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SIEMENS

Three-Dimensional
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

ECAT SCANNER

ECAT Scanners for


In Vivo Biochemical Imaging
and Diagnosis
Siemens ECAT Scanners demonstrate years
of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) design
experience through their unique diagnostic and
investigational capabilities. With ECAT Scanners
you can utilize radioisotope tracer kinetics to
quantitatively measure and locally map physiological and biochemical processes within
the body.
The ECAT Scanners' exceptional, high resolution
in vivo biochemical imaging and quantification
distinguish them as superior systems for both clinical and research environments involved in neurological, oncological, psychiatric and cardiological
applications. ECAT detectors delineate small
structures for both head and whole body scanning while the multi-ring design enables total
three-dimensional organ imaging with transmission and emission formats in static, and dynamic
or gated modalities.

Neurology

Testing for:

To Decide:

Cerebral metabolic rate

Regional viability for


rehabilitation candidates

Corroborative diagnosis

Patients at risk and early


diagnosis for patient
management

Assessment of tissue
viability in predicting
outcome of bypass
surgery or non-surgical
intervention

Focal epilepsy

Epileptogenic focus for


surgical intervention

Degenerative disorders and


depression

Differentiation of
Alzheimer's from multiinfarct dementia or
depression

Ischemia and stroke

Just some areas where the ECAT Scanners offer


unique information are:

FDG IN NORMAL BRAIN

FDG IN ALZHEIMERS DISEASE

BASE

SYSTOLE

GATED
CARDIAC
STUDY
(fDG)

DIASTOLE

Cardiology

Testing for:

To Decide:

Ischemia/infarct and
myocardial tissue viability

CAD presence

Catheterization
candidacy

Bypass or non-surgical
intervention candidacy
Effect of surgical,
pharmacologic intervention or angioplasty

Predictive value
for bypass surgery,
pharmacologic intervention or angioplasty

Gated PET Study with 18FOG, same


slice at 4 selected phases of the
cardiac cycle.

Oncology

Testing for:

To Decide:

Tumor grading and


characterization

Selection of patients for


individualized therapy

Tumor therapy monitoring

Effect of therapy such as


desired response, radiation necrosis or regrowth

High patient throughput requirements are easily


handled by the ECAT Scanners' user friendly,
menu driven software. Its flexibility and detailed
documentation affords users the opportunity to
develop and implement additional methods for
data acquisition, post-processing and clinical
application packages. In addition, the ECAT
Scanner's installation proven, operational reliability record further enhances its desirability as
the choice PET system.
The ECAT Scanner series is a user-focused PET
system, uniquely designed to serve each individual institution's imaging needs, providing modular,
upgradeable designs, personnel training, and
responsive maintenance service.

System Highlights
Block Detector
The ECAT block detector is a
breakthrough in PET imaging
technology. This proprietary
design uses 4 photomultipliers
to view a block of 32 discrete
Bismuth Germinate (BGO) crystals. Light collection efficiency
is improved, providing gains in
timing and energy resolution.
The benefits include spatial and
axial resolution improvements,
higher detection efficiency,
scatter and pileup reductions,
and improved reliability. Three
choices of axial crystal width
(13mm, 16mm, and 20mm) offer
solutions to the specific imaging
and application needs of each
institution.

Energy Resolution
Photopeak TOTAL

:,

= 22%

74%

: >

; \

~10

c:

~,

:::l

()

."
!

:::l

()

___.,r'
''---_.

--_..

i
'

Al (FWHM) = 2.9 nsec.


l: 1 (FWTM) = 6.0 nsec.
\

,i

""----

""'0

Time

Energy
Energy Resolution of the Block Detector
used in 831, 933, 931 models

Time Resolution of the Block Detector


used in 831, 933, 931 models

The new generation block detector technology (above) clearly


demonstrates major improvements in energy and timing resolution
in comparison with the earlier generation (below) single crystal,
single tube design.
Energy Resolution = 37%
Photopeak TOTAL = 58%

U
Q)

1\

,f\'

,I \.

~ /~-,/

Al (FWHM) = 5.8 nsec.


Al (FWTM) = 11.8 nsec.

\.-,

Energy
Energy Resolution of the Prior Detector
(Single Crystal, Single Tube)

~10
:::l

()

,1

.
j
....

---

'-..

