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Oil related microbiology

Terje Torsvik

UNI - CIPR

CENTRE FOR INTEGRATED PETROLEUM RESEARCH

Important microbial processes in oil production: Reservoir souring Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Produced water
Important microbial processes in oil production:
Reservoir souring
Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC)
Produced water reinjection (PWRI)
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery
VFA
VFB

Reservoir souring in offshore oil production

Sea water is injected into the reservoir as pressure support Oxygen is removed to reduce corrosion Sea water contains 28 mM sulphate Sea water injection promotes growth of SRB in the water injection system and in the reservoir

SRB use sulphate for respiration:

SO 4 2- H 2 S

sulphate for respiration : SO 4 2 - → H 2 S H 2 S cause

H2S cause problems because it is toxic and corrosive Traditionally biocides have been used to inhibit SRB An alternative method based on nitrate injection have been developed in collaboration with Statoil and Hydro

Microbial production of H2S in the oil reservoir

•H2S production increases dramatically over the lifetime of a production well.

•High H2S levels may result in shut down of the well and reduced oil and gas production.

•H2S is toxic and corrosive

• Strong restrictions on H2S concentration in export gas

Strong restrictions on H 2 S concentration in export gas Ref. : Sunde et al. (19

Ref. : Sunde et al. (1993). Field related mathematical model to predict and reduce reservoir souring. SPE 25197 (1993)

Laboratory experiments:

Effect of nitrate injection on H2S production

Sulphide production and nitrate injectin in column. mM H2S 1,4 mM NO3 1,2 1,0 0,8
Sulphide production and nitrate injectin in column.
mM
H2S
1,4
mM
NO3
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
100
300
500
700
900
1100
Time (days)
mM H2S, NO3-

Ref.: Myhr et al. (2002). Inhibition of microbial H2S production in an oil reservoir model column. Appl. Microbiol Biotechnol 58: 400-408.

M i on tor ng i Gullfaks Water injection system Sampling point Sampling point
M i
on tor ng
i
Gullfaks Water injection system
Sampling point
Sampling point

Biocoupons collected from pipiline Placed in box for anaerobic transportation Filled up with anaerobic injection sea water

SRB i

h

fi

ld

n t

e

e

Biofilm sampling

box for anaerobic transportation Filled up with anaerobic injection sea water SRB i h fi ld

:

Measuring microbial activity in the water injection system

Measuring microbial activity in the water injection system Metal coupons incubated in pipeline GAB SRB NRB
Metal coupons incubated in pipeline
Metal coupons incubated in pipeline
GAB SRB NRB
GAB
SRB
NRB

The biofilm is analyzed for microbial activity

jul.95

jun.90

mar.02

jun.96

nov.94

may.99

mar.98

mar.93

aug.00

feb.00

may.01

feb.89

feb.97

feb.03

apr.94

dec.91

Water injection system at Gullfaks. Bacteria in biofilm before and after nitrate treatment

1,0E+10 1 0E+09 , 1,0E+08 1,0E+07 1,0E+06 1,0E+05 1,0E+04 1,0E+03 1,0E+02 1,0E+01 1,0E+00 Log cells/cm
1,0E+10
1 0E+09
,
1,0E+08
1,0E+07
1,0E+06
1,0E+05
1,0E+04
1,0E+03
1,0E+02
1,0E+01
1,0E+00
Log cells/cm 2

Time (months)

1,0E+02 1,0E+01 1,0E+00 Log cells/cm 2 Time (months) Biocide (glutaraldehyde) Nitrate (start oct. 99) SRB-FA

Biocide (glutaraldehyde)

Log cells/cm 2 Time (months) Biocide (glutaraldehyde) Nitrate (start oct. 99) SRB-FA SRB-MPN NRB Total bacteria

Nitrate (start oct. 99)

SRB-FA

SRB-MPNBiocide (glutaraldehyde) Nitrate (start oct. 99) SRB-FA NRB Total bacteria Detection limit FA method: 1e+05

NRB(glutaraldehyde) Nitrate (start oct. 99) SRB-FA SRB-MPN Total bacteria Detection limit FA method: 1e+05 cells/cm2

Total bacteria(glutaraldehyde) Nitrate (start oct. 99) SRB-FA SRB-MPN NRB Detection limit FA method: 1e+05 cells/cm2 Detection limit

Detection limit FA method: 1e+05 cells/cm2 Detection limit MPN method: 6 cells/cm2

SRB activity and corrosion rate at GFB

Nitrate added 1,2 25 1,0 20 0,8 15 0,6 10 0,4 5 0,2 0,0 0
Nitrate added
1,2
25
1,0
20
0,8
15
0,6
10
0,4
5
0,2
0,0
0
Time (month)
Corrosionrate
SRB activity
Corrosion rate (mm/y ear)
ap p.94 v.94
r.94
se
no uj
ma
r.95
l.95
oc
t.95
ma
r.96
ju
n.96
se
p.96
de
c.96
fe
b.97
ma
r.97
ma
y.97
au
g.97
no
v.97
ja n.98
fe
b.98
ma
r.98
ma
y.98
se
p.98
de
s.98
ma
y.99
au
g.99
no
v.99
fe
b.00
ju g.00
n.00
au
no
v.00
de
s.00
fe
b.01
ma
y.01
au
g.01
no uj
v.01
ma
r.02
l.02
oc
t.02
fe
b.03
ju
n.03
Sulphate
respiratio n rate (µg
H
2 S/cm 2 /d ay)
H2S in produced water on Gullfaks C 10 9 8 7 6 5 measured mg
H2S in produced water on Gullfaks C
10
9
8
7
6
5
measured mg H2S in water
4
Theoretical H2S development
3
2
1
Start of nitrate injection
0
nov-97
sep-98
jul-99
mai-00
feb-01
des-01
okt-02
aug-03
Date
m g H2S/litr e water

