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Graphic documents


Lost fingers, scurfy skin and corroding veins

conservation of anatomical papier-mch models
by Dr Auzoux

The task to conserve a large collection

of severely damaged 19th century
polychrome papier-mch anatomical
models by Dr Auzoux led to an
interdisciplinary cooperation between
conservators, scientists and art
historians. Damage included loss of
functionality due to missing elements,
flaking of the exterior paint layers,
ingrained dirt and corrosion of iron
This paper presents a comprehensive
investigation into the history and
material-technical construction of the
models. Based on the results of visual
assessment, binding media analysis,
GC-MS, DNA analysis of the paint
layers, a conservation treatment strategy
was developed and successfully applied
including surface cleaning, corrosion
inhibition, consolidation of paint
layers and reconstruction of missing
parts. Treatment experiences are
discussed on case studies.
La mission de conserver une grande
collection de modles anatomiques en
papier-mch polychrome du
Dr Auzoux, datant du XIXe sicle et
gravement endommags, a men une
collaboration interdisciplinaire entre les
conservateurs-restaurateurs, les
scientifiques et les historiens dart. Les
dommages comprenaient la perte de
fonctionnalit due aux lments
manquants, lcaillage des couches de
peinture externes, la poussire incruste
et la corrosion des fils de fer. Cet article
prsente une enqute complte sur
lhistoire et la construction matrielle et
technique de ces modles. En se basant
sur les rsultats des observations
visuelles, de lanalyse des liants par
CG-SM et de lanalyse de lADN des
couches picturales, une stratgie de
traitement a t dveloppe et
applique avec succs, incluant le
nettoyage des surfaces, linhibition de la
corrosion, la consolidation des couches
de peinture et la reconstruction des
pices manquantes. Les expriences de
traitement sont discutes dans les
tudes de cas.
La tarea de conservacin del
Dr Auzoux de una gran coleccin de
modelos anatmicos de cartn piedra
policromado del siglo XIX gravemente
deteriorados, llev a una cooperacin


Elizabet Nijhoff Asser*

Mooie Boeken
Ruysdaelkade 97
1072 AM Amsterdam
The Netherlands
E-mail: e.asser@mooieboeken.nl
Website: www. mooieboeken.nl

Birgit Reissland
Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage
Gabriel Metsustraat 8
1071 EA Amsterdam
E-mail: Birgit.reissland@icn.nl

Bart J W Grob
Museum Boerhaave
Lange St. Agnietenstraat 10
2312 WC Leiden
The Netherlands
E-mail: research@museumboerhaave.nl

Eva Goetz
Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna
Burgring 5
A-1010 Vienna
E-mail: eva.goetz@khm.at
*Author for correspondence

papier-mch, anatomical models, 19th century, flaking, binding media, sturgeon glue,
corrosion, DNA-research

In the 19th century, Dr Auzoux (17971880) made a legendary invention: he
developed anatomical models made from papier-mch that could be taken
apart simulating the dissection of a corps (Figure 1). In comparison to
existing models made from wax, wood or plaster, these new models had
several advantages: they were constructed from individual pieces that could
be taken apart, the models were less sensitive to temperature, wear and tear,
were easier to make and cheaper.
Worldwide several collections possess anatomical models made by the
factory of Dr Auzoux, for instance the Smithsonian National Museum of
American History (NMAH, Washington, USA), and quite a few University
collections all over the world1. In 1980 the Boerhaave Museum in Leiden
(The Netherlands) purchased a large collection of Auzoux models from the
zoological laboratory of the University of Leiden. In total, their collection
consists of 73 items: 25 human and 48 zoological models. The models were
in bad condition. (Figure 2) Their surfaces were covered with ingrained dirt
and showed severe flaking causing losses of the paint layers. On the contrary,
the interior surface of the models was still in good condition, revealing the
exquisiteness and precision of their original appearance.
In 2004, a Dutch government subsidy enabled a four-year conservation
program for the entire collection. In order to define a suitable conservation






interdiciplinaria entre conservadores,

cientficos e historiadores de arte. Los
daos incluan una prdida de
funcionalidad debido a la falta de
elementos, separacin de las capas de
pintura exterior, suciedad incrustada y
corrosin de los alambres de hierro.
Este documento presenta una
exhaustiva investigacin de la historia y
contruccin materio-tcnica de los
modelos. Se desarroll un tratamiento
de conservacin basado en los
resultados de una evaluacin visual, un
anlisis de los medios implicados, una
cromatografa de gases-espectrometra
de masas (GC-MS) y un anlisis de
ADN de las capas de pintura. Este
tratamiento fue aplicado con xito e
inclua una limpieza de la superficie,
una inhibicin de la corrosin, la
consolidacin de las capas de pintura y
una reconstruccin de las partes que
faltaban. Las experiencias del
tratamiento se presentan en los
estudios de caso.

