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The modern city has evolved through multiple main phases such as industrialism, peak of capitalism,
urbanization and globalization (Harvey, Spring 2000). These major periods changed the way the city
used to function, in making the city, man has remade himself (Harvey, 2008). More cases of exclusion
at a social, cultural, political and economic level and a more capitalist approach, constituted few of
these changes. The heterogeneity of the city citizens further enhanced these effects. Consequently
the city resources started to get inequitably distributed among its population, resulting in the need to
understand the concept of an inclusive city.
The main theme of an inclusive city is equity and accessibility in terms of its economy, political rights,
infrastructures, services, shared spaces, etc. If one interprets the shared spaces aspect, inequality in terms
of the usage of open spaces will be considered. The high influx of people in the city has resulted in more
demands and requirements from its open spaces. As a result, there exists more pressure on these spaces
to cater and fulfil those requirements and needs leading to exclusion.
In an attempt to investigate the degree of inclusivity or exclusivity of open spaces, few open spaces
of zone E or Anand Vihar region were selected as the basis of the study. The study starts with the
formulation of the research question: How inclusive are the open spaces of Anand Vihar?
It then proceeds with the understanding of the concept of an inclusive city and the comprehension of
what is an open space and its different requirements. The knowledge derived from these research will
then be applied to the case studies in an attempt to answer the research question.

01 Inclusivity
The term inclusive city frequently refers to the word citizens. Consequently, it is essential to foremost
have a basic understanding of the term citizen before trying to define inclusivity. However, inclusivity of
a city does not limit itself to its citizens but shall also incorporate visitors.
A citizen can be any individual residing in the city, who directly or indirectly has the right to participate
in the city and its decision making process irrespective of his/her physical, social, political or economic
status (Harvey, Spring 2009). Being part of the city, a citizen is entitled to certain rights. James Holston
categorizes these rights as a hybrid mix of special treatment rights, text based rights and contributor
rights under three sub heads based on their inability to afford for basic needs, from ones constitutional
rights and from ones contribution to the city. (Holston & Appadurai, 1999)
The term inclusive city was studied through the writings of various authors. Their articles where
elaborated into more depth in an attempt towards understanding an inclusive city.
A more political approach to defining an inclusive city, according to Darshini Mahadevia, would be to
consider the role of citizens in the economic growth and planning of the city. An inclusive city would be
one that ensures that the city resources are equitably distributed amongst its citizens (Mahadevia, 2001).
A social understanding of an inclusive city, according to David Harvey, would be to consider that all
citizens have equal rights to the city. He believes that citizens are interdependent and consequently they
deserve to have equal economic, social, political and cultural opportunities (Harvey, 2008). This approach
to defining an inclusive city differs from the above since it talks about equality. In his definition of an
inclusive city, David Harvey is portraying a utopian city where all the citizens have the equal rights and


