the Averaged Dynamic Model is validated experimentally,

as also with the Detailed Numerical Model. They are found to match closely.

Subsequent section of the thesis deals with the position sensorless operation

of the self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed the PMSM drive. Two schemes are

proposed and simulated. One scheme uses two voltage and two current sensors to

sense any two phase voltages and any two phase currents of the PMSM to derive

the rotor position information of the PMSM. This scheme is found to start the

machine and operate at any speed. The main disadvantage of this scheme is that,

before starting the machine the rotor must be brought to a particular position.

This scheme does not require almost negligible real-time computational effort. The

second scheme requires a Luenberger Observer realization in FPGA platform

and information of DC link voltage and DC link current, that is one current sensor

and one voltage sensor would be required for experimental implementation. The

observer is realized on the basis of the Averaged Dynamic Model of the PMSM,

derived earlier, in the work. The observer-based method can start the machine

from any arbitrary rotor position and operate at any speed. The observer has

digitally been programmed in F P GA platform.

simulation. A Hysteresis Comparator based two-level voltage source inverter

(VSI)-fed drive as well as a Sine PWM VSI-fed drive are simulated. A position

sensorless vector controlled PMSM drive implementation is proposed and simulated.

Significant control blocks for experimental implementation of a vector-controlled

PMSM drive incorporating a two-level transistorized VSI are ultimately developed

and tested in an FPGA environment and real time simulation of a rotor-position

synchronized two-level VSI to feed a PMSM has been finally performed and tested.

vi

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 General discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Operation of PMSM under Self control . . . . .

1.3 Need of digital controllers in drives application

1.4 Relevance of the work undertaken . . . . . . . .

1.5 Outline of the present work . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Organizations of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Description of the test done in the laboratory . . . . . .

2.3 Test results of PMSM under test . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Merit of the process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Development of PMSM drive operated through

1200 conduction voltage source inverter

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.1 The machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.2 The power converter . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.3 Position sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2.4 Inverter controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 The basic PMSM drive performance . . . . . . . .

3.4 Simulation studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.2 Understanding the sensor position . . . . .

3.4.3 Simulation of the PMSM . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.4 System equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.5 Simulation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

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a three-phase,

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drive operated with a 1200 conduction self-controlled inverter

33

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.2 Development of Averaged Dynamic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.3 Validation of the model with the help of Detailed Numerical Model 37

4.4 Experiments performed to obtain Speed-Torque characteristics of

the test PMSM fed with self-controlled 1200 conduction inverter . 38

5 Study and simulation of schemes for position sensorless operation of a PMSM drive fed from a 1200 conduction self-controlled

inverter

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2 Description of the sensorless drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2.1 Speed observer based position sensorless operation . . . . .

5.2.2 Back emf estimation based position sensorless operation . .

6 Study of FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL of PMSM drive

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 Understanding the Field Orientation of PMSM . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3 Simulation studies of different FIELD ORIENTATION processes .

6.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.2 Different Vector Control strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.3 Simulation of current control loop of vector control by hysteresis comparator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.4 Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Voltage Source Inverter . . . . . . .

6.3.5 Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of POSITION

SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.3.6 Simulation of SPEED CONTROL of PMSM by VECTOR

CONTROL with SINE PWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . .

42

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57

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61

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7 Advanced aspects related to real time simulation and implementation of aspects of PMSM drive on FPGA platform

92

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

7.2 Real time simulation of RLC circuit and implementation of OBSERVER in FPGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

7.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

7.2.2 Simulating an RLC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

7.2.3 Implementation of the Observer of PMSM . . . . . . . . . . 95

7.3 Towards the real-time implementation of VECTOR CONTROL WITH

SINE PWM INVERTER of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

in FPGA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

7.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

viii

7.3.2

7.3.3

7.3.4

7.3.5

7.3.6

in 1200 conduction algorithm under self control . . . . . . .

Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Development of modules required in the process of vector

control of PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Testing of the different modules developed . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

103

105

113

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126

8.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

8.2 Future work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

appendices

A

129

130

A.1 Parameters and specifications of the machine . . . . . . . . 130

under 1200 conduction mode

131

B.1 Basic a-b-c frame equations of the PMSM . . . . . . . . . 131

B.2 MODE1 equations when two IGBTs and one freewheeling

diode D3 conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

B.3 MODE2 equations when two IGBTs conduct . . . . . . . . 132

C

133

C.1 Matlab program to generate the look-up table of switching

pattern for encoder based 1200 conduction logic . . . . . . . 133

ix

List of Figures

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

3.14

synchronous machines . . . . . .

Armature construction of PMSM

Different axes of the Motor (abc

rotating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Field under self control . . . . .

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- stationary, dq - synchronously

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Hall pcb arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Experimental open circuit voltage of phase-C and three hall position

sensors output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Filter arrangement to eliminate unwanted glitches from position sensor output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA program to generate control pulses of the switches under

1200 conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Position sensor signals and corresponding switching signals . . . .

The arrangement by which the DC link voltage of the inverter is

controlled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mechanical loading arrangement of the PMSM by a separately excited DC generator connected to the shaft of the PMSM . . . . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,

Load Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .

Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,

Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .

3

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lead angle s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.16 Algorithm for simulating 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM . . . . .

3.17 Conduction modes for PMSM drive (a) M ode1 with T 1T 2 pair, (b)

M ode2 with T 1T 2 pair, (c) M ode1 with T 3T 4 pair and (d) M ode2

with T 3T 4 pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.18 Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,

Load Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .

3.19 Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,

Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . .

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

5.1

5.2

5.3

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31

32

current at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad,

Load Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 . . . . . . . . . . 35

Dynamic Equivalent circuit for PMSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged DC

link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link

voltage Vdc = 35V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Simulated waveforms of actual DC link current and averaged DC

link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link

voltage Vdc = 25V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link

voltage Vdc = 35V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Simulated waveforms of actual mechanical speed and averaged mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link

voltage Vdc = 25V olts applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Experimental MECHANICAL SPEED (in Rad/Sec)-LOAD TORQUE(in

Nm) characteristics of the PMSM, at different DC link voltage under self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Schematic diagram of speed observer based position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Algorithm for simulating the observer based position sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive . . . . . .

Simulated waveforms actual rotor position and estimated rotor position of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =

48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .

xi

43

48

49

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

5.10

5.11

5.12

5.13

5.14

6.1

6.2

6.3

voltage of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at

Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . .

Simulated waveforms actual replica of DC link current and estimated DC link current of PMSM under observer based sensorless

operation, at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

Simulated actual mechanical speed and estimated mechanical speed

of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,

f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Schematic diagram of back emf estimation based position sensorless

operation of the PMSM drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Algorithm for simulating the back emf estimation based position

sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive

Simulated transient waveforms of phase-A back emf and phase-A

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless

operation from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad,

TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link voltage Vdc =

48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated transient waveforms of phase-B back emf and phase-B

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless

operation from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad,

TL = 0N mwith the application of step DC link voltage Vdc =

48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated transient waveforms of phase-C back emf and phase-C

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless

operation, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec . . . . . .

Simulated mechanical speed of PMSM from starting till steady state

under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc =

48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated DC link current of PMSM from starting till steady state

under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc =

48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A current and phaseA voltage of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless

operation, at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

Fixed stator windings magnetic axis and rotating rotor windings

magnetic axis with rotor axis are rotating at electrical speed, r .

d-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame . . . . . . .

q-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame . . . . . . .

xii

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53

53

54

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55

56

58

59

60

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

6.14

6.15

6.16

6.17

Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor at ids = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steady State phasor diagram of the PMSM under true vector control

(neglecting stator resistance rs ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL

by HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Internal structure of HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR controlled Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Internal structure of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor . . . .

Simulated transient waveforms (zooming the transient) of q-Axis

and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of

the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .

Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in

Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector

control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc

Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps) and

Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with

hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in Rad/Sec) of

the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .

Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic torque

(in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,

viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,

TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL

by SPWM INVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Internal structure of SPWM Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simplified structure of q-axis stator winding for the design of current PI controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiii

61

62

63

64

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of

the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .

6.19 Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in

Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector

control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc

Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.20 Simulated transient waveforms of Phase-A current(in Amps) and

Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with

Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.21 Simulated transient waveform of generated electromagnetic torque

(in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,

viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,

TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.22 Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical Speed (in Rad/Sec) of

the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in current

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .

6.23 Block diagram of current control method of POSITION SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER . . . . . . . .

6.24 Inside diagram of the block OBSERVER as mentioned in Fig.6.23

6.25 Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of q-axis

actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference

frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector

control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc

Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.26 Simulated transient waveforms of q-axis actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM

Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,

viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque,

TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiv

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . .

6.28 Simulated steady state waveforms of actual mechanical rotor position (thm in Rad) and estimated electrical rotor position(the

in Rad) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector

control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc

Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.29 Simulated transient waveform of actual electromagnetic torque (Nm)

of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,

Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.30 Simulated transient waveform of actual mechanical speed (Rad/sec)

of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,

Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.31 Block diagram of speed control method of in a Vector Controlled

PMSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.32 Simplified structure of mechanical loop of PMSM under true vector

control for the design of speed PI controller . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.33 Simulated transient waveforms of mechanical speed (in Rad/sec)

and electromagnetic torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector

control with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc

Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, passive load torque is changed from TL = 0.56N m to

TL = 3N m at time, t = 0.5Sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.34 Simulated transient waveform of phase-A voltage (in Volts) of the

PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m .

6.35 Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A voltage (in Volts) of

the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 3N m . . .

xv

83

84

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

and phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control

with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad,

passive load torque, TL = 3N m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

7.11

7.12

7.13

7.14

7.15

7.16

FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RLC circuit using

Eulers Integration method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RL circuit Eulers

Integration method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transient waveforms of per unit circuit current and per unit input

applied voltage for a R-L circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH for a step

voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec . . . . . . . . . . .

Transient waveforms of per unit capacitor voltage and per unit input

applied voltage for a R-L-C circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH,C =

4uF for a step voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec . .

FPGA design file showing clock and ADC outputs for observer implementation for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . .

FPGA design file showing Eulers method to solve variables to be

estimated for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the DC link current

for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical speed

for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical rotor

position for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design file showing equation method to generate switching

signals for observer based sensorless operation . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design files showing the digital inputs and outputs for the

program to evaluate the performance of the encoder . . . . . . . .

FPGA design files showing two sets of switching signals which are

multiplexed to switch the IGBTs of the two level inverter . . . . .

FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to run

the motor under 1200 conduction mode with hall sensor outputs. .

FPGA design files showing the changeover process from hall sensor

to encoder mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FPGA design files showing traditional programme segment to run

the motor under 1200 conduction mode with single encoder output.

Switching signals are plotted individually with respect to the electrical rotor position when the PMSM was running under self controlled

1200 conduction algorithm with encoder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xvi

91

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

100

101

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under

self controlled 1200 conduction mode with hall sensors in action

at DC Link Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient,

f = 0.0016N sec/Rad and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m . . 108

7.18 Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)

and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under

self controlled 1200 conduction mode with encoder in action at DC

Link Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f =

0.0016N sec/Rad and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m . . . . 109

7.19 FPGA design file showing the input and output of the control signal,

generation block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

7.20 FPGA design file showing the derivation of electrical rotor position

add[10..0] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

7.21 FPGA design file showing the computation process of different instantaneous trigonometric functions of electrical rotor position, add[10..0]111

7.22 FPGA design file showing the computation process of two components of each phase control signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

7.23 FPGA design file showing the addition of all the components and

generation of actual three phase control signals of SINE PWM . . 112

7.24 FPGA design file showing the generation of triangular wave for implementing Sine-triangle PWM strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

7.25 FPGA design file showing the comparison of triangular wave with

each sine control signal for SINE PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

7.26 FPGA design file showing the blanking time between the upper and

lower switching signals of each phase of SPWM INVERTER . . . . 115

7.27 Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vq cosr at

mechanical speed of 1500rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

7.28 Experimental waveform of phase-A control signal and vd sinr at

mechanical speed of 1500rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

7.29 Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0] and

phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 270rpm . . . . . . . 118

7.30 Experimental waveform of electrical rotor position,theta[10..0] and

phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 750rpm . . . . . . . 119

7.31 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T1 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm120

7.32 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T3 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm121

7.33 Experimental waveform of shifted phase-A control signal and switching signal of T5 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm122

7.34 FPGA program files to simulate the switching process of the realtime-voltage source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

xvii

the real-time-voltage source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.36 Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in PU)

and Phase-B voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage

source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

7.37 Experimental steady state waveforms of Phase-A voltage (in PU)

and Phase-C voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage

source inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

xviii

Te : Electromagnetic torque, Nm

Ma : Armature MMF, AT

Mf : Field MMF,AT

van , vbn , vcn : phase voltages of phase A, B, C respectively, V

ia , ib , ic : phase currents of phase A, B, C respectively, Amps

ra : per phase resistance of the machine, Ohm

Ls : per phase synchronous inductance, H

0 : Peak value of armature flux linkage due to permanent magnet, Wb-turns

r : Electrical speed of the machine, Rad/Sec

r : Electrical rotor position, Rad

m : Mechanical seed of the machine, Rad/Sec

P : Number of poles of the machine

a : Total flux linkage of Phase A, Wb-turns

Lls : Leakage inductance of each phase of the motor, H

Lmd : Direct axis mutual inductance, H

Lmq : Quadrature axis mutual inductance,H

s: Sensor lead angle, Rad

tstop : Simulation time, Sec

tstep : Step time of simulation,Sec

iapk : Peak of the fundamental armature current, Amps

ilink : Dynamic value of the averaged DC link current, Amps

f : Viscous friction co-efficient, Nm-Rad/Sec

TL : Passive load torque, Nm

J: Mechanical inertia of the machine, Kg m2

id

link : Estimated value of the cyclic average value of DC link current, Amps

cr : Estimated value electrical speed of the machine, Rad/sec

idc : Replica of DC link current only having the non-zero part, Amps

Sa , Sb , Sc : Switching functions of phase A, B, C respectively

pa , pb , pc : Zero Crossing Signals of phase A, B, C respectively

Vg : Per unit value of input applied voltage, pu

R : Per unit resistance, pu

L : Per unit inductance, pu

i : Per unit current, pu

Vb : Base value of voltage, V

Ib : Base value of current, Amps

xix

vc : Per unit capacitor voltage, pu

Lls : Leakage Inductance of the stator, H

L0lr : Leakage Inductance of the rotor referred to stator, H

L0dr : Self Inductance of d-axis damper referred to stator,H

L0qr : Self Inductance of q-axis damper referred to stator, H

L0f r : Self Inductance of main field referred to stator, H

Lmd : d-axis Magnetizing Inductance, H

Lmq : q-axis Magnetizing Inductance, H

Lqs : Self Inductance of q-axis stator, H

Lds : Self Inductance of q-axis stator, H

rs : Per phase stator resistance, H

0 , r 0 : Per phase rotor resistance referred to stator, Ohm

rr0 , rqr

dr

xx

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

General discussions

over other machines used as conventional servo-motors such as separately excited

dc motor, induction motor etc. As is well understood, the stator current of an

induction machine (IM) have to carry both the torque producing component of

current and the magnetizing current. But in a PMSM, placing a permanent magnet in the rotor relieves the stator from the need of carrying magnetising mmf

producing currents. Hence for the same power output, PMSMs will operate at

a higher power factor and its efficiency will be more than induction machines,

as currents flowing through the stator reduces. It may also be relevant to note

that conventional cylindrical rotor synchronous motor (SM) has a DC excitation

in the field, which requires brushes and slip rings in the rotor field winding. These

brushes and slip rings require regular maintenance and also produce extra losses

for their presence. The key reason for developing this PMSM was [1] to replace

the disadvantageous features of SM by placing a permanent magnet in the rotor. Hence PMSM has sinusoidal EMF distribution with respect to space and

requires sinusoidal input stator (armature) currents to produce steady ripple-free

torque. On the other hand, BLDC (Brushless DC Motor) has trapezoidal EMF

distribution with respect to space and requires trapezoidal input stator (armature)

currents to produce steady ripple-free torque [2]. For this PMSM has become the

most attractive competitor to other ac and dc drives for adjustable speed high performance drive applications[3, 4]. It may however be important to point out that

this advantage comes at the cost of a small but crucial disadvantage. One may

recall that the SM field gets weakened due to demagnetising armature ampereturns when operating at leading power factors and magnetised when operating at

lagging power factors. In a wound-field SM this is not a problem as there is no

scope for the permanent demagnetization of the field. In a PMSM this process

may cause irreversible demagnetisation of the permanent magnet. Hence one has

not cause such damage.

