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srgszeti Tanulmnyok / Prehistoric Studies

Moments in Time

srgszeti Tanulmnyok / Prehistoric Studies


Series Editors
Alexandra Anders, Gbor Kalla, Viktria Kiss,
Gabriella Kulcsr and Gbor V. Szab

Moments in Time
Papers Presented to Pl Raczky
on His 60th Birthday

Edited by
Alexandra Anders and Gabriella Kulcsr
with
Gbor Kalla, Viktria Kiss and Gbor V. Szab

srgszeti Trsasg / Prehistoric Society


Etvs Lornd University
LHarmattan
Budapest 2013

English and German text revised by


Lszl Bartosiewicz, Alice M. Choyke, Judith A. Rasson and Magdalna Seleanu (English)
Ulf Morche and va Pvai (German)

The publication of this volume was generously supported by


Etvs Lornd University, Faculty of Humanities
Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Eurasien-Abteilung
srgszeti Trsasg / Prehistoric Society
Nra 97 Kft.
Archeodata 1998 Bt.
satrs Kft.

The Authors, 2013


LHarmattan Kiad, 2013

ISBN 978-963-236-346-2
ISSN 2063-8930

Typography by
Zsolt Gembela
Cover design
Gbor Vczi and Zsolt Gembela
Printed in Hungary by Robinco Kft.
Director: Pter Kecskemthy

Contents
Editorial / A szerkesztk elszava...................................................................................................................14
Publications of Pl Raczky . ............................................................................................................................16
Walter Meier-Arendt
Pl Raczky zum 60. Geburtstag. Ein Vor- und Gruwort......................................................................... 27

The Early Neolithic The First Moments


Krum Bacvarov
Malak Preslavets Revisited: The Early Neolithic Burials...................................................................... 29
Eszter Bnffy
On Neolithic Frontiers in the Carpathian Basin................................................................................... 35
Paolo Biagi Elisabetta Starnini
Pre-Balkan Platform Flint in the Early Neolithic Sites
of the Carpathian Basin: Its Occurrence and Significance.................................................................. 47
Mihael Budja
Potters and Pots in the MesolithicNeolithic Transformation
in Southeastern Europe..............................................................................................................................61
Ivan Gatsov
Lithic Assemblages from the Area of the North-Western Pontic
from the 9th7th Millennia......................................................................................................................... 85

The Middle Neolithic The Time of the LBK


Piroska Csengeri
Figural Representations from the Initial Phase of the Alfld Linear
Pottery Culture from Novajidrny (Hernd Valley, Northeast Hungary).........................................91
Ferenc Horvth Florin Draovean
Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great
Hungarian Plain at the Beginning of the Middle Neolithic
(SatchinezAlfld Linear PotteryEsztrVina).................................................................................113
Gbor Ilon
The Transdanubian Linear Pottery Culture in County Vas:
Recent Finds and Findings.......................................................................................................................133
Eva Lenneis
Beobachtungen zu frhneolithischen Schlitzgruben...........................................................................147

Contents
Tibor Marton
LBK Households in Transdanubia: A Case Study............................................................................... 159
Zsolt Mester Jacques Tixier
Pot lames: The Neolithic Blade Depot from Boldogkvralja
(Northeast Hungary)................................................................................................................................173
Krisztin Oross
Regional Traits in the LBK Architecture of Transdanubia.................................................................187
Tibor Paluch
Maroslele-Panaht, Legel: Data to the Middle Neolithic
Anthropomorphic Vessel........................................................................................................................ 203
Juraj Pavk Zdenk Farka
Beitrag zur Gliederung der lteren Linearkeramik .............................................................................213
Jrg Petrasch
Standardisierung versus Individualitt?
Das Wesen der jungsteinzeitlichen Bestattungssitten......................................................................... 237
Katalin Sebk
Two Ceramic-Covered Burials from the Middle Neolithic
of the Carpathian Basin........................................................................................................................... 249
Peter Stadler Nadezdha Kotova
The Early LBK Site at Brunn am Gebirge, Wolfholz (56705100 BC):
Locally Established or Founded by Immigrants from the Starevo Territory?............................... 259
Gerhard Trnka
Ein bemerkenswerter Klingenkern aus Szentgl-Radiolarit
von Gro-Schollach im westlichen Niedersterreich ........................................................................ 277
Zsuzsanna M. Virg
On the Anthropomorphic Representations of TLPC in Connection
with Some Recent Finds from Budapest (Figurines and Vessels with Facial
Representations)....................................................................................................................................... 289

The Late Neolithic Polgr-Csszhalom and Its World


Judit P. Barna
A Miniature Anthropomorphic Vessel from the Early Lengyel Culture
Site at Sorms-Trk-fldek in Southwestern Hungary......................................................................311
John Chapman
From Varna to Brittany via Csszhalom Was There a Varna Effect? . .................................... 323
Alice M. Choyke Zsuzsanna Tth
Practice Makes Perfect: Quartered Metapodial Awls
in the Late Neolithic of Hungary........................................................................................................... 337

Contents
Magorzata Kaczanowska Janusz K. Kozowski
The Transition from the Neolithic to the Copper Age Lithic Industries
in the Northern Carpathian Basin......................................................................................................... 353
Nndor Kalicz
Siedlungsstruktur und Bestattungen mit Prestigeobjekten
des Fundplatzes Tp-Leb (sdliches Theigebiet, Ungarn)............................................................ 365
Katalin Kovcs
Late Neolithic Exchange Networks in the Carpathian Basin............................................................ 385
Kitti Khler
Ergebnisse der anthropologischen Untersuchungen zweier
sptneolithischer Bestattungen in Alsnyk........................................................................................ 401
Johannes Mller Robert Hofmann Nils Mller-Scheeel Knut Rassmann
Neolithische Arbeitsteilung: Spezialisierung in einem Tell um 4900 v. Chr................................... 407
Zsuzsanna Siklsi
Traces of Social Inequality and Ritual in the Late Neolithic
of the Great Hungarian Plain................................................................................................................. 421
Krisztina Somogyi Zsolt Gallina
Besonderes anthropomorphes Gef der Lengyel-Kultur mit doppelter
Gesichts- und Menschendarstellung in Alsnyk (SW-Ungarn)...................................................... 437
Alasdair Whittle
Enclosures in the Making: Knowledge, Creativity and Temporality................................................ 457
Istvn Zalai-Gal
Totenhaltung als Indikator relativer Chronologie
im transdanubischen Sptneolithikum?............................................................................................... 467