Figure 1. Docteur Auzoux with male model

Figure 2. The flaking problem of the Venus de

Mdicis, life-size female model 1852, Boerhaave
Museum, Leiden

strategy, the conservators needed to understand how the models were

manufactured, to assess the condition of the collection, and to explain the
origin of the flaking.

A crucial invention and its commercial implementation

Figure 3. Some of the employees of the

factory of Dr Auzoux in Saint-Aubin
dEcrosville (FR) ca. 1890

Louis Thomas Jerme Auzoux studied medicine at the University of Paris

from 18161822. During his studies he was confronted with the difficulties
to dissect corpses, the bodies were awfully smelling and easily decaying due
to lacking refrigeration. Therefore, he searched for alternatives and
introduced papier-mch as a suitable material. In 1822, the 25 year old
Auzoux showed his first model of the upper part of the pelvis officially to
the Academie Royale de Mdecine. The reaction was encouraging. Over the
years, seven different male models were produced, in four different sizes. The
largest model consisted of 130 pieces, requiring an astonishing precision for
making the different parts of the moulds.
Auzoux was a charismatic anatomist. In 1828, he opened a factory in his
birthplace Saint-Aubin dEcrosville. (Figure 3) He inspired his employers to
perform very refined and highly artistic work. Every Pentecost, he held a public
lecture on anatomy in the village square of Saint-Aubin dEcrosville. The models
of particular organs such as the eye and ear were enlarged for clarity up to
10 life-size. Inspired by the development of comparative anatomy after 1840
Auzoux began to produce models of animals and plants as well. For example
snails, squalls, vipers, silk moths, turkeys, sea breams, May-bugs, and almost lifesize horses, typical examples of French country-life. Also he made comparative
series of organs of animals: nervous systems, alimentary canals, hearts, blood
circulations and brains. His new models were evaluated by scientists, giving
constructive advise on anatomical details that were still under discussion.
Commercially Auzoux was very capable. In 1833 he opened a shop in
Paris. He sold his models to universities and to secondary schools all over the
world. At the height of his fame, he claimed to have sold his models to more
than 30 countries, as well as to the colonies. Auzouxs models were exhibited
at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London and at the World Exhibition of
1867 in Paris. He was held in great respect when he died in 1880.


Graphic documents


Production methods
Valuable sources for understanding how the models were made are a short
film made in 1986 under the supervision of Bernard Barral, the last director
of the company, and a note of his hand dating from 19902.
Papier-mch forms were prepared in two ways: the hollow pieces were
made by sticking torn strips of paper3 in a plaster mould, up to twelve layers
of thickness, with paste. The same was done with the contra mould. When
dry, the two parts of the papier-mch piece were sown together with iron
thread. A final layer of paper strips was adhered to cover up the fixing
threads. For the solid parts, heavy moulds made of an antimony-lead-tin alloy
in a wooden frame were used. First, several layers of paper strips were pasted
into the mould. On top, elastic papier-mch pulp was hammered down into
the details of the mould. This pulp comprised strips of torn paper, starch
paste, hemp fibre, chalk and ground cork blended in proportions that were
kept strictly confidential. The pulp was mixed in a sort of stamper beater
driven by a horse. The top-part of the mould was positioned on top of the
bottom-part and placed in a cider press to allow for drying.
The internal support of larger models consisted of an iron construction. It
remains unclear during which production step this construction was fitted into
the papier-mch model. In 1992, X-ray examination of a large male model
and a turkey by Richard Barden (Barden 1999) and a horse leg model
(Karlson 1998) revealed the inner construction.
For special effects, imitating e.g. lenses, lung alveoli and wings, other
materials such as glass bulbs, lichen (moss), and transparent membranes were
applied. The large arteries were added as braids consisting of ferrous wires
that branched out to thin arteries and veins, and were tapped into position
with iron nails. To cover the iron veins, hemp and coloured paper strips were
wrapped around.
In the next step, the models were delicately painted to give the illusion of
skin, flesh and muscles. While the film shows the use of an ordinary paint,
probably alkyd based, the sources mention the original use of pigmented
Russian fish glue. A final varnish layer was applied. After 1917 however,
wood varnish was used instead of Russian fish glue according to Barral2.
Mulder carried pigment analysis out applying SEM EDX. The results
however are inconclusive (Mulder 1981).
Removable pieces were kept in place by a system of straight and curved
ferrous pins and copper-alloy sleeves, or ferrous eyes. Smaller parts were
fastened with copper hooks and eyes. Hinges were made of two ferrous eyes
locked to each other.
Finally, little printed hands and corresponding numbers were pasted onto
the model. Directions for dissecting in correct order were provided through
a printed Tableau Synoptic. Most synoptic tables were dated, listed the name
of each piece and included numbers and letters to specify the anatomic accurate
nomenclature4. After quality control, the models though unfortunately not
all were signed and dated with pen and brown ink. It is remarkable that
available information on signatures to aid dating or authentication is negligible.