Many schemes have been proposed for the control of PMSM drive. Among

them one of the most attractive control scheme is the VECTOR CONTROL

scheme[5]. It is more suitable for PMSM drive as its control is totally through

stator side and there is no provision for rotor field excitation control. By this

vector control we can make such an arrangement that it can be operated in a same

manner as DC machine.

In the forthcoming chapters it is discussed, how PMSM can be used in conjunction with proper inverter switching configurations, to act just like a separately

excited DC motor.

1.2

At starting speed if we excite the synchronous motor armature (Stator) with a

balanced three phase supply of rated frequency the armature rotating magnetic

field will make an angle with rotor (field) magnetic field, which is time varying.

Therefore no net average torque is produced

as shown in Figure 1.1 So, at this

R

condition the average dc torque: Te = K 02 Ma Mf sin d = 0

A PMSM has a balanced 3-phase winding in the stator and a permanent magnet

as its rotor. The rotor permanent magnet field distribution is designed such that

its distribution is almost sinusoidal in space. The armature windings are also so

designed that the armature MMFs also vary almost as pure sinusoids in space.

The basic construction of a PMSM is shown in Figure1.2. This Figure 1.2 is

showing the three armature windings (phases), i.e. a, b and c with their axes

marked, along with the d-axis, which is the axis of the permanent magnet field

(rotor). Positive direction of rotation of the rotor is assumed anti-clockwise. The

q (quadrature)is an axis, assumed to be 900 ahead of the rotor d-axis and the

rotor position is defined as an angle r , as shown in Fig. 1.2. r is the angle

subtended between the stator (armature) a phase axis and the q-axis of the

rotor. It is positive in the counter clock wise direction, i.e. in powitive direction

of rotation (r ).

With the above assumptions, The cylindrical rotor PMSM machine armature

voltage equations (assuming machine neutral are isolated) are as follows:

van = ra ia + Ls pia + 0 r cos r

(1.1)

(1.2)

Figure 1.1: Armature MMF and Field MMF Condition at zero starting for

a synchronous machines

vcn = ra ic + Ls pic + 0 r cos(r + 2/3)

(1.3)

where, van , vbn , vcn are three phase voltages, ia , ib , ic are three phase currents,0 is

the peak value of armature flux linkage due to permanent, ra and Ls are per phase

d

resistance and per phase synchronous inductance of the motor, p = dt

operator. r

is the electrical speed of the machine and the machine being synchronous is always

related to its mechanical rotor speed m by the expression shown in equation 1.4.

r =

P

m

2

(1.4)

the motor.

Brushless DC Motors and / or PMSMs are generally analyzed in a-b-c or rotor

d-q reference frame [6]. Fig. 1.3 shows these two frames. The a,b and c axes are

fixed on the plane of the paper (stationary a-b-c frame) and the q-d axes (d-axis

is assumed the rotor permanent magnet field axis), maintaining quadrature with

each other, rotates with the rotor electrical speed r . Counter clock wise rotation

is assumed positive and at t=0, the q-axis is assumed to be aligned with the aphase axis.

Now, if it can be arranged by rotor position feedback that voltages feeding the

armature phases of the PMSM have the fundamental component of the phase

voltages which are function of electrical rotor position of the motor r ,then one

can write:

van1 = Vm cos(r + z)

(1.5)

(1.6)

(1.7)

van1 , vbn1 and vcn1 are fundamental components of the impressed phase voltages.

z is the constant angle maintained by the controller, i.e. this is the constant angle

set by the controller, by which the fundamental phase terminal voltage leads its

corresponding phase back emf.

Now, substituting equations 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 in equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 the fundamental

component of phase currents will be solved. Now, the form of solutions of those

currents will be of the forms as follows:

ia1 = Im cos(r + s)

(1.8)

(1.9)

(1.10)

rotating)

m sin(z)

where,s = tan1 [ Vm Vcos(z)

)] tan1 [ rraLs ] , Im =maximum value of phase cur0 r

rents and Vm = maximum value of phase voltages .

If now three phase to two phase transformation [6] is applied, it is seen that the

q andd axis components of armature MMF space phasor, Maq and Mad are as

shown in equation 1.11:

Maq

Mad

2

= ( )K

3

sin(r ) sin(r 2/3) sin(r + 2/3)

ia

ib (1.11)

ic

If equations 1.8, 1.9, 1.10 are substituted in equation 1.11 it is obtained as:

Maq

Mad

= Im K

cos(s)

sin(s)

(1.12)

Ma = Im.k[ sin(s) + j cos(s)]

(1.13)

M f = [M f + j0]

(1.14)

Now, from equation 1.13 and 1.14 it can be noted that, under this circumstances, armature(stator) MMF, M a makes a time invariant angle = 2 + s

with the field (rotor) at all the speeds as shown in figure 1.4. So, motor will develop

an average (DC)torque at all the speeds. So, motor will also develop DC torque at

zero speed also. So, by this rotor position feedback control strategy, synchronous

motor can be started without the help of a pony or auxiliary motor. This method

is called Self Control [7] of synchronous motor. It can be noted that under self

control rotor speed will be always in synchronism with stator supply frequency,

starting from zero speed, because here, the stator current and voltage is made to

follow a frequency dictated by the rate of change of rotor position by having rotor

position feedback

1.3

voltages are to be dictated by the pattern of rotor position. Different such selfcontrol processes are available, viz. Self- Controlled 1200 conduction algorithm,

Self-Controlled 1800 Conduction algorithm, Vector Control.In actual PMSM

drive, equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 are implemented by feeding the motor through an

inverter with self commutated devices say IGBT. Now, generating the switching

signals depending on the rotor position feedback is a computation oriented work.

In most of the cases these computational works are done with the help of some high

performance processor. Previously Digital Signal Processors (DSP) were used for

this purpose [8]. But, as VLSI technology is improving, many more high performance controllers are emerging. Subsequently, the need of variable-architectureprocessor is felt in the field of drives research. The most successful variablearchitecture-processor came out with the name FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATES

ARRAY (FPGA). The main advantage of this FPGA is that, this processor can be

arranged like the processor of our choice depending upon the computational burden

required in the specific derives application.The modern day embedded controllers

can perform online complex computation very fast. This has become a requirement in power electronic applications, where a decision making is often to be made

very fast depending on a faster online mechanical computation and accordingly a

power device is ultimately to be turned on or off based on the information. This

calls for a digital environment which can solve differential equations with very high

frequency. This invariably needs a processor, which processes in parallel way of

computation. An FPGA is a suitable platform for implementing such systems.

The basic advantage of an FPGA is that it can be programmed to process data

in parallel. Thus the implementation of system equations on an FPGA, results in

very short execution time. The controller model in equation form is realized as a

combination of sequential and combinational logic elements. This digital circuit is

then programmed in to FPGA.

1.4

Induction motors (IM) are widely used in variable speed electric drives due to

their ruggedness mainly. On the other hand, DC machines, although not that

rugged, present most ideal characteristics amenable to easy control. Amongst AC

motors IM continued to hold sway over the synchronous motor (SM) due to inherent absence of starting torque. To the user who is always in search of best of

all world type of solutions therefore a machine with the practical advantages of

the AC machines and ease of control of DC machines would be ideal. The PMSM

with a shaft mounted position sensor is one such machine. It is fundamentally a

synchronous machine without the starting problems and on the other hand appears like a DC separately excited machine with constant excitation as far as its

control is concerned. To top it all, the presence of high energy permanent magnets

(instead of field winding as in case of the conventional SM) in the rotor, reduces

its size and weight. Thus a lot of work in the area of adjustable speed drives

now center around this particular machine. Interestingly one such machine was

designed and fabricated in the Power Electronics laboratory of this institute dur-

ing a previous post-graduate thesis work. The present author could hardly resist

the temptation to work in the area of PMSM drives with such a machine already

available. Hence this work. One permanent magnet synchronous motor was designed and made during one of the previous ME thesis works [9]. The motor was

designed to be Sinusoidal Permanent Magnet Rotor Flux Distribution.

The ratings of the motor, based on which theoretical design was done, are as follows: Input Inverters DC Link Voltage,Vdc =48 Volts, Maximum Output

Power Rating, Pout =1kW, Maximum Mechanical Speed, Nr =3000rpm.

The motor was designed to drive one electric bi-cycle. During the design of the

machine, the temperature aspects and flux aspects of the machine were solved by

AN SY S software and the results were compared with that found from different

empirical formulae.

1.5

voltage( 48V olts) and high current( 20Amp) motor. So, the speed response of

the motor is very fast. In the present scope of work, different control algorithms

are simulated and some of them are validated experimentally. Before characterizing the motor, electrical parameters also have been experimentally found out.

Simulation studies uses these electrical parameters, as an input. The results found

in different stages are presented in few chapters.

1.6

After the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 is devoted to experimental determination of the electrical parameters of the PMSM available in the laboratory.

Chapter 3 presents the Development of PMSM drive operated through

a three-phase, 1200 conduction voltage source inverter. The details of the

simulation and subsequently the experimental validation of those simulated results

are presented here.

Chapter 4 presents the development of the Averaged Dynamic Model of a

PMSM drive operated through a three-phase, 1200 conduction voltage

source inverter . This averaged model is also validated in this chapter.

Chapter 5 presents simulation of different position sensorless operation schemes

of PMSM drives operated under 1200 conduction mode. Two such schemes are

simulated in this chapter.

Chapter 6 presents different vector control strategies and their simulation. Current and voltage controllers for those drives are also presented in this chapter.

functional blocks required for experimental implementation of a vector controlled

PMSM drive incorporating a sine PWM voltage source inverter.

Chapter 8 indicates the concluding comments on the work done so far and work

that can be taken up in future are also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 2

Determination of electrical

parameters of the PMSM

2.1

Introduction

The PMSM drive is efficiently used in different servo drive application. Those

drives are essentially vector controlled and the torque is highly dependent on

proper field orientation. But, if the process of vector control is concerned, it

can be seen that the process needs a very accurate mathematical model of the

system. To determine the mathematical model, it is required to know the exact

experimental and true value of electrical and mechanical parameters of the PMSM.

Several methods are proposed but many of them are not even realistic from the

magnetic circuit point of view of the PMSM.

PMSM is essentially a special kind of synchronous motor. So, scientists tried first

Armature Short Circuit test [10] on PMSM for its electrical parameter determination. But during this process, the armature MMF has a tendency to totally

demagnetize the rotor permanent magnet. The parameters of the PMSM can also

be determined by measuring the torque or power output by some torque transducer

or dynamometer [11]. But, this process will give inaccurate results if iron losses

have to be taken into account, especially in high cupper resistance motors, such

as low power motors. In many papers [12], some parameter identification method

is utilized to determine the parameters of the PMSM. In those papers an ANN

based or KALMAN filter based adaptive model is developed for the PMSM. Subsequently, those adaptive models are trained based on known results (say torque,

power etc) of some tests done in different load conditions. This method can not

be used for very fast vector controlled motors as these training methods are very

time consuming exercises.

10

2.2

The general voltage-current equation (Fig. 1.2 and 1.3) of Phase -A of a PMSM

[6] is:

van = ra ia + pa

(2.1)

Wherea = Total flux linkage of Phase-A Expression of a can be written as in

terms of ia , ib and ic :

{Lls + LA LB cos(2r )}ia

+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r 2

3 )}ib

a =

+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r + 2

3 )}ic

+0 sin(r )

(2.2)

Where,

Lls = Leakage inductance of each phase of the motor.

Lmd = 32 (LA + LB )= Direct axis mutual inductance.

Lmq = 32 (LA LB )= Quadrature axis mutual inductance.

Differentiating equation 2.2 with respect to time and putting r = pr it is found

that:

{Lls + LA LB cos(2r )}pia

+{0.5LA LB cos 2(r 2

3 )}pib

2

pa = +{0.5LA LB cos 2(r + 3 )}pic

+2LB r [ia sin(2r ) + ib sin 2(r 2

3 ) + ic sin 2(r +

+0 r cos(r )

(2.3)

2

3 )]

Now, analytical findings of these equations applied to certain experimental conditions as follows

CASE 1:

A small DC voltage is applied in Phase-A terminals (i.e. terminals a-n of Fig 1.2

and Fig 3.1). Such that phase-A and main field (d-axis) aligns with each other.

Now, the DC is withdrawn without disturbing the rotor position. A single phase

variable AC source is connected across phase-A (a-n), a small voltage is applied

and phase-A current is checked. So, this condition can be analytically stated as

follows:

r = 0

r = 2

(2.4)

ib = pib = 0

ic = pic = 0

Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.4,

van = ra ia + (Lls + LA + LB )pia

11

(2.5)

that:

Van = [ra + js (Lls + LA + LB )]Ia

(2.6)

Where, all uppercase quantities are representing the RMS value of the corresponding quantities.

CASE 2:

Now, A.C. supply from phase-A(a-n) is removed without changing rotor position.

A small voltage is applied across phase-B(b-n). Phase B current and open circuit

voltage at phase A(a-n) is noted. This condition can be analytically stated as

below:

r = 0

r = 2

(2.7)

ia = pia = 0

ic = pic = 0

Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.7,

van = [(

LA + LB

)]pib

2

Van = [js (

LA + LB

)]Ib

2

(2.8)

(2.9)

CASE 3:

Now, A small DC voltage is applied across phase-B (b-n), so that Phase-B axis

gets aligned with that of main field axis (d-axis). Now, the same AC single phase

voltage source is applied across phase-C and open circuited voltage of Phase- A is

noted and current of Phase-C is also noted. So, analytically this condition can be

stated as follows:

r = 0

r = 7

6

(2.10)

ia = pia = 0

ib = pib = 0

Using equation 2.3 and conditions of equations 2.10 it is obtained:

van = [

LA

+ LB ]pic

2

Van = [js (

LA 2LB

)]Ic

2

(2.11)

(2.12)

CASE 4:

A small DC voltage is applied across phase-A (a-n) keeping other phases are kept

open and machine rotor field aligns with phase-A axis. Motor will not rotate

under this condition. The phase-A DC voltage and phase-A DC current is noted

and their ratio (van /ian ) gives the motor phase resistance.

12

2.9, and 2.12 are solved to get the values of LA , LB and Lls of the PMSM.

2.3

RUN 1:

The following table reflects the test results of CASE 1 as mentioned in the previous

section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (Phase B and C kept open circuited):

Sl. No. Van(in mV) Ian(in Amps)

1.

220.4

2.02

2.

354.1

3.19

RUN 2:

The following table reflects the test results of CASE 2 as mentioned in the previous

section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (Phase A and C kept open circuited):

Sl. No. Van(in mV) Ibn(in Amps)

1.