Neolithic Spiritual Life


Lszl Domborczki
Neolithic Cult Objects and Their Symbolism ..................................................................................... 487
Gheorghe Lazarovici Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici
Sacred house and Their Importance for the Reconstruction
of Architecture, Inner Furnishings and Spiritual Life........................................................................ 503

The Early Copper Age Between Change and Tradition


Attila Gyucha William A. Parkinson
Archaeological Cultures and the Study of Social Interaction:
The Emergence of the Early Copper Age Tiszapolgr Culture...........................................................521

Contents
Svend Hansen
Figurinen aus Stein und Bein in der sdosteuropischen Kupferzeit . ............................................ 539
Judit Regenye
Surviving Neolithic The Early Copper Age in Transdanubia,
North of Lake Balaton............................................................................................................................. 557
Wolfram Schier
An Antiquarians Grave? Early Tiszapolgr Burials
in the Late Vina Tell Site of Uivar (Romania) ................................................................................... 569

The Middle Copper Age Time of Axes


Attila Lszl Sndor Jzsef Sztncsuj
Vessels with Handles with Discoid Attachments Discovered
in the AriudCucuteni Area and Some Problems in the Development and
Chronology of the Ariud (Ersd) Culture in Southeastern Transylvania...................................... 579
Ildik Szathmri
Kupferhammeraxt mit Spuren eines Holzschaftrestes
vom Donauufer bei Szentendre ............................................................................................................. 595

From the Late Copper Age to the Beginning of the Bronze Age Transitions
Mria Bondr
Utilitarian, Artistic, Ritual or Prestige Articles? The Possible Function
of an Enigmatic Artefact ........................................................................................................................ 605
Szilvia Fbin
A Preliminary Analysis of Intrasite Patterns at Balatonkeresztr-Rti-dl,
a Late Copper Age Site on the Southern Shore of Lake Balaton in Hungary...................................613
Lszl Gyrgy
Late Copper Age Animal Burials in the Carpathian Basin .............................................................. 627
Gabriella Kulcsr
Glimpses of the Third Millenium BC in the Carpathian Basin ....................................................... 643
Vajk Szevernyi
The Earliest Copper Shaft-Hole Axes in the Carpathian Basin:
Interaction, Chronology and Transformations of Meaning ............................................................. 661

The Early Bronze Age The Rise of a New Age


Jnos Dani Viktria Kisjuhsz
Bestattungen der Mak-Kultur in Berettyjfalu, Nagy Bcs-dl................................................. 671

Contents
Anna Endrdi
Recent Data on the Settlement History and Contact System of the Bell
BeakerCsepel group............................................................................................................................... 693

The Middle Bronze Age Tells and Metals


Marietta Csnyi Judit Trnoki
A Dinner Set from a Bronze Age House
in Level 2 of the Trkeve-Terehalom Settlement................................................................................. 707
Klra P. Fischl Lszl Remnyi
Interpretation Possibilites of the Bronze Age Tell Sites
in the Carpathian Basin.......................................................................................................................... 725
Szilvia Honti Viktria Kiss
The Bronze Hoard from Zalaszabar. New Data on the Study
of the Tolnanmedi Horizon Part 2.................................................................................................... 739
Magdolna Vicze
Middle Bronze Age Households at Szzhalombatta-Fldvr............................................................. 757

The Late Bronze Age Rituals of Power


Judit Kos
Sptbronzezeitliche Grube mit besonderer Bestimmung
aus Oszlr-Nyrfaszg (Nordostungarn).............................................................................................. 771
Gbor V. Szab
Late Bronze Age Stolen. New Data on the Illegal Acquisition
and Trade of Bronze Age Artefacts in the Carpathian Basin............................................................ 793
Gbor Vczi
Burial of the Late TumulusEarly Urnfield Period
from the Vicinity of Nadap, Hungary....................................................................................................817

The Iron Age End of the (Pre)history


Istvn Fodor
A Scythian Mirror from Hajdnns, Hungary...................................................................................831
Mikls Szab
Livre celte de la puszta hongroise......................................................................................................... 839

Contents

Interdisciplinary Archaeology
Lszl Bartosiewicz Erika Gl Zsfia Eszter Kovcs
Domesticating Mathematics: Taxonomic Diversity
in Archaeozoological Assemblages........................................................................................................ 853
Katalin T. Bir
More on How Much?............................................................................................................................ 863
Zoltn Czajlik Andrs Bdcs
The Effectiveness of Aerial Archaeological Research
An Approach from the GIS Perspective................................................................................................ 873
Ferenc Gyulai
Archaeobotanical Research of the Neolithic Sites in the Polgr Area.............................................. 885
Pl Smegi Sndor Gulys Gerg Persaits
The Geoarchaeological Evolution of the Loess-Covered Alluvial Island
of Polgr and Its Role in Shaping Human Settlement Strategies....................................................... 901
Zsuzsanna K. Zoffmann
Significant Biostatistical Connections between Late Neolithic
Ethnic Groups from the Carpathian Basin and Bronze Age Populations
from Territories beyond the Carpathians..............................................................................................913

10

Remarks on the Connections between


the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain
at the Beginning of the Middle Neolithic
(SatchinezAlfld Linear PotteryEsztrVinca)
Ferenc Horvth
Florin Draovean

Mra Ferenc Museum


H-6720 Szeged, Roosevelt tr 13.
f_horvath@mfm.u-szeged.hu
Museum of Banat
Ro-300002 Timioara, Piaa Huniade 1
fdrasovean2000@yahoo.com