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opportunities where as Darshini Mahadevia in her writing, refers to an equitable division of resources.
An inclusive city according to the UN Habitat, is one where gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion or ones
economic background does not forbid a citizen from participating in the social, economic and political
opportunities provided by the city (Habitat, n.d.).
An economical approach to defining an inclusive city would consider the current trend in urbanization.
The pressure that it is putting on cities require them to invest more in infrastructure, development and
political processes that will ensure equity in the city (Habitat, n.d.).
From the above understanding, few areas can be identified that bring about inclusivity or exclusivity in a
city. These are the economic, political and social & cultural realms. These terms shall be defined in more
depth in an attempt to uncover the parameters that will help to build up a methodology.
The modern city debuted as a result of industrialization. As cities became more prosperous and affluent,
they attracted more investment into their spheres, which resulted into the peak of capitalism. This,
in turn, occasioned a variety of specialized labor into the city realm and the heterogeneity of the city
population (Wirth, July 1938). The demand for more labor force increases the population in the city,
causing a boom in the city known as urbanization, resulting in a situation where nearly half of the worlds
population live in urban settlements (Thompson, 2007).
Even though capitalism and urbanism brings, growth and development in the city, they also widen the
gap between the rich and the poor, creating microstates in the same city (Harvey, 2008). Consequently,
the rich gets access to better infrastructures and facilities whereas the poor do not even have proper
access to sanitation, electricity, etc. (Harvey, 2008).
The high price of land value in cities, as a result of capitalism, prevents those who are lower down in the
social hierarchy to purchase land and they are consequently forced to either move to the city border or
live in illegal colonies or slums (Roy, 2009).
Globalization, which follows capitalism and urbanism in the economic evolution, is putting more
pressure on cities to achieve the title of a world class city (Bhan, 2009). Consequently, cities are trying
their best to attract investors and developers to inject money into their realm. In an attempt to achieve
this goal, these cities provide investors and developers with resourses such as cheaper land prices (Roy,
2009) . Very often, these plots are snatched from the poor, who get evicted from the land (Bhan, 2009).
Due to their illegal status of the poor living in unauthorized settlements, they lack the ability to fight back
and end up getting evicted from these land with minimal or no compensation (Verma, 2006). However,
more than the illegal status of these people, it seems that their economic background bears more
weightage in the judgment of their eviction. When considered the example of Yamuna Pustha evection
and the authorization of Sainik farms informal settlement clearly shows the distinction made between
the higher and lower classes of the city population in its distribution of its resources.
Globalization and capitalism were accompanied with uneven distribution of wealth and resources,
creating a divide within a city. Hence, it contributes negatively to ones access to resources and services,
resulting in differences in individuals and groups. This division is not only economic but is complex and
multi-dimensional and often lead to social exclusion. (Alphonse, 2007)
Social exclusion is the process of being shut out from the social, economic, political and cultural systems
which contribute to the integration of a person into the community (Cappo, 2002). But social exclusion
has various other contributors. Amartya Sen (2000) classified the social exclusion in India into active and
passive forms. In case of active social exclusion the individual is directly debarred from taking part in any
social process or his/her right is revoked by the state. On the other hand passive social exclusion comes
through a process where no deliberate attempt is made to exclude the individual from the society or
denied to be the full member of the society. But the existing set up nullifies his/her right to become a full
member of the society.
In most parts of India, Womans participation in employment outside the home is viewed as
inappropriate, subtly wrong, and definitely dangerous to their chastity and womanly virtue. (Women and
the Economy in India, 2012).

These aspects demonstrate clear forms of marginalization where capitalism and economy is not the
prime cause, but the blame goes to the beliefs and practices of the people involved.

02 Open spaces
Open spaces constitute a vital component of the city. They act as its lungs, providing breathable spaces.
Further these spaces link different elements of the city and provide it with an aesthetic appeal, breaking
away from the built mass.
Open spaces affect people physically, socially, and psychologically, and play a part in enhancing or
diminishing the quality of life. Thus, the open spaces are one of important resources of the city.
The functions of an open space can be classified into five types which coexist with each other Social
and Societal, Environment, Ecological, Structure and Aesthetic (Francis, 1996). Social and societal refers
to the ability of the open space to provide for leisure and recreation, facilitate social interaction and
communication and impart access to the experience of nature. It also has the function of bridging the
gap amongst the multiple groups in society while simultaneously catering to their different needs.
Ecological are not particularly people-oriented, but concerned with the well-being of other forms of life
like fauna and flora, that are and ought to be protected in open spaces. Environmental constitute climatic
enhancement, noise screening, groundwater recharge etc. Structure of the space includes articulating,
dividing and linking areas of the Urban Fabric, improving the legibility of the city, establishing a sense
of place and acting as a carrier of identity, meaning of identity, meaning and value, scale and size.
Aesthetics is the key which attracts variety of users and becomes a portal through which an individual
can escape the city crowd.
The pleasantness factor includes aspects such as its welcoming and relaxing atmosphere and its
suitability for interacting with people and childrens play, as well as the quality of its trees and plants,
reflecting social as well as aesthetic considerations. (Thompson & Travlou, 2007).These functions,
together contribute to the quality of urban life directly as well as indirectly.
But, this idea has significantly changed, mostly in urban areas like that of Delhi. A city is now comprised
of a variety of these open spaces which are planned to serve specific functions. Hence, for understanding
these open spaces in present context, this shift in idea and the relationship of an open space to the city
and its people is imperative to understand.
The MPD 1962 states - A system of linked open spaces and district parks has been worked out for the
entire urban area of Delhi related to the proposed pattern of residential densities. Looking at the MPD
1962 land use plan, this system is clearly visible. Whereas in the MPD 2021, no such character is visible.
The ratio of open spaces to the built spaces has reduced drastically. These spaces are now catering a
much larger population where each individual user has a different set of requirements and expectations
from them. Thus open spaces, which were in abundance before, have now become a valuable
What makes this even more complicated is the fact that what suits one group of people sometimes
preclude the same for others. This gives rise to a conflict between people and their interests from open
The inability of the open space to cater to all these expectations and requirements, stemmed the desire
for owning private open spaces amongst the more privileged sections of society. Consequently, the
ratio of public open spaces to private ones has decreased, resulting in an inequitable distribution of city
How can we ensure that what suits one group of people does not preclude provision for, and enjoyment
by, another group? It has been suggested (Thompson, 2002) that, instead of the park as melting pot,
we need the salad bowl, where different cultures can find individual expression. (Thompson, 2002)
Therefore, it is important that the city is planned in such a way that its open spaces are more equitably
distributed, catering to the needs of its varied population.
Urban open space should not be considered as an isolated unit but as a vital part of urban landscape
with its own specific set of functions so that different cultures can find individual expression in a single
platform. (Rogers, 1998)
In order to investigate the inclusivity of the open spaces in Anand Vihar, a primary survey was conducted.
Inferences were derived from the survey, which were further analyzed in the form of tables and charts.