24.46

1.81

2.

28.76

2.08

RUN 3:

The following table reflects the test results of CASE 3 as mentioned in the previous

section. All the voltage and current data are taken from digital storage oscilloscope (phase A and B kept open circuited):

Sl. No. Van(in mV) Icn(in Amps)

1.

16.06

1.23

2.

28.87

2.11

RUN 4:

The phase-A is excited with DC voltage and following data at the machine terminal are found by oscilloscope (Phase B and C were kept open circuited):

Sl. No. Van(in mV) Icn(in Amps)

1.

2.45

3.69

2.

1.99

3.04

From results of RUN 4, the DC resistance of per phase of the motor is as follows:

ra = 0.0655ohm. Due to skin effect ar 50Hz, ra (a.c.) = 1.1ra = 0.07205ohm.

Now, putting this value of per phase ac resistance and results of RUN 1, RUN

2 and RUN 3 ( at 50 Hz single phase AC source) in equations 2.6, 2.9 and 2.12

respectively it is found that the electrical parameters of the PMSM are as follows:

13

LA = 8.63 105 H

LB = 0.06 105 H=negligible i.e the machine is almost non-salient

Stator magnetizing Inductance=Lmd = Lmq = 32 LA = 1.304 104 H

Per phase resistance=ra = 0.0655ohm

RUN 5:

The PMSM is rotated anticlockwise at no-load at different speeds with the help of

a prime-mover and hence the PMSM acts as a generator. Line Voltage rms (Vab )

is noted along with its electrical frequency (fr ) with an Oscilloscope. The results

are listed below:

SL NO. Vab (in Volts) fr (in Hz)

1.

13.832

33.23

2.

13.192

31.25

3.

11.96

28.10

4.

10.74

25.19

5.

9.35

21.86

6.

8.00

18.74

7.

6.30

14.77

A best-fit curve is drawn and its equation is found as:

Vab = 0.41fr + 0.3 0.41fr

(2.13)

from the theory of PMSM, is concerned, the line voltage, in terms of peak permanent magnet rotor flux linkage and electrical frequency can be written as:

q

(2.14)

Now, solving equations 2.13 and 2.14, peak of permanent magnet rotor flux linkage

is found to be:

0 = 0.0533wb turns

It is to be mentioned here that, the designed value of 0 of the test machine was

reported as 0 = 0.06wb turns [9].

2.4

The description of the process suggests that, this process is very simple. There

is no chance of demagnetization of the permanent magnet in this test and yet

the significant machine inductance are found out. The calculations are also very

simple. The values of the parameters, thus obtained, would be in future used for

simulation and also for developing controllers for a complete PMSM drive. The

only demerit is that it can not account for the parameter uncertainties, which might

prove to be important while developing complex online indirect implementation

strategies viz. vector control, if based on value of a particular machines parameter.

14

Chapter 3

Development of PMSM drive

operated through a

three-phase, 1200 conduction

voltage source inverter

3.1

Introduction

This chapter is devoted to simulation studies, implementation details and experimental waveforms of the basic PMSM drive when the laboratory prototype PMSM

is fed from a self-controlled transistorized three-phase inverter operated under 1200

conduction of its devices. Initially each building block of the implemented drive

has been discussed. Afterwards the experimental results are presented and in the

last section some simulation details, to understand the significance of the observed

phenomena, are discussed.

3.2

System description

self-commutated IGBT inverter is investigated in this report. The power circuit

diagram of the implemented drive was shown earlier in Fig. 3.1.

The PMSM has a permanent magnet as its rotor. The three-phase armature

of the synchronous machine is fed by a self-commutated inverter under 1200 conduction. The inverter is switched according to the rotor position signals of three

hall position sensors. The switching of the devices of the inverter is controlled

by the block marked as Inverter Controller as shown in Fig. 3.1. This block is

15

implemented inside a Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA)based development

board available in the laboratory.

3.2.1

The machine

The PMSM prototype used here is existing in the laboratory and has armature in

the stator and field in the rotor. The field is made of a permanent magnet. The

parameters of the machine were experimentally determined and checked through

rigorous experiments. The machine is essentially a high current (20 Amps) and

low voltage (48 Volts) design. The parameters and the ratings of the machine are

provided in Appendix A.

3.2.2

assembly (Semikron make MD B6CI 600/415-10F stack). The rectifier is made of

three phase diode-bridge. The rectifier is fed from a three-phase transformer. The

output DC of the rectifier is terminated on a capacitor bank and the capacitor

is feeding the inverter. The panel needs to be supplied with a 15 Volts supply

from outside only. The control signals of the six- devices are given at six control

terminals of the inverter.

16

3.2.3

Position sensors

Three Hall position sensors are connected in the stator. A +15V olts regulated

DC power supply is needed to power up the PCB containing the sensors.Each

sensor produces a binary signal, high for 1800 and low for the remaining 1800 .

Each sensor signal is shifted from the other by 1200 as shown in Fig. 3.2, when

the PMSM is run as a generator by an external prime-mover (i.e. by the shaft

connected DC machine acting as motor as shown in Fig. 3.8), at a constant speed,

the hall effect position sensor outputs and the PMSMs armature induced phase

(C-phase) voltage are shown in Figure 3.3.

If the position sensor signals are

noted carefully, it can be observed that the mutual electrical phase shifting of the

position sensor signals are not exactly 1200 . This is most probably due mechanical

inaccuracies at the time of mounting of the position sensor. It is reflected in the

current waveform of the machine, as well, as will be discussed later.

3.2.4

Inverter controller

Three position sensor signals are first fed to wave-shaping-cum-filter circuit which

is made of 555 timer as shown in Fig 3.4, to eliminate the unwanted glitches in

the position sensor output. The X,Y and Z signals are crude signals which are

produced by the position sensors and X1, Y1 and Z1 are signals which are free

of glitches and are respective complements ofX,Y and Z signals. These are now

fed to the FPGA development board for processing. Now, the switching signals

for each IGBT of the inverter are generated from these X1, Y1 and Z1 signals

and fed to the gate terminals of the inverter IGBTs. The program is shown in

Fig. 3.5. The logic that is implemented inside FPGA is such that as soon as

17

Figure 3.3: Experimental open circuit voltage of phase-C and three hall

position sensors output

the phase induced emf of a particular phase passes from its positive zero crossing,

the IGBT of the inverter, that is connected to that phase and the positive DC

bus will be gated just 300 electrical after that, viz at r = 900 , the positive

zero crossing of phase-A induced emf comes and IGBT T1 is gated at r = 600 .

Under this circumstances the phase induced emf and the fundamental current of

that phase becomes co-phaser. This is called switching algorithm for Sensor Lead

Angle=Zero degree. This fact is validated in the subsequent sections. In Fig.

3.5, p,q and r are respectively X1,Y1 and Z1 signals. Output signal of 555

Timer is the inverted version of the corresponding input signal. To nullify this

inversion these signals are again inverted inside FPGA. In Fig. 3.5, s1,s2,s3, s4,

s5, s6 are the six switching signals as per generated truth-table, but to nullify

unwanted glitches, which may be generated due to FPGA interfacing card layout,

each switching signals are ANDed with one of the position sensor signals or its

inverted version, whose low to high going edge coincides with that of the switching

signal. The timer outputs and the switching signals are interfaced through digital

pins of FPGA. These signals are shown in Fig. 3.6.

3.3

While powering up, the DC link voltage, Vdc (Fig. 3.1) is slowly increased, and

system is kept under no-load condition and PMSM is started. The DC link voltage

is increased or decreased by changing the three phase voltages VR , VY and VB with

the help of a three phase variac as shown in Figure 3.7. The DC link voltage is

further increased to test the conditions of the drive at higher speeds. Subsequently,

the PMSM is loaded with generator loading arrangement as shown in Figure 3.8.

18

sensor output

The DC generator field current Ifdcgen is controlled by controlling the field voltage

and the load torque is controlled by controlling the load resistance Rload as shown

in Figure 3.8.

The experimental waveforms of important variables like phase voltage, corresponding phase currents and typical line voltages are presented in the report. The noload waveforms are shown in Fig. 3.9, Fig. 3.10, Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.12.

The

experimental waveforms of the drive under loaded conditions are shown in Fig.

3.13 and Fig.3.14.

The experimental results are quite satisfactory except at some parts of the waveforms. In one particular 1200 electrical conduction cycle of a particular phase,

two consecutive 600 conduction cycles are not symmetrical. The reason may be

(as already explained earlier) and are validated in Fig. 3.3, i.e. the Hall position

sensors outputs mutually are not exactly 1200 electrical apart. If the steady state

experimental waveforms are noticed carefully, it can be noted that the phase angle between the fundamental armature phase current and corresponding armature

phase back emf appears to be 00 . This is true irrespective the DC Link Voltage

and loading conditions applied, as expected in the sensor lead angle 00 condition.

3.4

3.4.1

Simulation studies

Introduction

The drive reported in this chapter is PMSM drive fed by an VSI inverter under

1200 conduction of switches. If the switching pattern of 1200 is concerned, it can

19

Figure 3.5: FPGA program to generate control pulses of the switches under

1200 conduction

be noted that, sometime two devices (two IGBTs) and sometimes three devices

(Two IGBTs and one freewheeling diode) are conducting. Hence all the three

phase voltages of the machine can not be predicted under this operating condition

at a time. So, d q axis modeling of the drive is difficult here. So, a Detailed

Numerical Model is developed. In this model the a-b-c frame equations of all

twelve switching (as will be described later) combinations are numerically solved

and the performance of the drive is predicted. In short, this Detailed Numerical

Model requires better insight of the drive under all possible switching conditions.

3.4.2

The sensor lead angle is defined by the variable, s. The definition and inner

meaning of sensor lead angle is described in previous section. These definitions

are depicted in Fig 3.15. Here 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM is considered. Anti-

20

clockwise rotation of the rotor is considered positive and stator phases are fixed in

space. If the definition of sensor lead angle, given in previous section is considered,

for a specific sensor lead angle s the conduction pattern of a particular phase will

be as shown in Fig. 3.15. When q-axis coincides with OS+ line, positive current

conduction starts in the phase (as top switch connected to that phase is given

gate signal) and when q-axis coincides with OE+ line, positive current conduction

approaches to end (as gate signal of top switch connected to that phase is with

drawn). After 600 electrical rotation of field, when q-axis coincides with OS line,

negative current starts in the phase (as bottom switch connected to that phase

is given gate signal) and when q-axis coincides with OE line, negative current

approaches to end (as gate signal of bottom switch connected to that is with

drawn). This process repeats cyclically for all three phases. The sensor position

can be adjusted by locating the rotor position sensor properly with respect to the

stator frame. It is observable here that, sensor angle is coming out to be the angle

between phase induced e.m.f. and phase current.

3.4.3

From the basic knowledge of 1200 conduction VSI fed load, the total electrical

conduction period can be divided into six conduction intervals. Each conduction

interval can be subdivided into two modes. In MODE 2 two switches, one from

three switches connected to positive DC bus and one from three switches connected

to negative DC bus, conduct. MODE 2 contributes to the maximum time of that

conduction period. Now, MODE 1 lasts for a very small time before MODE

2, when three devices (two of which are the switches already conducting and

will continue to do so in the incoming MODE 2 and one diode which is the

21

Figure 3.7: The arrangement by which the DC link voltage of the inverter is

controlled

freewheeling diode connected to the phase which is leaving conduction, not to

suddenly stop the conduction of the phase). Two such MODE1 and two such

MODE2 are shown in Figure 3.17. This MODE 1 is present when conduction is

switching from previous conduction interval to present conduction interval. This

MODE 1 is called Commutating Modeor Inter-switch Mode. MODE 1

lasts for the time up to which current through the phase which is outgoing persists

and free wheeling diode is on. When this current is zero operation is switched

to MODE 2. So, it is clear that throughout one complete electrical cycle there

are six MODE 1 and six MODE 2, which occur depending upon electrical rotor

positions. These six MODE 1 equations are similar but differ only w.r.t. some

functions relating electrical rotor position. The same can be told for six MODE

2 equations. The algorithm for simulating such drive is shown below in Fig.

3.16. In the algorithm shown the system equations are solved by FOURTH

ORDER RUNGE KUTTA method. And the variables like voltages, currents,

torque, and speed are updated in regular interval in each time step iteration. This

model is called DETAILED NUMERICAL MODEL [13] of PMSM drive. A

typical C code implementation of the above algorithm is done. The results of

the simulation is shown in subsequent sections.

3.4.4

System equations

Two Mode 1 and two Mode 2 conditions are shown in Fig. 3.17. Four more

similar Mode 1 and Mode 2 conditions exist. In Mode 2, only one loop current

22

excited DC generator connected to the shaft of the PMSM

flows and all phase currents can be expressed in terms of this current only. In

Mode 1, an extra loop current,icom exists. Given below are Mode 1 equations

when T 1, T 2 and D3 conduct and Mode 2 equations when T 1 and T 2 conduct.

Mode 1 equations when T1, T2 and D3 conduct:

Basic equations of this mode are as below:

ian = im + icom

ibn = im

icn = icom

Vdc = van vcn

van = vbn

(3.1)

Now, putting equation 3.1 in equations 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 and using torque balance

equations it is found that the dynamic equations of M ode1 can be arranged as

follows:

pi

com = f21 (im , icom , r , r )

(3.2)

pr = f41 (r )

Where, currents im , icom are the currents as shown in Figure 3.17 and the functions

are discussed in Appendix B. These equations 3.2 are used to get the solution of

variables specified in M ode1 in the simulation.

Mode 2 equations when T1and T2 conduct:

23

Figure 3.9: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

ian = im

ibn = 0

icn = im

Vdc = van vcn

(3.3)

Now, putting equation 3.3 in equations 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 and using torque balance

equations it is found that the dynamic equations of M ode2 can be arranged as

follows:

(3.4)

pr = f61 (im , r , r )

pr = f41 (r )

Where, currents im , icom are the currents as shown in Figure 3.17 and the functions

are discussed in Appendix B. These equation 3.4 are solved to get the variables

specified in M ode2 in the simulation.

3.4.5

Simulation results

The algorithm for the DetailedN umericalM odel is tested for different operating

conditions and DC link voltages. The steady-state simulated results are shown

in Fig. 3.18 and Fig. 3.19. The results are closely tallying with that of the

experimental ones. The simulated results also verifying that, at sensor lead angle

00 , the phase angle between the fundamental component of armature phase current

and corresponding phase induced emf is 00 . In detailed numerical model the beck

24

Figure 3.10: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

emf profile of the machine is assumed to be sinusoidal as shown in equations 1.1,

1.2 and 1.3. But, in the designed experimental lab prototype PMSM, the induced

emf profile is flat-topped with the flatness span of around 540 electrical as found

experimentally (seen from Fig. 3.3). Hence, when the PMSM is run as a motor

with self controlled 1200 conduction VSI, this is reflected as the less sharp peak

phase voltages as shown in Fig. 3.13 and Fig. 3.14. The two consecutive 600

electrical conduction intervals of machine phase are not exactly symmetrical. This

can be explained from Fig. 3.3, which reflects that the position sensor outputs are

not exactly 1200 electrical apart mutually, due to slight misalignment of the hall

effect based position sensors, as discussed before.

