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Psychology for Social Workers

Compiled by

S.Rengasamy

The symbol for psychology represents the letter of the Greek alphabet, (Psi (uppercase , lowercase
; Greek: Psi) psi, which is also the first letter of the Greek word psuche, meaning mind or soul, from
which the term psyche arose; which in turn gave us the name of the discipline psychology which is most
commonly defined as study of the mind.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


The content covers the
syllabus prescribed for
Master of Social Work (MSW)
course in India

1. Psychology - Introduction
2. Human Growth & Development
3. Learning, Memory & Forgetting
4. Intelligence & IQ-Intelligence Quotient
5. Personality, Personality Disorder, Personality Tests
6. Mental Deficiency, Mental Illness & Mental Health
7. Psychology of Motivation
8. Counseling
9. Psychological Testing
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10. Social Psychology

3-15
16-52
53-99
100-104
105-133
134-155
156-181
182-197
198-207

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology Introduction

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology Introduction

Definition
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior.
The discipline embraces all aspects of the human
experience from the functions of the brain to
the actions of nations, from child development to
care for the aged. In every conceivable setting
from scientific research centers to mental
healthcare services, "the understanding of
behavior" is the enterprise of psychologists
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Basic concepts of Psychology - Explanations


Mind -The part or faculty of a person by which one
feels, perceives, thinks, remembers, desires, and
imagines.
Brain - The portion of the central nervous system that is
located within the skull. It functions as a primary
receiver, organizer, and distributor of information for
the body.

Behavior - A response of an individual or group to an


action, environment, person, or stimulus
Consciousness - The condition of being conscious : the
normal state of being awake and able to understand what
is happening around Cognition.The mental action or
process of acquiring knowledge and understanding

through thought, experience, and the senses


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Basic concepts of Psychology Explanations


Attitude - A tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a
certain idea, object, person, or situation i.e. a settled way of thinking or
feeling about something. Attitude influences an individual's choice of
action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together
called stimuli).
Perception - Perception can be defined as our recognition
and interpretation of sensory information. Perception also
includes how one respond to the information. Perception is a
process through which one take sensory information from
the environment and use that information in order to
interact with the environment. Perception allows one to take
the sensory information in and make it into something
meaningful.
Emotion. Any strong agitation of the feelings actuated by experiencing
love, hate, fear, etc., and usually accompanied by certain physiological
changes, as increased heartbeat or respiration, and often overt
manifestation, as crying or shaking.
Motivation. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in
people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject,
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or to make an effort to attain a goal.

Application & Fields of Psychology


Industrial Organizational Psychology
Counseling Psychology
Clinical Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Educational Psychology
Social Psychology
School Psychology
Physiological Psychology
Environmental Psychology
Health Psychology
Family Psychology
Rehabilitation Psychology
Psychometrics and Quantitative
Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Geropsychology / Psychology of Aging
Sport Psychology
Consumer Psychology
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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt,
Edward Titchener
(1875-1930)

Structuralism sought to analyze the adult mind


(defined as the sum total of experience from birth to
the present) in terms of the simplest definable
components and then to find the way in which these
components fit together in complex forms.


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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Functionalism
Wiliam James,
G.Stanley Hall,
James Cattell
(1890 -1930's)

This perspective concerned with not only what the mind is made of
but also how and why it works as it does. It focused it interest to
understand the mental process of "Adaptation", the process that
helped the humans (and animals also) adapt to their environment
Formed as a reaction to the theories of the Structuralism school Instead of focusing on
the mental processes themselves, functionalist thinkers were instead interested in the role
that these processes play.
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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Gestaltism
Kurt Koffka,
Max Wertheimer

The school or doctrine holding that behavioral and psychological


phenomena cannot be fully explained by analysis of their
component parts, as reflexes or sensations, but must be studied
as wholes.

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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
(1900 -present)

This view, most notably represented by Sigmund Freud, pays close


attention to unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts in
order to further our understanding of mental disorders.
Psychodynamic psychology says that our motivation comes from
the energy of irrational desires created in our unconscious minds

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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov
John B. Watson
B.F. Skinner
(1913 -present)

This view sees environmental stimuli as the cause of our actions,


not mental processes. There is a focus on the way reinforcements
(rewards and punishments) shape the way we act.

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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Cognitivism
Jean Piaget
Noam Chomsky
Herbert Simon
(1950's -present)

Deals with mental processes (cognition) like learning,


memory, perception, and thinking of them as parts of
information processing model. This perspective calls
attention to how our actions are influenced by the
way we process information streaming in from our
environment
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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Humanism
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
(1950's- present)

Focuses on the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the


influences on a person's self-concept, and the importance of
choice and self-direction in striving to reach one's potential

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Schools /
Perspectives of Psychology

Developmentalism
Ainsworth Emotional development
Jean Piaget Intellectual development
L. Kohlberg Moral development
The study of age-related changes in behavior from birth to
death. Developmental psychologists attempt to determine the
causes of such changes. Most research has concentrated on the
development of children, but there is increasing interest in the
elderly, and to a lesser extent in other age groups

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Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development

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Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development

Human development is defined as the study of


the normal and expected age related changes
from conception to death. It describes the
growth of humans throughout the lifespan,
from conception to death. Maturation is
defined as the unfolding of a natural sequence
of physical and behavioral changes

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Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development

Stages of Growth

Prenatal (sperm fertilizes egg-birth)


Embryo - fertilization - 8 weeks Zygote - 8-10 weeks
Fetus, -10th week of pregnancy - birth
Childhood / Juvenile (Childbirth12 yrs)
Neonate (030 days) Infant (0-12 months)
Toddler (13 yrs) Primary school age (4-12yrs)
Play age (45 yrs) Primary school age (4-12yrs)
Elementary school age (6-12yrs)
Preadolescence (1012 yrs)
Adolescence & puberty (1319 yrs)

Adulthood (20+yrs)
Young adulthood (2039 yrs) Middle adulthood (40
59 yrs) Advanced adulthood / Senior citizen (60+ yrs)
Death (occurs at various ages, depending on person)
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Developmental Tasks Havighurst


Havighurst

Infancy & Early Childhood (0-6 yrs)


1.Learning to walk.
2.Learning to take solid foods
3.Learning to talk
4.Learning to control the elimination of body wastes
5.Learning sex differences and sexual modesty
6.Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and
physical reality.
7.Getting ready to read

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Developmental Tasks Havighurst


Middle Childhood (6-12 yrs)
1.Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games.
2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing
organism
3. Learning to get along with age-mates
4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role
5. Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and
calculating
6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living.
7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values
8. Achieving personal independence
9.Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions
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Developmental Tasks Havighurst


Adolescence (12-18 yrs)
1.Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of
both sexes
2.Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3.Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively
4.Achieving emotional independence of parents and other
adults
5.Preparing for marriage and family life Preparing for an
economic career
6.Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to
behavior, developing an ideology
7.Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior
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Developmental Tasks Havighurst

Early Adulthood (18-30 yrs)


1.Selecting a mate
2.Achieving a masculine or feminine social role
3.Learning to live with a marriage partner
4.Starting a family
5.Rearing children
6.Managing a home
7.Getting started in an occupation
8.Taking on civic responsibility
9.Finding a congenial social group

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Developmental Tasks Havighurst

Middle Age (30-60 yrs)


1.Achieving adult civic and social responsibility
2.Establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living
3.Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy
adults
4.Developing adult leisure-time activities
5.Relating oneself to ones spouse as a person
6.Accepting and adjusting to the physiologic changes or middle age
7.Adjusting to aging parents.