The Neolithic settlement on the outskirts of Satchinez in south-western Romania was discovered in 1987, during
the field survey conducted on the left bank of the Pmnt Alb Stream. The findings of the excavation begun in 1989
(Trench SI) were published in 1993. The investigation of the site was continued in 1990 by the excavation of another
area (Trench SII) whose finds are still unpublished.
The find assemblages unearthed during the 1989 campaign indicated a cultural fermentation in Phase A2 of the
Vina culture in the north-eastern Banat which affected the StarevoCri and Krs communities then occupying
the area and played a major role in the transition from the Early to the Middle Neolithic. In addition to elements
characteristic of the Vina A culture, the pottery finds from Satchinez comprised also elements of the Alfld Linear
Pottery, while the finds from Pit 5 included also the fragment of a small face pot of the Esztr group.
The publication of the finds from Satchinez is vital for a better understanding of the contacts between the Alfld
Plain and the Banat during the Middle Neolithic, not least because Esztr pottery has been recovered from a Vina
context at this site for the first time. The publication of the Esztr finds from Banat also provided an excellent opportunity for reviewing the connections between the Alfld Linear Pottery, the Esztr group and the Vina culture. The
cultural and chronological correlations, as well as the evidence from Satchinez indicate that the terminus ante quem
for the appearance of Esztr pottery was the Vina A3 period.
A dlkelet-romniai Satchinez (Temeskenz) hatrban lev jkkori telepls terepbejrs sorn kerlt el a Pmnt
Alb (Fehr-fldi) patak vlgynek balparti teraszn 1987-ben. A leletment sats 1989-ben indult (SI-fellet), melynek eredmnyei 1993-ban kerltek kzlsre. 1990-ben egy tovbbi fellettel bvlt a kutats (SII), melynek eredmnyei azonban mig kzletlenek maradtak.
Az 1989-es sats alapjn megllapthattuk, hogy az K-Bnsgban a Vina-kultra A2 peridusban egy olyan
megtelepeds jtt ltre, amely a terleten l StarevoCri- s Krs-kzssgek hatsra dnt hatst gyakorolt a
korai s a kzps neolitikum kztti tfejlds folyamatra. A satchinezi kermialeletek kztt a jellegzetes Vina
A jellegek mellett feltnnek az AVK itt idegennek szmt elemei is. Az 5. sz. gdrben pedig az Esztr-csoporthoz
tartoz arcos edny tredke kerlt el.
A satchinezi sats leletanyagnak kzlse kulcsfontossg az Alfld s a Bnsg kzps jkkor eleji kulturlis
s idrendi sszefggsei szempontjbl, mivel ez az els eset, amikor esztri kermia Vina-krnyezetben kerlt
el. Ezrt helyesnek lttuk, hogy a bnsgi Esztr-leletek kzlse alkalmval a korbban megfogalmazottak sszefoglalsval s jabb szempontok felvetsvel foglalkozzunk az AVKEsztrVina sszefggsek vizsglatval. Akulturlis s idrendi fogdzk sszefggsei s a satchinezi sats adatainak egybevetsvel a szerzk az esztri kermia megjelensnek terminus ante quem-jt a Vina A3 idszakban jellik meg.

Moments in Time Budapest 2013

113

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


The Neolithic settlement of Satchinez/Temeskenz small face pot of the Esztr group (Draovean
(County Timi, south-western Romania) was dis- 1993, Pl. I. 9).
covered in 1987 during field surveys in the valley
The site and its finds, as well as their interpretaof the Pmnt Alb/Fehrfldi Stream. The settle- tion, elicited attention in the archaeological comment is located on the streams left bank, on a ter- munity owing to the historical implications of the
race extending to the former village pond, now role these communities played in the transformadried out.
tion of Early Neolithic society in the northern BaThe archaeological investigation of the site, be- nat and the southern part of the Great Hungarian
gun as a rescue excavation, commenced in 1989 Plain, and owing to the discovery of a painted Eszwith the excavation of Trench SI. The material tr pottery fragment in this cultural milieu.
brought to light during the first campaign was
More recent comments on the discoveries at
published in 1993 (Draovean 1993). In 1990, Satchinez discoveries include the ones made by
the research was continued by
the excavation of another area
(Trench SII); however, the discoveries made during that campaign are still unpublished.
The find assemblages unearthed during the 1989 campaign indicated a cultural fermentation in Phase A2 of the
Vina culture in the northern
Banat which affected the StarevoCri and Krs communities
in the area and played a major
role in the profound transformations that took place in this
geographical area during the
transition from the Early to the
Middle Neolithic. The examination of the material revealed that
in addition to elements charac- Fig. 1. Satchinez, Pit 5 coarse pottery
teristic of the Vina A culture,
the finds also included elements
alien to this culture, which, however, occurred on settlements of
the early Linear Pottery in Transdanubia and the Alfld Plain1 as
a result of the same ethno-cultural processes which led to the
almost simultaneous emergence
of the Linear Pottery civilizations in those areas (Draovean
1993, 33, 40, 42). The finds from
Pit 5 of the Satchinez settlement
included also the fragment of a
1
The term Alfld Plain is here used in
the geographical sense: the southern Al
fld marks the Baka/Bcska and Banat/
Bnt region, while middle and northern
Alfld the Great Hungarian Plain.

114

Fig. 2. Satchinez, Pit 5 incised pottery

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
Cornelia Magda and Gheorghe Lazarovici (LazaroviciLazarovici 2006, 148) who re-examined the finds and their stratigraphic context. They
argued that several different Neolithic occupations
can be distinguished at the site, one dating to the
Vina A phase (Pit 5), one characterised by material typical for the Vina B2 horizon (Pit 4), and
one which can be assigned to the Vina B2/C1
phase or the period of the Foeni/Fny migration
(Pit 5a). In his view, the Esztr import could be
associated with Pit 5a, which intersected Pit 5, the
implication being that owing to the cultural attri-

