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MOTORIZED RAMMING MACHINE

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

Here we fabricate the model for ramming machine it is used to set the loose
sand in foundries. It minimizes the work load of man power. Mostly ramming
machines are using the vibrating table with the arrangement of zigzag movement and
it needs more current to carry out this process. To avoid this we are using cam with
return spring arrangement for the ramming machine. The project consists of the
following parts ramming tool, Return spring, Handle with screw rod, Cam
arrangement and Motor with worm gear arrangement. A sand rammer is a piece of
equipment used in foundry sand testing to make test specimen of molding sand by
compacting bulk material by free fixed height drop of fixed weight for 3 times. It is
also used to determine compatibility of sands by using special specimen tubes and a
linear scale.
Mechanism
Sand rammer consists of calibrated sliding weight actuated by cam, a shallow cup to
accommodate specimen tube below ram head, a specimen stripper to strip compacted
specimen out of specimen tube, a specimen tube to prepare the standard specimen of
50 mm diameter by 50 mm height or 2 inch diameter by 2 inch height for an AFS
standard specimen.
Specimen Preparation
The cam is actuated by a user by rotating the handle, causing a cam to lift the
weight and let it fall freely on the frame attached to the ram head. This produces a
standard compacting action to a pre-measured amount of sand. Variety of standard
specimen for Green Sand and Silicate based (CO 2) sand are prepared using a sand
rammer along with accessories
Specimen
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Type of sand
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Compression (Cylindrical)

Green Sand and Silicate based sand

Tensile Specimen

Silicate based sand

Transverse Specimen

Silicate based sand

The object for producing the standard cylindrical specimen is to have the
specimen become 2 inches high (plus or minus 1/32 inch) with three rams of the
machine. After the specimen has been prepared inside the specimen tube, the
specimen can be used for various standard sand tests such as the permeability test, the
green sand compression test, the shear test, or other standard foundry tests. The sand
rammer machine can be used to measure compactability of prepared sand by filling
the specimen tube with prepared sand so that it is level with the top of the tube. The
tube is then placed under the ram head in the shallow cup and rammed three times.
Compactability in percentage is then calculated from the resultant height of the sand
inside the specimen tube. A rammer is mounted on a base block on a solid foundation,
which provides vibration damping to ensure consistent ramming.
Prerequisites:
Prerequisite equipments for sand rammer may vary from case to case basis or testing
scenario:
Case 1: If the prepared sand is ready
Tube filler accessory to fill sample tube with sand. Advantage is it lets the sand
fill in from fixed distance and riddles it before filling.
Case 2: Experiment by preparing new sand sample If sand needs to be prepared
before making specimen following equipments may be needed
Laboratory sand muller or laboratory sand mixer (for core sands)
Case 3: For low compressive strength sands and mixtures:
Split specimen tube

CHAPTER-2
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LITERATURE SURVEY

The Jet JET-0T 2 in. Bench Model Sand Rammer delivers fast, powerful blows
for ramming small, medium and large forms. The heat-treated piston provides
sufficient force and sturdiness to outlast any industrial environment. It is
ergonomically designed to provide greater ease of handling with reduced operator
fatigue.
Features:
Heat treated cylinder and chrome-plated piston provide corrosion resistance in
any industrial environment
Ergonomically designed providing greater ease of handling with reduced
operator fatigue
Designed for fast, compacting blows increasing productivity
Light to medium duty applications
Equipped with rubber butt
Includes:
2 in. Bench Model Sand Rammer - 556632
DEDAN KIMATHI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
The automatic rammer is used for ramming the sand uniformly around the pattern. It can be used
even in small scale industries. To operate this rammer an air compressor is needed. AButt which is attached
to the bottom of the piston rod does the operation of ramming. The pressure developed inside the cylinder
reciprocates the piston and hence the butt. This rammer is handled by an operator just by moving it over the
molding sand. The butt rams the sand at places moved and the sand is uniformly rammed. This rammer
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reduces the ramming time and labor. Due to this the cost is reduced considerable. So this machine finds
application in foundries. 2.
The rammer can be handled by an operator without feeling uneasiness. No separate skill is required
to operate this rammer. The operation is quick and hence it is a time saving one. The operation is easy and
consumes less cost. Due to the above reasons it finds its extensive application in manufacturing industries. It
has an extensive application in both large scale and small scale industries because of its economy and easy
handling
Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics,
robotics, etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation. The
main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation plays an important role
in mass production. Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to deliver
the products at a faster rate. The rammer can be handled by an operator without feeling
uneasiness. No separate skill is required to operate this rammer. The operation is quick
and hence it is a time saving one. The operation is easy and consumes less cost. Due to
the above reasons it finds its extensive application in manufacturing industries.
It has an extensive application in both large scale and small scale industries because of
its economy and easy handling.