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Developmental Tasks Havighurst

Later Maturity (60 +)


1.Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health
2.Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
3.Adjusting to death of a spouse
4.Establishing an explicit affiliation with ones age group
5.Meeting social and civil obligations
6.Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangement

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Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development
Growth - increase in quantity - multiplication of cells - anatomical &
physiological changes generally refers to changes in size
Development - increase in quality - expansion of cells - emergence of
psychological attributes, ideas, & acquisition of motor and sensory skills
Occurs through maturation of physical and mental capacities, and
learning

As individuals pass through the various stages of life, Four main types of
growth and development occur : Physical Mental Emotional & Social
Physical refers to body growth; includes height and weight changes,
muscle and nerve development, and changes in body organs.
Mental refers to development of the mind; includes learning how to solve
problems, make judgments and deal with situations.
Emotional refers to feelings; includes dealing with love, hate, joy, fear,
excitement, and other similar feelings.
Social refers to interactions and relationship with others.
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Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development
Types of Developmental Theories
Developmental theories provide a set of guiding principles and concepts that
describe and explain human development. Some developmental theories focus
on the formation of a specific quality, such as Kohlberg's theory of moral
development. Other developmental theories focus on growth that happens
throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

Grand Theories
Grand theories are those comprehensive ideas often proposed by major
thinkers such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget.

Mini theories
Mini theories describe a small, very specific aspect of development. A mini
theory might explain fairly narrow behaviors, such as how self-esteem is
formed or early childhood socialization. These theories are often rooted in the
ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and
explain the whole of human behavior and growth.
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Sigmund Freud

Psychology for Social Workers


2. Human Growth & Development

Psychosexual Development Theory


What is psychosexual
development?
Freud believed that
humans go through five
stages of psychosexual
development and that at
each stage of development
humans experience
pleasure in one part of the
body than in others.

What are erogenous


zones?
Erogenous zones are
parts of the body that
have especially strong
pleasure-giving qualities
at particular stages of
development.
What is fixation?
Fixation is the psychoanalytic
What is psychosexual development? Freud
defense mechanism that occurs
thought that our adult personality is determined when the individual remains locked
by the way we resolve conflicts between these
in an earlier developmental stage
early sources of pleasurethe mouth, the anus because needs are under- or overand the genitalsand the demands of reality.
gratified
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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development

Oral Stage (0-1yr)


The baby learns to suck (a bottle, breast or pacifier) and develops
healthy oral habits. If these habits don't develop it is said that an
adult will bite their nails or over eat or smoke later in life, etc

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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development

Anal Stage (1-3yrs)


Toddlers learn how to hold and release their urine and feces.
They learn to move away from diapers by using the toilet. The
way they are taught this important step can cause an adult to be
normal or either too orderly or messy
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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development

Phallic Stage (3-6yrs)


At this stage, is it said, that preschoolers develop oedipus and
electra conflicts (sexual desire for boys to mother and girls to
father). This causes the child to take on characteristics of the
same-sex parent. The children will suppress this desire to not
scare away the opposite sex parent and thus the superego is
formed

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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development
Latency Stage (6-11yrs)
During this stage the sexual instincts hide away and a child
learns new social values with peers (slumber party).

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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development

Genital Stage (16+)


The phallic stage reappears and if the earlier stages were
developed successfully than this will lead to marriage and
mature sexuality

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Psychoanalytic Theories Development

Theories of Human Development

Eric Eriksons

Erik Erikson

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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Eric Eriksons
Theory of Psychosocial Development
Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (0- 8 mns)
Feeding.Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers
provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will
lead to mistrust.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 yrs)

Early Childhood Toilet Training Children need to develop a


sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of
independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failur
results in feelings of shame and doubt.

Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 yrs)


Preschool Exploration Children need to begin asserting
control and power over the environment. Success in this
stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to
exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting
in a sense of guilt S.Rengasamy

Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development

Eric Eriksons
Theory of Psychosocial Development

Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)


School Age School Children need to cope with new social and
academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence,
while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 -18 yrs)


Adolescence Social Relationships Teens need to develop a
sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an
ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role
confusion and a weak sense of self.

Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40 ys)


Young Adulthood Relationships Young adults need to form
intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success
leads to strong relationships, while failure results in
loneliness and isolation.
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Theories of Human Development


Psychoanalytic Theories Development
Eric Eriksons
Theory of Psychosocial Development
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 ys)
Middle Adulthood Work and Parenthood Adults
need to create or nurture things that will outlast
them, often by having children or creating a
positive change that benefits other people.
Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
accomplishment, while failure results in shallow
involvement in the world.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65-death)


Maturity Reflection on Life Older adults need to look
back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at
this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure
results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
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Theories of Human Development


Cognitive Theories of Development

Jean Piagets
Stages of Cognitive Development

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Cognitive Theories
Cognitive theories are concerned with the development of a person's thought processes.

Jean Piagets
Stages of Cognitive Development
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Key Concepts Jean Piagets


Stages of Cognitive Development
Schemas-A schema describes both the mental and physical actions
involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of
knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.
Assimilation-The process of taking in new information into our
previously existing schemas is known as assimilation.
Accommodation- Another part of adaptation involves changing or
altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process
known as accommodation.
Equilibration - Piaget believed that all children try to strike a
balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is
achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration
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Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura


Banduras theory
Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Theory,
is a learning theory based on the ideas
that people learn by watching what
others do, and that human thought
processes are central to understanding
personality. This theory provides a
framework for understanding, predicting
and changing human behaviour.
The main tenets of Banduras theory are that:
1. people learn by observing others
2. the same set of stimuli may provoke different responses from different people,
or from the same people at different times
3. the world and a persons behaviour are interlinked
4. personality is an interaction between three factors: the environment,
behaviour, and a persons psychological processes.
Social Cognitive Theory revolves around the notion that learning correlates to the
observation of role models. In everyday life, we meet / observe /interact with
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models directly or through media sources

Learning from models


Four Key Processes in Social Learning
Attention.
In order to learn, one need to be pay attention. The more striking or different
something is (due to colour or drama, for example) the more likely it is to gain
ones attention. Likewise, if one regard something as prestigious, attractive or like
ourselves, one will take more notice. Distraction will have a negative effect on
observational learning.
Retention.
The ability to store information. Retention can be affected by a number of factors,
but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational
learning
Reproduction.
Acting over the retained information Practice of the retained / learned behavior
leads to improvement and skill advancement.
Motivation.
In order for observational learning to be successful, one has to be motivated to
imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement (past reinforcement.
promised reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement) and punishment play an
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important role in motivation.

Kohlbergs Theory of moral development


Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral
development holds that moral reasoning,
the basis for ethical behavior, has six
identifiable developmental stages, each
more adequate at responding to moral
dilemmas than its previous stage.
Kohlberg observed that growing children
advance through definite stages of moral
development in a manner similar to their
progression through Piaget's well-known
stages of cognitive development.
Kohlberg determined that the process of
moral development was principally
concerned with justice, and that it
continued throughout the individual's life
time. The se are stages of thought
processing, implying qualitatively
different modes of thinking and of
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problem solving at each stage.

Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development

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Stages of
of Faith
JamesDevelopment
W. Fowler
Stages
Faith

James W. Fowler

Faith is defined as confidence or trust in a being,


object, living organism, deity, view, or in the doctrines
or teachings of a religion, as well as confidence based
on no scientific, plausible, testable, demonstrable
evidence whatsoever. The word faith is often used as a
synonym for hope, for trust, or for belief.
Professor James W. Fowler proposes series of stages of
faith development (or spiritual development) across
the life span. It is closely related to the work of Piaget,
Erikson, and Kohlberg regarding aspects of
psychological development in children and
adults.Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting,
committing, and relating to the world based on a set
of assumptions of how one is related to others and the
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world.

Stages of Faith Development


Stages of Faith Development
James W. Fowler
James W. Fowler

James Fowler stages of faith Stage


Stage I Intuitive-Projective
Stage 2 Mythic-Literal
Stage 3 Synthetic-Conventional
Stage 4 Individuative-Reflective
Stage 5 Conjunctive Faith
Stage 6 Universalizing Faith

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Stages of Faith Development


James W. Fowler

Stage 1
Intuitive-Projective
This is the stage of preschool children in which fantasy and reality often get mixed
together. However, during this stage, our most basic ideas about God are usually
picked up from our parents and/or society.
Stage 2
Mythic-Literal
When children become school-age, they start understanding the world in more
logical ways. They generally accept the stories told to them by their faith community
but tend to understand them in very literal ways. [A few people remain in this stage
through adulthood.]
Stage 3
Synthetic-Conventional
Most people move on to this stage as teenagers. At this point, their life has grown to
include several different social circles and there is a need to pull it all together.
When this happens, a person usually adopts some sort of all-encompassing belief
system. However, at this stage, people tend to have a hard time seeing outside their
box and don't recognize that they are "inside" a belief system. At this stage,
authority is usually placed in individuals or groups that represent one's beliefs. [This
is the stage in which many people remain.]
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Stages of Faith Development


James W. Fowler
Stage 4
Individuative-Reflective
This is the tough stage, often begun in young adulthood, when people start seeing outside
the box and realizing that there are other "boxes". They begin to critically examine their
beliefs on their own and often become disillusioned with their former faith. Ironically, the
Stage 3 people usually think that Stage 4 people have become "backsliders" when in reality
they have actually moved forward.
Stage 5
Conjunctive Faith
It is rare for people to reach this stage before mid-life. This is the point when people begin to
realize the limits of logic and start to accept the paradoxes in life. They begin to see life as a
mystery and often return to sacred stories and symbols but this time without being stuck in a
theological box.
Stage 6
Universalizing Faith
Few people reach this stage. Those who do live their lives to the full in service of others
without any real worries or doubts.
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**

Stable Period - This is


the time when a
person makes crucial
choices in life

**

Early Adult Transition **


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** Transitional Period - This is the end of a person's stage and the beginning
of a new one. Life during these transitions can be either rocky or smooth

Age

Harry Stack Sullivans Developmental Epochs


Sullivan found out that childhood experiences with other people
are a large contributor to the adult personality. He differed from
Freud in his belief that the primary significance of the parent-child
relationship was not predominantly sexual, but rather an early
quest for security by the child. He also believed that the
personality can continue to develop past adolescence and even
well into adulthood. Sullivan called these stages "developmental
epochs," occurring in a particular order but with their timing
determined by our social environment. The majority of Sullivan's
focus revolved around the periods of adolescence, and he
suggested that many adulthood problems arise from the turmoils
of adolescence.
Our emotional life is not written in cement during childhood. Wewrite each
chapter aswe go along
Sullivan
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Harry Stack Sullivans Developmental Epochs

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Summary of Developmental Stages


Psychosocial Development (Erikson)
Trust vs. mistrust = birth 1 year
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt = 1 3 years
Initiative vs. inferiority = 3 6 years
Industry vs. inferiority = 6 - 12 years
Identity vs. role confusion = 12 18 years

Psychosexual Development (Freud)


Oral = birth 1 year
Anal = 1-3 years
Phallic = 3 6 years
Latency = 6 12 years
Genital = 12 + years
Stages of Faith (Fowler)
Prestage: undifferentiated faith = infant
Stage 1: intuitive-projective faith = toddler/preschooler
Stage 2: mythical-literal faith = school age
Stage 3: synthetic-conventional faith adolescent
Stage 4: individuative-reflective late adolescent
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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Cognitive School

Behavioristic School

Humanistic School

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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

Definition
Learning is the act of acquiring new,
or modifying and reinforcing,
existing knowledge, behaviors,
skills, values, or preferences and
may involve synthesizing different
types of information.

Learning theories
Learning theories are conceptual
frameworks describing how information is
absorbed, processed, and retained during
learning. Cognitive, emotional, and
environmental influences, as well as prior
experience, all play a part in how
understanding, or a world view, is acquired
or changed, and knowledge and skills
retained.
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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

This school suggests that all


behavior can be explained by
environmental causes rather than
by internal forces. Behaviorism is
focused on observable behavior.

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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

Human beings learn behaviour


through conditioning and
interacting with the environment
Social Learning
Social learning theory explains how
people learn new behaviors, values,
and attitudes by observing the
behavior of others and its
consequences, and modify their own
behavior accordingly. Social learning
requires observing a behaviour,
remembering the observed behavior,
the ability to replicate the behavior,
and a motivation to act the same
way.
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Conditioning
A process through which behavior is
learned. The two major types of
conditioning, respondent conditioning
(classical conditioning) and operant
conditioning Classical conditioning
involves learning a new behavior via the
process of association. In simple terms
two stimuli are linked together to
produce a new learned response in a
person or animal.
Operant conditioning (instrumental
conditioning) is a method of learning that
occurs through rewards and punishments
for behavior. Through operant
conditioning, an association is made
between a behavior and a consequence
for that behavior.

Cognitivism

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

Cognitive School is concerned with the development of a person's thought


processes. Learning as a Mental Process
Cognition literally means knowing. In other words, psychologists from this
approach study cognition which is the mental act or process by which
knowledge is acquired. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans
process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the
person (what behaviorists would
call stimuli), and how this
treatment leads to responses. In
Response other words, they are interested
Stimulus
/output
/input
in the variables that mediate
between stimulus/input and
response/output. Cognitive
learning is viewed as an
psychologists study internal
information processor
processes including perception,
perception, attention, language, memory & thinking
attention, language, memory and
thinking. A learner is viewed as an
information processor
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Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Stages of Cognitive Development

1
The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage,
infants and toddlers acquire knowledge
through sensory experiences and
manipulating objects.
The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids
2 learn through pretend play but still struggle
with logic and taking the point of view of other
people.
The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of
development begin to think more logically, but their thinking
can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and
hypothetical concepts.

The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of


Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability
to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of
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abstract ideas.