Fig. 3. Satchinez, Pit 5 carinated ware

Fig. 4. Satchinez, Pit 5 red slipped ware

bution of the former, Pit 5a can be chronologically


assigned to the beginning of the Late Neolithic.
Lazarovicis opinion contrasted sharply with
our stratigraphic observations and with the conclusions we reached at that time. We therefore decided to re-examine the already published material and data, and complement it with the evidence
from the 1990 excavation, unpublished as yet, in
order to clarify this issue.
When the finds from the site were first published, it was noted that although Satchinez is a
stratified site, only one layer dates from the Neolithic, namely the occupation
layer at the base of the accumulated deposits. This lowermost layer is ca. 0.20 m thick
(Draovean 1993, 25). Six pits
could be assigned to this layer:
three of these were investigated
in 1989 (Pits 4, 5 and 5a), while
the other three in 1990 (Pits 8,
9, 10). The archaeological material brought to light from the
Neolithic layer and from the six
pits is relatively uniform and
will be described briefly in the
following.
The coarse pottery was made
from clay tempered with sand
and ground chaff, occasionally also with ground sherds and
pebbles. Most vessels were fired
to a brown colour, with a few to
a yellowish or brick red colour.
Most vessels in this category
are decorated with finger impressions on and under the rim,
notching on the rim, vertical, diagonal or horizontal channelled
barbotine, and finger impressed
cordons on the upper half of
the vessels (Fig. 1, Fig. 12. 12).
The incised lines decorating this
type of pottery are arranged either diagonally or running parallel to each other (Fig. 8. 6), or
into meander or spiral designs
filled with short stabs (Fig. 2.
16). Some incised lines are encrusted with a white chalky substance.

115

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


some biconical vessels is decorated with incisions made by burnishing the surface of the clay.
The fine pottery was made
from finely levigated, well-fired
clay. The vessel surface was carefully burnished, giving it a metallic sheen. Fine wares were fired
a grey, greyish-black or black
colour. Owing to the firing technique, the upper part of some
vessels is black or greyish-black,
while the lower part is grey or,
more rarely, dark red or brown
(Fig. 2). The stems of goblets were
slipped before firing to a dark red
colour and were carefully burnished
(Fig. 4, Fig. 5. 5, Fig. 9.
Fig. 5. Satchinez, Pit 5 vessels of decorated with triangular fields filled with stabs
4, Fig. 12. 6, Fig. 14, top, Fig. 17.
45). Goblets are biconical with
a tall stem and an emphatically
concave base. The pottery in this
category is dominated by biconical and simple shallow vessels.
The decoration of the fine ware
comprised fine fluting arranged
diagonally on the upper part of
biconical vessels (Fig. 3. 46, Fig.
9. 2, Fig. 14. 4, Fig. 17. 2), and fluting and burnished lines arranged
diagonally or in a chevron pattern (Fig. 3. 1, 34, 67, 9, Fig. 9.
3). Only one fragment, recovered
from Pit 5, is decorated on the
interior with parallel bands arFig. 6. Satchinez, Pit 5 bowl frag- Fig. 7. Satchinez, Pit 5 fragment of the ranged in a V form made by burnishing the vessel surface (Fig. 6).
Esztr face pot
ment with pattern burnished motifs
Found in Pit 5 was the fragSemi-fine pottery, less numerous than the ment of a human figurine (Draovean 1993, Pl.
coarse pottery, was tempered with fine sand, but VI. 5). Two other human figurines (Fig. 16. 12)
occasionally also with organic matter and ground come from the occupation layer.
The archaeological material from the six pits
sherds. The vessel surface is burnished and the vessels were fired to a blackish-grey or grey colour. and the occupation layer of the Satchinez settleMost vessels in this category are biconical (Fig. 8. ment, as well as the available radiocarbon dates,
4, Fig. 9. 1, Fig. 11. 3, Fig. 17. 23, Fig. 18. 45) and enable the precise dating and unequivocal culshallow conical vessels (Fig. 5, Fig. 18. 23). The tural attribution of the site. At the same time, the
most frequent decorations are incised zig-zagging imports discovered in two pits (Pits 5 and 10) and
lines forming triangular fields filled with short the evidence from eastern Hungary enable addistabs under the rim (Fig. 5. 13, Fig. 18. 3), spirals tional conclusions regarding a possible correlafilled with stabs (Fig. 2. 4, Fig. 5. 56), and incised tion between the Vina A phase and the Esztr
meanders (Fig. 17. 7, Fig. 19). The upper part of group.

116

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
The fabric, the firing and
burnishing of the vessel surfaces and the pottery wares themselves share countless similarities with the ceramic material
from the Vina A settlements
at Gornea/Felslupk (Lazarovici 1975, 1314; 1977, 72, 106,
112; 1981, 173) and Liubcova/Alslupk (Luca 1998, 3738). Although black topped pottery had
not been found at the time when
the Satchinez material was first
published, Pit 10 yielded several
fragments of biconical vessels
with a black upper and dark red
lower part of the type also found
at Gornea (Lazarovici 1977,
57) and Liubcova (Luca 1998, Fig. 8. Satchinez, Pit 5a selection of diagnostic pottery
38) dating from the Vina A2
A3 phase (Lazarovici 1977, 58; Draovean
A3 phase.
The most frequent shapes are biconical deep Fota 2003), or the Proto-Vina period (Horvth
bowls, whose best counterparts are known from 2006b, Pl. I. 4, Pl. II. 5).
Various formal elements of the goblets allow
Gornea and Liubcova, from the Vina A2 phase
(Lazarovici 1977, 57; 1979, 112113; Luca 1998, their precise dating and cultural attribution. Their
41), although parallels can also be quoted from stems are tall, with a red painted, markedly conassemblages influenced by the early Vina cul- cave base, resembling the pieces found in Vina A
ture, assigned to the so-called Proto-Vina pe- cultural contexts (Lazarovici 1977, 58; 1979, 113;
riod (Horvth 2006b, Pl. I. 1; Oross 2007, 505). Luca 1998, 38).
The decorative motifs on the pottery from
In addition to these deep bowls, the biconical vessels from Pit 4 (Draovean 1993, Pl. I. 4) and Satchinez are particularly important both for datPit 10 are best matched by pieces from the Vina ing and for establishing the role played by com-

