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Chapter Outline

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

The Structure of the Atom


Elements and the Periodic Table
Covalent Compounds
Ions and Ionic Compounds

In This Chapter
As we learned in Chapter 1, each of the 118 known elements is composed
of a unique type of atom. In this chapter, we discover that there are actually a number of different variations, or isotopes, of the atoms associated
with each element. We explore the structure of the atom in further detail
and learn about the composition of isotopes. We also discuss the different ways that molecules and compounds are represented and named.

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Elements
and Compounds

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2.1 The Structure of the Atom

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Elements are characterized by the number and type of particles of which they are composed. In this section, we describe the components of an atom, explore the properties of
subatomic particles, and describe the relationship between the number of subatomic particles and the properties of an atom.

Opening Exploration 2.1


Mass Spectrometry and Subatomic Particles
ACCELER ATI O N

Electron
gun

Magnet
Heavy ions
are deflected
too little.

eee
eee
eee


Gas
inlet

DETECTION

20Ne

To mass analyzer

22Ne

Electron
Magnet
trap
Repeller
Accelerating
Light ions
plate
plates
are deflected
too much.
To vacuum pump

21

Ne

Detector

100
80
60
40
20
0

20

21
m/z

22

Mass spectrum

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IONIZATION

DEFLECTION

Relative Abundance

VA P ORIZATION

2.1a Components of an Atom


Atoms, the smallest chemical unit of matter, consist of three subatomic particles: protons,
neutrons, and electrons. A proton carries a relative charge of 11 and has a mass of 1.672622
310224 g. A neutron carries no electrical charge and has a mass of 1.674927310224 g. An
electron carries a relative charge of 21 and has a mass of 9.109383310227 g.
Two of the subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, are found in the atomic
nucleus, a very small region of high density at the center of the atom. Electrons are found
Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Interactive Figure 2.1.1


Explore the components of
an atom.
Approximately 1010 m

Region occupied
by electrons
Nucleus

Mass and Charge of an Atom


The mass and charge of an atom affect the physical and chemical properties of the element
and the compounds it forms. As shown in Table 2.1.1, the three subatomic particles are
easily differentiated by both charge and mass. The mass of an atom is almost entirely accounted for by its dense nucleus of protons and neutrons. The actual mass of protons and
neutrons is very small, so it is more convenient to define the mass of these particles using
a different unit. The atomic mass unit (u) is defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom
that contains six protons and six neutrons. Because neutrons and protons have very similar
masses, both have a mass of approximately 1 u. The mass of an electron is about 2000 times
less that of protons and neutrons, and it has a mass of approximately zero on the atomic
mass unit scale.
Atoms are neutral because protons and electrons have equal, opposite charges and
atoms have equal numbers of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.
An ion is an atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons; because the number
of protons and electrons is not equal, the atom has an overall positive or negative charge.
When an atom carries more protons than electrons, it carries an overall positive charge and
is called a cation. An atom with more electrons than protons has an overall negative charge
and is called an anion. As discussed later in this chapter, ions have very different properties
than the elements they are derived from.

Proton

Neutron

Approximately 1014 m

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in the region around the nucleus. As you will see when we study atomic structure in more
detail in an upcoming chapter, the precise location of electrons is not determined.
( Flashforward to Section 6.4 Quantum Theory of Atomic Structure) Instead, we visualize
an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus that represents the most probable location of
electrons (Interactive Figure 2.1.1).
The atom represented in Interactive Figure 2.1.1 is not drawn to scale. In reality, electrons account for most of the volume of an atom, and the nucleus of an atom is about
1/10,000 the diameter of a typical atom. For example, if an atom had a diameter the same
size as a football field, 100 yards, or about 90 meters, the nucleus of the atom would have
a diameter of only about 1 cm!

The arrangement of subatomic particles


in an atom (not drawn to scale)

Table 2.1.1 Properties of Subatomic Particles


Actual Mass (kg)

Relative Mass

Mass (u)

Proton (p)

1.672622310

227

1836

1.007276

Neutron (n)

1.674927310

227

1839

1.008665

Electron (e )

9.109383310

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Actual Charge (C)


1.602310

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231

219

5.485799310

24

(0)

21.602310

Relative Charge
11
0

219

21

29

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2.1b Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Atomic Symbols

mass
number
atomic
number

6p6n
6p

12
6

A
Z

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Atoms of each element can be distinguished by the number of protons in the nucleus. The
atomic number (Z) of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. For
example, a carbon atom has six protons in its nucleus, and therefore carbon has an atomic
number of six (Z 5 6). Each element has a unique atomic number, and all atoms of that element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. All atoms of hydrogen have 1 proton
in the nucleus (Z 5 1), and all atoms of gold have 79 protons in the nucleus (Z 5 79).
Because protons carry a positive charge (11), in a neutral atom the atomic number also
equals the number of electrons (21 charge) in that atom.
An atom can also be characterized by its mass. Because the mass of electrons is negligible, the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (u) is essentially equal to the number of
protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, called the mass number (A). For example, a carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus has a mass number of
12 (A 5 12), and a gold atom with 79 protons and 119 neutrons in its nucleus has a mass
number of 198 (A 5 198).

element
symbol

79 p  119 n
79 p

198
79

Au

The atomic symbol for an element (also called the nuclear symbol) consists of the
one- or two-letter symbol that represents the element along with the atomic number, written as a subscript number, and the mass number, written as a superscript number. For
example, the atomic symbol for a carbon (C) atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons is 126C ,
and the symbol for a gold (Au) atom with 79 protons and 119 neutrons is 198
79 Au. Note that
the number of neutrons in an atom is equal to the difference between the mass number and
the atomic number.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Write the atomic symbol for the following atoms.


a. A nitrogen atom containing 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 7 electrons
b. A uranium atom containing 92 protons, 143 neutrons, and 92 electrons

Solution:
You are asked to write the atomic symbol for an atom.
You are given the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.
a. 157N. The atomic number of nitrogen is equal to the number of protons (7), and the mass number is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons (7 1 8 5 15).
b. 235
92 Au. The atomic number of uranium is equal to the number of protons (92), and the
mass number is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
(92 1 143 5 235).