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory explains
psychosocial functioning in terms of
triadic (1. a model 2.cognitive and
personal factors 3.environmental
events) reciprocal causation.
1. By observing others (models), people
acquire knowledge of rules, skills,
strategies, beliefs, and attitudes.
Individuals also learn about the
usefulness and appropriateness of
behaviors
2. observing models and the
consequences of modeled behaviors and
they act in accordance with their beliefs
concerning the expected outcomes
3.environmental events of actions
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Constructivism.
It is a learning theory views
learning as the product of
experience (building new
knowledge by accessing past
experiences - Cognitive
constructivism) and social
discourse (expanding
understanding through
social interactions - social
constructivism) Knowledge
is Constructed; the Learner
is an Active Creator

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Discovery Learning
Discovery learning is an
inquiry based, constructivist
learning theory that takes
place in problem solving
situations where the learner
draws on his or her own
past experience and existing
knowledge to discover facts
and relationships and new
truths to be learned e.g.
business games, simulations
-Jerome Bruner

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Communities of Practice
Community of Practice is a social
learning process that occurs
when people who have a
common interest in a subject or
area collaborate
over an extended
period of time,
sharing ideas and
strategies,
determine
solutions, and build
innovations Jean
Lave

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Problem Based Learning
PBL is a way to organize learning around
ill-structured problems so that students
simultaneously acquire new knowledge
and experience in wrestling with
problems
In PBL, a teacher present a problem, not
lectures or assignments or exercises.
Since the "content" related to the
problem is not handed out, learning
becomes active in the sense that one is
motivated to discover the relevant
content necessary to solve the problem.
In PBL, a teacher acts as facilitator and
mentor, rather than a source of
"solutions."
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Humanism
Humanism is a paradigm / philosophy /

pedagogical approach that believes


learning is viewed as a personal act to
fulfil ones potential. Emotions and Affect
Play a Role in Learning
Some of the major ideas and concepts
that emerged as a result of the humanist
movement include an emphasis on things
such as:
Hierarchy of needs
Self determination
Self-actualization
Emotional intelligence
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

Emotional Intelligence
Learning is to prepare children's
and adults to develop
competencies to meet the
demands life. Learning includes
not only the subjects but also to
learn to identify, assess, and
control one's own emotions, the
emotions of others and that of
groups. Learning to discriminate
between different emotions and
label them appropriately, and to
use emotional information to
guide thinking and behavior.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

Hierarchy of Needs
Humanistic learning
theory emphasizes on the
individual needs in
learning. When all levels
of Maslow's Hierarchy of
Needs are met, students
are at their full potential
for learning. Students
with empty stomach,
students who are not
accepted and loved by
their teachers and peers
face serious problems in
learning
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

Experiential Learning
Experiential learning is the process of
making meaning from direct
experience, i.e., "learning from
experience". Learning is the process
whereby knowledge is created
through the transformation of
experience. Learning takes place in
four stages 1.concrete experience or
doing 2. reflective observation or
observing 3. abstract
conceptualization or thinking 4.
active experimentation or planning
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Self Determination
Humans are often motivated to act by
external rewards such as money, prizes, and
acclaim (known as extrinsic motivation), SelfDetermination Theory (SDT) focuses primarily
on internal sources of motivation such as a
need to gain knowledge (competence) or
independence (autonomy) or to relate (known
as intrinsic motivation). If the learner
experience competence when challenged and
given prompt feedback, experience autonomy
and support to explore, to take initiative and
develop solutions for the problems and
experience relatedness when listened and
responded by others, the learner feels
salification of intrinsic needs and motivated
and engage in learning actively.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Definition
Learning Disabilities refer to a number of disorders which may affect the
acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or
nonverbal information. These disorders affect learning in individuals who
otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and /or
reasoning.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Dyslexia
(reading-based or print-based)
A condition in the brain that
makes it hard for a person to
read, write, and spell

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Dysgraphia is a writing disability,
which means a child may not have
the complex set of motor and
information processing skills to be
able to write his or her own
thoughts down on a piece of
paper. They struggle with writing
complete and grammatically
correct sentences, and often have
poor handwriting.

Dysgraphia (writing-based)
Impairment of the ability to write,
usually caused by brain dysfunction
or disease.

Main symptoms of Dysgraphia


Difficulty holding or gripping a pen and
pencil
Inconsistent spacing between letters,
words and sentences
Using a mix of upper case and lower case
letters and a mix of cursive and print
writing
Sloppy, illegible writing
Omitting letters or not finishing words
when writing
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

Dyscalculia (Arithmetic math -based)


Dyscalculia is a math-based learning disability, which
results in a child having trouble recognizing numbers and
symbols and understanding basic math concepts. For
adults, they often have problems related to reasoning.

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Dyspraxia (Motor based)
Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects motor skill development. People with
dyspraxia have trouble planning and completing fine motor tasks. This can vary
from simple motor tasks such as waving goodbye to more complex tasks like
brushing teeth.

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

Central Auditory Process Disorder


(auditory-based)
Central Auditory Process Disorder (CAPD)
is an auditory disability, which means a
child has difficulty processing
information he or she hears and
interpreting speech. A child with CAPD
does not necessarily suffer from hearing
loss, instead he or she has a hearing
problem where the brain does not
interpret information heard.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities
/Memory/Forgetting

Aphasia, Dysphasia or
Global Aphasia
(language-based)
People who suffer from
language-based disorders
such as aphasia, dysphasia
or global aphasia have a
hard time expressing
themselves using words as
well as understanding
spoken or written language.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Meaning

Stages of memory
Encoding

Storage
Retrieval

Memory is the process in which


information is encoded, stored, and
retrieved. Encoding allows
information from the outside world
to reach the five senses in the forms
of chemical and physical stimuli and
changed into a usable form. Storage
is the second memory stage or
process. This entails that information
is maintained over periods of time.
Finally the third process is the
retrieval of information that has
been stored. The retrieval process
allows us to bring stored memories
which lies outside of our awareness
most of the time into conscious
awareness.
S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Sensory Memory

Iconic Memory

Echoic Memory

Haptic Memory

Sensory memory is the


shortest-term element of
memory. It is the ability to
retain impressions of sensory
information after the original
stimuli have ended.
Types Iconic Memory Echoic
Memory Haptic Memory

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Short Term / Working Memory
Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the
information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian
psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious
mind. The information found in short term memory comes from
paying attention to sensory memories

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Long Term
Information stored in the brain and retrievable over a long
period of time, often over the entire life span of the individual

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning
Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

Explicit
Declarative

Semantic

Episodic

Implicit
Non Declarative

Procedural

Conditional

S.Rengasamy

Emotional

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
Rote Memory
Rote memory is verbal repetition of a
learnt material mechanically; it is
somewhat similar to habit memory and it
is possible without understanding the
learnt material. For example, learning the
addition or multiplication tables.

Habit Memory
Habit memory means memory of an
object or idea resulting in a mechanical
repetition of the activity. A habit is
formed by doing a particular activity
repeatedly over a period of time; for
example, playing a musical instrument.
Habit memory becomes more a physical
activity.
S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting

Logical memory involves proper understanding of the material learnt. When the
content of a lesson is understood, then one can retain it in mind for a longer
period and can reproduce it, whenever required, in future. It does not depend on
the mechanical verbal repetition.

