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EDUCATION American Education Chapter 1
American Education
. .

“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.”

  • About some contemporary issues in American education

  • How to analyze graphic aids

  • How to determine meaning from context

  • Hints to improve your vocabulary

  • How to keep a reflection journal

  • 2 Chapter 1


Making Predictions

2 Chapter 1 Education Making Predictions Conside r this cha p te r ’s theme, Education.

Conside r this cha p te r’s theme, Education. What subtop ics relate to this field? (See Fig . 1.1.)

Sub-topic =

Sub-topic =


Figure 1.1

Sub-topic =

Introduction to the Discipline of Education

Teachin g is one of the most challeng in g , demandin g , and rewa rdin g of professions. Teachers are not only expected to educate our children and provide them with an academically enr iching environment; they also play a role in stu- dents’ social develo pment. Teache rs have the hu g e task of pre p a r in g youn g minds for the world ahead of them. They model collaborative learning and criti- cal thinking , and they introduce students to the technological tools that they will need to navig ate the twenty-first-centur y classroom and beyond. The system of Ame r ican education faces many challen ges in the twenty-first centu r y. In this cha p te r you will read about some of the issues that educato rs today must con- side r. Should new immi gr ant students be offe red a bilin g ual cu rr iculum? Are same-sex schools beneficial to p ublic school students’ academic achievement? What kinds of innovative teachin g methods can hel p im prove Amer ican students’ low performance in the sciences and inspire more interest in scientific inquir y? Finally, how can we motivate underperforming students to work harder in their classes?

Interpreting a Cartoon

Preview Questions

Interpreting a Cartoon Preview Questions The followin g questions a r e all r elated to

The followin g questions a re all related to the cha p te r focus a rea of Education. Share your views in small group discussion.


Interpreting a Cartoon Preview Questions The followin g questions a r e all r elated to

Do you believe that you received a quality education at your hi g h school? Describe some of the positive aspects and shor tcomings of your hig h school experience.

Many people argue that American public education is in crisis. If you agree, then who is to blame? In other words, who is most responsible for students’ academic pro gress—students, teachers, p a rents, o r the state educational system? Please g ive specific reasons for your answer.

When you hear that someone is “educated,” what image comes to your mind about this p erson? In your opinion, what are some of the cha r acter istics of an “educated” person?

In your many years of schooling , which of your teachers left the most lasting impression on you? What made this teacher so special?

Do you feel that you lear n more when the teacher is lecturing to the class or when the teacher assigns small-group problem-solving tasks?

Are you in favo r of bilin g ual education, or do you prefe r an En g lish-only classroom? Please explain your preference.

Interpreting a Cartoon

Interpreting a Cartoon Preview Questions The followin g questions a r e all r elated to
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© Pearson Education, Inc.

  • 4 Chapter 1

4 Chapter 1 Education Discuss the ca r toon shown on p . 3 in small


Discuss the ca r toon shown on p. 3 in small groups and answer the following questions.

What educational issue does this cartoon address? In your opinion, what message is the cartoonist tr ying to convey to the reader?

Discipline-specific Terminology Bank

4 Chapter 1 Education Discuss the ca r toon shown on p . 3 in small

Sample Paragraph


There are many pedagogical being tested in class- rooms across the countr y with the goal of students more in their own learning. are being designed around the that today’s educators need to provide various forms of to - based learning. Another approach focuses on adv anced students other students within the of specific classroom-based projects.


Matching Column A and Column B

Match the wo rd in Column A with the definition in Column B. Put the letter representing the correct definition in the space preceding each term.

Column A

Column B



male and female students studyin g together



new ways of doing things



tr y hard to attain something


d. the subject matter of a course



suggestions or criticism about someone’s work



subjects taug ht in school or college


g . an idea or principle


h. to make a process easier



advising people with less experience



a situation that helps us understand its meaning

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Discipline-specific Terminology Bank


Fill in the Blanks


In the followin g sentences, fill in the blank with a word from the te r minolo g y bank below that makes the sentence meaningful.











Many researchers believe that learning can be optimized in a setting , as opposed to a sing le-sex school environment.

Students can benefit immensely from receiving constructive on their work from both instructors and peers.

The Ja p anese educational system demands that students fo r p e r fection in their studies. Mistakes a re usually not tole r ated, and students a re p enalized if they do not succeed in meetin g their academic goals.