3.5

Conclusion

It can be noted that the operation of the PMSM that is explained in this chapter

is mainly under self controlled 1200 conduction mode. Now, for BLDC mode

of operation of PMSM drive the switching sequence of the inverter is that of

the 1200 conduction mode of the switches of a VSI. As a result, as explained

any two switches at a time conduct (if inter-switch transients of each mode are

neglected)causing the same current to flow through the conducting phases. In

actual DC motor due to the presence of brush segments, the armature current

enters into the pseudo stationary coil through one brush and the same current

leaves the pseudo stationary coil through other brush. As DC motor rotates,

the terminals of the same pseudo-stationary coil are formed with different set of

actual armature coil. In 1200 conduction mode VSI fed PMSM, the armature

25

Figure 3.11: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line

voltage at Vdc = 15V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

MMF phasor producing coil (at a time two phase coils are connected to form

the equivalent pseudo-stationary coil) set is changed as motor rotates due to the

presence of inverter. Other than this some extra advantages are also gained in

1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM. The main advantage of this is that, here as

soon as switch T 1 (Ref. Figure 4.14 starts conducting, the positive part of phaseA current will start building. Hence, if this start of conduction point of T 1 is

delayed or advanced, ia can be made to lead or lag the induced emf of phase A,

0 r cos(r ) . Thus the internal power factor (power factor w.r.t angle between

back emf and the corresponding phase current )of PMSM can be controlled directly

in 1200 conduction VSI configuration. The start of conduction point of T 1 can be

controlled by changings which is a constant of equation 1.8. In further analysis

it is shown that this s = sensor angle of 1200 conduction VSI fed of PMSM.

Analytically speaking this implies that, in this 1200 conduction VSI the angles

(Ref equation 1.8) which is the internal power factor angle (neglecting commutation

overlap), can be directly controlled, though it is a voltage source inverter. In effect

it can be seen that change on s can shift the space angle of armature MMF,

Ma (Ref.Figure 1.4). This is analogous to the space angle control of armature

MMF by brush shifting in conventional DC machine.

26

Figure 3.12: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and line

voltage at Vdc = 30V olts, no-load and sensor lead angle = 00

Figure 3.13: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00

27

Figure 3.14: Experimental steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00

sensor lead angle s

28

Figure 3.16: Algorithm for simulating 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM

29

Figure 3.17: Conduction modes for PMSM drive (a) M ode1 with T 1T 2 pair,

(b) M ode2 with T 1T 2 pair, (c) M ode1 with T 3T 4 pair and (d) M ode2 with

T 3T 4 pair

30

Figure 3.18: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 25V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00

31

Figure 3.19: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and phase

voltage at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00

32

Chapter 4

Development of an analytical

Averaged Dynamic Model of a

PMSM drive operated with a

1200 conduction self-controlled

inverter

4.1

Introduction

In the previous chapter Detailed numerical mode of the PMSM excited by a 1200

conduction self-controlled VSI has been developed. This model is more detailed as

each of 12 conduction modes are to device switchings is properly presented with

their guiding differential equations. But though detailed and more accurate, this

model is totally numerical in nature. Much physical insight inside the process is

not obtained with this model. Moreover the set differential equations itself changes

from one operating mode to another. Hence, if such an inverter controlled drive

is to be controlled for adjustable speed application, and the controller parameters

are to be ascertained, a transfer function and/ or state variable based linear timeinvariant model representing the inverter switched PMSM must be found out.

This necessitated the development of an analytical, state-space-based, averaged

dynamic model, which is discussed in this chapter [14, 15]. It is less accurate than

the detailed numerical model but much greater physical insight of the happening

phenomena is possible with this model. Additionally, if an adjustable speed drive

is planned, by varying the DC link voltage of the 1200 conduction inverter feeding

the PMSM with the help of a front-end controlled rectifier, then the overall drive

comprising of the controllers, the front-end rectifier, the inverter feeding the PMSM

can be analyzed mathematically and the controller gain settings can be analytically

33

determined.

4.2

Now since the system is fed by a 1200 conduction VSI, the following assumptions

has been made for developing the averaged dynamic model:

1. Only fundamental component of armature current and the permanent magnet field MMF are responsible for producing average torque.

2. The dynamic value of the DC link current is assumed to be the cyclic average

of its DC component. The dynamic state is therefore modeled as a quasi

steady state, i.e. the DC link current is assumed to remain constant for one

electrical cycle of the armature current and change thereafter.

3. The armature current waveform is rectangular and therefore,

2 3

ilink = 1.103ilink

iapk =

(4.1)

where,iapk and ilink are peak of the fundamental armature current and dynamic value of the averaged DC link current respectively. This assumption

is done based on Fig. 4.1.

4. Due to self-control principle, the fundamental radian frequency of the armature current (r ) is locked with the mechanical speed (m ) of the motor,

i.e.

r = 0.5P m

(4.2)

, where P is the number of poles.

5. Inter-switching transient period (freewheeling period) is assumed small and

neglected.

6. Inverter losses are neglected.

7. Saturation and hysteresis effects are neglected.

8. PMSM armature is star connected and non-salient in nature.

Now, following these assumptions it can be written that:

ia = 1.103ilink cos(r t)

ic = 1.103ilink cos(r t + 2/3)

(4.3)

r = r t + r0

34

(4.4)

Figure 4.1: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase current and DC link

current at Vdc = 35V olts, Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load

Torque, TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00

Where, r0 = Value of electrical rotor position,r when ia attains its peak value.

Now, refereing to Fig. 3.15, it can be concluded that:

r0 = s

(4.5)

Now, as inverter is taken to be lossless it is well accepted that, input power to the

system is:

Poi = van ia + vbn ib + vcn ic = term1 + term2 + term3

(4.6)

Using equations 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 4.3 in equation 4.6, it can be found that:

term1 = ra (i2a + i2b + i2c ) = 1.82ra ilink

2

2

)ib + 0 cos(r +

)ic

3

3

Now, using equations 4.4 and 4.3 in equation 4.9, it is obtained that:

term3 = 0 cos(r )ia + 0 cos(r

(4.7)

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

Using equations 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10, it can be obtained that:

2

35

(4.11)

Poi = Vdc ilink

(4.12)

Vdc = 1.82ra ilink + 1.82Ls pilink + 1.6550 cos(r0 )r

(4.13)

So, the equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. 4.2: So, from Fig. 4.2, mechanical

developed power:]

P

Pd = Te r = 1.6550 cos(r0 )( )m ilink

2

So, the electromagnetic torque is given by:

P

Te = 1.6550 cos(r0 )( )ilink

2

The torque-balance equation is given by:

2

2

Te = Jpm + TL = J( )pr + ( )f r + TL

P

P

So, the state-equations of this P M SM are given by:

pilink =

ra

0.90 cos(r0 )

0.55Vdc

ilink

r +

Ls

Ls

Ls

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

(4.17)

1 P 2

f

P TL

( ) 1.6550 cos(r0 )ilink r

(4.18)

J 2

J

2J

If equation 4.15 is closely scrutinized, it can be concluded that by changing sensor

angle, electromagnetic torque can be changed. This is similar to the process of

torque changing by brush shifting in a separately excited DC motor. The stateequations of the P M SM ( Equations 4.17 and 4.18) are found to be linear and

approximating the similarity of separately excited conventional DC machine with

constant excitation. The averaged dynamic model, thus poses the complex 1200

conduction inverter switched PMSM as a linear system.

pr =

36

4.3

Detailed Numerical Model

In the previous chapter, the DetailedN umericalM odel is developed and validated.

If the previous chapter is noticed, it can be seen that the presence of all 12 complex conduction modes were validated. The detailed numerical model can predict

steady state as well as transient behavior of the PMSM drive under self controlled

1200 conduction mode. Now, equations 4.17 and 4.18, which are the equations of

the Averaged Dynamic Model, are solved numerically and the results are compared to that found from DetailedN umericalM odel under same dynamic conditions,viz same step voltage, same load torque condition as shown in Fig. 4.3, 4.4,

4.5 and 4.6.

It can be noted that plots obtained from dynamic average model have slightly

more value at steady state condition but in transient condition they are almost

same.The cause for this higher value is again hidden in Fig. 4.1. It is noted that

at commutating sections ia is more than ilink , but for simplicity, here it is taken

for granted that at those conditions also ilink is a replica of ia . This causes slightly

higher ilink value and consequently electromagnetic torque (DC component) is also

slightly higher causing the speed also to be slightly higher.

DC link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,

TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 35V olts

applied at t=0sec

37

DC link current at , Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,

TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 25V olts

applied at t=0sec

4.4

fed with self-controlled 1200 conduction

inverter

Now the PMSM is started under the self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm

and subsequently it is loaded with mechanical load torque under different DC

Link voltage, Vdc and SPEED-TORQUE characteristics at different DC link voltage were found out. The speed torque characteristics are shown in Figure 4.7.

Now, if best fit curves are drawn from these characteristics, equations of those

characteristics will be as shown in 4.19, 4.20 and 4.21. In the equations, mechanical speed is expressed in Rad/Sec (m ) and Load Torque is expressed in Nm (TL )

For , VDC = 35V olts,

m = 14TL + 180

(4.19)

For , VDC = 30V olts,

m = 18TL + 160

(4.20)

m = 10TL + 120

(4.21)

Now, if equations 4.17 and 4.18 are employed to find the MECHANICAL SPEED

-LOAD TORQUE characteristics (neglecting rotational losses and other losses),

38

mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,

TL = 1.5N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 35V olts

applied at t=0sec

the equation of the characteristics is shown in equation 4.22.

m =

1.82ra

Vdc

TL +

P

2

(1.655 2 0 )

1.655 P2 0

(4.22)

Now, comparing equation 4.19, 4.20, 4.21 and 4.22, it can be calculated that:

0 = 0.0504wb m2 , ra = 0.2137ohm

If these parameters are compared with the measured (ref. chapter 2) it can be

concluded that the peak value of flux linkage of any phase due to permanent magnet

is almost same as that of the measured previously. But, the per phase resistance

found in the current chapter is nearly three times more than the measured value

at the previous chapter. This is not surprising, actually, during the determination

process of the speed-torque characteristics, motor parameter s that the inverter

will see are from the inverter terminals, and some electrical wires are connected

in between the motor phases and the inverter terminals. The PMSM armature

number is so small that resistance of wires seem comparable and even more. If

the proper length of the wire is taken into consideration the resistance found

is=ra (motorphase) + Rwire . The actual motor phase resistance, ra is so small

(as shown in previous chapter) that, the wire resistance, Rwire has eclipsed the

PMSMs armature resistance per phase.

39

mechanical speed at Viscous friction,f = 0.0016N m s/Rad, Load Torque,

TL = 1.3N m,sensor lead angle = 00 with step DC link voltage Vdc = 25V olts

applied at t=0sec

40

TORQUE(in Nm) characteristics of the PMSM, at different DC link voltage

under self controlled 1200 conduction algorithm

41

Chapter 5

Study and simulation of

schemes for position sensorless

operation of a PMSM drive fed

from a 1200 conduction

self-controlled inverter

5.1

Introduction

mounted position and/ speed sensors form a weak mechanical link for the high

performance or high torque electrical drive. So, continuous efforts are going on

to implement a drive where position and/speed information can be obtained from

the terminal variables, such as terminal currents or terminal voltages. Now for

permanent magnet synchronous motor drive, SEN SORLESS operation means

position sensorless operation. Position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive of

described configuration ensures more ruggedness of the drive.

5.2

The position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive calls for estimating the rotor

position of the motor from the terminal variables of the motor, such as motor

terminal voltages and terminal currents. Two such schemes have been described

here. In the first method a speed observer is utilized to estimate the speed of the

motor and that speed is utilized to integrate the position information of the motor.

In the second method the phase back emf of the motor is utilized to estimate the

rotor position of the motor.

42

5.2.1

Introduction:

Fig. 5.1 presents the schematic diagram of the speed observer based position

sensorless operation of the transistorized PMSM drive. The position estimator

operation of the PMSM drive

here is essentially a full order Luenberger speed observer. The rotor position

of the drive is integrated from this estimated speed. The Averaged Dynamic

Model of the drive is taken as the linearized equations of the plant (PMSM drive).

The observer of the plant is designed on the basis of the poles of this averaged

dynamic model of the plant. As described, the states of the plant are Averaged

DC link current and electrical speed of the motor. The averaged dc link

current is taken as the output of the plant and electrical speed is taken as the

state to be estimated. Now, this estimated speed is integrated to get the electrical

rotor position of the drive.

Design of The Observer :

According to the Averaged Dynamic Model, the state equations are shown in

equations 4.17 and 4.18. Now, putting all the values of the parameter as shown

in the appendix for the laboratory prototype PMSM and using f = 0.022N m

sec/rad (full load value) and TL = 0N m, the state equations are coming out to

43

be:

pilink

pr

213 157.73

257.18 16.03

ilink

r

1788.62

0

Vdc

(5.1)

1 0

y=

ilink

r

(5.2)

V =

C CA

C

CA

(5.3)

Where, A, C are the state matrices of the system. Putting values from equations

5.1 and 5.2, the determinant, det(V ) = 11.82 6= 0. So, it can be concluded that,

system (A,C) is fully observable.

Now, the eigenvalues of equation 5.1 are : 114.52 j175.69

The observer eigenvalues are chosen almost 10 times faster than that of the plant

eigenvalues, i.e. the observer eigenvalues are chosen at: -2000 and -3000.

4771

37276

pid

link

cr

p

213 157.73

257.18 16.03

id

link

cr

1788.62

0

Vdc +

4771

37276

(yyb)

(5.4)

yb =

1 0

id

link

cr

(5.5)

Where, the variables with hat are estimated value of the corresponding non-hatted

variables.

So, the equations implemented inside the block of Position Estimator as shown

in Fig. 5.1 are shown in equation 5.6:

cr + 1788.62Vdc + 4771ilink

pid = 4984id

link 157.73

link

d

cr 37276ilink

pr = 37533.18ilink 16.03

cr

pbr =

(5.6)

based environment is required for the P ositionEstimator, whose input will be the

44

Actual DC Link voltage and DC Link Current, and the position estimator will

calculate the estimated electrical rotor position by solving the equation 5.6 online

and will give the switching signals to the inverter assembly.

Simulation of the scheme:

The proposed observer-based implementation is simulated using a C code. The

algorithm of the simulation sequence is shown in Fig. 5.2. The difference in

this algorithm from that of shown in Fig. 3.16 is that, in sensorless scheme,

the position estimator equations (equation 5.6) are simultaneously solved with

equations of each mode and the control sequences are changed on the basis of the

estimated rotor position. The initial rotor position of the estimator is taken as 00

irrespective of the initial rotor position of the PMSM.

Simulation results of the scheme:

Three phase currents information of the PMSM are required for taking different

protection measures. So, at least two current sensors are required. An additional

current sensor is required for sensing the DC link current. But, it is assumed in

the averaged Dynamic Model(Fig. 4.1) that, the DC link current is the replica

of each phase current, when that current is positive (i.e. into the armature). So,

a new variable idc is introduced which is the instantaneous summation of all the

positive parts of the phase currents. This idc is fed inside the position estimator

instead the actual DC link current.

idc = ia Sa + ib Sb + ic Sc

(5.7)

The scheme is simulated using the algorithm shown in Fig. 5.2 and results are

shown in Fig. 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6.

Interpretation of the results:

The striking feature of this sensorless implementation is that the estimated rotor

position always leads the actual rotor position by about 300 electrical (Fig. 5.3) at

steady state. The effect of this is that, the phase back emf lags the phase current

by 300 electrical (Fig. 5.4) at steady state. It can be remembered that, the steady

state value of the speed obtained from detailed numerical model is a bit lesser

that that obtained from averaged dynamic model (Fig. 4.5 and 4.6). The speed

found from the speed observer is integrated to get the estimated rotor position. So,

theoretically the estimated rotor position should lead the actual rotor position and

the lead should go on increasing monotonically. But, the estimated rotor position

is used to change the switching modes of the PMSM affecting directly the variable,

idc and this idc is the state whose error is minimized in the process. Due to the

above mentioned reason the error between the actual rotor position and estimated

45

rotor position can not go beyond limit and stabilizes. It can also be noted that, if

initial position of the rotor is other than 00 , position estimator first reaches that

value and then speed build-up starts (Fig. 5.3, 5.6).