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.1.1
Practice Problem 2.1.1

2.1c Isotopes and Atomic Weight


Although all atoms of a given element have the same number of protons, the number of
neutrons found in the nucleus for a particular element can vary. For example, although
atoms of carbon always have six protons in the nucleus, a carbon atom might have six,
seven, or even eight neutrons in the nucleus (Interactive Figure 2.1.2). Even though the
mass number for these atoms differs, each is a carbon atom because each has six protons
in the nucleus.

Interactive Figure 2.1.2


Explore isotopes.
6e

6e
6p
6n

Carbon-12

6e
6p
7n

6p
8n

Carbon-13

Carbon-14

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Example Problem 2.1.1 Write atomic symbols.

Three isotopes of carbon

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Every carbon atom has six protons, and the mass of electrons is negligible; this means we can
conclude that the carbon atoms shown in Interactive Figure 2.1.2 have different mass numbers
because each has a different number of neutrons. Atoms that have the same atomic number
(Z) but different mass numbers (A) are called isotopes. Isotopes are named using the element
name and the mass number. For example, the isotopes shown in Interactive Figure 2.1.2 are
named carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14. The atomic symbols for these elements can be
written 12C, 13C, and 14C. Notice that because the atomic number is always the same for a given
element, Z is sometimes omitted from the atomic symbol for an isotope.

Atomic Weight
Most samples of an element in nature contain a mixture of various isotopes. Fluorine is an
example of an element with only one naturally occurring isotope. Tin, in contrast, has
10 naturally occurring isotopes. When we talk about the mass of an atom of a certain element, therefore, we must take into account that any sample of that element would include
different isotopes with different masses. The atomic weight for any element is the average
mass of all naturally occurring isotopes of that element, taking into account the relative
abundance of the isotopes. (Because the atomic weight of an element is actually a mass, not
a weight, the term atomic mass is often used in its place.) We use percent abundance,
the percentage of the atoms of a natural sample of the pure element represented by a particular isotope, to describe isotype composition for an element. For example, chlorine (Z 5
17) has two naturally occurring isotopes, 35Cl and 37Cl. The percent abundance of these two
isotopes is 75.78% 35Cl and 24.22% 37Cl. In other words, in any sample of chlorine, about
3/4 of the atoms are 35Cl and about 1/4 are 37Cl. Because there are more 35Cl atoms than 37Cl
atoms in the sample, the average mass of chlorine is closer to that of 35Cl than to that of
37
Cl. Atomic weight is a weighted average of the atomic masses of all isotopes for a particular element.
Average atomic weight depends on both the mass of each isotope present and the relative abundance of that isotope. To calculate the average atomic weight for an element, the
fractional abundance and the exact mass of the isotopes are summed as shown in Equation
2.1 and the example that follows.
average atomic weight 5

a 1exact mass2 1fractional abundance2


all
isotopes

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

(2.1)

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Example Problem 2.1.2 Calculate average atomic weight.


Calculate the average atomic weight for chlorine. Chlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes, chlorine-35 (34.96885 u, 75.78% abundant) and chlorine-37 (36.96590 u, 24.22%
abundant).

Solution:
You are asked to calculate the average atomic weight for chlorine.
You are given the relative abundance of the chlorine isotopes and the exact mass of each
isotope.
Use Equation 2.1, the exact mass of the isotopes, and the fractional abundance of the isotopes
to calculate the average atomic weight of chlorine.
average atomic weight (Cl) 5 (35Cl exact mass)(35Cl fractional abundance)
1 (37Cl exact mass)(37Cl fractional abundance)
average atomic weight (Cl) 5 (34.96885 u) q

average atomic weight (Cl) 5 35.45 u

75.78
24.22
r 1 (36.96560 u)q
r
100
100

Is your answer reasonable? The average mass of chlorine should be closer to 35 u than 37 u
because the chlorine-35 isotope is more abundant than the chlorine-37 isotope.

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.1.2
Practice Problem 2.1.2

Section 2.1 Mastery

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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2.2 Elements and the Periodic Table

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The periodic table is the most important tool that chemists use. Not only does it contain
information specific to each element, but it also organizes the elements according to their
physical and chemical properties. In this section we explore the periodic table, including
some of its organizing principles.

Opening Exploration 2.2

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Periodicity and the Periodic Table

2.2a Introduction to the Periodic Table


Information about the elements is organized in the periodic table of the elements
(Interactive Figure 2.2.1).

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Explore the periodic table.


1
1A
1
2
3

Period

4
5
6

1.0079

2
2A

13
3A

14
4A

15
5A

16
6A

17
7A

10

Li

Be

Ne

6.941

9.0122

18.9984

20.1797

11

12

Na

Mg

22.9898

24.3050

10.811

9
3
3B

4
4B

5
5B

6
6B

7
7B

8B

10

11
1B

12
2B

12.0107 14.0067 15.9994

He
4.0026

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

32.065

35.453

39.948

26.9815

28.0855 30.9738

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Ca

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

39.0983

40.078

44.9559

47.867

55.845

58.932

58.6934

63.546

65.38

69.723

72.64

74.9216

78.96

79.904

83.798

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

85.4678

87.62

88.9059

91.224

92.9064

95.96

(98)

55

56

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

Lu

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn
(222)

50.9415 51.9961 54.9380

101.07 102.9055 106.42 107.8682 112.411 114.818 118.710 121.760

127.60 126.9045 131.293

186.207

190.23

207.2

208.9804

(209)

(210)

87

88

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

Fr

Ra

Lr

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

Cn

Uut

Uuq

Uup

Uuh

UUs

Uuo

(223)

(226)

(262)

(267)

(268)

(271)

(272)

(270)

(276)

(281)

(280)

(285)

(284)

(289)

(288)

(293)

(?)

