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Design of Structural

Steel Joints
Dr. Klaus Weynand
Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Prof. Jean-Pierre Jaspart


University of Lige, Belgium

Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools

Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

EN 1993 Part 1.8


Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Basis of design
Chapter 3 Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins
Chapter 4 Welded connections
Chapter 5 Analysis, classification and modelling
Chapter 6 Structural joints connecting H or I sections
Chapter 7 Hollow section joints

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Design of simple joints


ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)
Background information
Design guidelines

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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2 Basis of design Partial safety coefficients

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

3 Connections made mechanical fasteners

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

4 Welded connections

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Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction

Integration of joints into


structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints
Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Actual joint response

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Actual joint response

M
M Rd
S j,ini

cd

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Influence on the structural response


Displacements
Internal forces
Failure mode and failure load

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Four successive steps for structural integration


M

?
?

Characterization

Classification
M

Modelling

Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization
Search for a unified approach whatever the material

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Various configurations (1)


Continuity

Beam-to-beam

Column bases

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Various configurations (2)


Joints in portal frames

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Various configurations (3)


Connections and joints in
composite construction

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Various cross-section shapes (1)


Hot-rolled and
cold-formed

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Various cross-section shapes (2)


Built-up profiles

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Various connection elements


End plates

Cleats

Splices

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Economy
Reduced fabrication, transportation and erection costs

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Specific design criteria


Robustness
Joints as key elements

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Characterization (1)
Search for a unified approach

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Characterization (2)
Eurocode 3 Part 1-8
Beam-to-beam joints, splices, beam-to-column joints and column
bases:
welded connections
bolted connections (anchors for column bases)

Background: COMPONENT METHOD

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Characterization (3) - component method


column web
in shear

Three steps

column web
in compression

column web
in tension

First step
Identification of the
active components
F

Second step:
Response of the
components

E k1

M j ,Rd min Fi ,Rd z

Assembly of the
components

E k3

E k2

Third step:

F3,Rd

F2,Rd

F1,Rd

Mj,Rd

S j ,ini
Sj,ini
cd

E z2

1
k
i

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Characterization (4) - component method


EC3 Part 1-8 provides therefore:
a library of components
rules for the evaluation of the properties of the components
(stiffness, resistance, deformation capacity)
rules for the evaluation of the possible component interactions
assembly rules for components
Applicable for simple joint and moment resistant joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Characterization (4) Hollow section joints


Different approach for lattice girder joints
For many types of joint configurations:
Joints considered as a whole
Check of relevant failure modes
Scope of application to be checked

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Four successive steps for structural integration


M

?
?

Characterization

Classification
M

Modelling

Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Classification (1)

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Mj

Rigid
Rigid

Stiffness

Semi-rigid
Semi-rigid
Sj,ini
Pinned
Pinned

Classification
stiffness
for boundaries
Boundaries
Initialinitial
joint stiffness
stiffness
Joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Classification (2)

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Mj

Full resistance
Full-strength

Resistance

Mj,Rd
Partial-strength
Partial resistance

Pinned
Pinned

Boundaries for
strength
Classification
boundaries
Joint
Jointresistance
strength

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Classification (3)
Ductility
Brittle
Semi-ductile
Ductile

Mj

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Four successive steps for structural integration


M

?
?

Characterization

Classification
M

Modelling

Idealization

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Modelling
JOINT
MODELLING

SIMPLE

SEMICONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS
MAJOR AXIS BENDING

BEAM
SPLICES

COLUMN
BASES

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Four successive steps for structural integration


M

?
?

Characterization

Classification
M

Modelling

Idealization

Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process

Moment resistant joints


Simple joints
Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Example
Single sided beam-to-column joint configuration, bolted end-plate connection
4 M16 8.8
w=
30 80 30
p=60

u=10

+
140

M 0 1,0
M 1 1,0

3
240

120
60

15

M
IPE220

+ 10

HEB140
Material: S 235

To be evaluated:
Design moment resistance , initial stiffness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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General data

Equivalent T-stub in tension


Ft

Column
hwc hc 2t fc 2rc 140 2 12 2 12 92mm

Ft /4

Avc Ac 2bc t fc twc 2rc


Ft 2/4
4295,6 2 140 12 7 2 12 12 1307,6mm

w t fc
2

0,8 rc

80 7
0,812 26,9mm
2

bc w 140 80

30mm
2
2

m pl , fc 0, 25

t 2fc f yc

M0

122 235
0, 25
8460 Nmm / mm
1,0

Ft /4

Ft /4

m
l eff

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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General data
Beam

4 M16 8.8
w=
30 80 30
p=60

u=10

Lever arm
z hb u

3
240

120
60

+ 10

140

t fb
2

p 220 10

M c ,Rd (classe 1 section)