Strength uniform ramming of sand is obtained by this rammer.


The time consumption for ramming is reduced greatly.
Skilled labor is not required.
Easy operation
It can be transported easily from one place to another since dismantling and

assembling is simple.
It reduces more labor for ramming operation.
Maintenance is easy.
Uniform ramming of sand is obtained by this rammer. The time consumption
for ramming is reduced considerably. It eliminates more labor for ramming operation
and hence the labor cost is reduced. Skilled labor is not required to operate this
machine. Transportation of this machine is easy. Maintenance is also easy, The

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reduction of production time and elimination of more labor for ramming operation
reduce production cost, thereby the economy is greatly achieved.

CHAPTER-3
SYSTEM FUNCTION
WORKING PRINCIPLE:

Here we are using the table with the support of return spring arrangement
and below of this we are placing the cam mechanism with rotation movement.
The rotation movement for cam is given by the motor with worm gear
arrangement for the vibrating operation. The supporting shaft on either side of
the table holds the molding box preventing it from falling while the operation
takes place. The motor will rotate the worm gear arrangement and that will
rotate the cam mechanism hence the table moves up and down. The ramming

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tool is rotated by means of handle to seat on the molding sand and to set the
sand firmly in the molding box.
ADVANTAGES
Get good output
Easy to operate
Easy to maintain

DISADVANTAGES
Nut should be tightened every time manually

APPLICATION
It is applicable in foundries.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF RAMMING

The rammer can be handled by an operator without feeling uneasiness. No


separate skill is required to operate this rammer. The operation is quick and hence it is
a time saving one. The operation is easy and consumes less cost. Due to the above
reasons it finds its extensive application in manufacturing industries.

It has an

extensive application in both large scale and small scale industries because of its
economy and easy handling.
The manufacturing operation is being atomized for the following reasons.
To achieve mass production
To reduce man power
To increase the efficiency of the plant
To reduce the work load
To reduce the production cost
To reduce the production time
To reduce the material handling
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To reduce the fatigue of workers


To achieve good product quality
Less maintenance

CHAPTER-4
BASIC MOTOR THEORY

Introduction
It has been said that if the Ancient Romans, with their advanced civilization
and knowledge of the sciences, had been able to develop a steam motor, the course of
history would have been much different. The development of the electric motor in
modern times has indicated the truth in this theory. The development of the electric
motor has given us the most efficient and effective means to do work known to man.
Because of the electric motor we have been able to greatly reduce the painstaking toil
of man's survival and have been able to build a civilization which is now reaching to
the stars. The electric motor is a simple device in principle. It converts electric energy
into mechanical energy. Over the years, electric motors have changed substantially in
design, however the basic principles have remained the same. In this section of the
Action Guide we will discuss these basic motor principles. We will discuss the
phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation.
Magnetism
Now, before we discuss basic motor operation a short review of magnetism
might be helpful to many of us. We all know that a permanent magnet will attract and
hold metal objects when the object is near or in contact with the magnet. The
permanent magnet is able to do this because of its inherent magnetic force which is
referred to as a "magnetic field". In Figure 1 , the magnetic field of two permanent
magnets are represented by "lines of flux". These lines of flux help us to visualize the
magnetic field of any magnet even though they only represent an invisible
phenomena. The number of lines of flux vary from one magnetic field to another. The
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stronger the magnetic field, the greater the number of lines of flux which are drawn to
represent the magnetic field. The lines of flux are drawn with a direction indicated
since we should visualize these lines and the magnetic field they represent as having a
distinct movement from a N-pole to a S-pole as shown in Figure 1. Another but
similar type of magnetic field is produced around an electrical conductor when an
electric current is passed through the conductor as shown in Figure 2-a. These lines of
flux define the magnetic field and are in the form of concentric circles around the
wire. Some of you may remember the old "Left Hand Rule" as shown in Figure 2-b.
The rule states that if you point the thumb of your left hand in the direction of the
current, your fingers will point in the direction of the magnetic field.

Figure 1 - The lines of flux of a magnetic field travel from the N-pole to the S-pole.

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Figure 2 - The flow of electrical current in a conductor sets up concentric lines of


magnetic flux around the conductor.