Fig. 9. Satchinez, Pit 4 fine pottery and ALP imports

Fig. 10. Satchinez, Pit 4 fragment of


an ALP vessel

117

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


Pl. V. 36; Lazarovici 1977, 57,
59, Pl. LV. 18, Pl. XLIII. 2; 1979,
113, Pl. XIV H/33), as well as
on early Linear Pottery vessels
(Trogmayer 1964, Fig. 6. 5;
Makkay 1978, Pl. XVII. 19; Kalicz 1979, Pl. 8. 1; Pavk 1980,
Fig. 42. 2; Kaufmann 1981, Fig.
4. 5) of the StarevoCri IIIB
IVAVina A1A2early Linear
Pottery chronological horizon.
In the early Transdanubian Linear Pottery (TLP), these decorations are associated with spiral
and meandering designs (KaliczMakkay 1972, Fig. 3. 9;
1979, Pl. 8. 1; Makkay 1978, Pl.
XI. 4ac, Pl. XVII. 13, 18). The
incisions below the vessel rim
Fig. 11. Satchinez, Pit 9 selection of diagnostic pottery finds
resemble those of the Starevo
Cri IV (Lazarovici 1980, Fig.
2. 6; 1981, Fig. 8. 5; 1983, 25 and
Fig. 1. 6), Vina A2 (Lazarovici
1977, Pl. LII. 1), Szatmr II (Kalicz 1983, Fig. 7. 7, 9, Fig. 9. 2, 4,
79, Fig. 10. 45, Fig. 11. 8, 11, 13,
16, 19) and Picolt I (Lazarovici 1983, Fig. 9. 1). A fragment
from a conical vessel with a burnished incision under the rim
found in Pit 5 is similar to a decorative motif found in Szatmr
II (early Alfld Linear Pottery)
and Picolt I contexts (Kalicz
Makkay 1977, Pl. 5. 3, 9, 10, 16,
Pl. 11. 26, 811, 12, 1416, Pl.
168. 1; Raczky 1983, Fig. 18. 6).
Analogies with similar cultural
levels (KaliczMakkay 1977,
Pl. 22. 4, 16; Korek 1977, Fig.
Fig. 12. Satchinez, Pit 10 diagnostic coarse and fine pottery
15. 12, Fig. 22. 12, 4, 9, 22; Lamunities of this type in the emergence of certain zarovici 1983, Fig. 2. 11, Fig. 3. 14, Fig. 4. 7; Lacultures in the Alfld Plain. Thus, parallel di- zarovici Nmeti 1983, Pl. VII. 3) are also sugagonal stabs on coarse pottery can be found on gested by the wavy lines decorating a vessel foot
StarevoCri pottery (Dimitrijevi 1974, Pl. XI. (Fig. 10).
The fine pottery is decorated with fluting, pat6, Pl. XIX. 12, 1416; Lazarovici 1975, Pl. V. 12;
1981, Fig. 5. 13, 9, Pl. 7. 6, Pl. 8. 5; 1984, Fig. 6. tern burnishing and burnished incisions. While
7, Fig. 8. 2, 4), Krs (Kutzin 1944, Pl. VI. 11, the first two decorative elements, associated with
Pl. XIII. 11, Pl. XVIII. 9, Pl. XXVIII. 5, Pl. XL. 11; manufacturing techniques and vessel form, have
Trogmayer 1964, Fig. 12. 1; Raczky 1976, Fig. 4. analogies only in the Vina A phase (Vasi 1936,
2, Fig. 9. 3, Fig. 13. 6), and Vina A (Vasi 1936, Tab. IV. 2021, Tab. VIII. 30b; Lazarovici 1975,

118

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
1314 and Fig. VI. 4, 7, 13; 1977,
5759, 61; 1979, 111, 113, 114), burnished incisions, highly characteristic of Satchinez decorations,
can be linked to polychromy and
to Paradimi (Zaharia 1964, 25
and Fig. 5. 12; Nica 1977, Fig.
11. 46; Bakalakis-Sakelariou
1981, Pl. 50. 1, Pl. 57. 3, Pl. 59.
14, Pl. 60. 9). Another element
linking the pottery to the Balkans and to polychromy is grey
burnished pottery, another common type of Satchinez fine pottery. These decorative elements
(burnished incisions and grey
pottery) are also known from
the southern part of the Great
Hungarian Plain, e.g., from Pit
3 of Maroslele-Pana and from
szentivn VIII (Trogmayer
1964, 85; Horvth 2006a), dated to the Vina A2A3 chronological horizon.
The analogies presented above
clearly demonstrate that the Neo
lithic settlement features uncovered at Satchinez can be assigned
to Phase A of the Vina culture.
Within this time frame, certain
finer chronological distinctions
can be drawn among these complexes even at the current state of
research. Pits 5 and 4 can be assigned to Phase A2 of the Vina
culture, while Pits 5a, 8, 9 and 10
all contain later elements, assigning them to the Vina A3 phase.
This later date is also confirmed
by the Linear Pottery elements
from Pits 8 (Fig. 15) and 10 (Fig.
14. 5), as well as from the occupation layer (Fig. 17. 6, Fig. 18.
1), which have much in common with the finds of the Banat
Culture and the Alfld Linear
Pottery culture (ALP) from the
northern Banat and the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Draovean 1989;
2006a; 2006b; Lazarovici 1991,