Condition and conservation of Auzoux models

Auzoux writes in ca. 1850: Il resulte des renseignements qui nous ont t
communiques, queaprs un sejour de plus de vingt ans Cayenne, lle de
Cuba, Calcutta, pays dans lesquels le climat et les insectes sont une cause de
plus active destruction, ces prparations nont encore prouver aucune altration
(Pain 1991). Apparently the models endured a period of twenty years rather
well, but keeping a pristine condition for 150 years of extensive use and severe
environmental changes was rather unrealistic as Mulder states (Mulder 1992).
Beth Richwine and Richard Barden from NMAH carried out the conservation
of two models in 1999 (Barden 1999). The conservation included surface
cleaning applying distilled water (room temperature or ice cold) and saliva,






consolidation of flaking paint-layers with water, gelatine or hide glue,

revarnishing with 12.5 per cent solution of Soluvar Matte Picturer Varnish in
petroleum benzine and returning of detached pieces with hide glue.
To outline a conservation strategy for the Boerhaave collection of Auzoux
models, several questions remained unanswered. First, the general condition
of the collection had to be verified. For this purpose, the models needed to
be dissected and re-assembled afterwards. In order to indicate if certain
decay patterns were related to different production periods, dating the
models was essential. The causes of the extensive flaking of the exterior paint
layers needed to be identified requiring identification of applied materials and
localization of the layer separation.

More than 100 Auzoux models, including the entire Boerhaave collection of
73 models, ca. 20 models owned by other Dutch institutes and 10 models
from the NMAH collection were assessed in normal light. Special attention
was paid to signatures and dates.
Samples for microscopic analysis were taken from two models: three samples
of a turkey (1856, 2 exterior, 1 interior sample) and three samples of a sea bream
(nd). The samples were studied under a stereomicroscope. Layer characterization
was done on cross-sections (embedding in Polypol polyester resin, grinding on
Micro-mesh silicon-carbon paper) on a Zeiss Axioplan 2 microscope with
incident normal light (up to 1000 magnification) and UV (Zeiss filter set UV
H365 with excitation BP 365/12, beam splitter FT 395 and emission LP 397).

Present binding media and varnish were determined with a

Thermo Quest
8000top Gas Chromatograph (GC)/Voyager Mass Spectrometer (MS) by
applying two methods: one specific for proteins, and one for oils and resins.
For protein identification, samples were hydrolysed; amino acids were
derivatized to N(O,S)-ethoxy-carbonyl methyl esters, separated on a SPB 50
column and identified by MS. Oils, resins and waxes were analysed by thermally
assisted hydrolysis and methylation Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
(THM-GC-MS) in combination with Curie Point pyrolysis (GSG Curie point
pyrolyser). The separated components were identified by MS.
DNA-analysis was carried out to verify whether ordinary fish glue or highquality sturgeon glue were used as binding media and as varnish. Two
samples (ca. 7.5 mg) were taken from the external painting layers of the
female models left breast (1856), two references of sturgeon glue and one
reference of fish glue containing ureum5. DNA extraction was carried out
according to a standard technique developed for ancient DNA analysis
(Rohland and Hofreiter 2007). The extracts (2 l) were analyzed with
Polymerization-Chain Reaction (PCR) with specific primers: AcCoIF,
AcCoIR, Tel16SF and Tel16SR. Amplifications were done on a MJ Thermo
cycler starting with a 9 min. activation step at 94 C, followed by 55 cycles of
94 C for 20 s, 55 C for 20 s, and 72 C for 20 s. The program ended with
a 72 C step for 5 min. and kept at 4 C after the program ended.