Figure 3 - The magnetic lines around a current carrying conductor leave from the Npole and re-enter at the S-pole.
When the wire is shaped into a coil as shown in Figure 3, all the individual flux
lines produced by each section of wire join together to form one large magnetic field
around the total coil. As with the permanent magnet, these flux lines leave the north of
the coil and re-enter the coil at its south pole. The magnetic field of a wire coil is
much greater and more localized than the magnetic field around the plain conductor
before being formed into a coil. This magnetic field around the coil can be
strengthened even more by placing a core of iron or similar metal in the center of the
core. The metal core presents less resistance to the lines of flux than the air, thereby
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causing the field strength to increase. (This is exactly how a stator coil is made; a coil
of wire with a steel core.) The advantage of a magnetic field which is produced by a
current carrying coil of wire is that when the current is reversed in direction the poles
of the magnetic field will switch positions since the lines of flux have changed
direction. This phenomenon is illustrated in Figure 4. Without this magnetic
phenomenon existing, the AC motor as we know it today would not exist.

Figure 4 - The poles of an electro-magnetic coil change when the direction of current
flow changes.
Magnetic Propulsion within a Motor

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Figure 5 Magnetic Propulsion within a Motor


The basic principle of all motors can easily be shown using two electromagnets
and a permanent magnet. Current is passed through coil no. 1 in such a direction that a
north pole is established and through coil no. 2 in such a direction that a south pole is
established. A permanent magnet with a north and south pole is the moving part of this
simple motor. In Figure 5-a the north pole of the permanent magnet is opposite the
north pole of the electromagnet. Similarly, the south poles are opposite each other.
Like magnetic poles repel each other, causing the movable permanent magnet to begin
to turn. After it turns part way around, the force of attraction between the unlike poles
becomes strong enough to keep the permanent magnet rotating. The rotating magnet
continues to turn until the unlike poles are lined up. At this point the rotor would
normally stop because of the attraction between the unlike poles. (Figure 5-b)
If, however, the direction of currents in the electromagnetic coils was suddenly
reversed, thereby reversing the polarity of the two coils, then the poles would again be
opposites and repel each other. (Figure 5-c). The movable permanent magnet would
then continue to rotate. If the current direction in the electromagnetic coils was
changed every time the magnet turned 180 degrees or halfway around,then the magnet
would continue to rotate. This simple device is a motor in its simplest form. An actual
motor is more complex than the simple device shown above, but the principle is the
same.
AC Current
How the current is reversed in the coil so as to change the coils polarity, you
ask. Well, as you probably know, the difference between DC and AC is that with DC
the current flows in only one direction while with AC the direction of current flow
changes periodically. In the case of common AC that is used throughout most of the
United States, the current flow changes direction 120 times every second. This current
is referred to as "60 cycle AC" or "60 Hertz AC" in honor of Mr. Hertz who first
conceived the AC current concept. Another characteristic of current flow is that it can
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vary in quantity. We can have a 5 amp, 10 amp or 100 amp flow for instance. With
pure DC, this means that the current flow is actually 5,10, or 100 amps on a
continuous basis. We can visualize this on a simple time-current graph by a straight
line as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6 - Visualization of DC
But with AC it is different. As you can well imagine, it would be rather difficult for
the current to be flowing at say 100 amps in a positive direction one moment and then
at the next moment be flowing at an equal intensity in the negative direction. Instead,
as the current is getting ready to change directions, it first tapers off until it reaches
zero flow and then gradually builds up in the other direction. See Figure 7. Note that
the maximum current flow (the peaks of the line) in each direction is more than the
specified value (100 amps in this case). Therefore, the specified value is given as an
average. It is actually called a "root mean square" value, but don't worry about
remembering this because it is of no importance to us at this time. What is important
in our study of motors, is to realize that the strength of the magnetic field produced by
an AC electro-magnetic coil increases and decreases with the increase and decrease of
this alternating current flow.
Basic AC Motor Operation
An AC motor has two basic electrical parts: a "stator" and a "rotor" as shown in
Figure 8. The stator is in the stationary electrical component. It consists of a group of
individual electro-magnets arranged in such a way that they form a hollow cylinder,
with one pole of each magnet facing toward the center of the group. The term, "stator"
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is derived from the word stationary. The stator then is the stationary part of the motor.
The rotor is the rotating electrical component. It also consists of a group of electromagnets arranged around a cylinder, with the poles facing toward the stator poles.

Figure 7 - Visualization of AC.


The rotor, obviously, is located inside the stator and is mounted on the motor's
shaft. The term "rotor" is derived from the word rotating. The rotor then is the rotating
part of the motor. The objective of these motor components is to make the rotor rotate
which in turn will rotate the motor shaft. This rotation will occur because of the
previously discussed magnetic phenomenon that unlike magnetic poles attract each
other and like poles repel. If we progressively change the polarity of the stator poles in
such a way that their combined magnetic field rotates, then the rotor will follow and
rotate with the magnetic field of the stator.