Fig. 13. Satchinez, Pit 10 imported Esztr cup

Fig. 14. Satchinez, Pit 8 diagnostic coarse and fine pottery

Fig. 15. Satchinez, Pit 8 fragment of an ALP vessel

Fig. 16. Satchinez, Pit 5 fragments of human


figurines

119

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


regarding the archaeological
features, all the find assemblages brought to light at Satchinez
date back to no later than Phase
A of the Vina culture. Moreover, there are no elements whatsoever either in the material
from the occupation layer, from
Pit 5a, or from any other feature that would suggest a different chronological and cultural
attribution, more specifically,
the Vina B2/C1 phase or the
Foeni group proposed by C.-M.
and Gh. Lazarovici, seeing that
the latters genetic affiliation
(Draovean 2002, 6162; 2004;
2006a; 2006b) and characterisFig. 17. Satchinez diagnostic pottery from the occupation layer
tic elements (Draovean 1997)
clearly distinguish it not only
from the early phase of the Vina
culture, but also from all the cultural complexes which evolved
in this geographical area during
the Late Neolithic (Draovean
1994; 1996).
In conclusion, even if the
Esz-tr import discovered in
1989 had not originated from Pit
5, but from Pit 5a, a hypothesis
which cannot be rejected out of
hand, the fact that the latter can
also be assigned to the Vina A
phase, perhaps to Phase A3, does
not significantly influence the
synchronism proposed by us almost two decades ago.
This seems to be confirmed
by
the
fact that Pit 10, excavated
Fig. 18. Satchinez diagnostic pottery from the occupation layer
in 1990, yielded another Esztr
Fig. 15. 2, 4) assigned to the Vina A3 cultural ho- import, also in association with Vina A3 materirizon. The linear ornamental motifs used by the als. The find in question is a globular vessel with
Neolithic communities living in these regions curvilinear motifs painted in black, only partially
reflect a changing world, an interaction between preserved (Fig. 13), which supports the synchrothe old Vina culture and the autochthonous nism presented above and confirms the Vina A3
StarevoCri/Krs communities of the north- chronological level as a terminus ante quem for
ern Banat and the southern part of the Great Hun- the earliest appearance of the Esztr group.
The publication of the entire find material
garian Plain, a process which eventually led to the
from Satchinez is of vital importance for a betbirth of the Banat culture and the ALP culture.
Consequently, despite certain chronological ter understanding of the Middle Neolithic condistinctions which can be made at the moment tacts between the southern, and the middle and

120

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
northern areas of the Alfld Plain (the area between the Krs and Maros rivers), seeing that it
represents the first Esztr imports from the Vina
distribution. The regions discussed here comprise
the area south of the River Maros to the line of
the Danube and the foot of the Transylvanian
Alps in Rumania, Serbia, Hungary and the vast
area of the Great Hungarian Plain, reaching as far
as the Northern Mountain Range in eastern Slovakia. The northern Banat variant of the Vina
complex occupied the regions south of the River
Maros, while different variants of the Alfld Linear Pottery and the Esztr group were distributed
north of the river.
Several studies have been devoted to the connections between the two regions and cultural
complexes, most using the traditional, typological
and typo-chronological approach. Early studies
by Gordon V. Childe, Ferenc Tompa, Jnos Banner, Sndor Gallus, Friedrich Holste, Vladimir
Miloji, Fritz Schachermeyr, Ida Kutzin, Bogdan
Brukner and others focused on the contacts between the Alfld Plain and South-East Europe.
The pioneering and more detailed analyses of contacts between the Alfld Linear Pottery and the
neighbouring areas have been mainly performed
by Hungarian, Rumanian and Serbian archaeologists (Lazarovici 1976, 1979; KaliczMakkay
1977; Garaanin 1989; but cp. also Chapman
1981; Parzinger 1993). Later studies were concerned with establishing more precise correlations
between the different chronological-developmental periods of the ALP and the Vina complex
(Raczky 1986; 1988; 1992).
Aside from the traditional typological approach, the new advances in radiocarbon dating
held out the promise of a method enabling a more
reliable and precise determination of the chronological dimension of the connections (G. Sznszky 1983; Horvth 1991; HertelendiHorvth
1992; HorvthHertelendi 1994; Hertelendi
et al. 1998). Despite later critiques (Strobel 1997,
79, note 172; Domborczki 2003, 2122; Oross
2007, 579581), these initial efforts represented
the first attempts towards establishing a broad radiocarbon chronology for the Carpathian Basin.
While some of the criticism levelled at our analysis of the radiocarbon dates was certainly justified,
it must also be borne in mind that the interpretation of the dates was modified after the analyses
were repeated using group calibration and date

Fig. 19. Satchinez diagnostic pottery from the occupation


layer

clusters (Figs 2021).2 Even more important is that


our studies called attention to certain parallelisms
rather than strict theoretical sequences, i.e. the assumed succession of archaeological-chronological
units within the chronological framework of the
Middle Neolithic in the Great Hungarian Plain.
A number of problems nonetheless remained
unresolved when attempting to synchronise neighbouring sites, cultural complexes and cultural
periods; it also became clear that despite its current accuracy, radiocarbon dating is unsuitable
for excluding a wide range of variability in possible synchronisms exactly because of the significant
overlaps between the time ranges of the calibrated
dates. Also, the preciseness of a relative chronology
based on typological cross-dating always depends
on the reliable identification of imported and traded commodities, as well as on the excavation methods applied. These problems have been discussed
in detail regarding the ALPEsztrVina interrelationships (Horvth 1994, 103106; Horvth
Hertelendi 1994, 115116), as well as regarding
contacts between the Esztr group and the Banat
(Horvth 1996, 128134), which have stirred little attention until now. The conclusions presented
in these studies, complemented with the new evi2
Following Pl Raczkys critical comments on Ferenc Horvths
candidates thesis, the cited date clusters (HorvthHertelendi
1994, 122129) were group calibrated by Ede Hertelendi in 1996
in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences (Debrecen). Although the dates were quoted during the
public debate, they are first published here. The base of the idea for
using these clusters was the visible grouping of certain radiocarbon dates within the Neolithic time sequence.

121

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


dence on the dating and connections of the Esztr painted pottery, are as follows:
(1) Only settlements of the
Krs culture can be found in
the later core distribution of
the Esztr group prior to its appearance between the southern part of the Nyrsg and the
Krs Valley (the greater part of
Krskz, Srrt, Hegykz, Rzalja, Hajdsg and Hortobgy
regions). During the over ten
years that have elapsed since the
publication of the above studies, new Krs settlements have
been discovered in the core distribution, confirming our earlier
hypothesis (HajdNagy 2000,
3335; Dani et al. 2006, 57).
(2) Independent ALP 1 (Szatmr II, Rtkzberencs-Parom
domb type) and ALP 2 sites
(classical, Hortobgy-Faluvg
halom type) or sites of the assumed later ALP periods are not
known from within the Esztr
core distribution. The typical incised (or, better said, grooved)
ALP traits mixed with Esztrtype finds appear in the contact
zones, principally on the western
and the northern/north-eastern
fringes of the Esztr distribution
(Fig. 22).
(3) The occurrence of this
type of ALP pottery in relation to
the Esztr core distribution suggests that the two neighbouring
populations only interacted in Fig. 20. The group calibrations of date clusters for the Krs, early ALP, and early
the contact zones, and most ALP Vina cultures (unpublished, after Ede Hertelendi)
pottery finds are imports in the
Esztr area. The latter is confirmed by the obser- Makkay 1977, 189215). No changes could be notvation that the incision technique employed by the ed in the distribution of the sites yielding pottery
ALP and Szaklht cultures are absent in the Esz- of this type during the ALP 2 and 3 periods.
(4) The chronological implications of the evitr group (GoldmanG. Sznszky 1998, 118).
Most of the import ALP wares have been assigned dence presented in the above are the following: in
to the ALP 2 (classical, Hortobgy-Faluvghalom) the ALP 1 (Szatmr II) period, the surviving Krs
or ALP 3 phase (the assumed later phase and the communities populated the later Esztr areas. Few
Szarvas-rpart type) on typological grounds in of the known Krs sites from this area can be datthe overwhelming majority of the cases (Kalicz ed with accuracy within the Krs sequence. The