It can also be remembered that, inAveraged Dynamic mode the DC link current

is the cyclic average of the actual DC link current, but in the simulation, the

position estimator takes the raw DC link current along with all its ripples as

the input from the solution by Detailed Numerical Model. This phenomena is

reflected as the introduction of ripples in the estimated speed of the PMSM drive.

This is clear from the simulated result of the estimated speed (Fig. 5.6).

5.2.2

operation

Introduction:

Fig. 5.7 presents the schematic diagram of emf sensing based position sensorless

operation of the 1200 conduction inverter fed PMSM drive. If ideal rectangular

currents are assumed for 1200 conduction of the devices, then Fig. 3.18 3.19,

3.13 and 3.14 suggest that, for s = 00 , the peak of the armature phase current

fundamental and the corresponding phase induced emf coincides. This indicates

that if s = 300 lead is maintained, the positive zero crossing of the induced emf

and the positive going edge of the rectangular armature current of a particular

phase coincide. Therefore it can be concluded that, whenever the induced emf of

a particular phase crosses zero, no current was flowing through that phase for the

past electrical 600 (as it is coming in conduction). At those instants, the terminal

voltage of that phase is same as its induced emf i.e. zero crossing of a terminal

voltage of a phase is same as that of the induced emf of that phase. This relation

is utilized for implementing the sensorless operation [18]. A zero crossing detector

(ZCD) signals for each phase will be derived from the phase currents and phase

voltages information. Each of this signals is a zero crossing detecting signal of the

corresponding phase back emf, i.e. for each phase, the ZCD signal is high when

back emf if 0 and ZCD signal is low when back emf if < 0. From these three

ZCD signals, six switching signals for six IGBT will derived for sensor lead angle,

s = 300 .

The difficulty in implementing such a scheme is the presence of commutation

spikes, which arise at the instant of switching after every 600 interval. So, zero

crossing detectors can not be very easily employed for detecting the zero crossing

of the phase back emf by detecting the zero crossing of the phase voltage. So,

some special additional techniques are used here to detect the zero crossing of the

back emf satisfactorily.

Strategy and simulation of the scheme:

46

Some boolean variables are introduced : pa , pb and pc . The status of these variables are changed when ia = 0, ib = 0 and ic = 0 respectively. Otherwise, their

values are not changed, their old values are retained. Now, if van 0, pa = 1

else pa = 0. This is applicable for other two phases also. These pa , pb and pc are

three ZCD signals of back emf, i.e. pa = 1 when phase-A back emf if 0 and

pa = 0 when phase-A back emf if < 0. The same is applicable for other two phases

also. Before starting the PMSM in this sensorless scheme, IGBT, T5 and IGBT, T6

will be initially switched, so the PMSM rotor will assume r = 00 position. Now,

boolean variables are given an initial value corresponding to the r = 00 position,

i.e. pa = 1, pb = 0 and pc = 0. Now, the PMSM is ready to start in this sensorless

scheme. The logic is formed in such a ways that at the advent of pa =1, pb =0 and

pc =0 edge, IGBT T2 will be switched on and subsequently other switches will be

made on /off depending on the status of ZCD signals.

The simulation results of this sensorless scheme are shown in Fig. 5.9, 5.10, 5.11,

5.12, 5.13 and 5.14.

Interpretation of results:

Fig. 5.9, 5.10 and 5.11 reflect that, the ZCD signals are exact substitutes of the

Hall position sensor output. These ZCD signals are also mutually 1200 electrical

apart. The speed buildup process is also very smooth as shown in Fig. 5.12. As

shown in Fig. 5.14, it can be noticed that, the fundamental component of armature

current is leading the corresponding phase back emf by 300 electrical.

47

Figure 5.2: Algorithm for simulating the observer based position sensorless

operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive

48

Figure 5.3: Simulated waveforms actual rotor position and estimated rotor position of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =

48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

phase voltage of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc =

48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

49

Figure 5.5: Simulated waveforms actual replica of DC link current and estimated DC link current of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation,

at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

speed of PMSM under observer based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,

f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

50

Figure 5.7: Schematic diagram of back emf estimation based position sensorless operation of the PMSM drive

51

Figure 5.8: Algorithm for simulating the back emf estimation based position

sensorless operation scheme of 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM drive

52

Figure 5.9: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-A back emf and phase-A

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation

from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the

application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

Figure 5.10: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-B back emf and phase-B

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation

from starting to few cycles, at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N mwith the

application of step DC link voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

53

Figure 5.11: Simulated transient waveforms of phase-C back emf and phase-C

ZCD signal of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation,

at f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m with the application of step DC link

voltage Vdc = 48V olts at t=0Sec

Figure 5.12: Simulated mechanical speed of PMSM from starting till steady

state under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,

f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

54

Figure 5.13: Simulated DC link current of PMSM from starting till steady

state under back emf estimation based sensorless operation, at Vdc = 48V olts,

f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

55

Figure 5.14: Simulated steady state waveform of phase-A current and phaseA voltage of PMSM under back emf estimation based sensorless operation,

at Vdc = 48V olts, f = 0.022N m sec/Rad, TL = 0N m

56

Chapter 6

Study of FIELD ORIENTED

CONTROL of PMSM drive

6.1

Introduction

It is discussed in the previous chapters that how a PMSM drive can be used as

a variable speed drive. Researches are going[19, 8] on how to create an Electronically Commutated DC Motor, whose brush shifting effect can be easily achieved

only by changing the stator current command in the controller and the flux can

be easily controlled in magnitude and space angle. To be brief, by this sort of

control essentially the SPATIAL ANGLE of the machine is controlled. The SPATIAL ANGLE is actually the angle between FIELD FLUX and the ARMATURE

MMF.For FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL, the SPATIAL ANGLE is controlled

to the value of 900 . If SPATIAL ANGLE is controlled to some value other than

900 , it is called SPACE ANGLE CONTROL.

6.2

PMSM

the basic dynamic equations of a wound field synchronous motor are to be studied.

To describe the equations of the wound field synchronous motor, all the equations

will be referred to stator and equations will be written in a rotating reference frame

fixed to the rotor, as shown in Fig. 6.1. In the process of framing equations it is

assumed that armature is kept at stator and field is kept at rotor. The synchronous

motor is assumed to have DC field and d-axis damper as well as q-axis damper.

From this generalized Synchronous motor theory the theory of vector control of a

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is derived subsequently. The

d and q axis equivalent circuits of the wound field synchronous motor in the

57

Figure 6.1: Fixed stator windings magnetic axis and rotating rotor windings

magnetic axis with rotor axis are rotating at electrical speed, r

rotor reference frame are shown in Figure 6.2 and 6.3[6].

The respective voltage equations are shown in equations 6.1. It is assumed

that rotor dampers are short circuited. All the primed quantities are taken to be

referred to stator.

v = r i + p

ds

s ds

r qs

ds

(6.1)

0

0 i0 + p 0 = 0

vqr = rqr

qr

qr

0 = r 0 i0 + p 0 = 0

vdr

dr dr

dr

Equation set 6.2 is showing the flux linkage equations of q-axis Stator, d-axis

Stator, q-axis damper, d-axis damper and main field winding (in d axis) starting from the top.

dr

fr

0

0

0

(6.2)

0

dr = Lmd ids + L0dr i0dr + Lmd i0f r

f0 r = Lmd ids + Lmd i0dr + L0f r i0f r

Where, Lls =Leakage Inductance of the stator

58

Figure 6.2: d-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor

rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame

L0lr =Leakage Inductance of the rotor referred to stator

L0dr =Self Inductance of d-axis damper referred to stator

L0qr =Self Inductance of q-axis damper referred to stator

L0f r =Self Inductance of main field referred to stator

Lmd =d-axis Magnetizing Inductance

Lmq =q-axis Magnetizing Inductance

Lqs = Lls + Lmq =Self Inductance of q-axis stator

Lds = Lls + Lmd =Self Inductance of q-axis stator

rs =Per phase stator resistance

0 = r 0 =Per phase rotor resistance referred to stator

rr0 = rqr

dr

59

Figure 6.3: q-axis equivalent circuit of the wound field synchronous motor

rotating at electrical speed, r in rotor reference frame

The respective instantaneous electromagnetic torque equation is expressed in

equation 6.3.

3 P

(6.3)

Te = . (ds iqs qs ids )

2 2

Where P is number of poles of the motor. If equations 6.2, 6.1 and 6.3 are observed

closely, the torque production process can be expressed in a block diagram as shown

in Figure 6.4. The block diagram is clearly reflecting the coupling between the d

axis and q axis flux linkages and currents. Significant effect of induced currents

can also be seen in the generated torque. In brief it can be stated that a change in

either component of stator current, ids or iqs will induce rotor damper currents i0dr

or i0qr creating a lag in the torque response. Now if it can be ensured that ids = 0

for all operating conditions then the torque production block will change as shown

in Fig. 6.5. A change in iqs will induce transient q-axis component of damper

current, but torque will be unaffected provided ids remains zero. This ids is

measured with respect to synchronously rotating reference frame, so maintaining

ids = 0 inherently calls for flux (field) position information i.e. r as shown in

Fig. 6.1. Instantaneous torque is now directly proportional to iqs and ds as

in dc-machine with brushes in mechanical neutral position. So, modified torque

equation is shown in Fig. 6.4.

3 P

Te = . Lmd (i0dr + i0f r )iqs

2 2

(6.4)

So, SPATIAL ANGLE =900 is obtained with this ids = 0 operation. This is

called true FIELD ORIENTATION condition. Now, if main field current (i0f r )

of the synchronous motor is kept constant, the direct axis damper current (i0dr )

will also be constant and instantaneous torque will be directly proportional to

iqs . This effect can be gained from a synchronous motor if the rotor is made of

60

Figure 6.4: Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor

a permanent magnet having no dampers. Now the instantaneous torque equation

will be changed as shown in Fig.6.5.

3 P

Te = . 0 iqs

2 2

(6.5)

Where 0 is maximum flux linkage of any of the armature phases due to permanent

magnet rotor.

If Field Orientation process is looked into more deeply, the steady state time-space

phasor of the motor under this true Vector Control can be viewed as shown in Fig.

6.6. Where Vs andIs are the terminal voltage and terminal current of the PMSM

at steady state.

It can be concluded from Fig.6.6 that under true vector control the motor operates

under lagging terminal power factor.

6.3

6.3.1

Introduction

This section deals with the simulation studies of different Field Orientation processes of a PMSM excited by a voltage source inverter. First of all the current

control method of each of these processes are studied. Next Position Sensorless

61

Figure 6.5: Block diagram showing the torque production process in a Synchronous Motor at ids = 0

Operation of Field Orientation is studied[20].Then speed control method is discussed [8]. As it can be explained that the speed control is done by adjusting the

q-axis component of stator current in rotor reference frame.

6.3.2

True Vector Control calls for the the process so that, the d -axis component of

the stator current in rotor reference frame is zero. This has been ensured in this

work in two different ways. The most easy way is to implement this process with

a HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR and the second is to implement this with the

help of a SINE PWM INVERTER.

6.3.3

In this scheme the current is controlled with the help of a hysteresis comparator. The scheme is simulated totally in the MATLAB-SIMULINK environment.

The block diagram of the current control scheme is shown in Fig. 6.7. If Fig.

6.7 is concerned it can be seen that iq is given a finite reference value and id is

given a reference value zero. This current references are given to a TWO PHASE

TO THREE PHASE TRANSFORMATION BLOCK , where with the information electrical rotor position instantaneous phase current references are calculated

62

Figure 6.6: Steady State phasor diagram of the PMSM under true vector

control (neglecting stator resistance rs )

and these phase current references are passed to the input of the HYSTERESIS

PWM INVERTER block. The details of the block is shown in Fig. 6.8. It can

also be noted from this inverter block is that the DC LINK Voltage is taken as

Vdc =48Volts. It can be seen in the Inverter Block that, three hysteresis comparator

are used to generate the switching signals of each phase of the two-level inverter.

The logic inside the hysteresis is such that, say for phase A, when (ia ia ) > ,

upper switch of Ph-A of a two level inverter is switched on. When (ia ia ) < ,

lower switch of Ph-A of inverter is switched on. The equations that are realized

in the Inverter block are shown below:

van = Vdc 2Sa (S3 b +Sc )

vbn = Vdc 2Sb (S3c +Sa )

vcn = Vdc 2Sc (S3 a +Sb )

(6.6)

Where, Sa , Sb and Sc are the switching functions of the phase a, b and c respectively. So, the variable k, as shown in Figure 6.8, has a value of 13 .

Here, ia is instantaneous reference value of phase-A current, ia is actual instantaneous value of phase-A current and is the tolerance value within which actual

phase current can deviate from phase current reference. The same logic is followed

in other two phases also. Now, the phase voltages are fed to Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Motor block. The details of this block is shown in Fig. 6.9. The

speciality of this PMSM block is that, in this block three phase a-b-c frame equations of the cylindrical rotor PMSM are implemented. Next the PMSM is tuned

with the values of parameters of the existing lab-prototype PMSM, as shown in

appendix. In the torque generating function, instantaneous q-axis component of

63

Figure 6.7: Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL by HYSTERESIS COMPARATOR

Inverter

actual simulated value of each phase current is calculated and added with the help

of electrical rotor position as shown in Fig. 6.9.

64

It can be seen from Fig.6.10 and 6.11 that, mean value of both direct and

quadrature axis currents are following the reference values right from the startup.

It can also be noted that both the currents have ripples of the span dictated by

the tolerance value of the hysteresis comparator. Fig. 6.12 is verifying the fact

that phase-A back emf and phase-A current are in phase right from startup. This

is the verification of true vector control. Generation of electromagnetic torque and

speed build up are shown in Fig. 6.14 and 6.13 respectively.

It can be concluded from the simulated results that hysteresis controller is a very

rugged controller. But, the main disadvantage of this controller is that, if the

hysteresis band width is too small, then, to track the actual phase current the

switching frequency of the phase switches may go much beyond the switching

frequency limit, which may be detrimental for the IGBTs of the two-level inverter.

65

Figure 6.10: Simulated transient waveforms (zooming the transient) of qAxis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the

PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode

with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

6.3.4

Simulation of CURRENT CONTROL loop of VECTOR CONTROL by SINE PWM Voltage Source

Inverter

If equation 6.2 for a wound field synchronous motor are modified for the Permanent

Magnet Synchronous Motor the equations will change its form to equation 6.7.

qs = Lqs iqs

ds = 0 + Lds ids

(6.7)

Now the stator voltage equations for a PMSM are shown in equations 6.8.

vds = rs ids + Lds pids r Lqs iqs

66

(6.8)

Figure 6.11: Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link

Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

The basic process of using SPWM inverter to make ids = 0 is to maintain equation

6.9.

vds = r Lqs iqs

(6.9)

It can be seen from equation 6.8 that, maintaining equation 6.9 will ensure ids = 0

right from startup. The value of iqs is controlled by controlling the voltage value

vqs . The block diagram for this scheme is shown in Fig. 6.15.