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Figure 8 - Basic electrical components of an AC motor.


This "rotating magnetic fields of the stator can be better understood by
examining Figure 9. As shown, the stator has six magnetic poles and the rotor has two
poles. At time 1, stator poles A-1 and C-2 are north poles and the opposite poles, A-2
and C-1, are south poles. The S-pole of the rotor is attracted by the two N-poles of the
stator and the N-pole of the rotor is attracted by the two south poles of the stator. At
time 2, the polarity of the stator poles is changed so that now C-2 and B-1 and N-poles
and C-1 and B-2 are S-poles. The rotor then is forced to rotate 60 degrees to line up
with the stator poles as shown. At time 3, B-1 and A-2 are N. At time 4, A-2 and C-1
are N. As each change is made, the poles of the rotor are attracted by the opposite
poles on the stator. Thus, as the magnetic field of the stator rotates, the rotor is forced
to rotate with it.

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Figure 9 - The rotating magnetic field of an AC motor.


One way to produce a rotating magnetic field in the stator of an AC motor is to
use a three-phase power supply for the stator coils. What, you may ask, is three-phase
power? The answer to that question can be better understood if we first examine
single-phase power. Figure 7 is the visualization of single-phase power. The
associated AC generator is producing just one flow of electrical current whose
direction and intensity varies as indicated by the single solid line on the graph. From
time 0 to time 3, current is flowing in the conductor in the positive direction. From
time 3 to time 6, current is flowing in the negative. At any one time, the current is only
flowing in one direction. But some generators produce three separate current flows
(phases) all superimposed on the same circuit. This is referred to as three-phase power.
At any one instant, however, the direction and intensity of each separate current flow
are not the same as the other phases. This is illustrated in Figure 10. The three separate
phases (current flows) are labeled A, B and C. At time 1, phase A is at zero amps,
phase B is near its maximum amperage and flowing in the positive direction, and
phase C is near to its maximum amperage but flowing in the negative direction. At
time 2, the amperage of phase A is increasing and flow is positive, the amperage of
phase B is decreasing and its flow is still negative, and phase C has dropped to zero
amps. A complete cycle (from zero to maximum in one direction, to zero and to
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maximum in the other direction, and back to zero) takes one complete revolution of
the generator. Therefore, a complete cycle, is said to have 360 electrical degrees. In
examining Figure 10, we see that each phase is displaced 120 degrees from the other
two phases. Therefore, we say they are 120 degrees out of phase.

Figure 10 - The pattern of the separate phases of three-phase power.


To produce a rotating magnetic field in the stator of a three-phase AC motor, all
that needs to be done is wind the stator coils properly and connect the power supply
leads correctly. The connection for a 6 pole stator is shown in Figure 11. Each phase
of the three-phase power supply is connected to opposite poles and the associated
coils are wound in the same direction. As you will recall from Figure 4, the polarity of
the poles of an electro-magnet are determined by the direction of the current flow
through the coil. Therefore, if two opposite stator electro-magnets are wound in the
same direction, the polarity of the facing poles must be opposite. Therefore, when pole
A1 is N, pole A2 is S. When pole B1 is N, B2 is S and so forth.

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Figure 11 - Method of connecting three-phase power to a six-pole stator.

Figure 12 shows how the rotating magnetic field is produced. At time1, the
current flow in the phase "A" poles is positive and pole A-1 is N. The current flow in
the phase "C" poles is negative, making C-2 a N-pole and C-1 is S. There is no current
flow in phase "B", so these poles are not magnetized. At time 2, the phases have
shifted 60 degrees, making poles C-2 and B-1 both N and C-1 and B-2 both S. Thus,
as the phases shift their current flow, the resultant N and S poles move clockwise
around the stator, producing a rotating magnetic field. The rotor acts like a bar
magnet, being pulled along by the rotating magnetic field.

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Figure 12 - How three-phase power produces a rotating magnetic field.


Up to this point not much has been said about the rotor. In the previous
examples, it has been assumed the rotor poles were wound with coils, just as the stator
poles, and supplied with DC to create fixed polarity poles. This, by the way, is exactly
how a synchronous AC motor works. However, most AC motors being used today are
not synchronous motors. Instead, so-called "induction" motors are the workhorses of
industry. So how is an induction motor different? The big difference is the manner in
which current is supplied to the rotor.

Figure 13 - Construction of an AC induction motor's rotor.