122

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...

Fig. 21. The calibration curves of the group calibrated data (unpublished, after Ede Hertelendi)

Szentpterszeg-Krtvlyes (Kalicz 1982, 213214)


and Cskm-Tordai zsilip sites can be assigned to
the late Krs period (HajdNagy 2000, 3335).
Little is known about the date of BerettyjfaluNagy Bcs-dl site (Dani et al. 2006, 57). One
notable exception is the Furta-Cst site, which
can be dated to the latest, proto-Vina period, regarded as contemporaneous with the ALP 1 in the
southern contact zone (MakkayStarnini 2008,
Figs 324339). There are no late Krs sites north
of Szentpterszeg up to the Mhtelek distribution.
The scanty traces of Krs sites contemporaneous with ALP 1 (Szatmr II) are restricted to the
southern areas of the Esztr distribution. The Esz
tr and the ALP 1 distribution complement each
other exactly, this being the reason for assuming
that the appearance of the Esztr population may
be dated as early as the ALP 1 period.
Currently, there is no irrefutable stratigraphic
evidence for either the former or the latter assumptions. Recently uncovered mixed ALP 1Esztr assemblages (such as the one from BalmazjvrosDarucsorda kt, Site 1 and similar find materials)
must be treated with caution until primary stratigraphic evidence of similar theoretically possible contexts is discovered (Mester 2009).

What is certain is that the appearance of Esztr


painted pottery in the main area of its distribution
can be correlated with the ALP 2 period. This correlation seems to be supported by both the radiocarbon dates (HorvthHertelendi 1994, 124
125) and the import Esztr ceramics in classical
ALP 2 assemblages from the valley of the Triple
Krs river (Makkay 1982, 61; 2007, 99).
(5) While there has been a welcome rise in the
number of Esztr sites during the past decade (Biharkeresztes, Hajdszoboszl, Ebes, Berettyjfalu, Hajdbszrmny, Debrecen, etc.), with the
total number now over sixty, little is known about
the internal periodisation of the Esztr phenomenon. The stratigraphy of the Mezgyn-Pski Hill
site indicates the existence of at least two Esztr
developmental periods. The lower layer yielded
purely Esztr material, the next layer a later Esztr
assemblage containing Szaklht pottery, while
the uppermost layer could be assigned to the Tisza
culture. Sadly, the find material in question has
not been published in detail to date (Goldman
G. Sznszky 1994, 226).
(6) A similar situation can be noted regarding the distribution of the late Krs and earliest
Szaklht cultures in the area between the valleys

123

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


of the Krs and Maros rivers on the Romanian
side. Following the Early Neolithic, the known
sites can be assigned to the early Szaklht culture (Vrand/Gyulavarsnd, Sntana/jszentanna,
AradGrdite/AradVr, Puli/paulis). There
is nothing to support the distribution maps on
which the northernmost boundary of the Vina
culture is drawn at the line of the River Some/
Szamos (RaczkyAnders 2003, Fig. 1) and that
of the Banat culture at the line of the Cri/Krs
Valley (LazaroviciLazarovici 2006, Fig. IIIb.
1, Fig. IIIg. 1). However, it is still unclear whether
the ALP sites of the Szarvas-rpart type were distributed continuously to the line of the Criul Alb/
Fehr-Krs valley after the latest Krs period on
the Rumanian side, or whether the earliest Szaklht was wedged in-between the north-western
variant of the early Vina culture and the Esztr
group.
The relative chronological synchronisation of
the ALP sequence and the sub-phases of the Banat
complexes poses several difficulties. The generally
accepted internal periodisations conceal several
contradictions with regard to both the ALP complex and the north-western Banat variant of the
Vina culture.
Regarding the ALP, for example, the sub-division following the Szatmr II period proposed
by Nndor Kalicz and Jnos Makkay, namely an
early and a later phase, and the local groups of
the ALP (KaliczMakkay 1977) are used differently in the text and on Map 3 and in Table 3, the
latter two featuring an intermediate phase without any description of its traits. Moreover, no differences can be discerned between the traits of the
proposed early and late phases, whose assemblages
are discussed without any mention of the differences between them (KaliczMakkay 1977, 30
37). In the chronological framework proposed in
1977 and Makkays later scheme (made up of four
developmental periods: Szatmr II, early, classical,
and the different groups), Szatmr II was contemporaneous with late Krs and the beginning of
Proto-Vina (KaliczMakkay 1977, 94, Tabelle
2 between pages 9495; Makkay 1982, 54).
Another, slightly differing version suggested by
Pl Paczky which otherwise follows Makkays
fourfold division (ALP 14 periods: Makkay 1982,
54) has correctly correlated the Szatmr II assemblages with ALP 1 period. The other sub-periods in this scheme (ALP 24) follow the fourfold