Lan g ua g e teache rs discou r a g e their students from ove r ly relyin g on the dictionar y to learn unfamiliar words and recommend determining meaning from


Noam Chomsky, the father of mode r n lin g uistics, prop osed that humans have an innate ability to lea r n langua ge. This revolutionar y star tled many linguists and educators who had believed that lan guages were primarily learned through imitation.

Public s p eakin g ex p e r ts su gg est that


s p eake r’s body lan g ua g e is as

impor tant as the

of the lecture.

The president of the local colle g e has instituted a

pro gr am

whe reby less ex p e r ienced inst r ucto rs receive feedback on their teachin g

from their more experienced peers.

George Cutler, Director of the Depar tment of Education at a prestig ious university, recently taught a professional workshop focusing on teaching techniques to make learning a more intellectually stimulating experience for students.

Research in education has begun to show that teacher-fronted classes are not conducive to lea r nin g . Instead, results of seve r al studies su pp o r t the view that teache rs should lea r ning by acting as a guide, sp eeding up the process without actively participating in it.

Nowadays most public universities in the United States a re offer ing “Learning Community” courses pairing content and language , enabling colle ge students to im prove their reading and w r iting skills while they take courses in ha rd sciences such as biolog y, physics, math, and chemistr y.

  • 6 Chapter 1

6 Chapter 1 Education EXERCISE Pair Activity Wo r kin g with a p a r



Pair Activity

Wo r kin g with a p a r tne r, choose five wo rds you have just lear ned, and c reate complete sentences with them.

Graphic Analysis

6 Chapter 1 Education EXERCISE Pair Activity Wo r kin g with a p a r

Whether you a re studying Nursing , Computer Science, Business, Education, Biolo g y, or another subject, most content-a rea textbooks contain gr aphic aids. The ability to analyze graphic material, in the form of bar graphs, pie charts, time lines, diagr ams, maps, etc., is an essential college reading skill. In each chapter of this book, you will be asked to take a close look at a gr aphic aid and analyze the information it contains. It is only through practice that you will begin to interpret graphic information smoothly and accurately. The graph shown here focuses on how the public and teachers hold different perspectives on the changes necessar y to improve our nation’s schools. Examine the graph with a partner and answer the questions that follow.

6 Chapter 1 Education EXERCISE Pair Activity Wo r kin g with a p a r

Discipline/more control/stricter rules



More teachers/smaller class size






Better/more qualified teachers



Higher pay for teachers



More parent involvement



Prayer/God back in schools






Academic standards/better education



Dress code/uniforms



More/updated equipment/books/computers



Curriculum/more offered



* = Less than 1 percent.

Adapted from Carol A. Langdon and Nick Vesper, “The Sixth Phi Delta Kappa Poll of Teachers’ Attitudes toward the Public Schools,” (8) (April 2000), pp. 607–611. Reprinted by permission of Phi Delta Kappan.

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Reading as Information Predictors—Asking Questions as a Way of Understanding


What, according to the public, is the first priority for change in schools?

What, according to teachers, is the first priority for change in schools?

What are two concerns that seem to matter to the public, but do not matter ver y much to teachers?

What is the only concer n listed that received ove r 10 p e rcent fo r both the public and for teacher?

Reading as Information Predictors—Asking Questions as a Way of Understanding

© Pearson Education, Inc. Reading as Information Predictors—Asking Questions as a Way of Understanding 7 What,

When we beg in reading an ar ticle, a section of a textbook, or a new chapter in a novel, we look at the first sentence and are natur ally curious about what is com- ing next. We are g iven a little taste of information and wonder what information follows. As we continue reading , questions p op up in our heads, and this keeps us eng aged in the text and g uides us towa rd a bette r understanding of what we are reading . Look at the example below. If you read this first sentence of an ar ticle, what else would you want to know?


List some questions that you have after reading this first sentence.

As you wor k with Reading Selection 1 in this chap ter, and with all the first reading s in subsequent chap ters, you will be asked to predict what lies ahead by w r iting predictive questions for the first few pa r agr aphs of each selection in the margin.

  • 8 Chapter 1


Reading Selection 1

Newspaper Article


Pre-Reading Questions

Before reading the following article, answer these questions in pairs or small groups. Discussing the questions will help prepare you to analyze the text with relative ease.