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Social, Economic and Political aspects of the city constitute the main parameters that were chosen to
describe inclusivity. Only social parameters i.e.- gender, age, origin/ locality and physical/ mental status
were considered.
On the other hand the main parameters for an open space were filtered down to accessibility, usage,
safety, topography, size and scale, context and maintenance
After overlapping the inclusivity and open space parameters, we analyzed our case studies in their terms.
From this analysis we assessed the nature and degree of inclusivity in the 4 selected open spaces.

03 Anand Vihar
The NCT (National Capital Territory) of Delhi is divided in 15 planning divisions, designated as A-P in
Master Plan of Delhi 2021. Anand Vihar is a region which is present in Zone E.
Zone E, of approximate area 8797 Hectares, is surrounded on three sides by the State of Uttar Pradesh
and on the fourth side by the River Yamuna. This Zone has undergone development, since pre
independence era, through the MPD-1962, MPD 2001 and now MPD 2021. Zone E possesses both
planned and unplanned sectors.

Area (Hr)

















Public Facilities









Other than the transit hub Anand Vihar houses the industrial areas of Patparganj and Jhilmil industrial
area, which attract people in search of employment. Housing in Anand vihar has been found to be of
various types namely plotted and planned housing, group housing, mixed use housing, urban villages
and a few unauthorized settlements. These housing types define the social strata of people residing in
the colonies and their economic character. Residential areas also include unauthorized colonies and
urban villages.


One of the main feature of the Zone E is Anand
Vihar Transit Hub. The hub comprises of a railway
terminal, a metro station and an Inter State, intra
state combined Bus Terminal, which is spread in
around 56 hectares of land.

The process of regularization of unauthorized colonies is being coordinated by the Govt. of GNCTD.
Regularization of unauthorized colonies is a continuing process and is subject to the Government
guidelines approved from time to time. The tentative list of the 225 unauthorized colonies falling in the
Zone is annexed to every zonal plan.

Open spaces in Anand Vihar

Zone E with a projected population of 28 lacs in 88 sq. km. is deficient in open areas. As per MPD 2021,
15-20% of the total city area should be for recreational use. Consequently, there should be a minimum of
15% that is of 88 sq.km. i.e. 1320 Ha. Under recreational use. However, the Zone possesses only 935.33 Ha.
Of recreational area. In an attempt to compensate for the current deficiency, the remaining 391 Ha. Shall
be included in the redevelopment schemes in the zone (DDA, 2010).

The current open spaces of zone E varies from

district parks to neighborhood units as detailed
City level areas
Zonal/divisional open spaces
City Forest and Historical Monuments

In an attempt to answer the research question, fifty open spaces of Anand Vihar were visited and
their broad physical features and users were recorded. These spaces were analyzed according to their
categories and according to the observations made on site, and 14 sites were picked. These fourteen
sites were further studied based on their context, characteristics and users. The data was recorded and
assessed, after which, the sites were narrowed down to 4.

District Parks
Neighborhood Parks
Water bodies
Institutional open spaces
Traffic islands
Residual spaces
The four selected open spaces of Anand Vihar for
detailed study.



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01 Karkardooma park
The Karkardooma Park is a neighborhood park surrounded by the DDA flats on the west and the
Karkardooma village on the east. A school is next to the park and a major road runs along the primary
entrance. The second entry to the park is from the village side. The space is divided into two major areas
the park area and the Temple area. The park area is L shaped with trees and hedges lined along the
perimeter and a pathway connecting both the entry points. High fencing runs along the perimeter of the
boundary walls except for the part adjacent to the village.