Visual investigation of the Boerhaave collection verified that only 13 models
contain a signature with a date. Close examination revealed a noteworthy
change after Auzoux decease in 1880. While the signatures before 1880 read
Auzoux doct. fecit anno 18.. (Figure 4), between 1880 and at least 19146 they
read Anatomie Clastique du doct. Auzoux 18 (Figure 5). To date the
remaining models, the synoptic tables were expected to be revealing since
they specified a year and described the depicted anatomical details of the
model. One of the three eye models of the collection contained a signature


Graphic documents

Figure 4. Signed and dated models made before 1880, signed with: Auzoux doct. fecit anno dato

large male, 1843, Universiteitmuseum, Groningen (NL), Auzoux facultatis medecinae parisiensis doctor fecit anno 1843;
ear, 1844, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
eye, 1849, Universiteitmuseum Utrecht (NL);
female, 1852, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
small male, 1852, American History Museum Washington (USA);
male, 1856, Anatomisch Museum Leiden (NL);
cross-section eye, 1856, American History Museum Washington (USA);
turkey, 1856, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
eye, 1858, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
eye, 186?, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
eye, 1870, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
male, 1873?, Muse de lEcorch dAnatomie Le Neubourg (FR)

Figure 5. Dated models made after 1880, signed with: Anatomie clastique du Dr Auzoux

ear, 1882, Anatomisch Museum Leiden (NL);

eye, 1882, Anatomisch Museum Leiden (NL);
male pelvis, 1887, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
manatee hart, 1887, Boerhaave Museum Leiden (NL);
brains, 1888, American History Museum Washington (USA);
silkworm, 1892, American History Museum Washington (USA);
male, 1894, Muse de lEcorch dAnatomie Le Neubourg (FR);
fungi, 1914, Victoria Museum, Melbourne (AUS)



Figure 6. Three signed and dated eye-models

in a row: 1858, 1870 and 1863, Boerhaave
Museum, Leiden(NL), the eye of 1858





with an indecipherable date, while the other two were signed and dated.
(Figure 6) Only one original synoptic table of an eye from 1863 is present in
the Boerhaave collection (Auzoux 1863). It indicated five different
microscopic layers, only present at the undecipherable dated eye model,
suggesting that eye and table belong together. Comparative studies prove to
be an interesting approach for dating the models, as could chronological data
on the use of materials be. It became apparent that the colour scheme of the
models gradually changed to less transparent and more opaque, indicative of
a change of detailing the materials.
Microscopic analysis of cross sections revealed a characteristic multi-layer
structure of the samples: (1) papier-mch, (2) a thin layer of covering paper,
(3) one ground layer, (4) a transparent coating on top of the ground layer,
(5) superimposing, medium-rich paint layers of varying thickness, and (6) varnish
layer(s) with ingrained dirt on top (Figure 7).
Some cross sections showed more than 10 paint layers, consisting of
pigments sparsely mixed within the binding media, providing a deep,
translucent colour impression. Pigments were not identified with exception of
zinc white, the presence of which was proved in the ground and paint layers
due to its characteristic fluorescence.
Binding media analysis confirmed the use of a protein. Further DNAanalysis verifying if fish was indeed the protein source proved to be not
successful. The DNA in the protein adhesive was already too degraded either
during preparation or natural ageing (e.g. UV or light), the sample size was
too small, the samples were contaminated or finally, the protein source was
no fish, but for instance cattle. No non-proteinous material like shellac or
natural resin was found by GC-MS analysis.


Figure 7. (a) Sample of sea bream showing a

characteristic layer structure. Bright field,
magnification: 100x and (b) UVfluorescence; microscopic magnification:
200x long wave UVblue, 365 nm. Arrow:
beginning separation between the paint