8 Chapter 1 READING Reading Selection 1 Newspaper Article Education Pre-Reading Questions Befo r e r

What kinds of challen g es do recently a rr ived immi gr ant child ren face in American public schools?

How do you think the school system can hel p these students to ove rcome the challenges that they experience?

Do you think children whose first language is not Eng lish benefit more from bilingual instruction than they do from Eng lish-only instruction? Explain.

Read the selection below and pr actice your reading comprehension with the set

of ten multi p le-choice questions that follow. Wr ite predictive questions in the

marg in each time you see the


Learning and Teaching a Two-way Calle in Boston

By Michelle Lefort, Special for USA TODAY December 20, 2005

  • 1 BOSTON—It’s Friday at the Rafael Hernandez Two-Way Bilingual School in Roxbur y and a sign on the door of the four kindergarten and first- class- rooms tells students they will speak English today.



  • 2 When they return their homework Monday, ever yone will learn song s, math and science in Spanish.

  • 3 In one of Boston’s poorest neighborhoods and named for a Puerto Rican poet who addressed the isolation of , Rafael Hernandez School was in the early 1970s to ser ve the children of Boston’s growing Puerto Ri-

can immigrant . After Boston’s 1974 desegregation order, Hernan-





dez became a two-way language school.

  • 4 Today, the school is highly after, with 250 applicants for 50 kinder- garten slots. Although three-quarters of the students get free or reduced-priced lunches and many start school with little language in either English or Spanish, the kindergarten/first- of Martine Lebret, Naomi Mulvihill, Brenda Rosario and Jessie Auger gets them off to a successful start.

  • 5 Of last year’s 50 first-graders, 45 were reading at or above level; 88%

were meeting or exceeding math standards.

  • 6 But state standards are only one measure of success for the teachers, who work long hours to build an of respect, pride, and continual learning.

  • 7 Lebret and Mulvihill teach kindergar ten, and Rosario and Auger teach first . In each classroom, about half of the students a re in

Michelle Lefort, “Learning and Teaching a Two-Way Calle in Boston,” December 20, 2005. Reprinted with permission.

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Reading Selection 1


English and half in Spanish. During the 90-minute morning literacy blocks, students change classrooms to work in their language. Within each , the teachers curricula in each language.

  • 8 The teachers, who aver age 13 1 2 years teaching exp er ience and have nu- me rous , each have distinct that a re both lovin g and demanding .

  • 9 But it’s their teamwor k that makes them click. They w r ite almost all of their mater ials, coordinate plans and help one another improve.

    • 10 “We sneak into each other’s classrooms as often as we can” to watch each other teach to learn from each other and give honest , Mulvihill says.

    • 11 Peer critiquing can be intimidating, but the confidence they have in each other and their drive to improve helps them use criticism constructively. Their ability to learn from each other is the key, says Margarita Muniz.“They can listen to each other, critique each other without hard feelings.”

praise and approval or even a prize given to someone for his or her work

advice, criticism, etc. about how successful or useful something is, given so that something can be improved

  • 12 “We are all different people, but we all have a desire to learn, a desire to share,” Auger explains. “We’re ver y proud of each other.”

  • 13 They also work together to help each child meet their own .

  • 14 Carlos Piedad, now 8, wanted to move from the English- group to the Spanish- group. Over his two years with the team, the teachers developed assignments, gave ideas to his parents to work with him at home and nurtured his writing skills. He made the move midway through last year, ending the year fluent in both languages.

  • 15 Parents Javier Piedad and Patti Lautner say Carlos wasn’t par ticularly driven. “They motivated him,” Lautner says. The didn’t spend any more time working with Carlos than they did with the other students, Lautner adds. It’s not unusual for any of the teachers to work 12-hour days.

  • 16 Even thou g h they each teach classes of 24 o r 25 students, each teache r sends re gular progress repor ts home, or makes daily calls home if the parent requests. They also host small dinner par ties for families where students w rite and illustrate their own books.

  • 17 In keeping with the school’s “ learning , the uses class projects to teach responsibility while meeting standards. Former eighth- classes transformed an abandoned lot into a garden. Now, kindergarteners plant the garden each spring. The following Sep- tember, both the first-gr aders and the new kindergar teners har vest plants for use in crafts such as swan gourd maracas or in making vegetable soup.

refers to a long and carefully organized trip, especially to a dangerous place

  • 18 Lea r nin g and teachin g in two lan g ua g es may be doubly difficult, but also doubly rewarding .