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This is no external power supply. As you might imagine from the motor's name,
an induction technique is used instead. Induction is another characteristic of
magnetism. It is a natural phenomena which occurs when a conductor (aluminum bars
in the case of a rotor, see Figure 13) is moved through an existing magnetic field or
when a magnetic field is moved past a conductor. In either case, the relative motion of
the two causes an electric current to flow in the conductor. This is referred to as
"induced" current flow. In other words, in an induction motor the current flow in the
rotor is not caused by any direct connection of the conductors to a voltage source, but
rather by the influence of the rotor conductors cutting across the lines of flux produced
by the stator magnetic fields. The induced current which is produced in the rotor
results in a magnetic field around the rotor conductors as shown in Figure 14. This
magnetic field around each rotor conductor will cause each rotor conductor to act like
the permanent magnet in the Figure 9 example. As the magnetic field of the stator
rotates, due to the effect of the three-phase AC power supply, the induced magnetic
field of the rotor will be attracted and will follow the rotation. The rotor is connected
to the motor shaft, so the shaft will rotate and drive the connection load. That's how a
motor works! Simple, was it not?

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Figure 14 - How voltage is induced in the rotor, resulting in current flow in the rotor
conductors.

CHAPTER-5
POWER SUPPLY UNIT

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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Description
AC power is easily in bulk from through different methods, but generally for
many power control circuits and other industrial application DC power is very much
required. Hence AC power necessarily has to be converted into DC power by means
of electronic rectifier, which is simpler, cheaper, and highly efficient compared to
rotary converters or DC generators.
The rectifier is a circuit, which converts AC Voltage and currents into
pulsating DC voltages and currents. It consists of DC components and the unwanted
ac ripple or harmonic components, which can be removed by using filter circuit. Thus
the output obtained will be steady DC voltage and magnitude of DC voltage can be
varied by varying the magnitude of AC Voltage.
Rectifiers are grouped into two categories depending on the period of
conduction. (a) Half Wave Rectifier

(b) Full Wave Rectifier.

In this power supply unit we are using Full-Wave Rectifier.


Full-Wave Rectifier
A full wave rectifier is one which converts AC voltage into a pulsating DC
voltage using both half-cycles of the applied input voltage. It typically uses two
diodes, one of which conducts and provides output during one half-cycle (i.e.,
positive/negative) and other diode conducts during the other half-cycle i.e.
negative/positive).
Filters
It is a circuit, which removes, ripples (unwanted ac components) present in the
pulsating dc voltage.

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Regulator
It is a circuit which maintains the terminal voltage as constant even if the input
voltage varies or load current varying.
Full wave rectifier rectifies the full cycle in the waveform i.e. it rectifies both the
positive and negative cycles in the waveform. We have already seen the
characteristics and working of Half Wave Rectifier. This Full wave rectifier has an
advantage over the half wave i.e. it has average output higher than that of half wave
rectifier. The number of AC components in the output is less than that of the input.
The full wave rectifier can be further divided mainly into following types.
1. Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier
2. Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier:
Center tap is the contact made at the middle of the winding of the transformer.

Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram


In the center tapped full wave rectifier two diodes were used. These are connected to
the center tapped secondary winding of the transformer. Above circuit diagram shows
the center tapped full wave rectifier. It has two diodes. The positive terminal of two

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diodes is connected to the two ends of the transformer. Center tap divides the total
secondary voltage into equal parts.
Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier Working:
The primary winding of the center tap transformer is applied with the Ac
voltage. Thus the two diodes connected to the secondary of the transformer conducts
alternatively. For the positive half cycle of the input diode D1 is connected to the
positive terminal and D2 is connected to the negative terminal. Thus diode D1 is in
forward bias and the diode D2 is reverse biased. Only diode D1 starts conducting and
thus current flows from diode and it appears across the load RL. So positive cycle of
the input is appeared at the load.
During the negative half cycle the diode D2 is applied with the positive cycle.
D2 starts conducting as it is in forward bias. The diode D1 is in reverse bias and this
does not conduct. Thus current flows from diode D2 and hence negative cycle is also
rectified, it appears at the load resistor RL.
By comparing the current flow through load resistance in the positive and
negative half cycles, it can be concluded that the direction of the current flow is same.
Thus the frequency of rectified output voltage is two times the input frequency. The
output that is rectified is not pure, it consists of a dc component and a lot of ac
components of very low amplitudes.
Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of Centre Tap Full Wave Rectifier:
PIV is defined as the maximum possible voltage across a diode during its
reverse bias. During the first half that is positive half of the input, the diode D1 is
forward bias and thus conducts providing no resistance at all. Thus, the total voltage
Vs appears in the upper-half of the ac supply, provided to the load resistance R.
Similarly, in the case of diode D2 for the lower half of the transformer total secondary
voltage developed appears at the load. The amount of voltage that drops across the
two diodes in reverse bias is given as
PIV of D2 = Vm + Vm = 2Vm
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PIV of D1 = 2Vm
Vm is the voltage developed across upper and lower halves.
Peak Current:
The peak current is the instantaneous value of the voltage applied to the rectifier. It
can be written as
Vs = Vsm Sinwt
Let us assume that the diode has a forward resistance of RF ohms and a reverse
resistance is equal to infinity, thus current flowing through the load resistance RL is
given as
Im = Vsm / (RF + RL)
Output Current:
Since the current is same through the load resistance RL in the two halves of
the ac cycle, magnitude of dc current Idc, which is equal to the average value of ac
current, can be obtained by integrating the current i1 between 0 and pi or current i2
between pi and 2pi.