MIG apartments.
Urban village.
Karkarduma Park and its context. Map not to







The main entry encompasses a poorly designed ramp, hindering the

access for the differently abled. The second entry which is from the
village side is a staggered one, made by the urban village people and
has no designed access for the differently abled either. The raised
pathways in the park add to this lack of accessibility.


The major users of the park belong to the urban village, who access
the park from the secondary entry. This shows the scarcity of an open
space in the village, which this park fulfils. The edge of the park along
the DDA gated flats is high and seems to have been constructed in
3 stages. This shows a sense of insecurity felt by DDA residents, due
to the urban village people. The class difference between them is
clearly seen interrupting their social contact.
The prominent activity of the space is for thoroughfare, the park
being a shorter route between the village and the main road. This
also creates eyes on space and safety for the villagers, at the same
time making it uncomfortable for outsiders. It is observed that the
expanse of illicit activities happening in the park are higher when
other activities are less in number. This shows how various users
utilize the space at different times of the day, to avoid conflict.
Infants, children and teenagers are among the minority users of the
park, whereas the number of middle aged people using the park is
highest. The lack of play infrastructure for children could have given
rise to such differences.
The ratio of men using the space to that of women is very high.
This shows the insecurity that women might feel due to the illicit
activities like gambling happening within and around the park.

Graph showing distribution of normal and physically disabled visitors.
Graph showing distribution of male and female
Graph showing distribution of visitors from village, MIG flats, and rest.
Graph showing distribution of activities.
Graph showing distribution of visitors from various age groups.


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Anand Vihar residential colony on one side of
the park.
Raised pavement and trees obstructing the same
make the park unsuitable for physically disabled.

02 Green belt
The Green Belt Park is a DDA owned park and a part of buffer green belt. A rail line and the old Anand
Vihar railway station run parallel to its length. A dense green railway buffer belt and a middle class
plotted development, the Anand Vihar colony lie on either sides of the park. An arterial road from the
Anand Vihar colony which terminates at the railway station, holds the only public entry to this park. The
park is a long, narrow and flat strip of land. A row of trees and shrubs run along its perimeter. A paved
path runs throughout the park. The central space is covered with grass and ample trees, which keep the
park shaded.
The limited access along with the linear shape and dense vegetation creates visual disconnect across the
park. Hence the rear end is less accessible. It is difficult for the differently abled, to use the park due to its
raised concave pathways and trees blocking at intervals.

Green Belt and its context. Map not to scale.








The park also acts as a backyard to the three storied apartments

lined on its edge that can be directly accessed from the apartments.
This provides a private character to the rear area of the park.
The majority users belong to the Anand Vihar colony. Although a
significant number of railway station users are seen in the front area
of the park.
Due to unwanted access of notorious crowd and its proximity to
railway station, houses lining the park, have high walls and have
grill barricaded balconies. The major activities catered by this space
include walking and socializing.
Majority of the users groups were middle aged and elderly from
the surrounding residential colony. The number of children visiting
the park on the other hand is less even after the provision of a play
space. This could be due to the lack of visibility of the play area from
the main entry of the park or even due to its location at the edge of
the colony, making it insecure for children to access or play.

Graph showing distribution of normal and physically disabled visitors.
Graph showing distribution of male and female
Graph showing distribution of visitors from village, MIG flats, and rest.
Graph showing distribution of activities.
Graph showing distribution of visitors from various age groups.


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03 Residual Land
The railway residual land is a railway owned land left for future development. The site is a triangular piece
of land with an uneven and dusty terrain. The railway platform runs along on one edge of the space and a
Nallah runs along the edge toward the main road. Few Dhabas are seen along this Nallah edge. The third
edge is an entry space to the railway station housing an auto and taxi stand. The residual land can be
access from this entry space as well as from the end of the platform. A trail is created by the thoroughfare
between the access points.

Space is mostly barren except a few bushes.
Informals on the edge of the space.
Residual space and its context. Map not to scale.







The entry into the site is un-gated and is directly accessible from the
road. No physical barriers other than a curb at few space is seen to
obstruct entry to this space from the railway station side. The level
difference between the trail and the platform due to the undulating
terrain and unplanned tree growth of the space, results in an uncomfortable access for all users including the differently abled.