Time
Time Resolution of the Prior Detector
(Single Crystal, Single Tube)

High intrinsic full-width half


maximum (FWHM) spatial
resolution (less than 4 mm)
Improved signal-to-noise
quality
Derenzo Phantom for PET

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


Electronics
A - Analog Processors
C - Constant Fraction
Discriminator
P - Position Decoder
T - Time Digitizer
Block Detector

System Highlights
ECAT'

Gantry and Patient Bed


The gantry and patient bed are
the result of many years experience in ECAT Scanner design.
The gantry's main purpose is to
support and position detectors.
The patient bed's main purpose
is to position the patient accurately inside the gantry detectors'
field of view.

1111111111111111111111111

Large detector separation (up to 102 cm


diameter)
Large patient opening (up to 65 cm)
Large axial fields of view (5.4-16.0 cm)
Distributed microprocessor architecture to
independently control, monitor, and feed back
the mechanical motions of the gantry and
patient bed
Gantry pivot motion ( 45 degrees)
Gantry tilt (- 30 degrees to + 90 degrees)
Wobble and stationary acquisition modes
Rotating phantom holder (360 degrees rotation)
Patient bed horizontal movement (129 cm with
1mm accuracy)
Patient bed vertical movement (29 cm with 1
mm accuracy)
Patient bed designed for low Z attenuation during scanning
Laser crosshair patient alignment

::!:

45 Pivot

~
I

- 30

+ 90
Till

System Highlights
Data Acquisition and
Processing
Distributed processors
employed in dedicated tasks
are Siemens' solution to
maximizing acquisition of 15
image planes of true, random
and multiple coincidences.
A unique VME based real time
sorter (RTS) can process events
in either static, dynamic, list
mode, or up to 3 physiological
gating modes at a maximum
rate of 2 million events/second.

512 x 512 display of B/W


and color (RGB) images
Simultaneous acquisition,
reconstruction and analysis
Optional remote physicians'
interpretation station
Optional programmers' work
and display stations

System Block Diagram


04

The RTS allows real time


sinogram data acquisition for
immediate, post-acquisition
reconstructions, as well as
snapshot reconstructions during
the acquisition period. In addition, a special array processor/
back projector reconstructs 128
x 128 images in less than 15
seconds per slice for dynamic
display on a 512 x 512 monochrome or color display system.
Real time sorting: up to 2 million events/second
Optional list mode acquisition
MicroVAX II 32-bit main
computer
64 x 64,128 x 128 and
256 x 256 reconstructions
Real time multi mode physiological gating
Over 40 distributed
processors
Standard and optional data
storage peripherals

4 Ring

r--..,....- ....

-~ Detector Bucket 111

Detector Bucket 41 17

Detector Bucket 112

Detector Bucket N18

Detector Bucket #19

Detector Bucket #20

Model

Detector Bucket #21

831
Model
933

Detector Bucket #6

Detector Bucket #22

Detector Bucket #23

Model

Detector Bucket #24

931

Detector Bucket #25

Detector Bucket #26

Detector Bucket 11-27

08

Detector Bucket #28

Detector Bucket :4129

Detector Bucket #30

Detector Bucket #31

_ _ _ _ _ _.....
04-.r Detector Bucket #16

08

Detector Bucket #32

04

08

4 Ring

8 Ring

500

Image Plane Processor

450

400
~

fr 300

II"

V
~

~ 250

It:

Projection Position, a

., 350
o

-Trues Rates:

JV

200
150

100
50

oV
o

L.",..oo ~

~ l"'"
2

Count-rate
Corrected

(.)

- Trues Rates:
without
Correction

"""""'"

Randoms Rates:
without
Correction

:-

10

Activity Concentration lI-,Cl/cc) (20cm x 20cm diameter water phantom)

Model 931/04-12 Count Rate Response:


Ga-68 Activity

.""'"

Image Plane
Coincidence
Processor

I-

I
~

Ring
Receiver
PCB

Array Processor:
Final Filtered, Back
Projection Reconstructed Slice

Back Projector:
Simple Back Projected Slice

A
I-

Ring
Receiver
PCB

Real Time Sorter:

"-

High Speed
Interface

I-

RTSVME
Memory
14 MB

'"'"

RTS VME
Memory
14 MB

l-

I-

High Speed
Interface

'"'"

"

Bus

Arbitration

"

"-

Image Plane
Coincidence
Processor

'"'"

High Speed
Interface

Array
Processor

'"

"\
Real Time

Sorter

.
~

Gl

Disk
Controller

MB

"

>

I-

68000

Microcomputer

""

Serial
Interface

I-

:::>
Gl

I--

512 x 512
Display
Processor

I-

"""