Forgetting / Retention Loss/ Memory Loss

Retention Loss
Memory Loss

Meaning
Forgetting (retention loss) refers to 1.
apparent loss of information already
encoded (memory) has disappeared - it
is no longer available or 2. the memory
may be stored in the memory system
but, for some reason, it cannot be
retrieved. These two answers
summaries the main theories of
forgetting developed by
psychologists. The first answer is more
likely to be applied to forgetting in
short term memory (Trace Decay
Theory of Forgetting), the second
(interference and lack of consolidation)
to forgetting in long term memory.
S.Rengasamy

Types of Forgetting / Problems with memory


Transience:
1 storage decay over time (after we part ways
with former classmates, unused information
fades)
Misattribution
confusing the source of information
(putting words in someone else's
mouth or remembering a movie scene
as an actual happening)

5
Bias
When retrieving a memory, one's mood and
other biases at that moment can influence
what information one actually recall.
Distortion
An imperfect image is recalled from
long term-memory(Still remember the
memory, but is no longer what it
originally stored
7
S.Rengasamy

2
Blocking
inaccessibility of stored information
(seeing an old classmate, we may feel
the name on the tip of our tongue,
but we experience retrieval failurewe can't get it out)

4
Suggestibility
Suggestibility is the vulnerability of your
memory to the power of suggestion , the
lingering effects of misinformation
6
Fading
When we can no longer recall information
from our memory because of disuse(once a
clear memory, now faded)

Interferences: 1.Proactive interference, Proactive


interference(forward-acting)disruptive effect of
prior learning on the recall of new information and
2. Retroactive interference (backward-acting) New
learning disrupts the recall of old
8

Forgetting / Retention Loss/ Memory Loss


Theories of Forgetting

Decay Theory
Retrieval failure theory
Motivated forgetting
Interference theory

Decay Theory
The decay theory suggest, simply, that our
memories may biologically degenerate over
time. Forgetting occurs because as time
passes, the memory trace gradually fades
away.
S.Rengasamy

Forgetting / Retention Loss/ Memory Loss

Interference theory

Retroactive interference refers


to newly-encoded memory
interfering with the retrieval of
a less recently encoded
memory.

Proactive interference refers to


a previously-encoded memory
interfering with the retrieval of
a more recently encoded
memory.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Forgetting / Retention Loss/ Memory Loss
Retrieval failure theory
The retrieval failure theory refers to ones
incapacity to utilise internal or external cues to
retrieve previously-stored information. That is,
whilst the information is stored in memory and
is, theoretically, available, the necessary
prompts are not present. This is often
exemplified by the tip-of-the-tongue
phenomenon.

Motivated forgetting
Motivated forgetting refers to the
process consciously or unconsciously
blocking out negative, painful or
threatening memories by using
repression (unconscious) and
suppression (conscious).
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Intelligence

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Intelligence

Meaning
Capacity for learning, reasoning,
understanding, and similar forms of mental
activity; aptitude in grasping truths,
relationships, facts, meanings, etc.

S.Rengasamy

Verbal - Finding the right


words to express what
one's feel

Psychology for Social Workers


Types of Intelligence

Musical - Discerning
sounds, their pitch, tone,
rhythm and timbre

Mathematical Quantifying things,


making hypotheses,
and proving them
Interpersonal Sensing people's
feelings and motives

Naturalistic Understanding living


things and reading
nature
Visual - Visualizing the world in 3D

Physical - Coordinating
one's mind with one's
body
S.Rengasamy

Existential - Tackling
the questions of
why we live and
why we die

Psychology for Social Workers


Types of Intelligence

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Types of Intelligence

IQ-Intelligence Quotient
IQ-Intelligence Quotient

S.Rengasamy

Intelligence Quotient is a measure of a


person's intelligence as indicated by an
intelligence test; the ratio of a person's mental
age to their chronological age (multiplied by
100)
Mental Age/Chronological Age = Mental
Quotient A 6-year-old able to do only what a
3-year-old can do has a Mental Quotient of .5
or (3 divided by 6).
Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100 =
Intelligence Quotient
The 6-year-old with the Mental Quotient of
has an IQ of 50. An I.Q between 90 and 110
is considered average; over 120, superior.

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality
Definition
Personality is the sum total of the physical, mental,
emotional, and social characteristics of an
individual. But these characteristics are consistent
as well as intrapersonal processes originating within
the individual. People possess characteristic traits
that are relatively stable, across both time and
situations, thus accounting for the consistency
element of personality. It is intrapersonal in the
sense that it influences, how people think, feel, and
behave in a unique way hence relating to the
individuality of the personality.

Personality is the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving, etc., that


makes a person different from other people
It also means attractive qualities (such as energy, friendliness, and humor)
that make a person interesting or pleasant to be with
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality

S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy

Personality
Theories of Personality

S.Rengasamy

Type Theories
Hippocrates identified four types of
Personalities or temperaments, each
associated with a different bodily fluid,
or "humor."
The sanguine, or optimistic, type
was associated with blood;
The phlegmatic type (slow and
lethargic) with phlegm;
The melancholic type (sad,
depressed) with black bile; &
The choleric (angry) type with
yellow bile.
Individual personality was
determined by the amount
of each of the four humors.
S.Rengasamy

Personality
Theories of Personality

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Type Theories

William Sheldon (1940)


Classified personality into three
categories based on body
types:
the endomorph
(heavy and easy-going),
mesomorph
(muscular and aggressive),
and ectomorph
(thin & intellectual or artistic).

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Type Theories

Type A and Type B personality theory.


According to this theory, impatient,
achievement-oriented people are
classified as Type A, whereas easygoing, relaxed individuals are
designated as Type B
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Type Theories

Introvert
Energized by self
Inward & Quiet
Thinks, then act
Deep Experience

Extrovert
Energized by outer world,
Outgoing & Talkative,
Act Then think ,
breath experience

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Type Theories

INFP:
introversion (I),
intuition (N),
feeling (F),
perception (P)

ESTJ:
extraversion (E),
sensing (S),
thinking (T),
judgment (J)

S.Rengasamy

Personality
Theories of Personality
Type Theories

ESTJ
Extraversion (E),
Sensing (S),
Thinking (T),
Judgment (J)

INFP
Introversion (I),
Intuition (N),
Feeling (F),
Perception (P)

S.Rengasamy

Myers Briggs Sixteen Personality Types


Personality
Theories of Personality
Type Theories

ESTJ
Extraversion (E),
Sensing (S),
Thinking (T),
Judgment (J)

INFP
Introversion (I),
Intuition (N),
Feeling (F),
Perception (P)

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Trait Theories

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality -Trait Theories

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Trait Theories

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality
Trait Theories

S.Rengasamy

Structure of the Personality

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality

Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic theory placed great
importance on the role of unconscious
psychological conflicts in shaping
behavior and personality. Psychoanalytic
theory of personality argued that human
behavior was the result of the interaction
of three component parts of the mind:
the id, ego, and superego. Dynamic
interactions among these basic parts of
the mind were thought to carry human
beings through five psychosexual stages
of development: oral, anal, phallic,
latency, and genital. Each stage required
mastery for a human to develop properly
and move on to the next stage
successfully.
S.Rengasamy

Behavioural Theories

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality

Behavioural theory postulates that personality is acquired through interaction


with the environment. Behaviorists believe that human responses to
environmental stimuli condition human learning which in turn shape behavior
and personality. Thus personality is neither an inborn character nor unconscious
response but a learned one

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Theories of Personality

Social Cognitive Theories


Social-Cognitive Theory emphasizes cognitive
processes, such as thinking and judging in the
development of personality. These cognitive
processes contribute to learned behavior that
are central to one's personality, not just the
environmental influences such as rewards and
punishments. By observing an admired role
model, an individual may choose to adopt and
emphasize particular traits and behaviors.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality
Theories of Personality

Humanistic Theories

S.Rengasamy

Humanistic theory postulates that


personality is shaped by hierarchy of
needs and striving of self
actualization. For a person to "grow",
they need an environment that provides
them with genuineness (openness and
self -disclosure), acceptance (being seen
with unconditional positive regard), and
empathy (being listened to and
understood).