Sunde, Egil; Lillebø, Bente-Lise Polden; Bødtker, Gunhild; Torsvik, Terje; Thorstenson, Tore. H2S inhibition by nitrate injection on the Gullfaks field. NACE Corrosion 2004, Paper No 04760; 2004

Produced Water Reinjection (PWRI)

Produced Water Reinjection (PWRI) has been used on platforms, mainly due to requirements from the Norwegian Pollution Agency regulating release of hydrocarbons to the sea.

In the event of permission to produce oil in the Barents Sea, there must be zero release of hydrocarbons to the environment.

Challenges:

High temperature stimulate growth of thermophilic SRB Increased supply of VFA in the injected water stimulate reservoir souring

PWRI at Statfjord

Microboal analysis of back flooded injection water

Injection water

St A and B: Sea water

St C: Produced water

Injection water: Cold sea water (StA) Hot produced water (StC) Ocean floor Injection well Production
Injection water:
Cold sea water (StA)
Hot produced water (StC)
Ocean floor
Injection well
Production well
Oil reservoir
Samples
Samples

• Back-flooded injection water from wells 3000 meters below sea floor.

• From each injector: 9 samples taken at different times (0 – 96 hours) of back-flooding.

Sample

Statfjord A

Statfjord B

Statfjord C

Injected with

Sea water

Sea water

 

Produced water

T

t

empera ure

30 °C

30 °C

 

60 °C

Treatment

Deoxygenated, biocide treatment

Deoxygenated, nitrate treatment

Deoxygenated,

75

% produced water

   

25

% seawater

Souring potential H 2 S mg/liter (calculated by Statoil)

30

<1

 

200-400

Principal component analysis of native populations at St A and C

epsilon Statfjord A (StA) Thermoc Statfjord C (StC) Produced water (PW) Archaeo g Actinob Deferrib
epsilon
Statfjord A (StA)
Thermoc
Statfjord C (StC)
Produced water (PW)
Archaeo g
Actinob
Deferrib
StC
delta
Backflow
StA
beta Firmic
PW
alpha
-0 6
.
1 2
.
-1.0
1.0

K. Lysnes, G. Bødtker, T. Torsvik, E. Ø. Bjørnestad & Egil Sunde:

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 83:1143–1157

MEOR Principles – reservoir effects

REDUC WA P TER ED ERMEABILITY BACTERIA + OIL + N + P + O2
REDUC
WA
P
TER ED
ERMEABILITY
BACTERIA + OIL + N + P + O2
MOBILISED RESIDUAL OIL
ENHANCED SWEEP EFFICIENCY
RED
UCED
INTERFAC
IAL
TENSIO
N
Microbial biofilm on oil crude oil Bacterial colony surrounded by water
Microbial biofilm on oil
crude oil
Bacterial colony
surrounded by water

IFT laser-light scattering

IFT laser - light scattering • Best suited for low values (< 30 mN/m) • Measurement

• Best suited for low values (< 30 mN/m)

• Measurement range is 10 2 – 10 -5 mN/m

• Method has been successfully applied down to 10 -4 mN/m

• Measurement range is 10 2 – 10 - 5 mN/m • Method has been successfully

Bacterum: Dietsia maris Dodekan, aerobic synthetic sea water

100 OW IFT OWB IFT 10 4.0 ml/h 0.9 ml/h 1 8 ml/h . 1
100
OW IFT
OWB IFT
10
4.0
ml/h
0.9
ml/h
1 8 ml/h
.
1
2.7
ml/h
5.4
ml/h
0,1
0,01
0,001
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
Run time (days)
IFT (mN/m)

Kowalewski, E., Rueslåtten, I., Gilje, E., Sunde, E., Bødtker, G., Lillebø, B.L.P., Torsvik, T., Stensen, J.Å., Bjørkvik, B. and Strand, K.A., 2005, "Interpretation of Microbial Oil Recovery from Laboratory Experiments", Paper presented at the 13th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Budapest, Hungary, Apr 25-27

Laboratory experiments

Lab ora t ory exper iments Sor 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,32 Hopeman sandstone core 45 cm

Sor

0,38

0,36

0,34

0,32

Hopeman sandstone core 45 cm long, 5 cm diameter Statfjord model oil Flow rate: 0,1
Hopeman sandstone core
45 cm long, 5 cm diameter
Statfjord model oil
Flow rate: 0,1 ml/min = 1 PV/d
Anoxic synthetic seawater Microbes, O2, N, P 0 5 10 15 20
Anoxic synthetic
seawater
Microbes, O2, N, P
0
5
10
15
20

Time (days)

MEOR at Norne

Injection of aerobic seawater from start in

1997

MEOR implemented in January 2001 by adding N and P to the injection water to stimulate bacterial growth in the reservoir

Nitrate is also added in order to inhibit reservoir souring

water to stimulate bacterial growth in the reservoir N itrate is also added in order to

MEOR at Norne

2002: Increased oil production from MEOR at Norne

900 000 m 3

1 % of producible oil

At an oil price 20 $ per barrel and 1$= 5 NOK this amounts to approximately 750 000 000 NOK.

(Reported from Norne to OD in 2002)