:I

!en

:::>

'"

High Speed
Interface

r------------------,

10-

Analogic
AP400,XAP

Micro VEATER

'"

'"
l-

"-

I--

I
MicroVAX II""

""

!..
~

Gl

U
MB

Disk
Controller

L __________________

I-

Physiological
Interface

'"

Disk
Controller

Optional list Mode Data Storage

Serial
Interface

'"

l-

"i--

""

Disk
Controller

B
9

System Highlights
Software
Siemens' ECAT Software is designed principally
for the clinical user. It offers a friendly menu
format, flexible commands and field tested reliability. The software's standard acquisition routines
as well as the comprehensive display and analysis packages focus on converting the acquired
data to useful physiological images simply and
quickly.
User interface designed with question and
answer menu format
Standard routines for acquisition, reconstruction, corrections, calibrations, diagnostics,
and utilities
Comprehensive display and analysis package
runs simultaneously with data acquisition
DEC command language allows user to
customize protocols and image display
formatting
Field tested physiological applications
packages
Multiuser, multitask Virtual Memory System
(VMSTM) operating system with optional Fortran
source codes

10

11111111111111111111111 -

---~~~~-~--

ECAT Scanner
831 Series

Models~
931 Series

933 Series

1
1
1
1
1
1

640 MM

+---t-CRYSTAL--+--i
1

:
I

1
1
I
1
1

350 MM

PORT ----1
tI
I
1
1
1
1
1

I
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
760 MM
1
t--+--CRYSTAL---!l-~

514 MM

1
1
1
1
I

Neurological Applications
High Quality Imaging
Precise Quantitation
Optimal System Sensitivity

II
I

r--~........., . . - ' I _ -

I
I

1
"_ _-,-I-"...........---i

Neurological Applications
High Quality Imaging
Precise Quantitation
Whole Body Applications
High Quality Imaging
Semi-Quantitative Studies

'See separate insert sheet for performance specifications.

12

~PORT-----t

I1

Neurological Applications
High Quality Imaging
Precise Quantitation
Whole Body Applications
High Quality Imaging
Precise Quantitation

Series Options For 831, 933, 931


Single 4 x Ring - 04

Double 4 x Ring - 08

/12

/12

13.5mm Axial
Detector Width

8-

4 x 13.5

5.6mm Wide, 6.1 mm Spacing


12.9mm High, 13.5mm Spacing

/16

/16

16mm Axial
Detector Width

8-

4 x 16

5.6mm Wide, 6.1 mm Spacing


15.4mm High, 16.0mm Spacing

/20

/20

20mm Axial
Detector Width

4x20
5.6mm Wide, 6.1 mm Spacing
19.4mm High, 20.0mm Spacing

13

Featu re/Function/Benefit
Choice of Axial Field of View
Feature/Function
Benefit
5.4 cm to 16.0 cm
depending on model
Precise, computer
controlled z-axis bed
motion for contiguous
slices and three-dimensional imaging

Multiple Acquisition Modes


Feature/Function

Benefit

Large FOV accommodates entire heart or large


section of brain

Simultaneous 7 or 15 plane
image acquisition in all
modes

Small FOV permits large


organ imaging at lower
cost, by precision
stepping patient bed

Static mode: single frame


or mUltiple frame by incrementing precision computer controlled bed

Range of capability for


clinical and research protocols in neurological,
cardiological, oncological
and psychiatric applications

Choices permit optimizing axial FOV with axial


resolution

Dynamic mode: variable


frame rates up to 10 per
second

Gated mode offers choice


of forward, backward
or forward/backward
sequence, permits up to
32 temporal segments
and provides selectable
arrhythmia rejection parameters

Gated mode
Optional list mode stores
event data and external
trigger data for variable
formatting of static,
dynamic or gated
reconstructions

Generous Patient Opening (931 series)

High Speed Data Acquisition/Processing

Feature/Function

Benefit

Feature/Function

Benefit

57 cm diameter transverse
patient aperture

Real time sorting up to 2


million events/second rate
during acquisition

Immediate access to
reconstructed images
post acquisition

15 seconds per image


reconstruction

Responsive operator/
system interaction

Under 4 minutes for complete study display post


acquisition

High patient throughput


capability

102 cm distance between


detectors

14

57 em diameter patient
opening with standard,
auto-retractable transmission source holder, permits cross-sectional
image of the non-axial
oriented organs of
most patients
Accommodates patients
on life support equipment
and difficult to handle
patients