A comparison between models present in the NMAH and the Boerhaave

museum proved to be interesting especially for models present in both
collections (e.g. turkey, silkworm and one embryology model). The surfaces
of the Boerhaave models were in a worse condition.
Visual assessment of the Boerhaave collection revealed the following condition:
Parts were missing just at a few models: the female model lost some fingers
and toes, the lungs and even her heart. The turkey lost wings- and neck-parts
due to degraded membranes. Also, parts of the embryology models were
missing: parts of the ovulae had broken off. Large inner parts of the turkey
were instable by loss of core material due to insect damage.
Parts of 17 models were distorted, often caused by bending of the inner
iron-structure or by corrosion of wires causing the papier-mch to break.
For instance: closing the eye models was impossible because of displacement
of hinges; breaking and turning of ferrous wires had caused complete disarray
of silkmoth-feelers.
All 73 models were covered with dirt ingrained dirt on the exterior,
surface dirt on the interior.
On 40 models extensive flaking occurred. The exterior parts show different
patterns of flaking. Flakes differ in size, extent and shape, but consistently show
cupping, a damage whereby individual flakes are attached in the middle of
the substrate and are separated by cracks with uplifting edges. The layer
separation is located in different interfaces: (1) papier-mch; (2) ground layer;
(3) between paint and varnish layer (Figure 7). Where relatively thick layers were
present in the cross sections, pronounced cupping occurred, implying a
correlation between thickness and flake formation.
Corrosion of the ferrous parts was noticeable on the external and also on
the internal sides of all models. No deterioration was found caused by
corrosion of the iron inner structure. Strands simulating the veins and arteries
showed corrosion that broke through the flax and paper wrappers and
migrated to the papier-mch core forming brown brittle spots.
Only one prior conservation action was noticeable: on the snail a new
varnish layer was added.


Graphic documents


Conservation treatment
Surface cleaning was determined by the thickness of paint layers. Thin flakes
and few ingrained dirt were cleaned and polished with an eraser gum (Pentel,
zer4-1) containing calcium carbonate. A glass fibre pen was used on thick
flakes. Using iced demi-water as suggested by Barden (Barden 1999) to delay
swelling of the binding media during cleaning proved to be effective.
Corroded iron wires (e.g. blood vessels) were treated with calcium phytate,
a chelating agent effective for iron ions. Spot tests for iron ions (Batophenanthroline indicator paper) confirmed a decreased amount of soluble iron(II)
ions. The treated areas were coated with Paraloid B-72, 10% w/v in ethanol.
Re-adhering of flakes depended mainly on the size and thickness of flakes
and the separation interface. Preliminary tests showed that application of
several adhesives and application techniques was required for an optimal
result. The smallest flakes were humidified, covered with silicone paper and
gently pressed with a Teflon spatula. Smaller flakes were consolidated with
fish gelatine (3 per cent), larger flakes with Evacon R. Large but thin flakes
were re-adhered with sturgeon glue. The thickest flakes were secured with
pieces of BEVA film applied with a hot spatula at 120 C. On the female
model the flaking was consolidated with a mix of Evacon R and
methylcellulose7. It was of primary concern that the flakes dried thoroughly
under heavy weights of flexible lead-bags. Edges of flakes were coated with
coloured cellulose-fibre paste8 to prevent lifting.
Surface defects, due to insect damage or lost flakes, were filled with
cellulose-fibre paste.
Missing parts gave an impression contrary to the purpose of anatomical
models. Disturbingly lacking elements were reconstructed. Different materials
required individual solutions. Missing papier-mch parts were reconstructed
by modelling cellulose-fibre paste around a ferrous wire (female model,
fingers). To reconstruct missing membranes, several translucent materials
were tested: parchment, alum tanned gut, placenta, and peritoneum. The
peritoneum of a cow, prepared with potash by a parchment specialist and
stretched to dry, gave the best result.
The feelers of the silk moth were in complete disorder. A strand of
ferrous treads branching out in multiple little feeler-ends, were all wrapped in
painted hemp. 25 per cent of the metal cores was broken. A curled steel wire
(from the core of a guitar string) pasted between Japanese paper (Kozo
16 gr/m2) was used as a splint to connect the broken feeler-ends and restored
its elasticity. (Figure 8)
Large areas of lost paint posed a dilemma that depended on the
perspective taken: keeping the model authentic or improving the reading of
anatomical functions by retouching. The collection keeper decided for the
latter. Paraloid B-72 was used as interface between old and new pigment
layers. Re-creating the effect of multi-layered paint with just one layer was
challenging. Watercolours (Aquarel, Winsor and Newton) were applied with a
brush in a crosshatching technique, leaving the edge of the flake untouched,
creating a pleasant shimmering effect. To reduce the susceptibility to
environmental changes, most of the models were coated with Paraloid
B-72 (5 per cent w/v in ethanol) applied with brush.