(294)

132.9055 137.327

18
8A

174.968 178.49 180.9479 183.84

192.217 195.084 196.9666 200.59 204.3833

Metal
Lanthanides

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

La

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

(145)

150.36

151.964

138.9055 140.116 140.9077 144.242

Metalloid

Actinides

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

(257)

(258)

(259)

(227)

Nonmetal

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

157.25 158.9254 162.500 164.9303 167.259 168.9342 173.054

232.0381 231.0359 238.0289

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Interactive Figure 2.2.1

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Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Each entry in the periodic table represents a single


Atomic number
element and contains the elements chemical symbol,
29
Symbol
Cu
atomic number, and average atomic weight. The ele63.546
ments are arranged in vertical columns called groups
Average atomic weight
and horizontal rows called periods. The elements
within each group have similar chemical and physical properties. The periodic, repeating
properties of the elements within groups is one of the most important aspects of the periodic table, as you will see in an upcoming chapter. ( Flashforward to Section 7.4 Properties
of Atoms)
Some of the groups in the periodic table are given special names (Table 2.2.1) to reflect
their common properties. For example, the Group 1A elements, the alkali metals, are all
shiny solids that react vigorously with air, water, and halogensthe Group 7A elements.
Most of the Group 2A elements, the alkaline earth metals, react with water to form alkaline solutions, and the noble gases (Group 8A) are the least reactive elements in the periodic table.
The 18 groups in the periodic table are numbered according to one of three common numbering schemes. The numbering scheme shown in Interactive Figure 2.2.1 is widely used in
North America and consists of a number followed by A or B. The elements in A groups are the
main-group elements, also called the representative elements, and the elements in B groups
are transition metals. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has
proposed a simpler numbering scheme, also shown in Interactive Figure 2.2.1, that numbers the
groups 1 to 18 from left to right.
There are seven horizontal periods in the periodic table. Portions of periods 6 and 7 are
placed below the main body of the periodic table to make it fit easily on a single page. These
portions of periods 6 and 7 are given special names, the lanthanides and actinides.
The elements on the left side of the periodic table are metals, the elements on the
right side are nonmetals, and the elements at the interface of these two regions are metalloids or semimetals. With the exception of mercury (Hg), which is a liquid metal at room
temperature, metals are generally shiny solids that are ductile and good conductors of
electricity. Nonmetals are generally dull, brittle solids or gases that do not conduct electricity; bromine is the only liquid nonmetal at room temperature. Metalloids have properties of
both metals and nonmetals.
Most of the elements in the periodic table are solids. Only 2 elements exist as liquids at
room temperature (mercury and bromine) and 11 elements are gases at room temperature
(hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and

Table 2.2.1 Special Names Given to Groups in


the Periodic Table
Group

Name

1A

Alkali metals

2A

Alkaline earth metals

6A

Chalcogens

7A

Halogens

8A

Noble gases

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radon). As shown in Interactive Figure 2.2.2, many elements are found as individual atoms at
the atomic level (helium [He], sodium [Na], and mercury [Hg], for example). However, many
elements exist as molecules consisting of two or more atoms of an element (oxygen [O2],
sulfur [S8], and white phosphorus [P4], for example), or as a connected three-dimensional
array of atoms (silicon [Si], carbon [C], red phosphorus [P]). Seven elements exist as diatomic
molecules in their most stable form: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.
Red phosphorus (P) and white phosphorus (P4) are examples of allotropes, forms of
the same element that differ in their physical and chemical properties. Red phosphorus,
which consists of long chains of phosphorus atoms, is nontoxic, has a deep red color, and
burns in air at high temperatures (above 250 C). White phosphorus, which is made up of
individual molecules of four phosphorus atoms, is a white or yellow waxy solid that ignites
in air above 50 C and is very poisonous. Other examples of elements that exist as different
allotropes are oxygen (diatomic oxygen [O2], and triatomic ozone [O3]) and carbon (diamond, graphite, and buckminsterfullerene).

Example Problem 2.2.1 Identify the structure of elements.


Consider the elements phosphorus, bromine, sodium, and hydrogen.
a. Which of these elements have allotropes?
b. Which of these elements exist as diatomic molecules?
c. Which of these elements exist as a metallic lattice?

Solution:
You are asked to describe the composition of some elements.
You are given the identity of the elements.
a. Phosphorus exists in allotropic forms (red phosphorus and white phosphorus). Both
contain only phosphorus atoms, but they differ in the arrangement of atoms in the solid.
b. Both bromine (Br2) and hydrogen (H2) exist as diatomic molecules. Hydrogen is a gas
under typical room conditions and bromine is a liquid.
c. Sodium exists as individual atoms held together in a metallic lattice.

The periodic table is used extensively in chemistry, and it is helpful to become familiar
with the structure of the table. You should learn the names and symbols for the first 36 elements and some other common elements such as silver (Ag), gold (Au), tin (Sn), iodine (I),
lead (Pb), and uranium (U).

