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Modelling and Analysis of Non Uniform Impulse Voltage and

Current Distribution of a Capacitive Transformer Winding Model


Using Electro Magnetic Transients Program
P. sai charan reddy
Auroras Engineering College, Bhongiri.
Abstract: Transformer plays a crucial role
in electrical power transmission and
distribution from the power generating
stations to the load centres. Any failure in
working of a healthy transformer may lead
to enormous problems which can turn out
to be very costly to be repaired and may
ultimately result in power outages.

Recent study of modern transformer


breakdown reveals that most of the
transformer failures are traced to winding
faults. These winding faults are mostly a
result of the following cases like
degradation of insulation system due to
thermal, electrical and mechanical stresses,
design and manufacturing errors, due to
interior short circuit, over loading and line
surges, improper maintenance and
operation problems due to inadequate
attention to loose connections.
Terminal values like primary and
secondary side currents and voltages
convey information that can be used to
analyse transformer winding faults. By
simulation of the parameters such as series
and shunt capacitances of windings, it
would be possible to explore the behaviour
of transformer winding by studying the
impulse voltage distribution within the
winding.
Major faults in the transformer winding are
due to insulation failure that results in
changes in capacitance values of the
transformer winding. As an effort to
characterize the behaviour of transformer
winding from the variations in the

parameters during faults, analysis of the


non uniform impulse voltage distribution
of a capacitive transformer winding model
is done using Electro Magnetic Transients
Program (EMTP), which is a powerful and
superfast computational engine that
provides significantly improved solution
methods and user defined models.

I. Introduction
Transformers are used to step up voltage
before transmitting electrical energy over
long distances. The conducting material
used for the windings in a transformer
depends upon the application, but in all
cases the individual turns must be
electrically insulated from each other to
ensure that the current flows throughout
every turn. Transformers are designed to
withstand a variety of stresses and
mechanical forces during their service life.
Abnormal forces generated during shortcircuit is the main cause of deformation of
winding and core. Rough transportation
and unskilled handling is the other known
cause.
However it is an unfortunate fact that
despite
even
the
most
rigorous
preventative
maintenance
program,
failures can and will occur. The
mechanical
force
depends
on
configurations
of
windings
[1].
Furthermore, it varies due to deformation
and displacement of transformer windings.
An increase of dielectric related failures of
transformers with unknown specific
reasons justifies revising capacitive model

of the transformer winding for analyzing


the impulse voltage distribution for various
conditions in a transformer winding using
EMTP.

Insulation between layers of a


winding

II.Block Diagram

Fig.2. Representation of transformer winding with


various capacitances

Fig. 1. Block diagram

The capacitive winding model of a


transformer winding is designed after
calculating various capacitance values
within a transformer. An impulse voltage is
injected into the winding model. The
variations in the impulse voltage
distribution curves for various fault
conditions within a transformer winding
are analyzed to locate the fault. The above
Fig.1 shows the complete block diagram of
how fault analysis is done.

A. Representation
Capacitances

of

Winding

Transformer winding insulation is a


composite dielectric system [3], located
between the electrodes, i.e., winding
conductors and grounded parts of
transformer.
Fig.2
shows
various
capacitances in winding The most
important components of the main
transformer insulation are:
Insulation between winding and
tank

Insulation between winding and


the magnetic core

Insulation between HV winding


and LV winding

The main contributions to the selfcapacitance in a transformer whose


winding is divided into several sections
made out of different layers are the
following:
Turn-to-turn capacitance (CTurn)

Disc-to-disc capacitance (C1, C2)

Winding-to-magnetic core (C3,C4)

Inter winding interactions. (C5)

B. Winding Deformation versus


Parameter Changes
The transient overvoltage caused by the
operation of the switches in the primary
circuit will be coupled into the secondary
circuits, thus the normal operation of the
secondary circuits may be interfered with
the over voltages. Strike of voltage surge
to a transformer results in a nonlinear
voltage distribution along the winding and
very high stresses at the critical points on
its insulation.
At site, lightning impulses,
switching surges and cable faults may
cause the winding deformation. In
addition, the winding may deform due to
impact
during
transportation.
The
deformations result in the change in the
capacitance values since there will be short
circuit occurring between a disc of the

winding and core or between two discs of


a winding.