9, 2
60 165, 4 mm
2

W pl , yb f yb

M0

15

285.406 235106

67,07 kNm
1,0

z
IPE220
5

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General data
End plate
mp

mp2

w twb
80 5,9
0,8 2aw
0,8 2 3 33,66mm
2
2

mp 2 p u t fb 0,8 2a f 60 10 9,2 0,8 2 5 35,14mm

ep

bp w 140 80

30mm
2
2

m pl , p 0, 25

t 2p f yp

M0

152 235
0, 25
13.218 Nmm / mm
1,0

mp

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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General data
End plate
Alpha factor for effective lengths

mp
mp ep
mp2
mp ep

33,66
0,53
33,66 30

35,14
0,55
33,66 30

5,5

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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General data
Bolts

Ft ,Rd

0,9 fub As

Mb

0,9 800 157 103

90, 43kN
1, 25

Fv ,Rd (shear plane in thread)

0,6 fub As

Mb

Lb t fc t p 0,5 hbolt hnut 12 15

0,6 800 157 103

60,3kN
1.25

1
10 14,8 2 4 47, 4mm
2

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 1 Column web in shear


Resistance
0,9 Avc f y ,cw 0,9 1307,6 235 103
Vwc ,Rd

159,7 kN
3 M 0
3 1,0

F
Vwp

Transformation parameter

Assumption : 1

z
Vwp

FRd ,1

Vwc ,Rd 159,7

159,7 kN

F
Stiffness coefficient
k1

0,38 Avc 0,381307,6

3,004mm
h
1165, 4

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 2 Column web in compression


Resistance
beff ,c ,wc min t fb 2a f 2 2t p 5 t fc s ; t fb a f 2 t p u 5 t fc s
min 9, 2 2 5 2 2 15 5 12 12 ; 9, 2 5 2 15 10 5 12 12 161, 27 mm

Reduction factors to account for compression stresses and instability


Assumption : kwc min 1,0; 1,7 com ,Ed / f y ,wc 1,0

p 0,932
1

beff ,c ,wc d c f y ,wc


Et

0,932

wc

11,3 beff ,c ,wc twc / Avc

161, 27 92 235
0,543 0,673 1,0
210000 7 7

1
11,3 161, 27 7 1307,6

0,713

FRd ,2 kwc beff ,c ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 1 1 0,713 1161,27 7 23510 3 1,0 189,1kN

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 2 Column web in compression

Stiffness coefficient

k2

0,7 beff ,c ,wc twc


hwc

0,7 161, 27 7
8,589mm
92

Fi ki E

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 3 Column web in tension


Resistance
beff ,t ,wc min 2 m ;4m 1, 25e min 2 26,9;4 26,9 1, 25 30 145,10 mm

11,3 beff ,t ,wc twc / Avc

1
11,3 145,1 7 1307,6

0,749

FRd ,3 beff ,t ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 0 0,749 145,1 7 235103 1,0 178,7 kN

Stiffness coefficient
k3

0,7 beff ,t ,wc twc


hwc

0,7 145,1 7
7,728mm
92

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Component No 5 End plate in bending
Equivalent T-stub in tension
Ft
Ft /4

Ft /4

Ft /4
Ft /4

m
l eff

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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T-stub Effective length


Distinction between circular and non-circular yield line patterns

Circular patterns

Non-circular patterns

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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T-stub Effective length


Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 1
Row 2
Row 3

Group 1+2

Group 2+3

Group 1+2+3

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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T-stub Effective length


Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 3

FRd ,3 min ( FRd ,3,indiv ; FRd ,3, group )

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Bolt rows considered


In this example: only bolt row 1 is considered for tension forces

4 M16 8.8
w=
30 80 30
p=60

60

u=10

3
240

120

+
140

15

+ 10

Row 1

M
IPE220
5

Row 2
HEB140

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Resistance
leff ,t , fc beff ,t ,wc 145,1mm (see column web in tension)

n min e ;1, 25m ; bp w / 2 min 30;1, 25 26,9;30 30mm

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Mode 1 - Complete yielding of the flange
Ffc ,Rd ,t1

4leff ,t , fc m pl , fc
m

4 145,1 8460
103 182,5kN
26,9

Mode 2 - Bolt failure with yielding of the flange


2 leff ,t , fc m pl , fc 2 Bt ,Rd n 2 145,1 8460 2 90, 4 103 30
Ffc ,Rd ,t 2

103 138,5kN
mn
26,9 30

Mode 3 - Bolt failure


Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Component No 4 Column flange in bending


Resistance
FRd ,4 min Ffc ,Rd ,t1 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 138,5kN

Stiffness coefficient
k4

0,9 leff , fc ,t t 3fc


m3

0,9 145,1123

11,59mm
26,93

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 5 End plate in bending


Resistance
leff ,t , p min 2 m p ; m p min 2 33,66; 5,5 33,66 185 mm
n p min e p ;1, 25m p ; e min 30;1, 25 33,66;30 30mm

Mode 1:

Mode 2:

Fep ,Rd ,1

Fep ,Rd ,2

4leff ,t , p m pl , p
mp

4 18513.218
103 291kN
33,66

2 leff , p ,t m pl , p 2 Bt ,Rd n p
mp np

2 18513.218 2 90, 43 103 30

103 162,1kN
33,66 30

FRd ,5 min Fep ,Rd ,1 ; Fep ,Rd ,2 ; Fep ,Rd ,3 162,1kN

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Component No 5 End plate in bending

