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a/d conventor:
An analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous physical quantity (usually
voltage) to a digital number that represents the quantity's amplitude. An ADC is defined by its bandwidth (the range of
frequencies it can measure) and its signal to noise ratio (how accurately it can measure a signal relative to the noise it
introduces). The actual bandwidth of an ADC is characterized primarily by its sampling rate, and to a lesser extent by how it
handles errors such as aliasing. The dynamic range of an ADC is influenced by many factors, including the resolution (the
number of output levels it can quantize a signal to), linearity and accuracy (how well the quantization levels match the true
analog signal) and jitter (small timing errors that introduce additional noise). The dynamic range of an ADC is often
summarized in terms of its effective number of bits (ENOB), the number of bits of each measure it returns that are on
average not noise.
d/a conventor
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A or D-to-A) is a function that converts digital data (usually
binary) into an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse
function. Unlike analog signals, digital data can be transmitted, manipulated, and stored without degradation, albeit with
more complex equipment. But a DAC is needed to convert the digital signal to analog to drive an earphone or loudspeaker
amplifier in order to produce sound (analog air pressure waves).
application of a/d conventor

Music recording[edit]
Analog-to-digital converters are integral to current music reproduction technology. People produce much music on
computers using an analog recording and therefore need analog-to-digital converters to create the pulse-code
modulation (PCM) data streams that go onto compact discs and digital music files.
The current crop of analog-to-digital converters utilized in music can sample at rates up to 192 kilohertz. Considerable
literature exists on these matters, but commercial considerations often play a significant role. Most [citation needed] high-profile
recording studios record in 24-bit/192-176.4 kHz pulse-code modulation (PCM) or in Direct Stream Digital(DSD) formats,
and then downsample or decimate the signal for Red-Book CD production (44.1 kHz) or to 48 kHz for commonly used radio
and television broadcast applications.

Digital signal processing[edit]

People must use ADCs to process, store, or transport virtually any analog signal in digital form. TV tuner cards, for example,
use fast video analog-to-digital converters. Slow on-chip 8, 10, 12, or 16 bit analog-to-digital converters are common
in microcontrollers. Digital storage oscilloscopes need very fast analog-to-digital converters, also crucial for software defined
radio and their new applications.

Scientific instruments[edit]
Digital imaging systems commonly use analog-to-digital converters in digitizing pixels.
Some radar systems commonly use analog-to-digital converters to convert signal strength to digital values for
subsequent signal processing. Many other in situ and remote sensing systems commonly use analogous technology.
The number of binary bits in the resulting digitized numeric values reflects the resolution, the number of unique discrete
levels of quantization (signal processing). The correspondence between the analog signal and the digital signal depends on
the quantization error. The quantization process must occur at an adequate speed, a constraint that may limit the resolution
of the digital signal.

Many sensors produce an analog signal; temperature, pressure, pH, light intensity etc. All these signals can be amplified
and fed to an ADC to produce a digital number proportionalto the input signal.

application of d/a conventor

Most modern audio signals are stored in digital form (for example MP3s and CDs) and in order to be heard through
speakers they must be converted into an analog signal. DACs are therefore found in CD players, digital music players, and
PC sound cards.
Specialist standalone DACs can also be found in high-end hi-fi systems. These normally take the digital output of a
compatible CD player or dedicated transport (which is basically a CD player with no internal DAC) and convert the signal
into an analog line-level output that can then be fed into an amplifier to drive speakers.
Similar digital-to-analog converters can be found in digital speakers such as USB speakers, and in sound cards.
In VoIP (Voice over IP) applications, the source must first be digitized for transmission, so it undergoes conversion via
an analog-to-digital converter, and is then reconstructed into analog using a DAC on the receiving party's end.

Top-loading CD player and external digital-to-analog converter.