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Transformer Utilization Factor:


This can be calculated by considering primary and secondary windings
separately. Its value is 0.693.This can be used to determine transformer secondary
rating.

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INPUT AND OUTPUT WAVEFORM OF FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

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CHAPTER-6
COMPONENT DETAILS

6.1 12V DC GEARED MOTOR:

Description:
The 12V DC Geared Motor can be used in variety of robotics applications and
is available with wide range of 10 RPM.
Specification:

Length: 80mm

Torque: 1.5 kg.cm

Shaft Diameter: 6mm

Weight: 130.00g

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6.2 RESISTOR

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A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component having a resistance (R) that


produces a voltage (V) across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current
(I) flowing through it in accordance with Ohm's law:
V = IR
Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are
ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various
compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy,
such as nickel-chrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the
tolerance, the maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics
include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical
resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted
current, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined
by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Resistors can be integrated into
hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads
(or terminals), are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large
enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.

RESISTOR VALUE IDENTIFICATION:


(Color coding method)

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The color code chart is applicable to most of the common four band and five
band resistors. Five band resistors are usually precision resistors with tolerances of 1%
and 2%. Most of the four band resistors have tolerances of 5%, 10% and 20%.

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The color codes of a resistor are read from left to right, with the tolerance band
oriented to the right side. Match the color of the first band to its associated number
under the digit column in the color chart. This is the first digit of the resistance value.
Match the second band to its associated color under the digit column in the color chart
to get the second digit of the resistance value. Match the color band preceding the
tolerance band (last band) to its associated number under the multiplier column on the
chart. This number is the multiplier for the quantity previously indicated by the first
two digits (four band resistor) or the first three digits (five band resistor) and is used to
determine the total marked value of the resistor in ohms. To determine the resistor's
tolerance or possible variation in resistance from that indicated by the color bands,
match the color of the last band to its associated number under the tolerance column.
Multiply the total resistance value by this percentage.

6.3 CAPACITOR

A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive electronic component


consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a
potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops in
the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the
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conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance,


measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the
potential difference between them.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current
while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output
of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies
and for many other purposes. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation
between large areas of conductor; hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates",
referring to an early means of construction. In practice the dielectric between the
plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength
limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an
undesired inductance and resistance.

6.4 DIODE

In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts


electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor
diode, the most common type today. This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor
material connected to two electrical terminals. [1] A vacuum tube diode (now little
used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a
plate and a cathode. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric
current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction) while blocking
current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought
of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called
rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current, and to extract
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modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. However, diodes can have more
complicated behavior than this simple on-off action. This is due to their complex nonlinear electrical characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the construction of
their P-N junction. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many
different functions. For example, specialized diodes are used to regulate voltage
(Zener diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes), to
generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes), and to produce light (light
emitting diodes). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance, which makes them useful
in some types of circuits. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The
discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand
Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed
around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena. Today most diodes are
made of silicon, but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used.

DIODE 1N4001/7
FEATURES
Glass passivated
High maximum operating temperature
Low leakage current
Excellent stability
Available in ammo-pack.
DESCRIPTION
Rugged glass package, using a high temperature alloyed construction. This
package is hermetically sealed and fatigue free as coefficients of expansion of all used
parts is matched.