  • 19 Says Au g e r : “Lea r nin g two lan g ua g es is inc r edibly intellectually stimulating .”

Reading Comprehension Check

In what follows and in multi p le-choice questions throu g hout this textbook, circle the letter of the best answer.

What kind of school is the Rafael Hernandez School?

  • a. c. an elementar y school

a high school

  • b. d. a university

a middle school

  • 10 Chapter 1


The term in the 3rd paragraph could be replaced with

  • a. c. Eng lish–only.


  • b. d. none of the above


In the 4th paragraph we read, “Today, the school is highly sought synonym for is

.” A

  • a. desirable.

c. attained.

  • b. troubled.

d. discarded.

What becomes clea r about the school profile from the info r mation in the 3rd and 4th paragraphs?

  • a. Many of the students speak Eng lish only.

  • b. Most of the students do not live in Boston.

  • c. The vast majority of the students are poor.

  • d. All of the students share the same first language.

The word , in the 5th paragraph, could be replaced with

  • a. c. successful.

equal to.

  • b. d. greater than.

less than.

It can be inferred from the 6th paragraph that

  • a. students learn completely different material in each language.

  • b. students cover the same material regardless of the language in which the content is g iven.

  • c. This issue is not discussed in this paragraph.

  • d. bilingual students are slower to learn.

In p a r a gr a p h 9 we read, “They w r ite almost all of thei r mate r ials, co- o rdinate p lans and hel p one anothe r im prove.” A synonym fo r the wo rd is

  • a. discriminate.

c. derive.

  • b. synchronize.

d. deliver.

The te r m as used in p a r a gr a ph 10, refers to a collabor ation between

  • a. students and teachers.

  • b. a group of students.

  • c. two teachers.

  • d. both teachers and their bilingual students.

What is Carlos’s mother’s main point about his teachers?

  • a. They can teach in both Eng lish and Spanish.

  • b. They work hard for the students.

  • c. The teachers are not strict enoug h in America.

  • d. Carlos is progressing .

In the final sentence of the article, one of the bilingual teachers says,“Learning two languages is incredibly intellectually stimulating .” The word could be replaced with the word


  • a. c. exciting .

  • b. d. enabling .


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Reading Selection 2

Pre-Reading Questions

Discuss these questions in groups.

Have you eve r studied in a sin g le-sex school? If yes, was you r ex p e r ience a positive one? If no, do you wish you had?



Reading Selection 2

Online Article

© Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Selection 2 Pre-Reading Questions Discuss these questions in gr ou p

Is wo r kin g to g ethe r with membe rs of the o pp osite sex a dist r action o r an advantage in a high school classroom? Explain.

The Lowdown on Single-Sex Education

By Hannah Boyd, Education.com (2008)

© Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Selection 2 Pre-Reading Questions Discuss these questions in gr ou p
  • 1 Not long ago sing le- schools were viewed as relics from another age, a time when boys took woodshop and g irls studied home economics. Now the pen- dulum is swing ing the other way. Le g islators are consider ing funding sing le- sex public schools, and sing le- private schools are back in . Why?

  • 2 Call it Mars and Venus in the classroom. Exper ts say that boys and g irls sim p ly lea r n diffe rently, and that i g no r in g inbo r n diffe rences sho r tchan g es both sexes. Acco rdin g to these ex p e r ts, g i r ls tend to faste r both

popular acceptance or favor

Hannah Boyd, “The Lowdown on Single-Sex Education.” Article reprinted with permission from Education.com, a website with thousands of articles for parents of preschool through grade 12 chil- dren, www.education.com

  • 12 Chapter 1


socially and p hysically, and to develo p lan g ua g e fluency, fine moto r skills, and unde r standin g of conce p ts befo re boys do. Boys g ain la rg e motor cont rol sooner, tend to be more lite r al than g ir ls, and excel at s p atial relationships. Perhaps more impor tant, boys and g irls behave differently.

  • 3 “The behavio r ex p ected (and r ewa r ded) in the class room—quiet, p atient, o r de r ly acce p tance of facts—favo r s how g i r ls thei r classes,” says Michael Obel-Omia, head of Upp e r School at Unive r sity School in Huntin g Valley, Ohio, which is all male. Like many, Obel-Omia believes boys ente r coed schools at a disadvanta g e to g i r ls, and may be shor tchanged by a one-size-fits-all pro gr am.