Video sampling tends to work on a completely different scale altogether thanks to the highly nonlinear response both of
cathode ray tubes (for which the vast majority of digital video foundation work was targeted) and the human eye, using a
"gamma curve" to provide an appearance of evenly distributed brightness steps across the display's full dynamic range hence the need to use RAMDACs in computer video applications with deep enough colour resolution to make engineering a
hardcoded value into the DAC for each output level of each channel impractical (e.g. an Atari ST or Sega Genesis would
require 24 such values; a 24-bit video card would need 768...). Given this inherent distortion, it is not unusual for a television
or video projector to truthfully claim a linear contrast ratio (difference between darkest and brightest output levels) of 1000:1
or greater, equivalent to 10 bits of audio precision even though it may only accept signals with 8-bit precision and use an
LCD panel that only represents 6 or 7 bits per channel.
Video signals from a digital source, such as a computer, must be converted to analog form if they are to be displayed on an
analog monitor. As of 2007, analog inputs were more commonly used than digital, but this changed as flat panel
displays with DVI and/or HDMI connections became more widespread.[citation needed]A video DAC is, however, incorporated in any
digital video player with analog outputs. The DAC is usually integrated with some memory (RAM), which contains conversion
tables forgamma correction, contrast and brightness, to make a device called a RAMDAC.
A device that is distantly related to the DAC is the digitally controlled potentiometer, used to control an analog signal digitally.

An unusual application of digital-to-analog conversion was the whiffletree electromechanical digital-to-analog converter
linkage in the IBM Selectric typewriter.

Q2. A)
An LVDT, or Linear Variable Differential Transformer, is a transducer that converts a linear
displacement or position from a mechanical reference (or zero) into a proportional electrical
signal containing phase (for direction) and amplitude information (for distance). The LVDT
operation does not require electrical contact between the moving part (probe or core rod
assembly) and the transformer, but rather relies on electromagnetic coupling; this and the fact
that they operate without any built-in electronic circuitry are the primary reasons why LVDTs
have been widely used in applications where long life and high reliability under severe
environments are a required, such Military/Aerospace applications.

LVDT cross-section, short stroke

LVDT cross-section, long stroke

The LVDT consists of a primary coil (of magnet wire) wound over the whole length of a nonferromagnetic bore liner (or spool tube) or a cylindrical coil form. Two secondary coils are
wound on top of the primary coil for long stroke LVDTs (i.e. for actuator main RAM) or each
side of the primary coil for Short stroke LVDTs (i.e. for electro-hydraulic servo-valve or
EHSV). The two secondary windings are typically connected in opposite series (or wound in
opposite rotational directions). A ferromagnetic core, which length is a fraction of the bore liner
length, magnetically couples the primary to the secondary winding turns that are located above
the length of the core. Even though the secondary windings of the long stroke LVDT are shown
on top of each other with insulation between them, on the above cross section, Measurement
Specialties actually winds them both at the same time using dual carriage, computerized winding
machines. This method saves manufacturing time and also creates secondary windings with

symmetrical capacitance distribution and therefore allows meeting customer specifications more

LVDT Schematic

When the primary coil is excited with a sine wave voltage (Vin), it generate a variable magnetic
field which, concentrated by the core, induces the secondary voltages (also sine waves). While
the secondary windings are designed so that the differential output voltage (Va-Vb) is
proportional to the core position from null, the phase angle (close to 0 degree or close to 180
degrees depending of direction) determines the direction away from the mechanical zero. The
zero is defined as the core position where the phase angle of the (Va-Vb) differential output is 90
The differential output between the two secondary outputs (Va-Vb) when the core is at the
mechanical zero (or Null Position) is called the Null Voltage; as the phase angle at null
position is 90 degrees, the Null Voltage is a quadrature voltage. This residual voltage is due to
the complex nature of the LVDT electrical model, which includes the parasitic capacitances of
the windings. This complex nature also explains why the phase angle of (Va-Vb) is not exactly 0
degree or 180 degrees when the core is away from the Null Position.