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6.5 TRANSISTOR

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic


signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three
terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair
of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of
terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the
controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today,
some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in
integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern
electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its
release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and
paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among
other things.
BC547/548 (NPN TRANSISTOR)

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Switching and Applications

High Voltage: BC546, VCEO=65V


Low Noise: BC549, BC550
Complement to BC556 ... BC560

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6.6 TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one


circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A
varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the
transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding.
This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage"
in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.
If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the
secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit
through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the
secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by
the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the
primary (Np) as follows:

BASIC PRINCIPLES
The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can
produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism), and, second that a changing magnetic
field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil
(electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the
magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the
secondary coil.
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An ideal transformer
An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Current passing through
the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are
wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most
of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils.
Induction law
The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law
of induction, which states that:

where Vs is the instantaneous voltage, Ns is the number of turns in the


secondary coil and is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of
the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of
the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant,
being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic
field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same
magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal
transformer,[29] the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals

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Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for
stepping up or stepping down the voltage

Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio, and is the primary functional characteristic of
any transformer. In the case of step-up transformers, this may sometimes be stated as
the reciprocal, Ns/Np. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or
ratio: for example, a transformer with primary and secondary windings of,
respectively, 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0.667 or
100:150.
Detailed operation
The simplified description above neglects several practical factors, in
particular, the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core, and
the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit.
Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance
with two windings of zero resistance. [32] When a voltage is applied to the primary
winding, a small current flows, driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. [32]
The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. Since the
ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance, the magnetizing current is
negligible, although still required, to create the magnetic field.
The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each
winding. Since the ideal windings have no impedance, they have no associated voltage
drop, and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer, are
equal to the corresponding EMFs. The primary EMF, acting as it does in opposition to
the primary voltage, is sometimes termed the "back EMF". [34] This is in accordance
with Lenz's law, which states that induction of EMF always opposes development of
any such change in magnetic field.

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Practical considerations: Leakage flux

The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary
winding links all the turns of every winding, including itself. In practice, some flux
traverses paths that take it outside the windings. [35] Such flux is termed leakage flux,
and results in leakage inductance in series with the mutually coupled transformer
windings. Leakage results in energy being alternately stored in and discharged from
the magnetic fields with each cycle of the power supply. It is not directly a power loss
(see "Stray losses" below), but results in inferior voltage regulation, causing the
secondary voltage to not be directly proportional to the primary voltage, particularly
under heavy load. Transformers are therefore normally designed to have very low
leakage inductance. Nevertheless, it is impossible to eliminate all leakage flux because
it plays an essential part in the operation of the transformer. The combined effect of
the leakage flux and the electric field around the windings is what transfers energy
from the primary to the secondary.
In some applications increased leakage is desired, and long magnetic paths, air
gaps, or magnetic bypass shunts may deliberately be introduced in a transformer
design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply. Leaky transformers may be used
to supply loads that exhibit negative resistance, such as electric arcs, mercury vapor
lamps, and neon signs or for safely handling loads that become periodically shortcircuited such as electric arc welders.

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Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially audiofrequency transformers in circuits that have a direct current component flowing
through the windings.
Leakage inductance is also helpful when transformers are operated in parallel.
It can be shown that if the "per-unit" inductance of two transformers is the same (a
typical value is 5%), they will automatically split power "correctly" (e.g. 500 kVA unit
in parallel with 1,000 kVA unit, the larger one will carry twice the current).
Effect of frequency
The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the flux in the core is the
integral with respect to time of the applied voltage. Hypothetically an ideal
transformer would work with direct-current excitation, with the core flux increasing
linearly with time. In practice, the flux rises to the point where magnetic saturation of
the core occurs, causing a large increase in the magnetizing current and overheating
the transformer. All practical transformers must therefore operate with alternating (or
pulsed direct) current.
The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. By
operating at higher frequencies, transformers can be physically more compact because
a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and fewer
turns are needed to achieve the same impedance. However, properties such as core
loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency. Aircraft and military
equipment employ 400 Hz power supplies which reduce core and winding weight.
Conversely, frequencies used for some railway electrification systems were much
lower (e.g. 16.7 Hz and 25 Hz) than normal utility frequencies (50 60 Hz) for
historical reasons concerned mainly with the limitations of early electric traction
motors. As such, the transformers used to step down the high over-head line voltages
(e.g. 15 kV) were much heavier for the same power rating than those designed only
for the higher frequencies.

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Operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency


than intended will lead to reduced magnetizing current. At a lower frequency, the
magnetizing current will increase. Operation of a transformer at other than its design
frequency may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to establish if safe
operation is practical. For example, transformers may need to be equipped with "volts
per hertz" over-excitation relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher
than rated frequency.
One example of state-of-the-art design is transformers used for electric multiple
unit high speed trains, particularly those required to operate across the borders of
countries using different electrical standards. The position of such transformers is
restricted to being hung below the passenger compartment. They have to function at
different frequencies (down to 16.7 Hz) and voltages (up to 25 kV) whilst handling
the enhanced power requirements needed for operating the trains at high speed.
Knowledge of natural frequencies of transformer windings is necessary for the
determination of winding transient response and switching surge voltages.
Energy losses
An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be 100%
efficient. In practical transformers, energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and
surrounding structures. Larger transformers are generally more efficient, and those
rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. Experimental
transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99.85%. The
increase in efficiency can save considerable energy, and hence money, in a large
heavily loaded transformer; the trade-off is in the additional initial and running cost of
the superconducting design.
Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current,
and may be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss. Winding resistance dominates
load losses, whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the
no-load loss. The no-load loss can be significant, so that even an idle transformer
constitutes a drain on the electrical supply and a running cost. Designing transformers
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for lower loss requires a larger core, good-quality silicon steel, or even amorphous
steel for the core and thicker wire, increasing initial cost so that there is a trade-off
between initial costs and running cost (also see energy efficient transformer).
Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss, and
those in the magnetic circuit, termed iron loss. Losses in the transformer arise from:
Winding resistance
Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the
conductors. At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create
additional winding resistance and losses.
Hysteresis losses
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due
to hysteresis within the core. For a given core material, the loss is proportional
to the frequency, and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is
subjected.
Eddy currents
Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors and a core made from such a
material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire
length. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to
the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. The eddy
current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and
inverse square of the material thickness. [44] Eddy current losses can be reduced
by making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other,
rather than a solid block; all transformers operating at low frequencies use
laminated or similar cores.

Magnetostriction
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Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material, such as the core, causes it to


physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field,
an effect known as magnetostriction. This produces the buzzing sound
commonly associated with transformers that can cause losses due to frictional
heating. This buzzing is particularly familiar from low-frequency (50 Hz or 60
Hz) mains hum, and high-frequency (15,734 Hz (NTSC) or 15,625 Hz (PAL))
CRT noise.
Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes
fluctuating forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite
vibrations within nearby metalwork, adding to the buzzing noise and
consuming a small amount of power.[45]
Stray losses
Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless, since energy supplied to its
magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However, any
leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the
transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted
to heat. There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field but
these are usually small.
Equivalent circuit
The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought together
as an equivalent circuit model (shown below) built around an ideal lossless
transformer.[47] Power loss in the windings is current-dependent and is represented as
in-series resistances Rp and Rs. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage
dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling, and thus can be modeled as
reactances of each leakage inductance Xp and Xs in series with the perfectly coupled
region.

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Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core,
and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency.
Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage, the iron loss can be
represented by a resistance RC in parallel with the ideal transformer.
A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current Im to maintain
the mutual flux in the core. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux.
Saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear, but for
simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. With a sinusoidal
supply, the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90 and this effect can be modeled as a
magnetizing reactance (reactance of an effective inductance) Xm in parallel with the
core loss component. Rc and Xm are sometimes together termed the magnetizing
branch of the model. If the secondary winding is made open-circuit, the current I0
taken by the magnetizing branch represents the transformer's no-load current.
The secondary impedance Rs and Xs is frequently moved (or "referred") to the
primary side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor
(Np/Ns)2.

The resulting model is sometimes termed the "exact equivalent circuit", though
it retains a number of approximations, such as an assumption of linearity. Analysis
may be simplified by moving the magnetizing branch to the left of the primary
impedance, an implicit assumption that the magnetizing current is low, and then
summing primary and referred secondary impedances, resulting in so-called
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equivalent impedance. The parameters of equivalent circuit of a transformer can be


calculated from the results of two transformer tests: open-circuit test and short-circuit
test.
Applications
A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting
electrical energy over long distances through wires. Wires have resistance and so
dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through
the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore lowcurrent) form for transmission and back again afterward, transformers enable
economical transmission of power over long distances. Consequently, transformers
have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located
remotely from points of demand. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power
has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer.
Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the
supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. The
transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply
voltage. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to
match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers.
Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation
over a single pair of wires. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to
ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground, such as between external
cables and internal circuits.
The principle of open-circuit (unloaded) transformer is widely used for
characterization of soft magnetic materials, for example in the internationally
standardized Epstein frame method.

CHAPTER-7
DIMENSION, COST ESTIMATION AND CONCLUSION
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7.1 DIMENSION:

7.2 COST ESTIMATION

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S. No

Particulars

Designing

Rs. 1800.00

Other Components

Rs. 3000.00

Project Report Expenses

Rs. 1000.00

Traveling Expenses

Rs. 500.00

Miscellaneous

Rs. 700.00

TOTAL

Cost

Rs. 7000.00

7.3 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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[1]. Design data book- P.S.G. Tech.


[2]. Pneumatic hand book- R.H.Warrning i. Machine tool design hand book Central
machine tool Institute, ii. Bangalore.
[3]. Strength of materials- R.S.Kurmi
[4]. Manufacturing Technology- M.Haslehurst

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