Thoroughfare, as a major activity is seen along the trails due to a lack

of access between the old railway station and the Anand Vihar hub.
Dhabas along the Nallah edge serve the coolies, auto and taxi driver.
This shows how found spaces serve the needs of the people in a
ways designed spaces cannot.
Urination along the trail is also seen next to other activities. A lack of
accessible public facilities for people in the surrounding area could
be a reason inclining toward such activities.

The number of female user of this space were drastically low in

comparison to the number of male users. The activities, like urination
in the space could be a contributing factor to such numbers. Women
are mostly seen in mix groups of 3-4 people. This shows the insecurity amongst women relating to the space.

Graph showing distribution of normal and physically disabled visitors.
Graph showing distribution of male and female
Graph showing distribution of visitors from village, MIG flats, and rest.
Graph showing distribution of activities.
Graph showing distribution of visitors from various age groups.



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04 Bahubali Park
Bahubali Park is a district park which caters to a population of about 5 lakh. It is surrounded by a school
in the north and middle class plotted development on the east and west edges. A road runs along
the southern edge. . There are in total five entry points to this space of which three are directly from
the residential areas and the other two from the road. The park is a large and grassy land with slightly
undulated terrain. It has trees and shrubs running along the periphery, followed by walkways. It also has
demarcated play areas.

Space is mostly barren except a few bushes.
Informals on the edge of the space.
Residual space and its context. Map not to scale.








The scale and the multiple access points from various sides makes
the park easily accessible to the surrounding neighborhoods. The
staggered entries to the park at places, makes it inaccessible to the
differently abled.


Wide and well maintained pathways run along the perimeter

making it more functional. Walking, exercise, yoga and socializing
are the major set of activities the park caters. People from
neighborhoods like the Karkardooma village also come to the park
for leisure.
The proximity of the park brings in people from neighborhoods in a
radius of about a kilometer. People from the Karkardooma village are
also seen using this park.
A balance between all the age groups exists. However the number of
elderly and middle aged people using the park was slightly higher. A
significant number of women access the park even during morning
and late evening hours indicating a sense of safety. Although, most
of them visit in groups of more than two.
Due to the scale of the park, a variety of activities among different
social groups happen simultaneously in different pockets without
interrupting others. These pockets created tell us about the
territories created due to human behavior, leading to passive
exclusion of few groups.


Graph showing distribution of normal and physically disabled visitors.
Graph showing distribution of male and female
Graph showing distribution of visitors from village, MIG flats, and rest.
Graph showing distribution of activities.
Graph showing distribution of visitors from various age groups.



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05 Collective Inferences
The inferences drawn from the various case studies earlier can be further processed to reach more
effective conclusions.
According to the 2011 census of India, the ratio of men to women for Zone E of Delhi is 1.15:1. On
observation, the ratio of men to women users, found in the various case studies are 3:1 for the
Karkardooma park, 2:1 for the green belt, 3:1 for Bahubali park and amazingly 26:1 for the residual space.
Consequently, if these two sets of data are compared, these four open spaces will be qualified as gender
exclusive. The reasons for such a pattern in the residual space, which is an unplanned, poorly maintained
and unbounded, is understandable but in the case of a planned and well maintained space, the Bahubali
Park, exclusiveness is highly questionable.
According to the census of India, the ratio for the differently abled people to non-disabled ones in this
region, is 165 people for each differently abled person. If the same ratio is derived in the context of
the four open spaces studied, the results are 1150:1 for Karkardooma park, nil for green belt, 249:1 for
residual space and nil in Bahubali park which is striking.
This clearly indicates the lack of infrastructure for such categories of people, making these space less
inclusive for such categories.
Also, if we consider the age group factor in our 4 case studies. Generally, in all these spaces, the age
group of 31-49 using the park is fairly high. However the age group of 12-18, 19-30 and people over 50
have a comparatively low usage.

Chart showing participation of various age
groups in different spaces, in order to highlight
the differences.


This again points towards the incapability of these spaces to cater to the needs of these age groups and
hence they get excluded to some extent from these open spaces. This inference can be further reinforced
through the 2011 census whereby the ratio of these age groups is completely different from the observations made on the sites.


Coming back to our research question - How inclusive are the open spaces of Anand Vihar in the context
of Delhi?
As discussed in the research methodology, we have studied the parameters of inclusivity as single
entities and then compared them with the open space parameters. However, the results of the research
show that the inclusivity parameters are dependent on each other and affect each others nature. If
we associate age to gender, the needs and requirements of that person changes in relation to the
open space. Likewise, if more parameters are considered, a different set of needs and requirements are
obtained. In this way, a multitude of profiles can be obtained by merging different parameters, and thus
have a more comprehensive view of inclusivity of open spaces.
Adopted methodology considers each parameter
of Inclusivity as a separate entity.
A more comprehensive methodology would
combine these parameters to get a better view.