67

and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control

with hysteresis controller in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

It can be noted in Fig.6.15 that, the difference between iqs (iqs reference) and

.

actual iqs is fed to the input of a Proportional-Integral controller to generate vqs

The block Sine Inverter in Fig. 6.15 is essentially a two phase to three phase

transformation block, where with the help of electrical rotor position information,

three phase stator reference voltages are generated that will ensure proper value

of stator current vector. Inside SINE PWM Inverter block actually these three

phase stator reference voltages are normalized to use as the control signals of the

sine PWM inverter. In the same block the SPWM inverter is also realized. The

details of this SINE PWM Inverter is shown in Fig. 6.16. The frequency of the

triangular waves are taken to be 10KHz. So, the switching frequency of the SINE

PWM inverter will be 10KHz.

68

Rad/Sec) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller in

current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

The design of Current PI controller is done based on certain considerations.

The current loop is much faster that mechanical time constant (i.e. mechanical

inertia,J is assumed to be large). This assumption will turn the q axis loop to

its simplified form as shown in Fig.6.17 [6].

69

torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with hysteresis controller

in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

Refereing to Fig. 6.17, the following guide lines are followed to design the

current controller:

Try to cancel the armature circuit pole with PI controller zero.

Kii

Kii

Mathematically, (s + K

) = (s + Lrsq ). i.e. K

= Lrsq .

pi

pi

The Bandwidth of the current loop is taken to be 1KHz, almost

switching frequency of the PWM VSI.

Lq

1

So, Kpi

= 21000

1

10 th

of the

Following the rules, the parameters of the Current PI controller of the PMSM

under test are found to be: Kpi = 1.9321 and Kii = 411.5530.

70

Figure 6.15: Block diagram of current control method of VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER

The system is simulated and the results are noted. It can be seen from Fig.6.18

and 6.19 that, mean value both direct and quadrature axis currents are following

the reference values. The speciality of this SPWM VSI fed vector control is that,

the mean value of the quadrature axis stator current is reaching its reference value

after some finite delay unlike the Hysteresis Comparator fed Vector control as can

be seen from Fig. 6.18. But, the mean value of the direct axis stator current is zero

right from the startup. Fig. 6.20 is verifying the fact that phase-A back emf and

phase-A current are in phase almost right from startup. This is the verification of

true vector control. Generation of electromagnetic torque and speed build up are

shown in Fig. 6.21 and 6.22 respectively.

If pair of figures Fig. 6.11, 6.19 and Fig. 6.12, 6.20 are compared then it can be

concluded that the harmonics content of the phase current of the machine fed from

Sine PWM inverter is much higher. But, the switching frequency of the IGBTs

of the Sine PWM inverter is fixed to the frequency of the triangular wave used

for the PWM. One very interesting result with respect to Sine PWM Inverter fed

Vector Controlled PMSM is that, as mechanical speed is increasing the ripple span

is also increasing in currents. This is happening due to the shifting of harmonics

content towards high frequency range as the speed of the machine is increasing.

71

6.3.5

SINE PWM Inverter

the operation of PMSM d-axis stator current in rotor reference frame is forced

to be zero. So, q-axis stator voltage equation in rotor reference frame is shown

in equation 6.10.

diqs

+ r 0

(6.10)

vqs = rs iqs + Lq

dt

Equating generated electromagnetic torque and load torque the torque-balance

equation is:

P

2 dr

2

1.5 0 iqs = J

+ f r + TL

(6.11)

2

P dt

P

So, the total state-space equation of the vector-controlled PMSM can be written

as shown in equation 6.12.

0

piqs = Lrss L

r + Lqss

s

pr = 1.5 J1 ( P2 )2 0 iqs Jf r

(6.12)

P

2J TL

order system point of

!

rs

view, it can be concluded that, the state matrix is x =

, input matrix is u =

Ls

vqs

TL

, A =

213 173.33

233.09 1.166

, B =

72

3252

0

0

1457.7

, C =

1 0

Figure 6.17: Simplified structure of q-axis stator winding for the design of

current PI controller

and D = 0. Now, the state equations refereed are equations 6.13.

x = Ax + Bu

y = Cx + Du

(6.13)

The numerical values of the matrices can be found by placing numerical values

of the parameters of the PMSM under test as given in the appendix. It can also

be noticed that the system described by equation 6.12is observable. Now, if a

LUENBERGER OBSERVERis designed so that the value of electrical speed,

r can be continuously observed (estimated) by minimizing the error between

actual iqs and estimated iqs , i.e ic

qs . By integrating this estimated electrical speed,

cr , the electrical rotor position, r can be estimated (ref. Fig. 6.1). So, the use

SENSORLESS OPERATION OF VECTOR CONTROL OF PMSM DRIVE. The

block diagram of position sensorless vector control can be shown in Figure 6.23.

Assuming the poles of the observer are 10times faster than system poles, the

equation of the observer are shown in equation 6.14.

c

cr + 4786iqs + 3252vqs

pic

qs = 4999iqs 173.33

c

c

c

p

=

34582

i

1.166

r

qs

r 34349iqs 1457.7TL

cr

pbr =

(6.14)

These equation 6.14 are implemented inside the block OBSERVER. The inside

of this observer block can be seen at the Figure 6.24. If Fig. 6.23 is noticed

closely, it can be seen that the actual iq is calculated with measured value of three

phase stator currents and with the estimated electrical rotor position, br . So, to

73

Figure 6.18: Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of qAxis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the

PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode

with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

start the machine in this method, the electrical rotor position has to be taken to

zero value. Since the observer is trained with initially zero electrical rotor position

value. In a previous section, one method is described to align the rotor to electrical

zero position. Now, this method is simulated and the actual and estimated q-axis

value of stator current is shown in Fig.6.25 and 6.26. It can be noted that the mean

value of the actual q axis stator current and the estimated q axis stator current

are same right from the start up. The true vector control operation is seen from

the phase current and phase back emf plot as shown in Figure 6.27 The comparison

of actual rotor position and estimated rotor position can be seen in Figure 6.28.

The result is as expected to be in mathematical relation, i.e. as the number of

poles of the PMSM is 4, the actual mechanical rotor position is exactly half of

the estimated electrical rotor position. The generated electromagnetic torque and

actual mechanical speed wave forms are shown in Figure 6.29 and 6.30 respectively.

The interesting feature of this sensorless vector control is that, here the actual

value of the q and d axis stator currents are calculated with estimated electrical

rotor position as shown in Fig. 6.23. But, as the estimated rotor position has

been merged with the actual rotor position (as shown in Fig. 6.28), the sensorless

process can be stated to be successful.

74

Figure 6.19: Simulated transient waveforms of q-Axis and d-Axis currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link

Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

6.3.6

VECTOR CONTROL with SINE PWM Inverter

In the previous parts of this section, it is discussed that how the PMSM can operate

as a motor whose direct and quadrature axis stator currents in synchronously rotating reference frame can be controlled independently. In short, by these methods

PMSM can operate as current fed machine, where the magnitude and phase angle

of the current can be independently controlled. In this part it will be discussed

that how the speed can be controlled in such a machine with true vector control in

operation. Actually, in such a method, the quadrature axis stator current reference

is generated from the output of the speed Proportional Integral controller. The

input of this sped PI controller will be the difference of mechanical speed reference

and actual mechanical speed reference. The block diagram of the scheme is given

in Fig. 6.31. Now, during the design process of the speed proportional-integral

controller, it is assumed that current loop is very fast with respect to speed loop

and as soon as one current reference is generated, immediately after that the actual stator currents follow that reference value. So, in the process of vector control

the mechanical loop of the PMSM can be approximated as shown in figure 6.32.

So the open loop transfer function of the system shown in Figure 6.32 is shown in

75

and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control

with Sine PWM inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

equation 6.15.

sKp + Ki 3 P

1

. . .0 .

(6.15)

s

2 2

Js

Where, Kp and Ki are the parameters of the speed proportional integral controller. Equation 6.15 can be further modified to equation 6.16.

GOL (s) =

GOL (s) =

1 + s

Ka

s2

(6.16)

Where, = Kp

and Ka = 32 . P2 .0 . KJi

i

So, the close loop transfer function of the system shown in figure 6.32 is given in

equation 6.17.

(1 + s )Ka

GCL (s) = 2

(6.17)

s + sKa + Ka

76

torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter

in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

If equation 6.17 is written in pole zero form the equation 6.17 will be changed to

equation 6.18.

(s + 1 )Ka

GCL (s) =

(6.18)

s(s + 1 ) + s(Ka 1 ) + Ka

If it can be maintained that 2 Ka 1, then it can be approximated that

1

Ka

Ka 1

Ka

Ka 2 1

= 1 .

By using this approximation, the close loop transfer function can be further modified to the equation shown in Fig. 6.19.

GCL (s) =

(s + 1 )Ka

(s + Ka 1 )(s + 1 )

(6.19)

Now, pole-zero cancelation is possible. The only pole of denominator can be set

in such a way that the time-constant produces a close loop Bandwidth of 100Hz

77

Rad/Sec) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in

current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

(10 time slower than current loop). So, the constraints to get the parameters of

the speed controller are shown in equation 6.20.

(Ka 1 ) = 2 100

2 Ka = 1000

(6.20)

By solving equations 6.20, the parameters of the speed controller can be found

out.

For the PMSM under test if the electrical and mechanical parameters are placed

properly, the parameters of the speed PI will come out to be Kpw = 5.43 and

Kiw = 3.44. Now the system shown in figure 6.31 is simulated with a step change

in mechanical speed reference 200rad/sec at t = 0Sec and the passive load torque

is changed from 0.56N m to 3N m at t = 0.5Sec. The mechanical speed and

electromagnetic torque are shown in figure 6.33. The transient and steady state

waveforms of the phase voltages are shown in figure 6.34 and 6.35 respectively. If

Figure 6.34 is viewed closely, it can be seen that in the starting parts (near about

78

Figure 6.23: Block diagram of current control method of POSITION SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL by SPWM INVERTER

t ' 0.1Sec) of the phase voltage waveform, there is no trace of modulation and

the shape has become like simple 1800 conduction inverter output phase voltage.

This is due to the fact that, at those time durations (near about t ' 0.1Sec)

the control signals of the SPWM was such that it was operating in the strong

overmodulation range of the Sine PWM inverter. Hence operation in those instants were highly non-linear due to over modulation and the limiter present in

the speed PI controller. The same non-linear phenomenas are also reflected in the

mechanical speed and generated EM torque waveforms in figure 6.33. Now, the

phase current and corresponding phase-back emf waveforms are shown in figure

6.36. The fact that is reflected from the figure 6.36 is that, the phase current and

corresponding phase back emf are in same phase. This ensures true vector control

operation of the PMSM.

79

Fig.6.23

80

Figure 6.25: Simulated transient waveforms (Zooming the transient) of qaxis actual and estimated currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference

frame of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

81

currents (in Amps) of stator in rotor reference frame of the PMSM under

position sensorless operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in

current control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

82

and Phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under position sensorless

operation of vector control with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode

with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nmsec/Rad, Passive load torque, TL =0.56Nm

83

Figure 6.28: Simulated steady state waveforms of actual mechanical rotor position (thm in Rad) and estimated electrical rotor position(the in

Rad) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

84

(Nm) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

85

(Rad/sec) of the PMSM under position sensorless operation of vector control

with Sine PWM Inverter in current control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, Passive load

torque, TL =0.56Nm

86

PMSM

vector control for the design of speed PI controller

87

and electromagnetic torque (in Nm) of the PMSM under vector control

with Sine PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage,

Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load

torque is changed from TL = 0.56N m to TL = 3N m at time, t = 0.5Sec.

88

of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in speed

control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m

89

Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine PWM inverter in

speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts, viscous damping

friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL = 3N m

90

Figure 6.36: Simulated steady state waveforms of phase-A current (in Amps)

and phase-A back emf (in Volts) of the PMSM under vector control with Sine

PWM inverter in speed control mode with Dc Link Voltage, Vdc =48Volts,

viscous damping friction,f=0.0016Nm-sec/Rad, passive load torque, TL =

3N m

91

Chapter 7

Advanced aspects related to

real time simulation and

implementation of aspects of

PMSM drive on FPGA

platform

7.1

Introduction

In one of the previous chapters, FPGA is already introduced to run the PMSM

drive under self-controlled 1200 conduction mode. But, in that chapter only some

simple logics (say NOT, OR, AND etc.) are implemented to found out the switching signals of the IGBTs of the Inverter from the hall position sensors outputs.

But, the real power of the FPGA can be realized in the processes where, online

solving of differential equations, online calculations of complex functions (say realization of trigonometric functions) etc. are done. To tackle this high computation

burden high memory support as well as high digital word support are essential.

FPGA gives a perfect environment for this. In this sections these aspects of FPGA

will be discussed. The FPGA used in this project is an ALTERA Cyclone chip,

named EP 1C12Q240C8 with version 0 interfacing board.

92

7.2

7.2.1

implementation of OBSERVER in FPGA

Introduction

In the current section the real-time simulation of the RLC circuit is done. The

differential equations are perunitized so that normalized state-variables are solved

through the programming in FPGA. In the last part of the section, the POSITION

OBSERVER is realized in FPGA to run the PMSM under self-controlled 1200

conduction mode.

7.2.2

Implementation method

The differential equations of a series RLC circuit are as shown in equations 7.1

and 7.2.

Vg = Ri + Lpi + vc

(7.1)

i = Cpvc

(7.2)

Where, Vg , R, L, C, i and vc are the applied voltage, series resistance, series inductance, series capacitance, the circuit current and capacitor voltages respectively.

Equations 7.1 and 7.2 are a pair of first-order linear differential equations that

can be solved using any of the numerical solution method. The equations are first

normalized with the help of arbitrary values Vb , Rb , where Ib = Vb /Rb .

R i

L i

vc

Vg

=

+

p +

Vb

Rb Ib Rb Ib Vb

(7.3)

i

vc

= CRb p

Ib

Vb

(7.4)

CRb = CR , a nondimentsional equation results:

LR pi

CR pvc

R 1

1

0

i

vc

R

Rb

= R ,

1

0

vc

Vb

= vc ,

L

Rb

= LR ,

Vg

(7.5)

Say, the parameters of the circuit are: Vg = 100V , R = 10, L = 20mH, C = 4uF

So, the base values of the quantities are shown below:

Voltage(Vb )

100V

Current(Ib )

10A

Rb

100/10 = 10

LR

2e3

CR

40e6

Step time(dT )

25.6us

93

The p.u. (per unit) values chosen are shown below and the negative value are

taken as the ones complement of its corresponding positive value.

pu value Equivalent digital Value Equivalent decimal value

2pu

7F F Fh

32767d

1pu

3F F Fh

16383d

0pu

000h

0d

-1pu

C000h

49152d

-2pu

8000h

32768d

The equation 7.5 are implemented in FPGA platform under different conditions

as shown in Fig. 7.1 and 7.2

Figure 7.1: FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RLC circuit using

Eulers Integration method

Results

Different variables of the R-L circuit are shown in Fig. 7.3 and different variables

of the R-L-C circuit are shown in Fig. 7.4. The results of the variables are fed to

94

Figure 7.2: FPGA Design file for real time simulation of RL circuit Eulers

Integration method

DAC and seen in the oscilloscope as shown in Fig.7.4 and 7.3:

7.2.3

Implementation Method

If the equations 5.6 are rearranged it can be obtained:

d

cr + Vdc + 2.7ilink

0.0006pid

link = 2.7ilink 0.1

d

cr = ilink 0.0004

cr ilink

0.00003p

cr

pbr =

(7.6)

d

cr + Vdc + cilink

mpid

link = ailink b

d

cr = ilink d

cr ilink

np

b

cr

ypr =

95

(7.7)

Figure 7.3: Transient waveforms of per unit circuit current and per unit input

applied voltage for a R-L circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH for a step voltage

of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec

Where, a, b, c, d, m, n and y are the parameters of the differential equations which

are to be per-unitized in order to implement in FPGA.