C. Need For Modelling


To know the extent of damage and its
location in the winding [2], obviously an
approach
that
would
circumvent
disassembly of the winding would be most
attractive. In order to carry out the research
of the effect of voltage surges on the
transformer winding, it is very necessary
to establish a model of the transformer
windings, which is helpful to provide the
theoretical basis to prevent the damage of
the transformer insulation and improve the
design of the transformer.

such voltages. These voltages are of the


nature of an impulse wave, a half cycle of
voltage characterized by a rapid rise to its
crest and a slow decline to zero. The more
rapid the rise and the slower the decline,
the more severe is the effect of the impulse
voltage on the winding.
When an impulse voltage is given
to a winding of a transformer [5], as there
is the presence of the inter winding
capacitance and the capacitances to earth
of the transformer windings, the upper
elements of the transformer windings tend
to be more heavily stressed than the lower
portions. Due to the velocity of
propagation, of the impulse voltage would
not be evenly distributed in the winding.
On the top portion of the node
where the stress is low the voltage is high.
The voltage at the bottom nodes gradually
reduces as the stress on the each node
increases and also due to velocity of
propagation of the impulse wave. Hence
there is an linear decrease in the voltage of
an impulse in a transformer winding
during impulse voltage.
E. Importance Of Capacitance In

Winding
Fig.3. Representation of transformer with various
capacitances

Disassembling a winding is an expensive


and time-consuming exercise, and this
should evidently be the last resort.
Therefore, the main objective is to
demonstrate localization of winding
deformation based on impulse voltage
distribution in the transformer winding.

D. Impulse Voltage Distribution


Lightning voltages are responsible for the
greatest insulation stresses in a transformer
winding in practice, and it is proper to
consider here the transient voltage
characteristics [5] of a transformer
winding, as they would be exhibited under

When a step voltage impinges on the


transformer winding terminals, the initial
distribution in the winding depends on the
capacitances between turns, between
windings, and those between windings and
ground. The winding inductances have no
effect on the initial voltage distribution
since the magnetic field requires a finite
time to build up and as it is known that
current in an inductance cannot be
established instantaneously. Since the
duration of the impulse voltage applied to
the terminals of the transformer winding is
very small, the voltage across the
capacitance [3] builds up before an
appreciable inductive current establishes in
the winding.
The presence of coil capacitance causes
the transformer to respond as a capacitor

and not as an inductor to abrupt impulse


voltages. Thus, the inductances practically
do not carry any current and the voltage
distribution is predominantly decided by
the capacitances in the network, and the
problem can be considered as entirely
electrostatic without any appreciable error.
In other words, the presence of series
capacitances between winding sections
causes the transformer to respond to abrupt
impulses as a network of capacitances. By
representing the transformer winding as a
network of elements, the field problem is
effectively converted into a circuit
problem.
III. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
OF TRANSFORMER WINDING
A 1MVA, 33/11 KV, shell type of
transformer is considered. The mathematical
calculations have been done for finding out
all the parameters required for modelling.
Using the formulae provided in the existing
literature, all the dimensions needed to
calculate various types of capacitance in a
transformer winding are derived. Using
these dimensions of the transformer internal
geometry, capacitance values can be
calculated. A model of the transformer
winding is then prepared by building the
capacitance winding network.
Rating of transformer 33/ 11 kv, 1MVA
Emf per turn, Et= K S (S is in KVA)
(K=1.0 for shell type transformer)
Et= 1.0 1000 emf/ turn
Number of turns on the H.V side (N1):
33
103
N1= 3
=600 turns _______ (1)
31.62
Number of turns in each disc on the H.V.
winding = 25 turns
Therefore, from equation (1) number of
discs on H.V. winding = 24 discs
Number of turns on the L.V side (N2):
11
10 3
N2= 3
=200 turns _______ (2)
31.62

Number of turns in each disc on the L.V.


winding = 8 turns
Therefore, from equation (2) number of
discs on L.V. winding = 25 discs
1000
Current on H.V side = 33 =53A
3
1000
Current on L.V side = 11 =157A
3

Cross sectional area (a1) of the conductor


I1
53
a1=
=
=24.09mm2
Current density
2.2
(3)

Assume current density = 2.2A/mm2 a2=


I2
= 71.54 mm2 ___
Current density

Area of the iron core Ai =

(4)

Et
4.44 f Bm

Where, Bm =1.35 wb/m2


Ai =

31.62
= 0.105 m2
4.44 50 1.35

Since, Area =
d=

d2
; diameter of the core
4

0.105
= 36 cm
0.785

_______ (5)

Fig.4. Cross-sectional view of disc configuration

From the obtained calculations, the


geometrical view of transformer and its
winding has been designed as shown in the
Fig.5

Fig.5. Geometrical view of complete transformer

Capacitance between two discs of


LV winding (C1):
2

A (r2 r1 ) (26 2 20 2 ) 0.0867m 2


d ( 2 1) mm 3 10 3 m

1.95 10 11 F / M
A

563.55 10 12 F ______ (6)


D
Capacitance between two discs of
HV winding (C2):
C1

A (r2 r1 ) (33 2 23 2 ) 0.1759m 2


d (5 1)mm 6 10 3 m

1.95 10 11 F / M
A
C2

517.74 10 12 F _______ (7)

