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Nutritional deficiencies in amphibian

Fastidious & changing nutritional requirements over diff live stages


Diverse class- little known for nutritional requirements for many spp
Captive amphibian diet are often limited by commercial availability of food.
Generally,
Adult: Carnivorous
Types of food accept & timing of feeding varies considerably significant impact on
willingness to feed
Commonly offered food: insects inadequate level levels or imbalanced ratios of
some essential nutrients.
Thus, thorough understanding of the life history and particularities of the species
and life stage in question as well as the nutrient compositionof the diet offered is
essential to goof husbandry and providing adequate nutritional support.
Mealworms, waxworms, earthworms, and fruit flies, have low levels of calcium or
imbalanced calcium:phosphorus ratios.
Although proper absorbance of ultraviolet radiation is an important consideration in
the prevention of metabolic bone disease among reptiles, this link is not as well
established for amphibians.
Clinical indication:
Dietary deficiencies
Due to
Insufficient
Poor
calorie
understandin
intake
g
Failure to
provide
dietary needs
of a particular
spp & life
stage
Metabolic
Failure to
bone disease ingest or
adequately
process
vitamin D3, Ca
or P to
maintain
them in
proper

Cause
Malnutrition
Starvation

Elevated levels
of vitamin A
Low levels of
calcium or

improper

calcium:phosph
orus ratios in

the insect prey

C. signs
Anoxia
Weight loss
Dehydration
Lethargy

Tx

Often difficult
abnormal
posture and dietary
locomotion,
supplementat
ion with Ca
tetany,
and D3
anasarca
topical (bath)/
dropsy,
parenteral Ca
subcutaneous
supplementat
edema,
ion
vertebral
deformity,
mandibular
deformity,
pathological
fractures of
long bones,
and

Hypovitamin
osis A
short
tongue
syndrome

Amphibians
do not
synthesize
carotinoids,
including
vitamin A.
must obtain
from diet

Vitamin B
deficiency

leeching of
the B vitamins
from the diet
was a causal
factor that B
vitamin
supplementati
on of the
water

absence of
radio-opaque
calcium
carbonate in
the
endolymphati
c sacs.
listlessness
wasting
reduced ability
to capture
live prey with
the tongue

Thiamine
(vitamin
B1) deficiency
causes
neurological
dysfunction.
Paralysis
Peripheral
nerve
demyelination

neurological
and
musculoskelet
al
abnormalities
hindlimb
paresis
Paralysis
Scoliosis
Spindly leg
syndrome

Parenteral,
oral, or topical
(bath)
treatments
with
vitamin A
(recovery time
nt reported)
Force feeding
may be
required
Thiamine
supplement
(Parenteral/
topical/ feed
additive)

Cachexia mimic starvation due to other systemic disease


Dietary excess
Obesity

Gastric
overload

Due to
care providers
do not
carefully
consider
specific
dietary
requirements
and caloric
needs
Consumption
of an
excessive
quantity of
food e.g.
oversized prey

Cause

compromise
respiration
and circulation

hypovolaemic
shock

C. signs

Tx

Surgical
removal or
carefully
remove
material
through

Vitamins A &
D
Hypervitamino
sis A

Hypervitamino
sis D3

Oxalate
toxicity
Corneal
lipidosis

Ingestion of
non food
items e.g.
cage
substates
High conc of
vit in feed/
prey
e.g.
mammalian
livers or whole
immature
rodents
Ornate horned
frog
(Ceratophyrs
ornate) fed
with goldfish
high in vit D3
Oxalate-rich
plants diet
e.g. spinach,
kale
High lvl of
dietary
cholesterol in
aged captive
amphibians

mouth via
forceps/
endoscopy

gastric/
intestinal
impaction

Metabolic
bone disease
Anaemia
Liver damage
Chronic weight
loss
Anasarca
Generalized
oedema
Debilitation
Mineralization
of soft tissues
in this animal

Adjust diet
accordingly

Haziness
opacity
blindness

Modify diet, no
successful
treatment
reported

Renal calculi &


associated
urinary
disease