Different base values that chosen are shown below:

96

Figure 7.4: Transient waveforms of per unit capacitor voltage and per unit

input applied voltage for a R-L-C circuit of R = 10, L = 20mH,C = 4uF

for a step voltage of, Vg = 100V = 1pu applied at t=0sec

cr b

d

i

415Rad/s

Vdcb

20Amps

48V olts

c

rb

link b

Vdcb

ab

id

link b

=2.4

bb

Vdcb

=0.1

br

cb

ab =2.4

1 =

m

ab

0.0002sec

2 =

n

db

0.0006sec

3 = by

rb

0.015sec

r

b

dt

25.6us

The pu values chosen are shown below and the negative value are taken as the

ones complement of its corresponding positive value.

97

2pu

7F F Fh

32767d

1pu

3F F Fh

16383d

0pu

000h

0d

-1pu

C000h

49152d

-2pu

8000h

32768d

So, totally per-unitized equations which are non-dimensional are shown in equation

7.8

d

d c

+ 1.1i

0.0002pilink

= 1.1ilink

r + Vdc

link

(7.8)

c

c

0.0006p = ilink 0.008 i

c

0.015pcr =

r

link

The program to implement equation 7.8 are shown in Fig 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9 and

7.10.

Figure 7.5: FPGA design file showing clock and ADC outputs for observer

implementation for observer based sensorless operation

7.3

7.3.1

VECTOR CONTROL WITH SINE PWM

INVERTER of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in FPGA environment

Introduction

It is easily understood from the simulation results of the Vector Control process

that to implement this, continuous monitoring of the electrical rotor position is required. But, previously all the experiments are done with the help of three position

98

Figure 7.6: FPGA design file showing Eulers method to solve variables to

be estimated for observer based sensorless operation

hall sensors. With the help of three hall sensors, continuous monitoring of electrical

rotor position with good resolution is not possible. So, one incrementalencoder

giving 2500puls/mechanicalrevolution is installed with the shaft of PMSM drive.

This encoder gives very high resolution in the measurement of electrical rotor position. In the subsequent section experimental waveforms of different experiments

are presented. Those experiments are dedicated to the development of different

modules, that are required in Vector Control, in EP1C12Q240C8, CYCLONE,

FPGA environment. In the first section to get the feel of the encoder, some known

programs are rewritten and it is assumed that hall sensors are not there and the

same program is executed with single encoder signal.

99

Figure 7.7: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the DC link

current for observer based sensorless operation

Figure 7.8: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical

speed for observer based sensorless operation

7.3.2

Finding the performance of the encoder in running the PMSM in 1200 conduction algorithm under self control

The encoder is coupled with the shaft of the PMSM. This encoder is an incremental encoder. Hence, this encoder can find the incremental change in electrical rotor

position once the motor is running. If motor is at rest, encoder can not give any

output. So, first of all the PMSM is started with some other algorithm and when

electrical rotor position zero degree is ensured, FPGA switches to encoder based

algorithm. The programme structure is shown in typically five segments. All the

segments are the parts of the same FPGA programme.

The digital inputs that are taken inside FPGA are hall sensor outputs, encoder

output, one changeover (active low) signal, system clock and the outputs of the

programme are six switching signals as shown in Figure 7.11. The relative phase

100

Figure 7.9: FPGA design file showing equation to estimate the electrical

rotor position for observer based sensorless operation

Figure 7.10: FPGA design file showing equation method to generate switching signals for observer based sensorless operation

relations of these hall sensor outputs with respective phase induced emfs are shown

in Figure 3.3. Two sets of switching signals arrays are generated. Those two sets

of arrays are mutually ORed to get the actual switching signals as shown in Figure

7.12. First array of switching signals (i.e. T[6..1]) are generated from the 1200 algorithm with the three hall sensor outputs. Second array of switching signals (i.e.

T/[6..1])are generated from the 1200 algorithm with the encoder output. When

one array will be giving the switching signals other array will be giving zero depending on which mode is selected.

Figure 7.13 is showing the traditional FPGA program to run the PMSM in self

controlled 1200 conduction algorithm. The same program is discussed in Chapter

3. The only difference that is undertaken in the program of the current chapter is

that, here, hall sensor outputs are directly inputted into FPGA and the glitches

of the hall sensor outputs are taken care of in the FPGA itself by passing those

three signals through a D F lipF lop unlike the program of chapter 3, where these

glitches are eliminated by an external 555 timer based SMITH TRIGGER circuit.

Now, all the inputs are given to FPGA except the changeover-signal as shown

101

Figure 7.11: FPGA design files showing the digital inputs and outputs for

the program to evaluate the performance of the encoder

in Figure 7.11, which is made floating. So, change signal, as shown in Figure

7.14, will be low. Hence D-FilpFlop bldc-dff3 will be disabled and subsequently

over will be low and notover will be high as shown in Figure 7.14. So, switching

signals coming from the hall sensor program will be active and this will start and

run the PMSM.

After PMSM is started, changeover-signal is given low externally. Now, if the

logic in Figure 7.14 is followed, it can be said that change goes high, then both

the blocks bldc-counter1 and bldc-dff3 become active. Now, comparator bldccompare0 gives a low to high transition when sen[2..0]=101Binary=5Decimal.

This condition occurs when hall sensor output take the shape that h1 = 1, h2 =

0, h3 = 1. This condition will take place when electrical rotor position of the

PMSM will be satisfying the condition, 00 r < 600 . Now, bldc-counter1 will

start counting. When its count value will be 2, output of lpm-compare2 will take

low to high transition. bldc-dff3 will be clocked for the first time and the output

of this instrument will be high for the first time and hold this condition for the

rest of the time of the program execution. The state of this instrument will be

sustained due to the reason that after this instant the clock of the D-F/F will

vanish and the clock will again come after one mechanical revolution, but then

input of the bldc-dff3 is held at VCC i.e high state. Hence, signal over will

be high and notover will be low. Thus program with hall sensor, as shown in

Figure 7.13, will be disabled and with the the advent of r = 00 , program with

the encoder, as shown in Figure 7.15 will be enabled. The reason for leaving the

first sen[2..0]=5D edge is that, it may so happen that when changeover-signal

is given, PMSM may be somewhere in the middle of 00 r < 600 interval, so

program with encoder signal can not be initialized with r = 00 if changeover takes

place at the first edge.

102

Figure 7.12: FPGA design files showing two sets of switching signals which

are multiplexed to switch the IGBTs of the two level inverter

Program with encoder signal, as shown in Figure 7.15, is utilizing the concept of

lookup table. Actually, the incremental encoder is giving 1250pules /electrical revolution. This fact is utilized to make one counter, bldc-counter4,which is counting

the electrical rotor position from 0 to 1249 pulses. This counting corresponds to

counting of electrical rotor position 00 to3600 . These 1250 pulses are divided in

six sections, each section corresponds to one 600 durable switching interval. So,

the counter bldc-counter4 is counting up and making the electrical rotor position

starting from zero. This digital electrical rotor position information if fed to a

ROM, bldc-rom0. The ROM is so formed that, six bit output of the ROM will

give six switching signals for different 600 intervals. The MATLAB program to

make the entries inside the ROM is given in the appendix. The LOOK-UP-TABLE

, that is burnt in the ROM is given below.

7.3.3

Experimental results

The programme is executed in both the modes under identical operating conditions

and the results can be seen from the waveforms. The variable theta, that is the

electrical rotor position information (as seen from Figure 7.15) are fed to a Digital

To Analog converter and six switching signals individually are plotted with this

electrical rotor position value. The switching signals can be seen from Figure 7.16.

103

run the motor under 1200 conduction mode with hall sensor outputs.

I/P(in DEC)

0-207

208-415

416-623

624-831

832-1039

1040-1249

POSITION(in DEGREE)

0-60

60-120

120-180

180-240

240-300

300-360

S1

1

0

0

0

0

1

S2 S3

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

S4 S5

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

S6 O/P(in DEC)

0

48

0

24

0

12

0

6

1

3

1

33

Table 7.1: The lookup table to run the PMSM under self controlled 1200

algorithm with encoder signal

The PMSM is started under self controlled 1200 algorithm with hall sensors

and then subsequently switched to self controlled 1200 algorithm with encoder.

Both the stages are noticed under similar operating conditions. The waveforms

are shown in Figure 7.17 and 7.18.

104

Figure 7.14: FPGA design files showing the changeover process from hall

sensor to encoder mode.

Now, the effect of encoder can be strongly viewed from Figure 7.18. From

Figure 7.17, it can be seen that, in both phase current and phase voltage waveforms, the two consecutive 600 conduction intervals of IGBT 5 (in Figure 4.14, it

is refereed as T5) are not symmetrical due to asymmetrical placing of hall sensors

as explained in chapter 3. But, from Figure 7.18, it can be concluded that those

asymmetry has been eliminated almost with the help of encoder. This is due the

the reason that, in encoder operation, the very high resolution of the encoder pulse

makes it possible to maintain the exact switching pattern in all six 600 electrical

switching intervals easily. This symmetry is expected as can be seen from the

simulated results shown in Figures 3.18, 3.19 etc.

7.3.4

of vector control of PMSM drive

Introduction

The full logic requirement of a total Speed Controlled Vector Controlled PMSM

drive can be seen from Figure 6.31. This process incorporates Sine PWM Inverter

for the true Field Orientation of the PMSM drive. If one short description of

the total process is taken, the total logic flow can be easily understood. The

true Vector control is ensured by the fundamental sine voltages impressed on the

machine phases. The magnitude and phases of the phase voltages are dependent on

the sinusoidal control signals of the SINE PWM process. These sinusoidal control

105

run the motor under 1200 conduction mode with single encoder output.

signals are developed from the q-axis stator voltage reference, vq , d-axis stator

voltage reference, vd and Electrical rotor position, r , with the help of THREE

is generated by

PHASE TO TWO PHASE TRANSFORMATION [6]. The vds

is generated by the output of Current Proportional

utilizing equation 6.9. vqs

Integral Controller. The input of this current PI controller is the error of qaxis stator current, iqs . The reference of q-axis stator current, iqs is generated

from the output of the Speed Proportional Integral Controller. The input of this

Speed Proportional Integral controller is the mechanical speed error. The total

control logic is to be implemented in EP 1C12Q240C8, ALTERA CYCLONE,

FPGA.Development and subsequent hardware testing of these control modules

will be discussed in this section.

Deriving electrical rotor position from encoder output to get synchronized sine-waves as the control signals of the SINE PWM

It is explained that to run the PMSM in SPWM algorithm, the sine voltages that

are falling in each phase of the PMSM, have to be in synchronism with the electrical

rotor position. To sustain this condition, the control signals that will be used for

the SPWM control signals. Now, as explained, the encoder used is actually an

incremental encoder giving 2500 pules /mechanical revolution. So, electrically, it

will give 1250 pulses/electrical revolution for the lab-prototype 4pole PMSM. So,

106

Figure 7.16: Switching signals are plotted individually with respect to the

electrical rotor position when the PMSM was running under self controlled

1200 conduction algorithm with encoder.

total electrical 3600 will be divided into 1250 division and each division will be

of discreet 0.30 . So, the electrical rotor position that will be calculated will have

the resolution of 0.30 . The incremental encoder will give a TTL logic pulse-train.

Figure 7.19 is showing the inputs and outputs of the control block. The details

of this Control Block is given in the subsequent sections This pulse-train will be

taken inside FPGA with the help of digital i/o pin. This pulse-train will be used

as the clock of a MODULO UP COUNTER as shown in Figure 7.20. One very

interesting thing is that, this block shown in Figure 7.20 will derive the electrical

rotor position from electrical zero position (r = 00 ) and there after the theta will

be synchronized with actual electrical rotor position irrespective of the speed. It

will start calculating rotor position online from the instant when the rotor q axis

gets aligned with the a-phase axis (i.e.r = 00 ). Thereafter, add[10..0] variable

will be a measure of actual rotor position, i.e. thetar . Thus the add[10..0] variable

of Fig. 7.20 gets synchronized in space in real time. So, before starting the PMSM

with this SPWM algorithm machine has to be started with self-controlled 1200

conduction algorithm (with hall sensors) and subsequently switched to SPWM

algorithm at one r = 00 position and subsequently, encoder output will only be

used to find synchronized electrical rotor position. The change-over logic that is

to be used is similar to as shown and explained in Figure 7.14.

107

Figure 7.17: Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)

and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under self

controlled 1200 conduction mode with hall sensors in action at DC Link

Voltage, Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f = 0.0016N sec/Rad

and passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m

Generation trigonometric functions for PARKS transformation

The electrical rotor position information is used to generate different trigonometric

2

2

2

functions like cosr , cos(r 2

3 ), cos(r + 3 ), sinr , sin(r 3 ), sin(r + 3 ).

These trigonometric functions will generate these instantaneous outputs with the

input of r from modulo up counter, sync-upcounter0. The function generation

is shown in Figure 7.21.

108

Figure 7.18: Experimental steady state waveform of phase current (in Amps)

and respective phase voltage(in Volts) for the PMSM running under self

controlled 1200 conduction mode with encoder in action at DC Link Voltage,

Vdc = 17V olts, viscous damping co-efficient, f = 0.0016N sec/Rad and

passive load torque, TL = 0.56N m

It can be noted that these trigonometric functions are realized with six ROM

tables. The six roms that are shown in Figure 7.21 are changing the output values

of the function depending on the input, theta[10..0]. The values are changed in

each low-to-high going edge of the encoder-pulse-train. Other than that outputs

are latched. The functions that are used can be viewed in the order shown in

Table 7.2. These trigonometric functions would be utilized to form three phase

synchronized sine control signals from their two phase values instantaneously using

PARKS transformation as will be explained next.

FUNCTION

cosr

)

cos(r 2

3

2

cos(r + 3 )

sinr

sin(r 2

)

3

sin(r + 2

)

3

costh[15..0]

cosdth[15..0]

cosddth[15..0]

sinth[15..0]

sindth[15..0]

sinddth[15..0]

functions

109

Figure 7.19: FPGA design file showing the input and output of the control

signal, generation block

Figure 7.20: FPGA design file showing the derivation of electrical rotor position add[10..0]

Development of two phase to three phase transformation block in

FPGA

It is explained previously that, the two phase stator voltages, in rotor reference

frame, vq and vd are transformed to three phase static (real) stator voltages by the

relation shown in equation 7.9.

!

cosr

sinr

va

vq

2

2

vb = cos(r 3 ) sin(r 3 )

vd

2

vc

cos(r + 2

3 ) sin(r + 3 )

(7.9)

But, to generate the desired phase voltages SINE PWM will be used. So, if the

d and q axis voltages are perunitized and the same PARKS transformation as

shown in equation 7.9 is used, the three voltages that will come out will be actually

perunitized and these three voltages can be utilized as the three control signals of

the SINE PWM. The hardware implementation of this two-phase to three-phase

110

Figure 7.21: FPGA design file showing the computation process of different

instantaneous trigonometric functions of electrical rotor position, add[10..0]

transformation block is shown in Figure 7.22 and 7.23. These three control signals

Figure 7.22: FPGA design file showing the computation process of two components of each phase control signals

will be used to generate the actual SPWM switching pulses of the INVERTER.