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality
Theories of Personality

Bio-psychological Theories
Bio-psychological theory of personality explains that personality is influenced by
the biology of the brain. This theory emphasis on the biochemistry of the
behavioral systems of reward, motivation, and punishment. It hypothesized two
systems controlling behavioural activity and shaping personality, the behavioural
inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioural activation system (BAS).The BIS is
thought to be related to sensitivity to punishment as well as avoidance motivation,
while the BAS is thought to be related to sensitivity to reward as well as approach
motivation.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality Disorders
Definition
Personality disorders are a class of
mental disorders characterized by
enduring maladaptive patterns of
behavior, cognition, and inner
experience, exhibited across many
contexts and deviating markedly from
those accepted by the individual's
culture. These patterns develop early,
are inflexible and are associated with
significant distress or disability

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality Disorders

(odd disorders)

Schizotypal
PD: a pattern
of extreme
discomfort
interacting
socially, and
distorted
cognitions and
perceptions

Paranoid PD: characterized by


a pattern of irrational
suspicion and mistrust of
others, interpreting
motivations as malevolent

Schizoid PD: lack of interest


& detachment from social
relationships, apathy, and
restricted emotional
expression.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality Disorders

Cluster B
(dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

Borderline PD: pervasive pattern


of instability in relationships, selfimage, identity, behavior and
affects often leading to self-harm
and impulsivity.

Histrionic PD:
pervasive pattern
of attentionseeking behavior
and excessive
emotions.

Narcissistic PD:
a pervasive
pattern of
grandiosity, need
for admiration,
and a lack of
empathy.

S.Rengasamy

Antisocial PD:
a pervasive pattern of
disregard for and
violation of the rights of
others, lack of empathy,
bloated self-image,
manipulative and
impulsive behavior.

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality Disorders

(anxious or fearful disorders)

Avoidant PD:
pervasive feelings
of social
inhibition and
inadequacy,
extreme
sensitivity to
negative
evaluation.

S.Rengasamy

Dependent PD:
pervasive psychological
need to be cared for by
other people.

Obsessive-compulsive PD (not the


same as obsessive-compulsive
disorder): characterized by rigid
conformity to rules, perfectionism,
and control to the point of
satisfaction and exclusion of
leisurely activities and friendships.

Psychology for Social Workers


Personality Tests
Definition
Personality tests are
standardized series of
questions / inventories or
tasks used to describe or
evaluate the thoughts,
emotions, attitudes, and
behavioral traits that
comprise personality. The
results of these tests can
help determine ones
personality strengths and
weaknesses, and may
identify certain
disturbances in personality,
or psychopathology.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Various Types of Personality Tests

Personality Tests are self-report


inventories involve having test-takers
read questions and then rate how well
the question or statement applies to
them
1.Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI)
2.The 16 Personality Factor
Questionnaire
3.California Personality Inventory
4.Common Inventories 1. Anger Test, 2.
Stress Test, 3. Neurotic Test,
4. Personality Type Test
5. Memory Test,
6. Openness to Experience Personality
Test,
7. Agreeable Test
8. Consciousness Test,
9. Extrovert? Test
S.Rengasamy
10. Five Factor Test

Projective tests involve presenting the


test-taker with a vague scene, object, or
scenario and then asking them to give
their interpretation of the test item.
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Deficiency / Mental Illness & Mental Health

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers

Definition
Mental Deficiency is no longer in
technical use. Now it is called as
mental retardation that means
something is wrong or lacking in
a person's brain, thought process
or ability to think and learn.
Mental retardation (MR), is a
neurodevelopmental disorder
characterized by impaired
intellectual and adaptive
functioning which is defined by
an IQ score below 70 as well as a
delay in general daily living skills.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Down Syndrome

Down' Syndrome
Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic
disorder caused when abnormal cell division
results in extra genetic material from
chromosome 21.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Cretinism

Cretinism
Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted
physical and mental growth due to
untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid
hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) due
to maternal nutritional deficiency of
iodine.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Cranial Anamoly

Cranial Anamoly
Cranial Anamoly is an irregular
head because of a congenital
flaw.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Microcephaly

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Hydrocephaly

Hydrocephaly
Hydrocephaly is a medical
condition in which there is
an abnormal accumulation
of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
in the ventricles, or cavities,
of the brain.

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness

Mental Illness
Mental Illness is a medical condition characterized by
impairment of an individual's normal cognitive,
emotional, or behavioral functioning, and caused by
social, psychological, biochemical, genetic, or other
factors, such as infection or head trauma. Also called
emotional illness, mental disease, mental disorder.
e.g.Mood Disorder, Depression, Anxiety, Psychotic
Disorders, Bipolar Disorder, Dementia/Alzheimers
Disease
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness - Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental


disorders characterized by feelings of
anxiety and fear e.g. Panic disorder,
Social anxiety disorder, Specific phobias,
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness - Anxiety Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness Anxiety Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness - Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Mood disorder is a psychological


disorder characterized by the
elevation or lowering of a person's
mood, such as depression or bipolar
disorder. e.g. Depressive disorder,
Bipolar disorder, Substance-induced
mood disorder

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness Mood Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness - Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic Disorders

S.Rengasamy

Psychotic disorders are


severe mental disorders
that cause abnormal
thinking and perceptions.
e.g. psychotic disorder,
schizotypal personality
disorder, delusional
disorder, catatonia,
substance/medicationinduced psychotic disorder

Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness Eating Disorders
Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are psychological illnesses defined by
abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or
excessive food intake. e.g. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia
Nervosa,
Anorexia is an eating disorder in which a person is
obsessed with losing weight and often refuses to eat as
they fear it will cause them to gain weight.
Bulimia - People with bulimia may eat large amounts of
food - and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra
calories in an unhealthy way.
Binge Eating Disorder is
characterized by compulsive
overeating in which people
consume huge amounts of
food while feeling out of
control and powerless to
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stop.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Illness
Impulsive Control & Addiction Disorders

Impulsive Control & Addiction Disorders


Impulse control disorders are a new class of
personality disorders characterized by an
ongoing inability to resist impulses to perform
actions that are harmful to oneself or others.
e.g alcohol / drug addiction, eating disorders,
compulsive gambling, paraphilia, sexual
fantasies, compulsive hair pulling, stealing,
intermittent explosive attacks of rage.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Mental Health

Mental Health
Meaning
A state of emotional and psychological well-being in
which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive
and emotional capabilities, function in society, and
meet the ordinary demands of everyday life.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Characteristics of Mentally Healthy
Not overwhelmed by emotions,
such as fear, anger, love, jealousy,
guilt, or anxiety.
Feeling comfortable with other people.

Ability to laugh at themselves and with others.


Maintain lasting and
satisfying personal
relationships.
Ability to make their own decisions.