  • 4 Conve r sely, pro p onents of all- g i r ls’ schools say that dee p - rooted sex- ism cheats g ir ls in coed pro gr ams. Studies have shown that teache rs call on g i r ls less often than boys, and g i r ls re p o r t feelin g inhibited about s p eakin g up in class. By removing the social pressure to impress the opp osite , the reasoning goes, g irls feel free to take more r isks.

an informal account, sometimes as a stor y or hearsay, to prove something

  • 5 Althou g h long -te r m is lacking , seems to bea r this out. Gir ls in sin g le-sex schools a re mo re likely to take math, com- p ute r science, and p hysics classes, as well as p lay s p o r ts, than thei r p ee rs in coed schools; boys a r e mo r e likely to study a r t, music, d r ama, and fo r ei g n lan g ua g es. Some su gg ests that boys in all-boys’ schools a r e less com p etitive and mo re , which has led some to p ush fo r sin g le- public schools in low- a reas.

  • 6 Of cou r se, we live in a coed wo r ld, and eve r yone has to lea r n to wor k to gethe r. “With an all- g irls’ school you really need to take the initiative in findin g male fr iends,” notes Kathar ine Krotinger, a senior at the all-female Dana Hall School in Massachusetts. Othe r wise, students of both sexes can feel like a fish out of wate r when they reach a coed colle g e o r the wor kplace.

  • 7 Only you and you r child can predict whethe r a sin g le- school will be an educational haven o r a social dese r t. As fo r Krotin g e r, she’s lookin g for wa rd to sta r ting colle ge in the fall—on a coed campus.

Reading Comprehension Check

As used in the fi r st sentence of the a r ticle, “Not lon g a g o sin g le-sex schools we r e viewed as relics f rom anothe r a g e,” the wo rd could be re p laced by

  • a. plans.

c. strateg ies.

  • b. leftovers.

d. disasters.

The phrase “the pendulum is swing ing the other way” in the first paragraph refers to

  • a. the fact that sing le-sex schools are now on the decline.

  • b. all boy’s schools.

  • c. the fact that sing le-sex schools are coming back into fashion.

  • d. schools are moving .

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Reading Selection 2


As used in p a r a gr a p h 2, in the ph r ase “i g no r in g inbor n diffe rences sho r t- changes both sexes,” the term means

  • a. destroys.

  • b. considers.

  • c. appreciates.

  • d. does a disser vice to.

Which advanta ge that young female students have ove r boys is NOT men- tioned in the ar ticle?

  • a. Girls mature faster.

  • b. Girls develop fine motor skills earlier.

  • c. Girls excel at spatial relationships.

  • d. Girls develop language fluency faster.

What is Michael Obel-Omia’s main point in the 3rd paragraph?

  • a. Boys are discriminated against.

  • b. Girls tend to exhibit behavior that is more suitable to classroom learning .

  • c. All schools should be coed.

  • d. Girls are more mature.

What evidence is cited about boys’ performance in all boys’ schools?

  • a. They don’t take ar t classes.

  • b. They are less cooperative.

  • c. They are more competitive.

  • d. They are less competitive and more cooperative.

In par agr aph 6, in the sentence “With an all-g irls’ school you really need to take the initiative,” the phrase could be replaced by

  • a. invite someone.

  • b. make an effor t.

  • c. be shy.

  • d. consider all the issues.

The expression in the second to last paragraph refers to

  • a. how boys and g irls coming from a sing le-sex school environment mig ht feel when suddenly confronted with the opposite sex .

  • b. how boys feel in all boys’ schools.

  • c. awkward g irls.

  • d. students in coed schools.

In the sentence “Only you and you r child can predict whethe r a sin g le-sex school will be an educational haven or a social deser t,” the term means

  • a. nightmare.

  • b. safe place.

  • c. prison.

  • d. heaven.

The author of the ar ticle believes that

  • a. coed schools are a better choice.

  • b. sing le-sex schools are of hig her quality.

  • c. both kinds of schools are nice.

  • d. We do not know the author’s viewpoint.