These three control sine waves are compared with the triangular wave and the

respective switching signals are generated. The generation of triangular wave is

shown in Figure 7.24 and the comparison of three sine control signals with this

triangular wave is shown in figure 7.25. If figure 7.24 is noted closely, spwmcounter1 is a modulo up counter counting up to 2048 DECIMAL. So, its output,

count[11..0] will be a ramp with positive slope with peak value 2048 DECIMAL

= 7FF HEX. Now, this count[11..0] is subtracted from its constant peak value

in the block spwm-add-sub1 block to generate sub[11..0], which is a ramp with

negative slope with same peak value. Now, these two ramps are multiplexed with

111

Figure 7.23: FPGA design file showing the addition of all the components

and generation of actual three phase control signals of SINE PWM

clock counter11, which is a 5KHz clock, in spwm-mux1 block to generate the

triangular wave triangular[11..0]. So, the triangular wave will be unidirectional

having a span from 0 (000 HEX) pu to 2pu (7FF HEX) and its frequency will

be 5KHz. So, the control sine waves that are generated in 32bit format (ref.

Figure 7.23) are truncated in 12bit format and they are also shifted 1pu (1023

DECIMAL=3FF HEX) to be compared with the triangular wave. The shifting of

these control sine-waves are shown in Figure 7.25. Now, these three control signals

are individually compared with this triangular wave giving rise to the switching

signals the upper IGBTs of the VSI which would feed PMSM armature( IGBT

1,3,5 as shown in Figure 4.14). The switching signals for the lower IGBTs are

generated primarily by inverting the switching signals of upper IGBTs respectively.

Subsequently, 10sec blanking time is given between the switching signals of the

IGBTs of each phase. The blanking time is given by delaying each switching signal.

These delayed switching signals are further ANDed with their mother signal and

the ultimate output switching signals are generated from the output of those AND

gates as shown in figure 7.26.

112

Figure 7.24: FPGA design file showing the generation of triangular wave for

implementing Sine-triangle PWM strategy.

7.3.5

Introduction

The incremental encoder is mounted on shaft of the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The PMSM is now rotated with the shaft connected DC machine

run as a motor. The encoder is powered up. Now, the Sine PWM program, as

described previously, is executed in the FPGA kit. DC motor is started in such a

way that the forward rotation of the PMSM is taken place. So, the FPGA SPWM

program is taking encoder digital pulse-train inside and giving six switching signals as output. Now, different blocks, as described, are generating intermediate

signals, those signals will be tested in different condition. Now, the FPGA program is generating the switching signals to develop the phase voltages depending

on the control signals and the electrical rotor position (calculated from encoder

output signal). Now, under this condition the blocks inside FPGA are tested and

the results are presented in the subsequent sections.

transformation block

If figures 7.20, 7.21, 7.22 and 7.23 are closely viewed, it can be marked that these

blocks together are generating electrical rotor position, add[10..0], and three control sine voltages, va =Va[31..0], vb =Vb[31..0] and vc =Vc[31..0]. During the testing

process, the two phase reference voltages are kept at a constant value, vq = 0.8pu

and vd = 0.6pu. Now, first the results will be presented of the operation of two

phase to three phase transformation block. After that the synchronizing effect of

those control sine waves will be presented.

The, sine control signals and the cosine and sine components of vd and vq are

fed in a multichannel DAC and the outputs of the DAC are shown in Fig. 7.27

and 7.28. The scaling is done in such a way that when a digital bit combination

of 1pu magnitude acts as the input to the DAC, the DAC output is 5 Volts. Now,

113

Figure 7.25: FPGA design file showing the comparison of triangular wave

with each sine control signal for SINE PWM

theoretically, va = vq cosr + vd sinr , now putting values of different constants, it

can be calculated that, va = cos(r 36.90 ). Now, if figure 7.27 is concerned, it

can be concluded that, va lags vq cosr by near about 36.90 . Figure 7.28 depicts

that, va leads vd sinr by near about 520 . Peak value of different sine waves are

also in accordance with the expectations.

Now, if electrical rotor position, add[10..0] and the phase-a sine control voltage

are given given to a DAC, the DAC outputs, as obtained are shown in figures

7.29 and 7.30. It can be concluded that online derived electrical rotor position

and the control sine waves are always synchronized irrespective of speed of the

motor. From both the figures 7.29 and 7.30, it can be summarized that, at both

the speeds, va is having its peak value at electrical rotor position, r 360 , which

is essentially the evidence of synchronous property of the control sine wave. From

figure 7.20, it can be noted that, add[10..0] can range between 0 to 1249 DECIMAL value. Now, DAC is programmed in such a way that, correspondingly 1249

DECIMAL input, which is equal to 1.23 pu (as 3FF HEX = 1pu = 5Volts), DAC

output will be 6 Volts. This can be observed in in the experimental waveform of

theta[10..0] presented in Fig. 7.29 and 7.30.

Different switching signals, generated by the program shown in Figures 7.24, 7.25,

are plotted with different phase control sine waves. The plots are shown in figures

7.31, 7.32 and 7.33. In these figures the control signals are arithmetically shifted

1pu to make those switching signals unidirectional ti be compared with unidirec-

114

Figure 7.26: FPGA design file showing the blanking time between the upper

and lower switching signals of each phase of SPWM INVERTER

tional triangular waves as shown in Figures 7.24, 7.25. It can be concluded that

the switching signals are having correct phase relation with the phase-A control

signals.

Now, to test the switching signals further, one real-time inverter is real-time simulated inside FPGA and that real-time-inverter is switched with these generated

switching signals. The generated phase voltages of that real-time-inverter is shown

in the oscilloscope to check their relative phase relation and shape.

Now, if figure 3.1is noted,

vao = Vdc Sa

vbo = Vdc Sb

(7.10)

vco = Vdc Sc

where, vao is the voltage of point a with respect to -ve DC link bus. Similar

nomenclature is also applicable for other two phases. Now, Sa , Sb , Sc are switching

functions of the respective phases and also are the switching signals of T 1, T 3, T 5

respectively. So, Sa =1 when, T1 is ON and, Sa = 0 when, T4 is ON. Similar logic

is applicable for other two phases. Now,

van = vao vno

vbn = vbo vno

vcn = vco vno

van + vbn + vcn = 0

115

(7.11)

at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

So, it can be calculated that

vno =

3

2vao vbo vco

ac

= vab v

3

3

So, in terms of line voltages, the phase voltages can be written as:

van =

vbn =

vcn =

vab vac

3

vbc vba

3

vca vcb

3

(7.12)

vao +vbo +vco

3

(7.13)

Equation 7.10 is realized in FPGA as shown in figure 7.34. Equations 7.11, 7.12

and 7.13 are assembled and they are also realized in FPGA as shown in figure

7.35.

116

at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

Now, the phase voltages of the real-time-voltage source inverter are shown in

figures 7.36 and 7.37. The phase voltages are having theoretically expected shape

and their respective relative phase relations are also proper in accordance with the

theory.

7.3.6

Conclusion

The test results of the algorithm of Sine PWM process suggests that, the PMSM

drive can be run with Sine PWM algorithm as described in this chapter.

117

and phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 270rpm

118

and phase-A control signal at mechanical speed of 750rpm

119

switching signal of T1 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

120

switching signal of T3 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

121

switching signal of T5 as shown in Fig. 3.1, at mechanical speed of 1500rpm

Figure 7.34: FPGA program files to simulate the switching process of the

real-time-voltage source inverter

122

Figure 7.35: FPGA program files to simulate the generation of phase voltages

of the real-time-voltage source inverter

123

PU) and Phase-B voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage

source inverter

124

PU) and Phase-C voltages (in PU) of the output of the real-time-voltage

source inverter

125

Chapter 8

Conclusions and scope of future

work

8.1

Conclusions

This thesis presents analysis, offline simulation, real-time simulation and experimental implementation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive operated

under self-control with different control strategies.

First, electrical parameters of a laboratory prototype PMSM are experimentally found out. The generalized three phase equations of the PMSM form the

basis of the analysis and procedure to determine the electrical parameters of the

PMSM. It is worth mentioning here that if this procedure is followed for determination of the electrical parameters, then there would be no chance of demagnetizing

of the permanent magnet material of the rotor.

Next, a detailed numerical model of the PMSM operating under self control with a voltage source inverter under 1200 conduction mode is developed. This

model is capable of predicting transient as well as steady-state behaviors of the

PMSM drive. The name suggests that, in this model, each of the twelve possible

complex switching modes of the inverter feeding the PMSM, is individually modeled with the guiding differential equations and solved numerically. The model is

quite accurate, but, physical understanding of the drive behavior is very difficult

as it is totally numerical in nature. An existing laboratory prototype PMSM is

subsequently made to run with the help of a voltage source inverter operating under 1200 conduction mode, under self-control with three hall-effect based absolute

position sensor. The control algorithm has been developed under an FPGA environment with an FPGA development board. The experimental results and the

ones as predicted by the detailed numerical model are compared.

126

as mentioned earlier, is next developed. This model is less accurate compared to

the detailed numerical model but is a linear time invariant state-space based

one. It offers the advantage that the detailed system, characterized by twelve

complex switching modes, each with a different set of differential equations, is

ultimately reduced to a simplified set of two differential equations predicting the

same behavior with slightly lesser accuracy, as compared to the previous model.

However, this model provides much deeper insight about how the PMSM, without

a mechanical commutator, ultimately behaves similar to that of a conventional DC

machine. The results predicted by both these models are compared under identical operating conditions in transient as well as steady state and they are found

to be close. The averaged dynamic model forms the basis of analyzing a complete

PMSM drive if the DC link voltage at the input of the voltage source inverter is

controlled by incorporating a front-end controlled rectifier operated with a outer

speed loop and an inner current loop. Controller designs can also be done following conventional linear control system tools as the inverter-cum-machine has been

reduced to a linear time invariant system.

Subsequently, two position sensorless operation of the drive under self controlled 1200 conduction mode are proposed and simulated. The first one takes

help of Luenburger Observer to estimate the rotor position of the motor. The

averaged dynamic model is utilized to develop the equations of the observer. In

the second method, back emf of each phase of the armature of the PMSM is sensed

and hence the rotor position information is derived and accordingly the inverter

devices are switched.

A detailed study of the field oriented control of the PMSM is done next. Field

orientation with the help of a hysteresis PWM comparator and then with a sine

PWM inverter are simulated for the laboratory prototype PMSM. A new Position

sensorless field orientation strategy is proposed and simulated.

Next, an FPGA-based controller has been developed which initially accepts

the rotor position information from three hall-effect based absolute position sensors to generate the switching signals of a 1200 conduction mode VSI, but, finally

makes a changeover to accept a shaft-mounted incremental position encoder signal

to generate the same switching signals. The PMSM is thus run and experimental

results are presented.

Last but not the least, substantial work is performed in developing real-time

codes for different significant functional blocks required for experimental implementation of a vector controlled PMSM drive incorporating a sine PWM voltage

source inverter, under an FPGA environment. Real-time simulation of a rotor

position synchronized sinusoidal pulse width modulated inverter has been finally

127

To summarize, the salient features of this thesis are:

Electrical parameters of the PMSM are experimentally found out following

simple coupled circuit concepts.

A detailed numerical model of self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM

is developed and experimentally validated with a laboratory prototype.

An analytical averaged dynamic model of the drive is developed and verified

experimentally with the help of an FPGA-based controller, developed in the

thesis.

An observer based position sensorless operation of self controlled 1200 conduction VSI fed PMSM is proposed and simulated, both offline and in real

time.

A back emf sensing based position sensorless operation of self controlled 1200

conduction VSI fed PMSM is proposed and offline simulated .

Field orientation schemes of the laboratory prototype PMSM with and without position sensor are proposed and offline simulated .

Real time simulation of significant control blocks to be employed for field

orientation control of a PMSM drive with a SPWM inverter are made and

tested in FPGA and they are tested experimentally.

A part of the work, presented in this thesis, has been published and presented

in the IEE-organized International Conference, PEMD 2008, held at York, United

Kingdom, in April this year [14].

8.2

Future work

The following activities related to the development of the PMSM drive, whose

foundation stone has been laid in this thesis, may be undertaken in future:

Real-time implementation of a vector-controlled PMSM drive incorporating

a SPWM VSI controlled through an FPGA-based controller platform.

Real-time implementation of the sensorless strategies proposed and simulated in this work on a PMSM drive through an FPGA-based controller

platform.

Estimating the torque of the PMSM specially at dynamic condition by FEM

based techniques.

128

the PMSM drive.

129

Appendix A

A.1

4-pole, 1KW, 48Volts (DC), 2000rpm

stator-Armature: 3-phase, star-connected, per phase synchronous inductance(Ls )=3.075

104 H, per phase resistance(rs )=0.0655.

rotor-Field: permanent magnet with peak value of per phase flux linkage(0 )=0.0533wb

turnes

J = 0.001372Kg m2 , fnl = 0.0016N m sec/Rad, Tnl = 0.56N m

130

Appendix B

Dynamic equations of the two

operating modes of the PMSM

under 1200 conduction mode

B.1

The phase voltages of a PMSM are denoted by, van , vbn and vcn . The corresponding

phase currents are denoted by, ia , ib and ic . Now, referring to Fig. 1.3, the basic

phase equations of the cylindrical rotor PMSM (LB =0) can be written as [6]:

van

vbn =

vcn

rs + (Lls + LA )p

12 LA p

21 LA p

12 LA p

rs + (Lls + LA )p

12 LA p

21 LA p

12 LA p

0 cosr

0 cos(r 2

3 )

rs + (Lls + LA )p 0 cos(r + 2

3 )

(B.1)

Significance of the parameters and the constants are discussed in the previous

chapters.

Now, the electromagnetic torque equation of the cylindrical rotor PMSM can be

written as[6]:

P

3

1

1

Te = 0 [(ia ib ic )cosr +

(ib ic )sinr ]

(B.2)

2

2

2

2

131

ia

ib

ic

r

B.2

and one freewheeling diode D3 conduct

Figure 3.17 shows two loop currents when two IGBTs T1, T2 and one freewheeling

diode D3 conduct. Application of Kirchoffs voltage law in these two loops yields:

)]

Vdc rs (im +icom )0 r [cosr cos(r + 2

3

= C1

Lls + 32 LA

2

r (2i +i

) [cos cos(r 3 )]

picom = s m com L 0+r3 L r

= C2

ls 2 A

pim + 2picom =

2pim +

C1 2

C2 1

1

2

1

2

!

!

2

1

!

C1

C2

1 2

2 1

(B.3)

(B.4)

2

Te = P2 0 [ia cosr + ib cos(r 2

3 ) + ic cos(r + 3 )

= P2 0 [ 32 (im + icom )cosr + 23 (im + icom )sinr ]

(B.5)

P

2f

[Te TL

r ]

2J

P

pr = f41 (r ) = r

B.3

(B.6)

(B.7)

conduct

Figure 3.17 shows one loop current when two IGBTs T1, T2 conduct. Application

of Kirchoffs voltage law in this loop yields:

pim = f51 (im , r , r ) =

2Lls + 3LA

2

3 )]

(B.8)

Electromagnetic torque:

Te =

P

2 0 [ia cosr

+ ib cos(r 2

+ 2

3 ) + ic cos(

3 )

r

3

P

3

= 2 0 [ 2 im cosr + 2 im sinr ]

pr = f61 (im , r , r ) =

P

2f

[Te TL

r ]

2J

P

132

(B.9)

(B.10)

Appendix C

C.1

table of switching pattern for encoder

based 1200 conduction logic

clear

clc

i=0;

k=1;

while i < 1250

if (i 0)and(i < 208)

a(k+i)=48;

end

if (i 208)and(i < 416)

a(k+i)=24;

end

if (i 416)and(i < 624)

a(k+i)=12;

end

if (i 624)and(i < 832)

a(k+i)=6;

end

if (i 832)and(i < 1040)

a(k+i)=3;

end

if (i 1040)and(i < 1250)

a(k+i)=33;

end

i=i+1;

end

c=abs(bin2dec(dec2bin(a,6)))

133

134

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136

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