Ability to shape their environment whenever


possible and adjust to it when necessary.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Promotion of Mental Health
Promoting mental health
means preventing mental
illness and increase the
number of people who enjoy
good mental health by
developing their ability to
adapt to mental stresses and
reduce to the greatest extent
possible, the number of
people whose mental health is
poor, who experience the
symptoms of mental health
problems or illnesses, or who
die by suicide.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Promotion of Mental Health

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains


goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is
getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain
knowledge.
It involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that
activate behavior. "The term motivation refers to factors that activate,
direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior... Motives are the "whys" of
behavior - the needs or wants that drive behavior and explain what we do.
We don't actually observe a motive; rather, we infer that one exists based
on the behavior we observe."
Motivation derived from Latin word movere , which means to move

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Psychology for Social Workers


Importance of Motivation
Motivation is very important
both for individuals and
organizations for the following
benefits it provides:

It Improves level of efficiency


Leads to achievement of personal organizational goals

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

Need - A physiological
or psychological
imbalance leads to
creation of need

Individuals
believes in
certain
manner
Drive /Motive

Drive/Motives propel individuals to


attain their goals or
satisfy their need

Search
Behaviour

Physiological /
Psychological
Deficiency
Unsatisfied
Need

Tension

Motivation Process

Culture
Experience
Learning
Cognitive
process

Satisfied
Need
Achieves a
Particular
Goal

Reduction
of the
Tension

Incentives - anything
that can mitigate a need
and decrease the
intensity of a drive

An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates the drive within an individual to generate
search behavior to achieve particular goals, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Motivation Theories
(Content vs. Process)
Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different
perspectives: Content and Process theories.
Content Theories deal with what motivates people and it is concerned
with individual needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland
studied motivation from a content perspective.
Process Theories deal with the process of motivation and is concerned
with how motivation occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams
and Locke studied motivation from a process perspective.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
A group of theories that places
emphasis on needs that motivate
people

Maslow

Herzberg

McClelland

Maslows hierarchy of needs


Herzbergs Two-factor theory
McClellands Acquired needs theory
Alderfers ERG theory
Alderfer
Victor H. Vroom

Expectancy theory
Equity theory
Goal setting theory

A category of theories that explain


how people select behaviors to
meet their needs
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John Stacey Adams

Edwin Locke

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Abraham Maslows
Hierarchy of Needs
When motivation theory is being
considered the first theory that is
being recalled is Maslows hierarchy of
needs which he has introduced in his
1943 article named as A Theory of
Human Motivation. According to this
theory, individual strives to seek a
higher need when lower needs are
fulfilled. Once a lower-level need is
satisfied, it no longer serves as a
source of motivation. Needs are
motivators only when they are
unsatisfied.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Malows Hierarchy of Needs

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
ERG Theory
In 1969, Clayton P. Alderfer,
simplified Maslows theory by
categorizing hierarchy of
needs into three categories:
Physiological and Safety needs
are merged in Existence
Needs,
Belonging needs is named as
Relatedness Needs,
Self-esteem and Selfactualization needs are
merged in Growth Needs
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Hierarchy of Needs & ERG

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Herzbergs Two Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg, introduced his Two Factor Theory in 1959. He suggested
that there are two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in
different ways:
Hygiene factors involve the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers. When the
hygiene factors are present, the individual is not dissatisfied; however when
they are absent the individual is dissatisfied. In any case hygiene factors do
not motivate. Hygiene factors are extrinsic and include factors such as salary
or remuneration, job security and working conditions
Motivators are factors that influence satisfaction and consequently motivate
the person from within as he or she achieve the higher-level needs of
achievement, recognition, and personal growth. Motivators are intrinsic
factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility and personal
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growth.

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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McClellands Acquired needs theory

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Acquired-Needs Model

Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

The basis of the model is that needs are acquired or learned from the life
experiences in the culture in which we live. The acquire needs model focuses on
three important needs in the work environment:
1. Need foe achievement (n-ach) 2. Need for power (n-pow) 3. Need for
affiliation (n-affil)
n-ach the drive to excel, to accomplish, and to achieve a standard of
excellence.
n-pow the need to influence and control ones environment; may involve
either personal power or institutional power.
n-affil the need for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Implication Acquired-need model provides managers with the understanding of
the underlying needs that motivate people to behave in certain ways. This model
does not explain why people choose a particular way of behaviour.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Summary of Content Theories of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Process Theories about Motivation
Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory argues that
humans act according to their
conscious expectations that a
particular behavior will lead to
specific desirable goals.
Victor H. Vroom, developed the
expectancy theory in 1964, producing
a systematic explanatory theory of
workplace motivation. Theory asserts
that the motivation to behave in a
particular way is determined by an
individuals expectation that
behaviour will lead to a particular
outcome, multiplied by the
preference or valence that person has
for that outcome.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation
Process Theories about Motivation

Goal Theory
Edwin Locke proposed Goal Theory in 1968,
which proposes that motivation and
performance will be high if individuals are
set specific goals which are challenging, but
accepted, and where feedback is given on
performance.
The two most important findings of this
theory are:
Setting specific goals (e.g. I want to earn a
million before I am 30) generates higher
levels of performance than setting general
goals (e.g. I want to earn a lot of money).
The goals that are hard to achieve are
linearly and positively connected to
performance. The harder the goal, the more
a person will work to reach it.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

Adams Equity Theory


Developed by John Stacey Adams
in 1963, Equity Theory suggests
that if the individual perceives that
the rewards received are
equitable, that is, fair or just in
comparison with those received by
others in similar positions in or
outside the organization, then the
individual feels satisfied. Adams
asserted that employees seek to
maintain equity between the
inputs that they bring to a job and
the outcomes that they receive
from it against the perceived
inputs and outcomes of others.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

Theory X and theory Y


Douglas McGregor, an American social
psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y
theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side
Of Enterprise'.
Theory X assumes that employees are
naturally unmotivated and dislike
working, and this encourages an
authoritarian style of management.
Theory Y assumes that employees are
happy to work, are self-motivated and
creative, and enjoy working with greater
responsibility.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Psychology of Motivation

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling

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Psychology for Social Workers

Nature of Counselling
The branch of psychology that
focuses on personal problems not
classified as serious mental
disorders, such as academic, social,
or vocational difficulties of
students. This is similar to clinical
psychology, except that most of the
issues addressed by counseling
psychologists are less "serious". For
example, a clinical psychologist
would be more likely to deal with
schizophrenia and other "serious"
psychological disorders than a
counseling psychologist

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling

Counselling - Definition
Direct face-to-face conversation between two people. It is a
scientific process of assistance extended by an expert in an
individual situation to a needy person. Counselling involves
relationship between two persons in which one of them
(counselor) attempts to assists the other (counselee or client) in
so organizing himself as to attain a particular form of happiness,
adjusting to a life situation, or in short ,self actualization

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling X Coaching

Counseling

Coaching

Discipline, Instructing

Asking, Guiding

PAST

NOW

FUTURE

Recovery

Growth

Seeking Healing
Correcting Belief System
Establishing Healthy
Thinking & Behaviours
Discovering What
We were created to BE

Choosing Goals, Action Steps


Making Commitments
Going to next Level
Maximizing Potential
Discovering & Pursuing What We
were created to DO
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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling X Guidance
Guidance is broader
comprehensive
Guidance is more external, helps
A person understand alternative
solutions available to him & makes
him understand his personality &
choose the right solution.
Guidance is mainly preventive &
developmental
Intellectual attitudes are the raw
material of guidance
Decision making is operable at
an intellectual level in guidance
Guidance is generally education
& career related & may also be for
personal problems

Counselling is in-depth & narrow


Counselling helps people
understand themselves & is an
inward analysis.
Alternative solutions are
proposed to help understand the
problem at hand.
Counselling is remedial as well as
preventive & developmental
Emotional rather than pure
intellectual attitude are raw
material of the counselling process.
Counselling operates at an
emotional level
Counselling is mostly offered for
personal & social issues.