Easily tillable gantry for


neurological procedures

102 em detector separation optimizes resolution


uniformity, sensitivity variations and noise component acceptance (scatter,
randoms)

Designed for whole body


and neurological imaging

5 seconds call up of a
single image

Unsurpassed Signal.toNoise Quality


Feature/Function

Benefit

Detector and shielding


geometries minimize random and scattered events

Excellent contrast with


minimum data

Patented* Block permits


high energy threshold and
minimizes body scatter

Fast coincidence reduces


random event acceptance

Patented Block technology


provides 33% improvement
in photopeak efficiency
acceptance
5.0 ns FWHM coincidence
time resolution
Hardware and software
corrections
Signal Amplification Technique (SAT) provides
effective gain in efficiency

*Pending

15

Feature/Function/Benefit
Information: Qualitative/Quantitative

Additional Benefits

Feature/Function

Benefit

Feature/Function

Benefit

High quality image display


with manipulation capability for qualitative
assessment

Visual interpretation from


high quality color and
BIW video displays

Modular System
Architecture

Standard gray scale hard


copy for diagnostic review

Enables distribution of
workload so that parallel
processing and total system throughput is optimized

Multi-modality image and


data storage

Quantitation for metabolic


rates, lesion sizing, and
tumor staging.

Decreases system
downtime and protects
against obsolescence
as modules are easily
replaced and/or quickly
upgraded on-site

Assures reliability and


proper maintenance

Worldwide service support

Allows swift response


to service calls

Modem communication
with factory and service

Remote diagnosis and


support

ROI, isocount contours,


cross-section profiles, time
activity histograms
Precise quantitation
throughout large cylindrical
volumes
Quantitative physiological
models
- Capabilities for full
range of research,
applied research and
clinical applications
Operator/user friendly
Film, print, tape, disk
media, and modem for
communication and
storage

Proven experience in
installing and maintaining
ECAT Scanners

Flexibility
Feature/Function

Benefit

Simultaneous acquisition
and image reconstruction

High patient study


throughput

Full analysis capability


simultaneously with
acquisition

Immediate access to
"snap-shot" images
during acquisition

Access to high-level
MACROS and MicroVAXTM
FORTRAN (Optional)

Immediate access to previously ,,\cquired images


and data

Easily defined and modified clinical protocols

User group software


exchange

16

Model ECAT Facility


Site Planning
i Q oom
S1.
S2.

ECAT Gantry
Patient Bed

Electronics Room
E1.
MicroVAX II Cabinet
E2.
Peripherals Cabinet
E3. Acquisition Cabinet
E4. Control Cabinet
E5. Power Conditioner

S2
Scanning
Room

c
C1.
C2.
C3.
C4.
C5.

Control Room

VT220 CRT Terminal


RGB Monitor & Trackball
System Console & Printer
Multiformat Recorder
Optional Imaging Console
1

Patient Preparation &


Uptake Room
P1 . Hospital Bed

meters

Patient
Room

feet

Patient
Room

P1

P1

Electrical and Environmental Requirements


Room
Scanning Room
Control Room
Electronics Room

Approximate Floor Space


4.9 x 4.9 m (16 x 16 ft.)
2.6 x 4.3 m (85 x 14 ft.)
2.2 x 4.3 m (7 x 14 ft.)
44.7 m2 (473 ft. 2 )

Power
3.5 KVA
1.0 KVA
12.5 KVA
17.0 KVA

Heat
11,900
3,400
42,600
57,900

Load
BTU/hr
BTU/hr
BTU/hr
BTU/hr

Temperature
22 1C (72 2F)
24 1C (70 2F)
20 1C (68 2F)

Relative
Humidity
40-70%
40-70%
40-70%

Input power is either 110 VAC, 1o, 60 Hz or 220 VAC, 1o, 50 Hz.

Approximate Dimensions and Weights


Component
Gantry
Patient Bed
Electronic Cabinets

Width
259 cm (102 in)
69 cm (27 in)
234 cm (92 in)

Height
209 cm (83 in)
68-104 cm (27-41 in)
182 cm (72 in)

Length
76 cm (30 in)
213-359 cm (84-141 in)
94 cm (37 in)

Weight
2500 kg (5500 Ib)
250 kg (550Ib)
1100 kg (2400 lb)

Floor Loading
4300 kg/m 2 (880 Ib/ft2 )
380 kg/m 2 (80IbIft 2 )
460 kg/m 2 (100 Ib/ft2 )

In compliance with DHHS Federal Radiation Performance Standard 21 CFR. Due to market restrictions some optional equipment
configurations shown may not be available in all countries. Siemens reserves the right to make any alterations.