Fig.6. Top view of transformer winding

Capacitance between LV winding and core


(C3):
2l
12.79 10 12 F
r
C3= ln( 2 )
r1
_______ (8)
where, r =18cm,r =20cm and l =11mm
Capacitance between HV winding and core
(C4) :
2l
4.298 10 12 F
C4= ln( r2 )
r1
______ (9)
where, r =18cm,r =23cm and l = 8.6mm
1

Capacitance between LV and HV winding


(C5 ):
2l
10.99 10 12 F
r
C5= ln( 2 )
r1
_____ (10)
where, r =26cm,r =29cm and l = 9.8mm
1

Fig.7. Various winding capacitances representation

From the above data which has been


acquired, the transformer winding is made
into a network of capacitances as shown in
Fig.7
From the equations 6, 7, 8, 9, 10:
C1 : Capacitance between two LV
windings = 563.55 10 12 F

C2 : Capacitance between two HV


windings = 571.74 10 12 F

C3 : Capacitance between LV
winding and core = 12.79 10 12 F

C4 : Capacitance between
winding
and
core
2l
4.298 10 12 F
r2
ln( )
r1

HV
=

C5 : Capacitance between
winding and HV winding
10.99 10 12 F

LV
=

IV. EMTP
Winding

Model

of

Transformer

The complete winding of transformer is


made into a capacitive winding network
considering the capacitances between the
two discs, capacitance between the windings
and also between the core and winding
forming a capacitive transformer winding
network as shown in Fig 8.
Twenty five discs in LV winding and
twenty four discs in HV winding are
considered. Each disc is represented with
each node as shown. This forms a discs
configuration of the LV and the HV winding
in the manner of 1:1 as represented in the
Fig.7.
An impulse voltage is injected at
node 2 to observe voltage distribution
throughout the winding for normal and
various fault conditions. A resistor is placed
between node 27 and the ground for
measurement of impulse voltage distribution
with in the transformer winding.

Fig.8. Capacitive winding model

V.Simulation Results and Analysis


A.Impulse Voltage Distribution
When an impulse voltage is given to a
winding of a transformer, as there is the
presence of the inter winding capacitance
and the capacitances to earth of the
transformer windings, the upper elements
of the transformer windings tend to be
more heavily stressed than the lower
portions.
Due to the velocity of propagation,
of the impulse voltage would not be evenly
distributed in the winding. On the top

portion of the node where the stress is low


the voltage is high. Hence there is a linear
decrease in the voltage of an impulse in an
transformer winding during impulse
voltage.
B.Results Of Capacitive Winding Model
Various results have been observed
when the impulse voltage is given to the
capacitive transformer winding model under
different fault conditions.

1. Impulse Voltage Distribution under


Normal Condition
The simulation has been done by injecting
an impulse voltage at node 2. The change in
the voltages at different nodes has been
tabulated in Table 5.1 from the tabulated
values a graph has been plotted shown in
Fig.9.

Table 1 Impulse voltage distribution under


normal conditions
NODES

VOLTAGE

95710

56833

40848

12

18869

17

9149

26

907.3

27

0.00184

The graph shows the impulse voltage


distribution of a transformer winding at
normal condition.
It is observed that the voltage injected at
the node2 (95,710V) has decreased
gradually and dropped to (0.00184V) at
node27.

2. Results under short circuit between core


and winding
The below table 2 depicts the different
voltages at different nodes during fault
condition which occurred between winding
and the core and a graph is plotted for this
fault condition shown in Fig. 10.

Table 2 Impulse voltage distribution


during S.C between core and winding
NODES

VOLTAGE

95710

0.000389

1030

12

1525.5

17

1119.8

26

149.54

27

0.00302

Fig.10. Voltage distribution during Short circuit between


core and disc
Fig.9 Impulse Voltage Distribution at Normal Conditions

This graph shows the impulse voltage


distribution of the transformer winding for
short circuit of a disc with the core.

The voltage has dropped drastically at the


node5 (0.000389V) that has been shorted to
core (ground).
The injected impulse voltage has been
diverted to ground at the particular disc5 that
has been shorted to core.

C. Results under Short Circuit between


Two Discs of Winding

Fig.11. Voltage distribution during inter disc short circuit

This Fig.11 shows the impulse voltage


distribution of the transformer winding for
short circuit between two discs (5 and 6).
The voltage has flattened at the node 5-6
during inter-disc short circuit when
compared to the normal impulse voltage
distribution.

The table 3 shows the different voltages at


different nodes during a short circuit
condition between two discs. Fig.11 shows
impulse voltage distribution under these
fault condition.

This indicates that almost same voltage


flows through the two different nodes which
are shorted.

Table 3 Impulse voltage distribution


during S.C between two discs

The simulation performed under various fault


conditions are shown in table 4. i.e impulse
voltage distribution under normal conditions,
short circuit between two discs and short
circuit between core and disc. From these
values a graph is plotted shown in Fig.12
under various conditions.