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling Stages

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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling

Counseling is Not

Giving advice.
Judgmental.
Attempting to sort out the problems of the client.
Expecting or encouraging a client to behave in a
way in which the counsellor may have behaved
when confronted with a similar problem in their
own life.
Getting emotionally involved with the client.
Looking at a client's problems from counselors
perspective, based on counselors value system.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Counselling & Psychotherapy
Counselling is a helping approach that highlights the emotional and
intellectual experience of a client, how a client is feeling and what they
think about the problem they have sought help for.
Psychotherapy, however, is based in the psychodynamic approach to
counselling - it encourages the client to go back to their earlier
experiences and explore how these experiences effect their current
problem.
A psychotherapist, therefore, helps the client to become conscious of
experiences which they were previously unaware of. Counsellors,
however, are less likely to be concerned with the past experiences of
the client and are generally trained in a humanistic approach, using
techniques from client-centred therapy.
S.Rengasamy

Psychology for Social Workers


Areas of Counselling

Areas of Counselling
School and career/work adjustment concerns.
Making decisions about career and work, and dealing with
schoolworkretirement transitions.
Relationship difficultiesincluding marital and family difficulties.
Learning and skill deficits.
Stress management and coping with negative life events.
Organizational problems.
Dealing with and adjusting to physical disabilities, disease or injury.
Personal/social adjustment. The development of ones identity.
Persistent difficulties with relating to other people in general. Mental disorders.
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Directive Counseling

Psychology for Social Workers


Types of Counselling

Directive Counseling (prescriptive counselling) E.G Williamson is the chief


exponent in this viewpoint It is Counsellor -centred. the counsellor direct
the client to take steps in order to resolve his conflicts It is based on
assumption that the client cannot solve his own problems for lack of
information.

Non-directive Counselling
Carl. R.Roger is the chief exponent in this viewpoint This school of thought
is just reverse to that of directive counseling It is a client-centred process
In this, the counselee is the pivot of the whole counselling process The main
function of the counsellor is to create an atmosphere in which the client can
work out his problem.

Eclectic Counselling
The chief advocate of this type of counselling is Thorne Eclectic counselling
is a type of counselling which is neither counsellor-centred nor client centred;
but a combination of both Here the counsellor is neither too active as in
directive counselling nor too passive as in non-directive counselling, but
follows a middle course.
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Psychology for Social Workers


Types of Counselling

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Psychology for Social Workers


Types & Areas of Counselling
Process of Counseling
Step 1: Relationship Building
Step 2: Problem Assessment
Step 3: Goal Setting
Step 4: Intervention
Step 5: Evaluation, follow up,
Termination or Referral

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Psychology for Social Workers


Qualities of a Counselor
Qualities of a Counselor
Patience, Good Listening, Observant,
Warm, Knowledgeable,
Having empathy with the patient/client,
Maintaining a therapeutic relationship with a
patient,
Confidentiality,
Personal integrity,
Spiritual maturity

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Psychology for Social Workers


Qualities of a Counselor

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Psychology for Social Workers


Social Psychology

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Psychology for Social Workers


Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Definition
Social psychology is a
discipline that uses
scientific methods "to
understand and explain
how the thought, feeling
and behavior of
individuals are influenced
by the actual, imagined or
implied presence of other
human beings
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Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology

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Group Dynamics:
Interaction of
complex intra- and
inter-personal forces
operating in a group
which determine its
character,
development, and
long-term survival.

Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology
Prosocial Behavior: Voluntary actions that are intended
to help or benefit another individual or group of
individuals
Propaganda: Information, especially of a biased or
misleading nature, used to promote a political cause
or point of view.

Ergonomics: The applied science of equipment design, as for


the workplace, intended to maximize productivity by
reducing operator fatigue and discomfort

Persuade: Induce (someone)


to do something through
reasoning or argument.

Health Psychology: Applying psychological principles to healing physical illness and


medical problems
Environmental psychology: It is an
Social Psychology: The branch of
interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay
psychology that deals with social
between individuals and their surroundings.
interactions, including their origins and
The field defines the term environment
their effects on the individual.
broadly, encompassing natural environments,
social settings, built environments, learning
Prejudice: Preconceived opinion that is not
environments, and informational
based on reason or actual experience.
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environments

Aggression : Feelings of anger or antipathy


resulting in hostile or violent behavior;
readiness to attack or confront. the action of
attacking without provocation

Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology

Violence: Behavior involving physical force


intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or
something.

Social Control:
Social control is
the regulation of
individual and
group behavior in
an attempt to
gain conformity
and compliance
[disambiguation
needed] to the
rules of a given
society, state, or
social group.
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Cult: A system of religious veneration and


devotion directed towards a particular
figure or object.
Diversity: The condition of having or
including people from different ethnicities
and social backgrounds
Discrimination: The
unjust or prejudicial
treatment of different
categories of people,
especially on the
grounds of race, age,
or sex.

Leadership: The
action of leading a
group of people or
an organization, or
the ability to do
this

Consumer Psychology:
The study of
individuals, groups, or
organizations and the
processes they use to
select, secure, use,
and dispose of
products, services,
experiences, or ideas
to satisfy needs and
the impacts that these
processes have on the
consumer and
society."

Social Activism: Activism consists of efforts to


promote, impede, or direct social, political,
economic, or environmental change, or stasis.
Domestic Violence: Domestic
violence (also domestic
abuse, spousal abuse,
intimate partner violence,
battering or family violence)
is a pattern of behavior which
involves violence or other
abuse by one person in a
domestic context against
another, such as in marriage
or cohabitation
Advertising: Advertising is the
non personal communication
of information usually paid
for and usually persuasive in
nature about products,
services or ideas by identified
sponsors through the various
media

Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology

Gender: Gender is a
person's sexual identity,
regardless of the person's
biological and outward sex.
Social Networking: The use of
dedicated websites and
applications to interact with
other users, or to find people
with similar interests to one's
own
Personal advertisement:
A private advertisement or
message placed in a
newspaper, especially one
from someone seeking a sexual
or romantic partner.

Marketing: The action


or business of
promoting and selling
products or services,
including market
research and
advertising.
Sustainable Future:
Development that
meets the needs of the
present without
compromising the
ability of future
generations to satisfy
their needs'
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Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology
Matchmaking: It is the
process of matching two
or more people
together, usually for the
purpose of marriage,
but the word is also
used in the context of
sporting events, such as
boxing, in business, and
in pairing organ donors.

Family relationship: (Anthropology) relatedness or


connection by blood or marriage or adoption
Social marketing : It seeks to develop and integrate
marketing concepts with other approaches to influence
behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the
greater social good.

Volunteerism: The principle of donating time


and energy for the benefit of other people in the
community as a social responsibility rather than
for any financial reward
Conflict : A serious disagreement or
argument, typically a protracted one.

Sexuality: An organism's
preparedness for engaging in sexual
activity.

Conflict Resolution: Intervention aimed at


alleviating or eliminating discord through
conciliation

Selling: To give up or surrender in exchange for a price or reward

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Psychology for Social Workers


Subject matter of Social Psychology

Psychology of Gender
Gender" (masculinity/femininity) refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours,
activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and
women. In comparison, 'sex' (male/female) denotes biologically determined, thus
unchangeable, difference between them. Lesbian, Bisexual, and Gay, Other Gender
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Community Psychology

Psychology for Social Workers


Community Psychology

Community Psychology is that branch of applied psychology that deals with


mental health and social welfare issues within the community setting.
Community psychologists try to involve the community members in proposed
solutions to those problems. According to Oxford (1992), community psychology
is about understanding people within their social worlds and using this
understanding to improve people's well-being. Topics addressed in community
psychology include substance abuse and prevention, addressing poverty issues,
school failure, community development, risk and protective factors,
empowerment, diversity, delinquency, and many more.

S.Rengasamy