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.2.1
Practice Problem 2.2.1

Section 2.2 Mastery

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Interactive Figure 2.2.2

1A

8A

1
H

2
He

2A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

3
Li

4
Be

5
B

6
C

7
N

8
O

9
F

10
Ne

11
Na

12
Mg

13
Al

14
Si

15
P

16
S

17
Cl

18
Ar

19
K

32

34
Se

35
Br

36
Kr

8B

1B

2B

28
Ni

29
Cu

30
Zn

31
Ga

Ge

33
As

45
Rh

46
Pd

47
Ag

48
Cd

49
In

50
Sn

51
Sb

52
Te

53
I

54
Xe

76
Os

77
Ir

78
Pt

79
Au

80
Hg

81
Tl

82
Pb

83
Bi

84
Po

85
At

86
Rn

107
Bh

108
Hs

109
Mt

110
Ds

111
Rg

112
Cn

113
Uut

114
Uuq

115
Uup

116
Uuh

117
UUs

118
Uuo

58
Ce

59
Pr

60
Nd

61
Pm

62
Sm

63
Eu

64
Gd

65
Tb

66
Dy

67
Ho

68
Er

69
Tm

70
Yb

90
Th

91
Pa

92
U

93
Np

94
Pu

95
Am

96
Cm

97
Bk

98
Cf

99
Es

100
Fm

101
Md

102
No

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

20
Ca

21
Sc

22
Ti

23
V

24
Cr

25
Mn

26
Fe

27
Co

37
Rb

38
Sr

39
Y

40
Zr

41
Nb

42
Mo

43
Tc

44
Ru

55
Cs

56
Ba

71
Lu

72
Hf

73
Ta

74
W

75
Re

87
Fr

88
Ra

103
Lr

104
Rf

105
Db

106
Sg

Lanthanides

57
La

Actinides

89
Ac

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Period

Explore the composition of elements.

Metalloid

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Metal

Nonmetal
The composition of selected elements

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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As we learned in Chapter 1, compounds are formed when two or more elements are combined chemically in a defined ratio. In this section, we explore covalent compounds, their
formulas, their names, and the methods used to represent them.

Opening Exploration 2.3


Exploring Molecules
O

C
C

CH3

H
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George Semple

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2.3 Covalent Compounds

2.3a Introduction to Covalent Compounds


Covalent compounds consist of atoms of different elements held together by covalent
bonds. ( Flashforward to Section 8.1 An Introduction to Covalent Bonding) Covalent compounds can be characterized as either molecular covalent compounds or network covalent
compounds (Interactive Figure 2.3.1). Water (H2O) is an example of a molecular covalent
compound. Water is made up of individual H2O molecules, with the oxygen and hydrogen
atoms in each water molecule held together by covalent bonds (Interactive Figure 2.3.1a).
Silicon dioxide (SiO2), also known as sand, is an example of a network covalent compound. Unlike water, which consists of individual H2O molecules, silicon dioxide is made
up of a three-dimensional network of silicon and oxygen atoms held together by covalent
bonds (Interactive Figure 2.3.1b).

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Interactive Figure 2.3.1

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Distinguish between molecular and network covalent


compounds.

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(a)

(b)
(a) Water molecules; (b) Si-O network in quartz (sand)

Molecules can vary in complexity from only two atH


oms to many. The simplest way to represent a molecule is through a molecular formula. A molecular
H O H
formula contains the symbol for each element present and a subscript number to identify the number
H C C C H
of atoms of each element in the molecule. If only one
O
H H H
H
atom of an element is present in a molecule, how- H
Isopropanol, C3H8O
ever, the number 1 is not used. A water molecule, Water, H2O
H2O, is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one
oxygen atom. Isopropanol has the molecular formula C3H8O, which means that a single mol
ecule of isopropanol contains three carbon atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen
atom. Notice that chemical formulas always show a whole-number ratio of elements.
Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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2.3b Representing Covalent Compounds with Molecular


and Empirical Formulas

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Whereas a molecular formula indicates the number of atoms of


H O O H
each element in one molecule of a compound, an empirical
formula represents the simplest whole-number ratio of ele- Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
ments in a compound. Hydrogen peroxide, for example, is a
molecular compound with the molecular formula of H2O2. The empirical formula of hydrogen
peroxide, HO, shows the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in the compound.
Network covalent compounds are also represented using empirical formulas. Silicon
dioxide, for example, does not consist of individual SiO2 molecules. The simplest ratio of
elements in the compound is 1 Si atom:2 O atoms. The empirical formula of silicon dioxide
is therefore SiO2. Carbon (diamond) is an example of a network element. It is made up of
carbon atoms held together by covalent bonds in a three-dimensional network, and the element is represented by the empirical formula C.

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Empirical Formulas

Example Problem 2.3.1 Write molecular and empirical formulas.


Determine the molecular and empirical formulas for the following substances.
a. Hexane, a laboratory solvent

b. Butyraldehyde, a compound used for synthetic almond flavoring in food

Solution:
You are asked to write the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound.
You are given the formula of the compound.
a. A hexane molecule contains 6 carbon atoms and 14 hydrogen atoms. The molecular formula
of hexane is C6H14. The empirical formula, the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in
the compound, is C3H7.
b. A butyraldehyde molecule contains four carbon atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. The molecular formula of butyraldehyde is C4H8O. In this case, the empirical formula, the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in the compound, is the same as the molecular formula, C4H8O.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.3.1

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Practice Problem 2.3.1


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Structural Formulas

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A molecular formula identifies the number and types of


elements present in a molecule, but it does not provide
H H H H
information on how the atoms are connected. A structural formula shows the linkage of all the atoms in the H C C C C O H
molecule. The covalent bonds are represented by lines
H H H H
between the element symbols. Butanol, a molecular compound made up of 4 carbon atoms, 10 hydrogen atoms,
and 1 oxygen atom has the structural formula shown here:
A condensed structural formula lists the atoms present in groups to indicate connectivity between the atoms. The condensed structural formula for butanol is
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH. Interpretation of this type of formula requires familiarity with commonly encountered groups of atoms, such as the CH3 or CH2 groups. Note that although the
structural formula does convey information about connectivity, it does not convey information about the three-dimensional shape of the compound.