  • 14 Chapter 1




Ruth Simmons

Dr. Ruth J. Simmons is the first African American educator ever to be president of an Ivy League institution and the first female president of Brown University. A poll conducted by the Brown Daily Herald in January 2007 showed her approval rating among the undergradu- ates at Brown University to be more than 80 percent. Ruth J. Simmons was born in 1945 in Grapeland, Texas. She grew up on a farm in East Texas and had a life of deprivation and hardship. Yet she

Dr. Ruth J. Simmons is the first African American educator ever to be president of an

Cornel West, Henry Louis Gates, and Toni Morrison to teach in the Depart- ment of African American Studies. Simmons became president of Brown University in 2001 and gained popularity among students because of her successful fundraising, introduction of need-blind admissions, and personal charisma. She even recruited students to the campus. “It’s probably the most important thing I can do on a national basis,” she says. “[The best thing] any

Some Questions for Group Discussion

  • 1. Simmons was inspired by her mother to persevere in

  • 2. Simmons’s road to success was replete with hur-

  • 3. Simmons believes that “[The best thing] any parent

Biographical Internet Research

Research another great figure in Education from the list

Paolo Freire

recounts her life in Texas fondly. “My jour- ney has not been all that arduous, contrary to the way that my life is often presented. I had this wonderful grounding by my parents, and then an extraordinary streak of luck.” Despite her meteoric rise to prominence in the field of education, she remains humble and grateful to her mentors who challenged, supported, and encouraged her to pursue her dreams. One of the most influential mentors was her mother, whom Ruth Simmons watched as a child pressing fabric for hours. She recalls, “I remember thinking what a horrible, horrible thing to have to do. And yet she would see a crease invisible to every-

parent can do for a child is to give your child a sense of love and support to be open to the idea that they need to learn.” Ruth Simmons is known to be a pioneer. She started the engineering program at Smith College. As president of Brown University, she has taken an ambitious $1.4 billion initiative known as the Campaign for Academic Enrichment to boost Brown University’s academic programs. She remains dedicated to the cause of education and encourages students to succeed in their academic endeavors.

one else, and she would work on it until it disappeared.” Her mother passed away when Simmons was 15 but not before teaching her the value of perseverance, a precious lesson that has stayed with her since then. Simmons studied at Dillard University and later at Wellesley College where she was inspired by President

her goals. Do you believe that parents influence their children to succeed in their professional careers? Explain how. Do you have a mentor or a series of mentors who have inspired you to pursue your academic goals?

Margaret Clapp to view traditional gender roles in a dif- ferent perspective. “That was defining for me, the notion that women didn’t have to play restricted roles, that you

dles. In what way did she have to struggle to get to a high position as an educator?

didn’t have to hold back at all,” recounts Simmons. “The faculty demanded that you work up to your potential.” She went on to earn a PhD at Harvard University in Romance Languages. Simmons admits that shaking the traditional notion of gender was not easy for her. She recalled

can do for a child is to give your child a sense of love and support to be open to the idea that they need to learn.” What do you understand about Simmons’s philosophy of education from this quote? Do you share her views? Explain.

that her mother “believed herself to be subservient to the interests of men. I expected that in my relationship with men. I should pretend not to be smart. I never

wanted to be valedictorian because I thought it was very important for a boy to be valedictorian.” She got married at the age of 22, had two chil-

below and share a biographical profile with your fellow students:

dren, and is now divorced. She was the director of studies at Princeton University and completed one of her most challenging assignments, a report on race relations that seemed to have divided the campus in the late 1980s. She rejuvenated black culture on campus and hired prominent black scholars such as

Socrates Jonathan Kozol Maria Montessori John Locke

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Skill Focus: Determining Meaning from Context


Determining Meaning from Context

© Pearson Education, Inc. Skill Focus: Determining Meaning from Context SKILL FOCUS Determining Meaning from Context


Regardless of the academic career you are pursuing in college, you are likely to encounter discipline-specific terminolog y—unfamiliar words and expressions in text and lectures given by professors. It is, therefore, essential that you build a strong vocabular y to comprehend the text and to do well on standardized reading tests administered by most U.S. state colleges. You may not have a dictionar y at your dis- posal all the time, so you will need to rely on the context to figure out the meaning of the unfamiliar word, especially when answering multiple-choice questions. Although there is no single technique that will always work, the following strategies will help you determine meaning from context without turning to a dictionar y.

Parts of Speech