Stiffness coefficient
k5

0,9 leff ,t , p t 3p
m3p

0,9 185,0 153

14,73mm
33,663

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 7 Beam flange and web in compression


Resistance

FRd ,7 M c ,Rd / hb t fb

Stiffness coefficient
k7

67,07
318, 2kN
210,8103

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Component No 8 Beam web in tension


Resistance
beff ,t ,wb leff ,t , p 185mm

FRd ,8 beff ,t ,wb twb f yb / M 0 185 5,9 235 103 1,0 256,5kN

Stiffness coefficient
k8

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Component No 10 Bolts in tension


Resistance
FRd ,10 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN

Stiffness coefficient
k10 1,6

As
157
1,6
5,30mm
Lb
47, 4

Mode 3 in T-stubs for components:


column flange in bending
end plate in bending

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Design moment resistance


Relevant component
FRd min FRd ,i 138,5kN

M j,Rd

(Column flange in bending)

Design plastic moment resistance


M j ,Rd FRd z 138,5 165,4 103 22,91kNm

Design elastic moment resistance


2
M j ,el ,Rd M j ,Rd 15, 27 kNm
3

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Stiffness

Initial stiffness
210000 165, 42 106
S j ,ini E h / 1 ki
6234 kNm / rad
1
1
1
1
1
1
i

3,004 8,589 7,728 11,59 14,73 5,30


2

Secant stiffness
S j S j ,ini / 2 3117 kNm / rad

S j,ini

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Design moment-rotation characteristic


M
M j,Rd

Sj,ini

2/3Mj,Rd

Sj

Ersatzsteifigkeit:
Secant
stiffness

S j = S j,ini /

Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints

Simple joints
Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Nominally pinned joints

Braced frame

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Nominally pinned joints

V0

M=0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Design of simple joints


ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)
Background information
Design guidelines

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Nominally pinned joints :

Mj

Sj,ini <<

Rigid

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness


Initial stiffness of the joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Semi-rigid joints :

Mj

Rigid

Sj,ini
Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Limits for classification of joints by stiffness


Initial stiffness of the joint

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


As an alternative to a semi-continuous modelling (semi-rigid joints), is it safe to
model the joints as nominally pinned whilst they are actually semi-rigid?

??

Semi-rigid

Sj,ini > 0,5EIb/Lb

Partial strength

Mj,Rd > 0,25 Mfull-strength

Nominally pinned

Sj,ini = 0

Nominally pinned

Mj,Rd = 0

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Classification and modelling of joints


Yes, under the reservation the joint has:
a sufficient rotation capacity
= capacity to rotate
a sufficient ductility
= capacity to follow the actual
loading path in a ductile way

MRd

Yielding criterion
Actual loading
path
Supposed
loading path

V
VRd

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Supplementary design requirement


Sufficient resistance to catenary effects so as to provide required structural
robustness

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Example: Partial depth end-plate


Components

Bolts in shear
End-plate in bearing
End-plate in shear (gross section)
End-plate in shear (net section)
End-plate in shear block
End-plate in bending
Beam web in shear
Welds in shear
Column flange in bearing

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

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Partial depth end-plate


Strength requirement
Use of component method for the assessment of VRd

Assessment of the strength of all the constitutive


components of the joint
+
Assembly of these components

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Rotation capacity requirement
Bending moment

Bolts in tension
Bending
moment

Contact between
supported beam and
supporting element

Compression force

avail

Rotation

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Rotation capacity
requirement
avail

db hb

hp

hp db

avail

he

tp

tp
he

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Partial depth end-plate


Ductility requirement
Prevent premature fracture of the bolts
Prevent premature fracture of the welds
under unavoidable bending moment in the joint

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Brussels, 16 - 17 October 2014

Partial depth end-plate


Ductility requirements
Prevent premature collapse of the bolts
d
2,8
tp

f yp

d
2,8
tp

f ycf

fub

fub

for the end-plate

for the supporting column


d and fub : diameter and tensile strength of bolts

Yielding of end-plate prior to tensile fracture of bolts

Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Introduction
Integration of joints into
structural design process
Moment resistant joints
Simple joints

Design tools

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Practical design tools


Tables of standardized joints

Dedicated software

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Worked Example

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Configuration
Beam IPE 500
Column HEA 340
End plate connection
Design assumption
Rigid joint
Frame analysis
MEd = 220 kNm

CoP software used for this example: http://cop.fw-ing.com

Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Design resistance:
Classification:
Failure mode:

MRd = 196 kNm < 220 kNm


Semi-rigid
Column web in compression

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Failure mode:
End plate in bending

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear

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Eurocodes - Design of steel buildings with worked examples

Failure mode:
Column web panel in shear

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Design of Structural
Steel Joints
Dr. Klaus Weynand
Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Prof. Jean-Pierre Jaspart


University of Lige, Belgium