Chemists often need to visualize the three-dimensional shape


H H
of a molecule to understand its chemical or physical properties.
H
O
A variety of models are used to represent the shapes of mole- H
C
H
C
C
C
cules, each of which has a different purpose. The wedge-andH
H
dash model is a two-dimensional representation of a three-
H
H H
dimensional structure that can easily be drawn on paper. In this
wedge-and-dash model of butanol, bonds are represented by
lines (bonds that lie in the plane of the paper), wedges
(bonds that lie in front of the plane of the paper), or dashes
(bonds that lie behind the plane of the paper).
The other two common types of molecular models are
created using molecular modeling software, sophisticated
computer programs that calculate the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds. A balland-stick model shows atoms as colored spheres connected by sticks that represent
covalent bonds. This figure shows the same molecule, butanol, represented with balls and
sticks. This type of model emphasizes the connections between atoms and the arrangement of atoms in the molecule. A less accurate ball-and-stick model can be created using
a commercial molecular modeling kit. This type of model can be held in your hands and
the atoms and bonds rotated.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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2.3c Representing Covalent Compounds with Molecular Models

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Interactive Figure 2.3.2


Explore representations of covalent
compounds.

2.3d Naming Covalent Compounds


Covalent compounds can be categorized in many ways; two common classes are binary
nonmetals and inorganic acids. Often, a compound will belong to more than one of
these categories. Covalent compounds are named according to guidelines created by the
Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division of IUPAC. Some compounds, however, have names that do not follow these guidelines because they have been
known by other common names for many years.

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In a space-filling model, interpenetrating spheres represent the relative amount of


space occupied by each atom in the molecule. A space-filling model of butanol is shown in
Interactive Figure 2.3.2. This type of model is useful when considering the overall shape of
molecules and how molecules interact when they come in contact with one another.

A space-filling model of butanol

Binary Nonmetals
Binary nonmetal compounds consist of only two elements, both nonmetals; some examples
include H2O, CS2, and SiO2. Binary nonmetal compounds are named according to the rules
in Interactive Table 2.3.1.

Interactive Table 2.3.1

Table 2.3.2 Prefixes Used in Naming Binary


Nonmetal Compounds

Rules for Naming Binary Nonmetal Compounds

Number

Prefix

1. The first word in the compound name is the name of the first element in the compound
formula. If the compound contains more than one atom of the first element, use a prefix
(Table 2.3.2) to indicate the number of atoms in the formula.
CS2
First word in compound name: carbon
N2O4 First word in compound name: dinitrogen

mono

di

tri

tetra

2. The second word in the compound name is the name of the second element in the formula
that has been changed to end with -ide. In all cases, use a prefix (Table 2.3.2) to indicate
the number of atoms in the formula.
CS2
Second word in compound name: disulfide
N2O4 Second word in compound name: tetraoxide

penta

hexa

hepta

octa

nona

10

deca

12

dodeca

3. The compound is named by combining the first and second words of the compound name.
CS2
carbon disulfide
N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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The names of some common binary nonmetal compounds are shown in Table 2.3.3.
Many binary nonmetal compounds have special names that have been used for many
years. Examples include water (H2O), ammonia (NH3), and nitric oxide (NO).

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Water

H2O

Sulfur dioxide

SO2

Hydrogen peroxide

H2O2

Sulfur trioxide

SO3

Ammonia

NH3

Carbon monoxide

CO

Hydrazine

N2H4

Carbon dioxide

CO2

Nitric oxide

NO

Chlorine monoxide

ClO

Nitrogen dioxide

NO2

Disulfur decafluoride

S2F10

Hydrocarbons, binary nonmetal compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen,


are also given special names. These compounds are one class of organic compounds, compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen and often other elements such as oxygen and
nitrogen. Hydrocarbons are named according to the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms
in the compound formula, as shown in Table 2.3.4.

Inorganic Acids
Inorganic acids produce the hydrogen ion (H1) when dissolved in water and are compounds
that contain hydrogen and one or more nonmetals. Inorganic acids can often be identified
by their chemical formulas because hydrogen is the first element in the compound formula.
Some examples include HCl, H2S, and HNO3.
Inorganic acids are named as binary nonmetal compounds but without the use of prefixes (HCl, hydrogen chloride; H2S, hydrogen sulfide), or using common names (HNO3, nitric acid; H2SO4, sulfuric acid). Groups of acids that differ only in the number of oxygen
atoms, oxoacids, are named according to the number of oxygen atoms in the formula.
Chlorine, bromine, and iodine each form a series of four oxoacids, as shown in Table 2.3.5.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Table 2.3.3 Names and Formulas of Some Binary Nonmetals

Table 2.3.4 Selected Hydrocarbons with


the Formula CnH2n12
Hydrocarbon

Name

CH4

Methane

C2H6

Ethane

C3H8

Propane

C4H10

Butane

C5H12

Pentane

C6H14

Hexane

C8H18

Octane

C10H22

Decane

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Table 2.3.5 Names and Formulas of the Halogen Oxoacids


Formula

Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Name

HClO4

Perchloric acid

HBrO4

Perbromic acid

HIO4

Periodic acid

HClO3

Chloric acid

HBrO3

Bromic acid

HIO3

Iodic acid

HClO2

Chlorous acid

HBrO2

Bromous acid

HIO2

Iodous acid

HClO

Hypochlorous
acid

HBrO

Hypobromous
acid

HIO

Hypoiodous
acid

When naming oxoacids, the suffix -ic is generally used to indicate an acid with more
oxygen atoms and the suffix -ous is used to indicate an acid with fewer oxygens. For example, HNO3 is nitric acid and HNO2 is nitrous acid; H2SO4 is sulfuric acid and H2SO3 is
sulfurous acid. Some common acids are shown in Table 2.3.6.
Table 2.3.6 Names and Formulas of Some Inorganic Acids
Name

Formula

Name

Formula

Hydrogen chloride

HCl

Nitric acid

HNO3

Hydrogen bromide

HBr

Nitrous acid

HNO2

Hydrogen sulfide

H2S

Sulfuric acid

H2SO4

Phosphoric acid

H3PO4

Sulfurous acid

H2SO3

Example Problem 2.3.2 Name covalent compounds.