Primary Excitation
Differential output Va-Vb
Direction 1: In-phase with
excitation (0 degree)
Differential output Va-Vb
Direction 2: Out-of-phase
with excitation (180 degree)

LVDT waveforms

Temperature effects:
While the temperature coefficient of sensitivity (output per unit of displacement) is determined by the
number of winding turns, the resistance of the windings, the geometry of the armature, and the resistivity
& permeability of the metals used in the LVDT construction, the null shift with temperature is solely
affected by the expansion coefficients and lengths of the materials used in the construction of the
Ratiometric operation:
For the lowest temperature coefficient of sensitivity, the LVDT can be designed so that the sum of the
secondary voltages (Va+Vb) remains constant over the displacement measuring range. By designing the
signal conditioning electronic circuitry to measure the difference over sum ratio (Va-Vb)/(Va+Vb), one can
see that the first order of the temperature coefficient of sensitivity is eliminated, as demonstrated below:
Va(t)=Va(70F)*Ca Vb(t)=Vb(70F)*Cb
The variable t is the temperature; 70F is the temperature reference (70 degrees F); Ca and Cb are the
temperature coefficients of sensitivity. If Ca and Cb are assumed equal (first order approximation), then
the ratio is independent of temperature:
[Va(t)-Vb(t)]/[Va(t)+Vb(t)] = [Va(70F)-Vb(70F)]/[Va(70F)+Vb(70F)]

X-Y recorder
A strip chart recorder records the variations of a quantity with respect to time while a X-Y recorder is an instrument which
gives a graphic record of the relationship between two variables.
In strip recorders, usually self-balancing potentiometers are used. These self-balancing potentiometers plot the emf as a
function of time. In X-Y recorders, an emf is plotted as a function of another emf. This is done by having one self-balancing
potentiometer control the position of the rolls. while another self-balancing potentiometer controls the position of the
recording pen.
In some X-Y recorders, one self-balancing potentiometer circuit moves a recording pen in the X direction while another
self-balancing potentiometer circuit moves the recording pen in the Y direction at right angles to the X direction, while the
paper remains stationary.
There are many variations of X-Y recorders. The emf, used for operation of X-Y recorders, may not necessarily measure
only voltages. The measured emf may be the output of a transducer that may measure displacement force, pressure,
strain , light intensity or any other physical quantity. Thus with the help of X-Y recorders and appropriate transducers, a
physical quantity may be plotted against another physical quantity.
Hence an X-Y recorder consists of a pair of servo-systems, driving a recording pen in two axes through a proper sliding pen
and moving arm arrangement, with reference to a stationary paper chart. Attenuators are used to bring the input signals
to the levels acceptable by the recorder.

This figure shows a block diagram of a typical X-Y recorder. A signal enters each of the two channels. The signals are
attenuated to the inherent full scale range of the recorder, the signal then passes to a balance circuit where it is compared
with an internal reference voltage. The error signal the difference between the input signal voltage and the reference
voltage is fed to a chopper which converts d.c signal to an a.c signal. The signal is then amplified in order to actuate a
servometer which is used to balance the system and hold it in balance as the value of the quantity being recorder changes.
The action described above takes place in both axed simultaneously. thus we get a record of one variable with respect to
The use of X-Y recorders in laboratories greatly simplifies and expedites many measurements and tests. A few examples
are being given below

Speed torque characteristics of motors


lift Drag wind tunnel tests


Plotting of characteristics of vaccum tubes, zener diodes rectifiers and transistors etc


Regulation curves of power supplies


Plottering stress-strain curves, hysteresis curves and vibrations amplitude against swept frequency


Electrical characteristics of materials such as resistance versus and temperature plotting the output from


electronic calculators and computers

Q3. A)
The cathode ray oscilloscope is an extremely useful and versatile laboratory instrument used for studying wave
shapes of alternating currents and voltages as well as for measurement of voltage, current, power and frequency, in
fact, almost any quantity that involves amplitude and waveform. It allows the user to see the amplitude of electrical
signals as a function of time on the screen. It is widely used for trouble shooting radio and TV receivers as well as
laboratory work involving research and design. It can also be employed for studying the wave shape of a signal with
respect to amplitude distortion and deviation from the normal. In true sense the cathode ray oscilloscope has been
one of the most important tools in the design and development of modern electronic circuits.