NODES

VOLTAGE

95710

53865

45622

12

20826

17

10009

26

983.4

27

0.00203

D. Comparison of the Results

Fig.12 Impulse voltage distribution at various conditions

Table 4 Impulse voltage distribution under various conditions


NORMAL
CONDITION
NODES

VOLTAGE(V)

INTER DISC S.C

S.C BETWEEN CORE AND DISC

VOLTAGE(V)

VOLTAGE(V)

95710

95710

95710

56833

53865

0.000389

40848

45622

1030

12

18869

20826

1525.5

17

9149

10009

1119.8

26

907.3

983.4

149.54

27

0.00184

0.00203

0.302

Examining the output plots of all the three


cases, at a time, shows the variations for
each case.
This makes it easy to identify the
condition of the transformer winding like
normal condition or inter disc short circuit or
the core and the disc short circuit for an
injected impulse voltage.
E. Current distribution.
On application of impulse voltage
wave on the transformer winding model, the
current through the winding is distributed. A
series combination of resistor and inductor is
placed between node 27 and the ground for
measurement of current.
Under normal condition current
through this series combination is
1.722A.when the fault is occurred its value
changes. Also changes with the type and
location of fault and shown in the table 5.

Fig.13. Current through series combination during inter


disc short circuit.

In Fig.13 shows the Current through series


combination during inter disc short circuit of
the transformer winding for short circuit
between two discs (5 and 6).

Under this condition the current valve


changes from 1.722A to 1.920A.

Short circuit between two discs will


increase the current valve.

Fig.14. Current through series combination during Short


circuit between core and disc

In Fig.14 shows the Current through series


combination of the transformer winding
during short circuit of a disc with the core.
Under this condition the current valve
drastically changes from 1.722A to
0.29009A.

The current is diverted towards the


ground through the fault .So, current
valve has been drastically reduced.

Table 5 Current distribution under various


conditions
Fault location

Faulted condition current


through RL(amps)

Node 05 to Core

0.29009

Node 16 to Core

0.50220

Node 27 to Core

0.001748mA

Node 05 to Node 06

1.920

Node 15 to Node 16

1.850

Node 26 to Node 27

2.137

VI. Conclusion
Winding deformations or displacements in
a transformer may occur during transport
or after some use at a site or due to shortcircuit forces. Every transformer winding
has a unique signature that is sensitive to
changes in the parameters of the winding,
namely resistance, inductance, and
capacitance. The values of series and
ground capacitances have been chosen so
as to facilitate the experimental
verification.
Strike of a lightening stroke to the high
voltage terminal of a power transformer
results in a non linear voltage distribution
along the winding and very high stresses at
critical points on its insulations. The
magnitude of the series capacitance of the
windings has the main role on this impulse
voltage distribution. The capacitive
winding model of a transformer is very
sensitive to any deformation or
displacement of the winding since major
faults in the transformer winding are due
to insulation failure that results in changes
in capacitance values of the transformer
winding.

The EMTP model of a transformer is a


very simple and effective method for
diagnosing transformer condition. The
technique is also very reliable for detecting
any short circuit between winding and to
the core quickly, prior to any major
operation that is carried out on the
transformer. Results from a measurement
can be analyzed through several
techniques via graphical presentation.
However, reference is needed for better
interpretation. The reference can either be
from historical data of the same
transformer or from a new transformer.
The interpretation of the results is
meanwhile a great help in determining
further action to be taken especially for
suspected transformers. The task of
localizing discrete changes is demonstrated
using a model winding and an actual
transformer winding. The localization
accuracy achieved was reasonably good in
all the experimental cases presented.
Capacitive winding model can be a very
effective tool for condition monitoring. It
can avoid catastrophic failure in
transformers and also help maintenance
engineer to estimate time and cost for
repairing the transformer after the fault
before undertaking maintenance.

References
[1] Aravind Singh High frequency simulation of
transformer windings for diagnostic tests, a master
thesis for the University of British Columbia, Feb.
2006.
[2] M. Heindl, S. Tenbohlen and R. Wimmer
Transformer modeling based on standard
frequency
response
measurements
XVII

International symposium on high voltage


engineering, Germany, August 22-26, 2011.

Conference on Electrical Engineering, 2008, No.


O-141.

[3] Luca Dalessandro Self-capacitance of highvoltage transformers IEEE transactions on power


electronics,. vol. 22, no. 5, September 2007

[5] Surge wave distribution over the power


transformer
continuous
disc
winding,
Elektrotehniski Vestnik,. 78(3): 106-111, May
2011

[4] Bhageri, Mehdi and Vakilian Simulation and


comparison of impulse voltage distribution in
continuous, intershield and interleaved disc
winding in power transformer, The International

[6] A text book on EMTP by Dr. Hermann W.


Dommel