Name or write the formula for the following covalent compounds:
a. CF4
b. P4S3
c. Hydrogen iodide
d. Hydrazine

Solution:
You are asked to write the name or formula for a covalent compound.
You are given either the formula or the name of the compound.
a. Carbon tetrafluoride. Notice that the name of the first element, carbon, does not include the
mono- prefix.
b. Tetraphosphorus trisulfide. Both element names include prefixes, and the name of the second element ends in -ide.
c. HI. This is the formula of an inorganic acid.
d. N2H4. This is a common name that must be memorized.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.3.2
Practice Problem 2.3.2
Section 2.3 Mastery

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2.4 Ions and Ionic Compounds

Opening Exploration 2.4

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2.4a Monoatomic Ions

Common Ionic Compounds

Charles D. Winters

Unlike covalent compounds, ionic compounds contain ions, species that carry a positive
(cation) or negative (anion) charge. Whereas the atoms in covalent compounds are held
together by covalent bonds, ionic compounds are held together by strong attractive forces
between cations and anions. The different makeup of these two types of compounds results
in species with very different physical and chemical properties. For example, many covalent compounds are gases, liquids, or solids with low melting points, whereas most ionic
compounds are solids with very high melting points.

Remember that an atom carries no charge because it contains an equal number of positively
charged protons and negatively charged electrons. When a single atom gains or loses one
or more electrons, the number of electrons and protons is no longer equal and a mono
atomic ion is formed. The charge on an ion is indicated using a superscript to the right of
the element symbol. When the charge is 11 or 21, it is written without the number 1. For
example, magnesium forms a cation, Mg21, when it loses two electrons, and bromine forms
an anion, Br2, when it gains one electron (Interactive Figure 2.4.1).

Interactive Figure 2.4.1

Mg 12 protons, 12 electrons

Mg2+ 12 protons, 10 electrons

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Explore ion formation.

Diagram of a Mg atom and a Mg21 ion

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Notice that when an ion charge is written with an atom symbol, the numeric value is
written first, followed by the 1 or 2 symbol. When describing the charge on an ion, the 1
or 2 symbol is written first, followed by the numeric value. For example, Sr21 has a 12
charge and Br2 has a 21 charge.
Cations and anions have physical and chemical properties that are very different than
those of the elements from which they are formed. For example, elemental magnesium is a
shiny metal that burns in air with a bright white flame. Magnesium ions are colorless and
are found in most drinking water.

Predicting Charge Based on Periodic Group


Most elements in the main groups of the periodic table (Groups 1A7A) form monoatomic
ions that have a charge related to the group number of the element.

Metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form cations that have a positive charge equal to the
group number of the element.
Sodium, Group 1A Na1 Calcium, Group 2A Ca21

Nonmetals in Groups 5A, 6A, and 7A form anions that have a negative charge equal to
8 minus the group number of the element.
Oxygen, Group 6A O22 Bromine, Group 7A Br2

Other elements form ions with charges that are not easily predicted.

Hydrogen forms both H1 and H2 ions.

Group 4A contains both metals and nonmetals, so some elements in this group form
cations and others form anions.

Other than aluminum, the metals in Groups 3A, 4A, and 5A form cations with positive
charges that are not easily predicted.

Transition metals typically form cations with charges ranging from 11 to 13. Many
transition metals form more than one monoatomic ion.

Some of the more common monoatomic ions are shown in Interactive Figure 2.4.2.
Notice that in general, metals form cations and nonmetals form anions; in addition, the
charges on most monoatomic ions are relatively small, between 12 and 22. The noble gases
(Group 8A) are quite unreactive and therefore do not form ions.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Interactive Figure 2.4.2

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Explore monoatomic ion formulas.

7A

H

H

4A

Li
Na Mg2
K

Ca2

3B

4B
Ti4

5B

6B
Cr2
Cr3

7B
Mn2

8B
Fe2 Co2
Fe3 Co3

Rb Sr2

1B
2

Ni

2B

Cu

6A

N3

O2

F

P3

S2

Cl

Se2 Br

Zn2

Cu2

Ag Cd2
Hg22

Cs Ba2

Al3

5A

Hg2

Sn2

Te2

I

Pb2 Bi3

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3A

2A

8A

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1A

Charges on some monoatomic ions

Example Problem 2.4.1 Predict charge on monoatomic ions.


a. How many protons and electrons are in a Ca21 ion?
b. Identify the ion formed by phosphorus. How many protons and electrons are in this ion?

Solution:
You are asked to determine the number of protons and electrons in a monoatomic ion.
You are given the identity of the element that forms a monoatomic ion.
a. Calcium is element 20, and the neutral atom has 20 protons and 20 electrons. A Ca21 cation
has lost two electrons and has 20 protons and 18 electrons.
b. Phosphorus is in Group 5A and therefore forms an ion with a 23 charge. Phosphorus is element 15 and the P32 ion has 15 protons and 18 electrons.
Is your answer reasonable? A cation (Ca21) should contain more protons than electrons,
while an anion (P32) has more electrons than protons.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.4.1
Practice Problem 2.4.1

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2.4b Polyatomic Ions


Polyatomic ions are groups of covalently bonded atoms that carry an overall positive or negative charge. The formulas, names, and charges of the common polyatomic ions are shown in
Interactive Table 2.4.1 and should be memorized. Most polyatomic ions are anions; there is only
one common polyatomic cation, the ammonium ion (NH41). You have seen many of the polyatomic ions in the formulas of inorganic acids. For example, nitric acid, HNO3, contains the
monoatomic ion H1 and the polyatomic nitrate ion, NO32.