Block Diagram of a CRO

CRO Block Diagram

The instrument employs a cathode ray tube (CRT), which is the heart of the oscilloscope. It generates the electron
beam, accelerates the beam to a high velocity, deflects the beam to create the image, and contains a phosphor screen
where the electron beam eventually becomes visible. For accomplishing these tasks various electrical

signals and

voltages are required, which are provided by the power supply circuit of the oscilloscope. Low voltage supply is
required for the heater of the electron gun for generation of electron beam and high voltage, of the order of few
thousand volts, is required for cathode ray tube to accelerate the beam. Normal voltage supply, say a few hundred
volts, is required for other control circuits of the oscilloscope.
Horizontal and vertical deflection plates are fitted between electron gun and screen to deflect the beam according to
input signal. Electron beam strikes the screen and creates a visible spot. This spot is deflected on the screen in
horizontal direction (X-axis) with constant time dependent rate. This is accomplished by a time base circuit
provided in the oscilloscope. The signal to be viewed is supplied to the vertical deflection plates through the vertical
amplifier, which raises the potential of the input signal to a level that will provide usable deflection of the electron
beam. Now electron beam deflects in two directions, horizontal on X-axis and vertical on Y-axis. A triggering circuit is
provided for synchronizing two types of deflections so that horizontal deflection starts at the same point of the input
vertical signal each time it sweeps. A basic block diagram of a general purpose oscilloscope is shown in figure.
Cathode ray tube and its various components will be discussed in the following Arts.

AF Sine and Square Wave Generator
A wien bridge oscillator (suitable for AF range) is used in this generator (refer
Fig. 13). The frequency of the oscillations can be changed by varying the
capacitance in the oscillator or in steps by switching in resistors of different
values. The output of the oscillator goes to a function switch which directs the

oscillator output to either sine wave amplifier or to the square wave shaper. The
attenuator varies the amplitude of the output which is taken through a push-pull

The front panel of the signal generator consists of the following:

Frequency selector :It selects the frequency in different ranges and varies it
continuously in a ratio of 1 : 10. The scale is non-linear.
Frequency multiplier :It selects the frequency range over 5 decades, from 10 Hz to
1 MHz.
Amplitude multiplier: It attenuates the sine wave in 3 decades, x 1, x 0.1 and x
Variable amplitude : It attenuates the sine wave amplitude continuously.
Symmetry control: It varies the symmetry of the square wave from 30% to 70%.
Amplitude: It attenuates the square wave output continuously.
Function switch: It selects either sine wave or square wave output.
Output available: This provides sine wave or square wave output.
Sync: This terminal is used to provide synchronization of the internal signal with
an external signal.

Q4. A)
A standard signal generator produces known and controllable voltages. It is
used as power source for the measurement of gain, signal to noise ratio (S/N),
bandwidth, standing wave ratio and other properties. It is extensively used in the
testing of radio receivers and transmitters. The instrument is provided with a
means of modulating the carrier frequency, which is indicated by the dial
setting on the front panel (see Fig. 11). The modulation is indicated by a
meter. The output signal can be AmplitudeModulated (AM) or Frequency
Modulated FM. Modulation may be done by a sine wave, square wave,
triangular wave or a pulse.

The carrier frequency is generated by a very stable RF oscillator using an LC

tank circuit, having a constant output over any frequency range. The output
voltage is read by an output meter. Buffer amplifiers provided in high freq
oscillators to isolate the oscillator circuit from the output circuit.

Dual Trace Oscilloscopes

Fig. 7 illustrates the construction of a typical dual trace oscilloscope. There are two separate vertical input channels,
A and B, and these use separate attenuator and preamplifier stages. Therefore the amplitude of each input, as viewed
on the oscilloscope, can be individually controlled.