The gender data obtained for each case study indicate that women are excluded from these open spaces.
However it will be wrong to assume that women are excluded from all the open spaces of Anand Vihar
based on the study of only 4 sites. Moreover, our study has demonstrated that these spaces have unique
characters and usage patterns dependent on typology and context.
An inference about the inclusivity of open spaces of Anand Vihar, based on our methodology, would be
unjustified. Our research, is just a starting point. In order to achieve holistic conclusion, the relationship
between the inclusivity parameters and their association with open spaces should be investigated in
However, there are a few key learnings. During the course of our study, there were two questions that
kept coming up -Why are certain people using these open spaces less than others? Is it even possible
to have an inclusive open spaces?



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01 Passive Exclusion
We observed that even though there is no deliberate legal or physical attempt to exclude people from
the open spaces, they are still being excluded, a state known as passive exclusion.
The Karkardooma park was majorly occupied by the people from the urban village. The people from
neighbouring MIG flats refrained from using the park. Similarly, in Bahubali park, during peak hours, most
of the spaces were occupied by specific groups which lead to passive exclusion of other groups. Such
patterns can be observed in other case studies as well.
These examples indicate that people tend to form groups and territories. In an open space, these
territories impart a sense of belonging to some while imparting a sense of alienation to others leading to
passive exclusion of certain groups.
Another reason to passive exclusion is that these spaces often, fail to cater to the needs of various types
of user groups. It has been observed that in Karkardooma Park, children would barely come due to the
lack of playing facilities. Instead they find other spaces to conduct these activities. Consequently, it is
imperative to understand the needs and requirements of the open space users and how they vary over
time in order to avoid any sort of exclusion.

02 Public Participation

Gender data for all four sites indicates that
women are excluded from the open spaces of
Anand Vihar.


From our study, we have realised that the designs of open spaces are mostly similar. Standard elements
are applied to each space which are insensitive to the actual needs and requirements of the users,
indicating a centralized and a top-down design approach. There is a need to embrace the diversity
in design and management of these open spaces. It is important to promote public participation by
empowering local bodies in the design process of open spaces to hence yield a more inclusive system of
open spaces.


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in millenial Delhi.
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- Francis, 1996.
- Habitat, U., n.d. UN Habitat. [Online]
- Available at: http://ww2.unhabitat.org/campaigns/governance/documents/way_forward_29.May.doc.
- Harvey, D., 2008. The Right to the City.
- Harvey, D., Spring 2000. Cosmopolitanism and the banality of geographical evils. Public Culture, pp.
- Harvey, D., Spring 2009. Financial Crash and the Right to the city [Interview] Spring 2009.
- Holston, J. & Appadurai, A., 1999. Cities and Citizenship.
- Mahadevia, D., 2001. Sustainable Urban Development in India: an inclusive perspective.
- Rogers, 1998. Urban Task Force.
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Planning Theory, pp. 76-88.
- Thompson, C. & Travlou, P., 2007. Open Space People Space.
- Thompson, C. W., 2007. Urban Open Spaces in the 21st century.
- Verma, G. D., 2006. Planning and Equity. New Delhi, MPISG.
- Wirth, L., July 1938. Urbanism as a way of life. The American Journal of Sociology vol 44 no.1, pp. 1-24.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to our seminar guide, Mr. Sandeep Kumar for guiding
us throughout the research process; for boosting us whenever we were frustated; for supporting us
whenever we were headed in the right direction; and for scolding us when we were headed in the wrong
We would also like to thank seminar co-ordinators, Prof. Jaya Kumar and Prof. Ranjana Mital for
introducing us to a subject we were so unaware about; for the systematic structure of the studio so as to
make it a gradual process of learning.
Our deepest gratitude to Mr. Amit Khanna, Mrs. Gita Dewan Verma, Dr. Manisha Tripathy Pandey, Prof.
Savysaachi, Mr. Deependra Prasad and Mr. S. D. Singh for showing us different aspects of the topic.
We also take the opportunity to thank our logistics team, who have managed everything over the final
days so well, and graphics teams, who have meticulously worked so as to compile everyones work into
an elegant publication.
Finally we would like to thank ourselves as a group, for being together in sickness and in health, in good
times and in bad, and in joy as well as in sorrow.