Interactive Table 2.4.1


Names and Formulas of Common Polyatomic Ions
Ion

Name

Ion

Name

NH41

Ammonium

NO22

Nitrite

OH

Hydroxide

NO3

Nitrate

Hypochlorite

Cyanide

ClO

CH3CO22

Acetate

ClO2

Chlorite

SO322

Sulfite

ClO3

Chlorate

SO422

Sulfate

ClO4

Perchlorate

CN

2
2
2

22

HSO42

Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)

CO3

S2O322

Thiosulfate

HCO3

PO432
HPO422

22

C2O4

Phosphate

22

Hydrogen phosphate

Cr2O7

22

H2PO42

Dihydrogen phosphate

CrO4

SCN

Thiocyanate

MnO4

OCN

Carbonate
Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
Oxalate
Dichromate
Chromate
Permanganate

Cyanate

2.4c Representing Ionic Compounds with Formulas


Ionic compounds are represented by empirical formulas that show the simplest ratio of cations and anions in the compound. In the formula of an ionic compound, the cation symbol or
formula is always written first, followed by the anion symbol or formula. Ionic compounds do
not have a positive or negative charge because the total cationic positive charge is balanced
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by the total anionic negative charge. This means that unlike covalent compounds, it is possible
to predict the formula of an ionic compound if the cation and anion charges are known.
For example, consider the ionic compound formed from the reaction between aluminum
and bromine (Interactive Figure 2.4.3). We can predict the formula of the ionic compound
formed from these elements using the charges on the ions formed from these elements.

Write ionic compound formulas.

Aluminum is in Group 3A and forms the Al31 ion.


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Interactive Figure 2.4.3

Bromine is in Group 7A and forms the Br2 ion.


The 13 cation charge must be balanced by a 23 charge for the overall formula to carry
no net charge. Three Br2 ions, each with a 21 charge, are needed to balance the Al31 ion
charge. The formula of the ionic compound is therefore AlBr3.

Example Problem 2.4.2 Write formulas for ionic compounds.


a. What is the formula of the ionic compound expected to form between the elements oxygen
and sodium?
b. What is the formula of the ionic compound formed between the ions Zn21 and PO432?
c. What ions make up the ionic compound Cr(NO3)3?

Solution:
You are asked to write formulas for ionic compounds or identify the ions in an ionic
compound.
You are given the identity of the compound or the ions or elements that make up the
compound.
a. Na2O. Sodium is in Group 1A and forms a cation with a 11 charge, Na1. Oxygen is in Group
6A and forms an anion with a 22 charge, O22. Two Na1 ions are required to provide a total
12 positive charge that balances the 22 charge on O22.
b. Zn3(PO4)2. In this case, more than one of each ion is needed to balance the positive and
negative charges. Three Zn21 ions provide a positive charge of 16, and two PO432 ions provide a negative charge of 26. Parentheses are used to indicate the total number of polyatomic ions in the compound formula.
c. Cr31, NO32. Cr is a transition metal, and it is impossible to predict its charge when it forms
an ion. NO32 is a polyatomic ion with a 21 charge. The three NO32 ions in the compound
formula provide a total negative charge of 23, so the single cation must have a
13 charge to balance this negative charge.

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

Charles D. Winters

When the formula of an ionic compound contains a polyatomic ion, parentheses are
used if more than one polyatomic ion is needed to balance the positive and negative charges
in the compound. For example, the formula Ca(NO3)2 indicates that it contains Ca21 ions
and NO32 ions in a 1:2 ratio.

Aluminum reacts with bromine to form an ionic


compound.

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.4.2
Practice Problem 2.4.2

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2.4d Naming Ionic Compounds


Like covalent compounds, ions and ionic compounds are named using guidelines created by
IUPAC. Naming ionic compounds involves identifying the charges on the monoatomic and
polyatomic ions in a chemical formula, so it is important to memorize the rules for predicting
the charges on monoatomic ions and the names, formulas, and charges on polyatomic ions.
Ions and ionic compounds are named according to the rules shown in Interactive
Table 2.4.2.

Interactive Table 2.4.2


Rules for Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds
Monoatomic cations

The name of a main-group monoatomic cation is the element name followed by the
word ion.

Na1 sodium ion Mg21 magnesium ion

The name of a transition metal cation is the element name followed by the cation charge in
Roman numerals within parentheses and the word ion.

Fe21 iron(II) ion Co31 cobalt(III) ion


Monoatomic anions

The name of a monoatomic anion is the element name changed to include the suffix -ide,
followed by the word ion.
Br2 bromide ion O22 oxide ion

Polyatomic ions

The names of polyatomic ions are shown in Interactive Table 2.4.1


and must be memorized. Notice that the names also include the word ion.
NO32 nitrate ion MnO42 permanganate ion

Ionic compounds

The name of an ionic compound consists of the cation name followed by the anion name. The
word ion is dropped because the compound does not carry a charge. Prefixes are not used to
indicate the number of ions present in the formula of an ionic compound.
NaNO3 sodium nitrate Co2O3 cobalt(III) oxide

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Example Problem 2.4.3 Name ionic compounds.

a. What is the name of the compound with the formula CuCN?


b. What is the formula for aluminum nitrite?

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Solution:
You are asked to write the name or the formula for an ionic compound.
You are given the formula or the name of the ionic compound.
a. Copper(I) cyanide
The cation is a transition metal, and its name must include the cation charge. The cyanide
ion, CN2, is a polyatomic ion with a 21 charge. The single copper cation therefore has a 11
charge. The name of this compound includes the charge on the cation in Roman numerals,
within parentheses.
b. Al(NO2)3
Aluminum is in Group 3A and forms a cation with a 13 charge, Al31. The nitrite ion, NO22, is
a polyatomic ion whose name, charge, and formula must be memorized. Three nitrite ions are
needed to provide a total 23 charge that balances the 13 charge on Al31. Parentheses are
used to indicate the total number of polyatomic ions in the compound formula.