17

Summary
The ECAT Scanner is a revolutionary tomographic
imaging system which can give your facility
unique diagnostic advantages. Through the use of
certain radionuclides used as biological tracers it
can yield primary diagnostic information, confirm
tentative diagnoses suggested by conventional
imaging techniques and provide definitive visualization and measurement of dynamic biochemistry
when other methods cannot.
Along with the finest emission tomography system, Siemens has a genuine commitment to the
finest possible support to ensure continuing diagnostic excellence. Professional services available
through Siemens which are a significant part of
your system include:

Site selection, planning and design


Responsive, factory trained service staff
Factory troubleshooting via modem and local
diagnostics
On site applications training
User's group benefits
Documentation
Software updates
Software/hardware upgrades
Economic analysis of your particular institutions needs
ECAT Scanner...
Siemens Commitment To Excellence

Artist Dramatization

..

Siemens reserves the right to modify the design and specifications


contained herein without prior notice. Please contact your local Siemens
Sales Representative for the most current information.

ECAT is a registered trademark of Computer Technology and Imaging Inc. VAX,


MicroVAX, UNIBUS, Q Bus and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corp.

Siemens Gammasonics, Inc.


2000 Nuclear Drive, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018, USA, Phone: (312) 635-3100

Printed in U.S.A.
11/86SGI

SIEMENS

Three-Dimensional
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

ECAT SCANNER

Performance Specifications

ECAT Parameter

Configuration for
Measurement

Model

Model

Model

831

933

931

Units

Radial Resolution
FWHM
FWHM
FWHM
FWHM

Wobble:
Wobble:
Stationary:
Stationary:

0.0
10.0
0.0
10.0

cm
cm
cm
cm

radius
radius
radius
radius

55
60
6.5
82

55
58
65
8.0

5.5
55
65
78

(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)

FWHM
FWHM

/12 option:
/12 option:

0.0 cm radius
10.0 cm radius

7.0
70

70
7.0

70
70

(mm)
(mm)

FWHM
FWHM

/16 option:
/16 option:

0.0 cm radius
10.0 cm radius

90
9.0

90
9.0

90
90

(mm)
(mm)

FWHM
FWHM

/20 option:
/20 option:

0.0 cm radius
10.0 cm radius

9.8
100

98
10.0

98
100

(mm)
(mm)

Total
Total

/12 option:
/12 option:

4 Del. Rings
8 Del. Rings

78
160

65
135

50
110

(kcps/().LCi/cc))
(kcps/().LCi/cc))

Total
Total

/16 option:
/16 option:

4 Del. Rings
8 Del. Rings

100
220

85
170

75
160

(kcps/().LCi/cc))
(kcps/().LCi/cc))

Total
Total

/20 option:
/20 option:

4 Del. Rings
8 Del. Rings

200
406

160
335

125
260

(kcps/().LCi/cc))
(kcps/().LCi/cc))

Axial Resolution

System Sensitivity

Radial Dimensions

(Software Selected:)

FOV Diameter
FOV Diameter
FOV Diameter

(smallest coincidence region)


(medium coincidence region)
(largest = inside dia. of septa)

119
350
350

198
382
514

199
390
567

(mm)
(mm)
(mm)

Ring Diameter

(inside diameter of detector)

640

760

1020

(mm)

Axial Dimensions
Axial FOV
Axial FOV
Axial FOV

/12 option
/16 option:
/20 option:

4 Del. Rings
4 Del. Rings
4 Del. Rings

54.0
64.0
80.0

540
64.0
80.0

54.0
64.0
800

(mm)
(mm)
(mm)

Axial FOV
Axial FOV
Axial FOV

/12 option:
/16 option:
/20 option:

8 Del. Rings
8 Del. Rings
8 Del. Rings

108.0
1280
1600

108.0
1280
1600

1080
1280
1600

(mm)
(mm)
(mm)

Siemens reserves the right to modify the design and specifications


contained herein without prior notice. Please contact your local Siemens
Sales Representative for the most current information.

ECAT is a registered trademark of Computer Technology and Imaging Inc.

Siemens Gammasonics, Inc.


2000 Nuclear Drive, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018, USA, Phone: (312) 635-3100

I . . . . . - - -_

Printed in U.S.A.

1/87 SGI