After pre-amplification the two channels meet at an electronic switch. This has the ability to pass one channel at a
time into the vertical amplifier, via the delay line. There are two common operating modes for the electronic switch,
called alternate and chop, and these are selected from the instrument's front panel.
The alternate mode is illustrated in Fig.8. In this the electronic switch alternates between channels A and B, letting
each through for one cycle of the horizontal sweep. The display is blanked during the flyback and hold-off periods,
as in a conventional oscilloscope. Provided the sweep speed is much greater than the decay time of the CRT
phosphor, the screen will show a stable display of both the waveform at channels A and B. The alternate mode
cannot be used for displaying very low frequency signals.

Chopped Operating mode

In this mode the electronic switch free runs at a high frequency of the order of 100 kHz to 500 kHz. The result is that
small segments from channels A and B are connected alternately to the vertical amplifier, and displayed on the
screen. Provided the chopping rate is much faster than the horizontal sweep rate, the display will show a continuous
line for each channel. If the sweep rate approaches the chopping rate then the individual segments will be visible,
and the alternate mode should now be used.
The time base circuit shown in Fig. 7 is similar to that of a single input oscilloscope. Switch S2 allows the circuit to
be triggered on either the A or B channel waveforms, or on line frequency, or on an external signal. The horizontal
amplifier can be fed from the sweep generator or the B channel via switch S1. This is the X - Y mode and the
oscilloscope operates from channel A as the vertical signal and channel B as the horizontal signal, giving very
accurate X - Y measurements.
Several operating modes can be selected from the front panel for display, such as channel A only, channel B only,
channels A and B as two traces, and signals A + B, A - B, B - A or - (A + B) as a single trace

Q5. A)
Coriolis Densitometers
The Coriolis density metering systems are similar to vibrating tube methods, but with slight
in the design. They are comprised of a sensor and a signal-processing transmitter. Each sensor
of one or two flow tubes enclosed in a sensor housing. They are manufactured in various sizes
and shapes
[3]. The sensor tubes are securely anchored at the fluid inlet and outlet points and force is
vibrated at
the free end, as shown in Figure 21.16. The sensor operates by applying Newtons second law of

Inside the housing, the tubes are vibrated in their natural frequencies using drive coils and a
circuit. This resonant frequency of the assembly is a function of the geometry of the element,
of construction, and mass of the tube assembly. The tube mass comprises two parts: the mass of
the tube
itself and the mass of the fluid inside the tube. The mass of the tube is fixed for a given sensor.
The mass
of fluid in the tube is equal to the fluid density multiplied by volume. Because the tube volume is
the frequency of oscillation can be related directly to the fluid density. Therefore, for a given

FIGURE 21.15
Index of refraction-type densitometer. The angle of refraction of the beam depends on the shape,
size, and thickness of the container, and the density of fluid in the container. Because the container has the
characteristics, the position of the beam can be related to density of the fluid. Accurate measurement of the
of the beam is necessary.

Coriolis densitometer. Vibration of the tube is detected and related to the mass and flow rate of the
fluid. Further calibrations and calculations must be made to determine the densities.

of tube and the material of the construction, the density of the fluid can be determined by
the resonant frequency of vibration. Temperature sensors are used for overcoming the effects of
in modulus of elasticity of the tube. The fluid density is calculated using a linear relationship
the density and the tube period and calibration constants.
Special peripherals, based on microprocessors, are offered by various manufacturers for a variety
measurements. However, all density peripherals employ the natural frequency of the sensor
coupled with
the sensor temperature to calculate on-line density of process fluid. Optional communication,
facilities, and appropriate software are also offered.

Pressure head type densitometers:The pressure at the bottom of the tank of the constant liquid
column is proportional to density and the weight of the given volume of the fluid is proportional
to density. It compares hydrostatic pressures due to the height of the liquids in two tanks. one is
the reference tank, consisting of a liquid of constant height and density. The other tank maintains
the height constant by overflow, so that the manometer can be directly in terms of density