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.4.3
Practice Problem 2.4.3

2.4e Identifying Covalent and Ionic Compounds


It is often challenging to determine whether a compound is covalent or ionic. However, the
formula or name of a compound contains information that can be used to classify a compound. The following guidelines show how the two classes of compounds are similar and
how they differ.
Covalent compounds

Contain only nonmetals


Are named using prefixes to indicate the number of each element in a formula

Ionic compounds

Contain monoatomic and/or polyatomic ions


Usually contain metals and nonmetals but can also contain only nonmetals
Are never named using prefixes
Are sometimes named with the cation charge in Roman numerals within parentheses

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Example Problem 2.4.4 Identify covalent and ionic compounds.

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Identify each of the following compounds as ionic or covalent.


a. NH4NO3
b. Na2S2O3
c. SF6

Solution:
You are asked to determine whether a compound is ionic or covalent.
You are given the compound formula.
a. Ionic. Ammonium nitrate contains two polyatomic ions (NH41 and NO32), so it is an ionic
compound that consists only of nonmetal elements.
b. Ionic. Sodium thiosulfate contains the sodium ion (Na1) and the polyatomic thiosulfate ion
(S2O322). It is an ionic compound that consists of a metal ion and a polyatomic ion.
c. Covalent. Sulfur hexafluoride contains only nonmetals and no polyatomic ions.

Video Solution
Tutorial 2.4.4
Practice Problem 2.4.4
Section 2.4 Mastery

Chapter Recap
Key Concepts
2.1 The Structure of the Atom

Atoms consist of a nucleus that contains protons (relative charge 5 11) and neutrons
(relative charge 5 0), and electrons (relative charge 5 21), which are found in the
region around the nucleus (2.1a).

Protons and neutrons each have a relative mass of approximately 1 u, whereas the relative mass of an electron is 0 u (2.1a).

An ion is an atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons. Anions have a negative charge because they contain more electrons than protons; cations carry a positive
charge because they contain more protons than electrons (2.1a).

Atoms are characterized by their atomic number (Z), the number of protons in the
nucleus, and their mass number (A), the mass of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The mass number for an atom is essentially equal to the number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus (2.1b).

The atomic symbol for an atom shows the element symbol (X), the atomic number, and
the mass number ( ZA X) (2.1b).

Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number but differ in their mass number
(2.1c).

The atomic weight of an element is the weighted average of the isotope masses of that
element (2.1c).

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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2.2 Elements and the Periodic Table

The periodic table is an organizational chart used to arrange elements in horizontal


periods and vertical groups (2.2a).

Different regions and groups in the periodic table are given special names, such as
main-group elements, transition elements, lanthanides, and actinides (2.2a).
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Most elements are metals, a smaller number are nonmetals, and the elements that have
properties of both are metalloids (2.2a).

Allotropes are forms of the same element that differ in their physical and chemical
properties.
2.3 Covalent Compounds

Covalent compounds consist of atoms of different elements held together by covalent


bonds (2.3a).

Molecular covalent compounds consist of individual molecules, whereas network covalent compounds are made up of a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded
atoms (2.3a).

A molecular formula is the simplest way to represent a molecule and consists of


e lement symbols and subscript numbers that indicate the number of atoms of each
element in one molecule of the compound (2.3b).

An empirical formula is the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound


(2.3b).

Structural formulas and condensed structural formulas provide additional information


about the atom connectivity in a molecule (2.3b).

Wedge-and-dash models, ball-and-stick models, and space-filling models give information about the three-dimensional shape of a molecule (2.3c).

Binary nonmetals, covalent compounds consisting of only two nonmetal elements, are
usually named according to a set of simple rules (2.3d).

Some covalent compounds such as inorganic acids, oxoacids, and hydrocarbons are
named according to the composition of the compound or the relative number of atoms
of each element in the compound formula (2.3d).
2.4 Ions and Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are made up of cations and anions and have physical and chemical
properties that differ significantly from those of covalent compounds (2.4).

A monoatomic ion is a single atom that carries a positive or negative charge (2.4a).

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

54

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The charge on most main-group monoatomic ions can be predicted by the position of

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the element in the periodic table. The charge on a transition metal monoatomic ion can
vary (2.4a).

Polyatomic ions are groups of covalently bonded atoms that carry an overall charge
(2.4b).

Ions and ionic compounds are named according to a set of simple rules (2.4d).
The formula of a compound can be used to determine whether it is a covalent or an
ionic compound (2.4e).

Key Equations
average atomic weight 5

a 1exact mass2 1fractional abundance2


all
isotopes

(2.1)

Key Terms
2.1 The Structure of the Atom
proton
neutron
electron
atomic nucleus
atomic mass unit (u)
ion
cation
anion
atomic number (Z)
mass number (A)
atomic symbol
isotopes
atomic weight

periods
alkali metal
halogen
alkaline earth metal
noble gas
main-group elements
transition elements
lanthanides
actinides
metals
nonmetals
metalloids
semimetals
allotropes

2.2 Elements and the Periodic Table


periodic table of the elements
groups

2.3 Covalent Compounds


covalent compound
molecular covalent compound

network covalent compound


molecular formula
empirical formula
structural formula
condensed structural formula
wedge-and-dash model
ball-and-stick model
space-filling model
binary nonmetal
inorganic acid
hydrocarbon
oxoacids
2.4 Ions and Ionic Compounds
ionic compound
monoatomic ion
polyatomic ion

Chapter 2 Review and Challenge Problems

Chapter 2 Elements and Compounds

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Important: These pages have not yet been proofread or checked for accuracy and may contain errors. We are providing them as advance materials for your class testing project.

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