Figure 8. The male silkmoth before and

after treatment

Conservation of the severely damaged Auzoux models of the Boerhaave

collection required an interdisciplinary co-operation with creative solutions.
Research into the cultural history and material-technical composition of the
models allowed for a better understanding of the degradation pattern.
However, further studies are required in the archives of Paris, Caen and SaintAubin dEcrosville to develop a valid reference instrument to be able to date
the models before intervention. Systematic data on the material composition
are relevant to better understand the degradation patterns and define an
appropriate conservation strategy.






We would like to thank Dr G Veeneman, former director of Museum
Boerhaave for providing the opportunity to carry out the project. We want to
express our sincere thanks to Docteur Francois Dubosc (Muse de
Lanatomie, Le Neubourg, France), Kees Grooss and Paul Steenhorst
(Boerhaave Museum) for providing relevant information. We are thankful to
Klaas Vrieling and Marcel Eurlings (DNA Marker Point, University of Leiden),
to Henk van Keulen (ICN, Amsterdam), to Verena Mller (painting
conservator, Restauratieatelier Amsterdam), Z H de Groot (parchment
specialist, Rotterdam), Herre de Vries, Hilde Schalkx and Eliza Jacobi
(Opleiding Restauratoren, Amsterdam) for their collegial support. Above all,
we want to thank Emanuela Giaccone (Mooie Boeken, Amsterdam). With
her skillful hands the quality of the models was regained.


The website of the NMAH http://americanhistory.si.edu contains an incomplete

list of collections hosting Auzoux-models.
The film is on show in the Muse de lEcorch dAnatomie in Le Neubourg (FR).
The technical note is found in Pain 1991, p. 170175, Grob 2004, p. 109111.
The last paper that was used in Saint-Aubin in 1986 was brown-bag paper, long
fibred, normal glued, ca. 120 gr/m, pH = 5.4.
Davis 1975, p. 276, note 19, provides a list of synoptic tables and catalogues.
Sturgeon glue: Kremer Pigmente, Aichstetten/Allgu, (DE); Fa. Dick, Metten,
(DE); Fish glue: Fa. Dugay, Paris (FR).
Signature on Fungi-model by courtesy of Georgia Harvey, Victoria Museum of
Melbourne, Australia.
Evacon R: non-plasticized ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer; methylcellulose DP
2000: 5% in demi-water, 1:1.
Cellulose-fibre paste: pure cellulose fibres, Evacon R and 5% w/v Klucel G in
ethanol, mineral pigments.

Auzoux, L Th J. 1858. Leons lmentaires danatomie et de physiologie humaine et compare,
2th ed., Paris.
Auzoux, Dr. 1863. Tableau Synoptique de loeil complet, Paris.
Barden, R. 1999. Conservation Report, http://americanhistory.si.edu/anatomy/
preservation/nma03_preser_ct_1.html, accessed 10 December 2007.
Davis, A B. 1975. Louis Thomas Jerme Auzoux and the papier-mch anatomical
model, Rivista di Storia delle Scienze Mediche e Naturali. Review of the History of the
Sciences Medical and Natural, 20, 257279.
Grob, B W J. 2004. The anatomical models of Dr. Louis Auzoux, a Descriptive Catalogue,
Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, Netherlands, 109151.
ICN 2004, Report 3092: Papier-Mch anatomical models (Fish, Turkey) by Dr. Auzoux
(ca.1850--1900), Museum Boerhaave Leiden, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Karlson, O. 1998. Ein Pappmach-Pferd aus Halle, Restauro, 2, MrzApril, 102107.
Mulder, W J. 1981. De Anatomie Clastique van Dr. L T J Auzoux, Tijdschrift voor de
geschiedenis der geneeskunde, natuurwetenschappen, wiskunde en techniek, 4, 3, 133143.
Mulder, W J. 1992. L Th J Auzouxs models used for the dissemination of anatomic
knowledge, Actes du 6e colloque des conservateurs des muses dhistoire des sciences mdicales,
Leiden, Netherlands 129136.
Pain, D. 1991. Lanatomie clastique, une affaire normande au XIXme siecle, These pour
lobtention du grade de docteur en mdecin, Universit de Caen, France.
Rohland, N, Michael Hofreiter 2007. Comparison and optimization of ancient DNA
extraction, BioTechniques 42(3) 343352.

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