124

division; however, the archaeological units (Szaklht and Esztr) assigned to Phase 4 (Raczkys classical ALP phase) appear already in Phase 3 as shown
by the assemblages from sites such as Beretty
szentmrton-Morotva and Bks-Dl. Seeing that
the Szaklht finds from Bks-Dl hardly represent the cultures earliest appearance, Raczkys ALP
4 would be contemporaneous only with (or represented by) the latest Szaklht period (Tisza I, the
cultures formative period), the latest Esztr and the
Bkk III groups. Moreover, it is debatable whether
the former two can be regarded as integral parts of
the ALP in view of their partly different genetics
and material culture.
These chronological schemes synchronised the
first half of the ALP (Phases 12, Szatmr II, and
early, i.e. classical periods) with Vina A (Vina
Tordos I), and the second half (ALP 3, i.e. the later
phase, and ALP 4, the latest local groups such as
Szarvas-rpart, Szilmeg, Bkk, Tiszadob, Szaklht and Esztr) with Vina B (VinaTordos
II) (KaliczMakkay 1977, 94, 100111; Raczky
1988, 29; 1989, 235). This fourfold chronological
scheme formed the basis for later syntheses, which
divided the ALP II into two further sub-phases,
ALP IIa and IIb, based on the analysis of the characteristic traits of decorative motifs and pottery
forms (Strobel 1997, 998).
More recently yet another scheme has been
proposed to divide the ALP 1 (Szatmr II) into
three further sub-phases (KaliczS. Kos 2000,
69), meaning that the number of ALP sub-phases
increased to seven, and in this respect it resembled the most complicated sub-periodisation of the
Vina A and B phases (Schier 1991, Fig. 146). The
main problem with these sub-divisions is that they
are based on the typological analysis of pottery assemblages from a pit or a house, pottery seriation,
or the analysis of the characteristic traits of decorative motifs and pottery forms. While these analyses can contribute to test or to increase the accuracy of the chronological time-range of assemblages,
it cannot be a substitute for the evidence provided
by stratigraphic sequences. These sub-divisions
therefore remain theoretical categories which are
rarely filled with meaningful content, reflected by
the lack of a description of the typological characteristics of the assemblages assigned to the different chronological phases (cp. Kovcs 2007, 35).
The main problem in the correlation of the different ALP developmental phases with those of

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
the north-western or north-eastern variants of the Vina complex south of the River Maros
is the uncertain date of the ALP
imports. It cannot be established
whether the significant number
of ALP potsherds found on
Vina sites in Hungary (szentivn VIII, Tiszasziget, Deszk A)
Romania (Satchinez, Freidorf/
Szabadfalu IV, Freidorf-Hladnik,
Fratelia/jtesld, Gornea) and
the Serbian Banat (Crna Bara/
Feketet, oka/Cska, Beej/
becse-Gradite), and the finds
from Vina-Belo Brdo and Banjica south of the Danube represent Phase 2 or 3 of the ALP. At
some sites, the presence of the
Szarvas-rpart type could be determined (szentivn VIII, Freidorf I, Crna Bara), but not even so
much at other sites (Horvth
Hertelendi 1994, 116).
The early appearance of the
Esztr and ALP assemblages at
Satchinez in Vina A2A3 contexts (Draovean 1993, 42),
however, challenges the chronological position of the Esztr Fig. 22. The north-eastern Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain in the first half of
phenomenon, generally assigned the Middle Neolithic
to the ALP 3 and 4, which is correlated with Vina B. In view of these contexts and horizons of the Szarvas-rpart type identified by
in the light of the regional distribution of the ALP Gyrgy Goldman at Bks-Dl and Gerla-Kszand the Esztr group, the appearance of the latter mn (Goldman 1983, 26) can be correlated with.
The appearance of the Banat culture in the Rocan now be confidently synchronised with ALP 2
(described as early in KaliczMakkay 1977: and manian Banat and that of the Bucova group in
as classical in Makkay 1982). A personal exami- the Bega/Bga Valley would suggest that Vina A3
nation of the ALP imports found at Satchinez in- can be regarded as a terminus ante quem for the
Satchinez type Vina A sites. Romanian research
dicated that they can be assigned to this period.
The difficulties in the more precise attribution defined the chronological position of Satchinof single ALP pottery fragments found on Vina ez immediately before the Banat I culture in the
sites has been mentioned in the above; the only ex- time-span and material culture of Vina A2 peceptions are the Szarvas-rpart type motifs iden- riod (Draovean 1993, 42, 47; LazaroviciLatified in a few cases. Similarly to the Esztr group, zarovici 2006, 211, 675).
However, no such terminus ante quem can be
the Szarvas-rpart type was until now assigned to
the two latest ALP periods. The late dating of the established in the Hungarian and Serbian Banat
Szarvas-rpart type and the internal periodi- owing to the lack of independent early and classation of the quoted sites most certainly needs sical Szaklht sites on the one hand, and the lack
to be revised. Another issue is which of the ALP of characteristic Vina B1 sites on the other. It is
IIab and III sub-phases the two chronological possible that the Vina A settlements south of the

125

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean

Fig. 23. A selection of the archaic wares of Esztr assemblages 113, 1516: Berettyszentmrton-Morotva, 14. Biharkeresztes (after HajdNagy 2000)

River Maros survived into the B1 period with a


more or less unaltered material culture, this being
the reason that Serbian research does not draw a
distinction of this type (Vina A and B) in this re-

126

gion, using the label early Vina or VinaTordos


in most cases.
The stratigraphy of the Vina-Belo Brdo site
provides a possible solution to this problem: the

Remarks on the Connections between the Banat and the Great Hungarian Plain...
late Szaklht face pots came to light at a depth of
7.4 m, conforming to the Vina B1 period according to all the chronological schemes (Miloji: B1,
Berciu: B1, Lazarovici: B1, Schier: B1b; cp. Schier
1996, Fig. 146). This stratigraphical context indicates that the ALP imports found in the deeper
levels at Vina-Belo Brdo can be assigned to the
Vina A phase and it also explains the assignation
of the Szaklht imports to Vina B12 in the Serbian Banat (Crna Bara, Novi Beej/TrkbecseMatejsky Brod, Banatska Subotica/Krassszombat-Cerovica, Io/Tiszahegyes-Gradite, Sajan/
Szajn-Kremenjak).
Esztr pottery has not been analysed in detail to date. The assemblage best available for the
study of its associations remains the one from Berettyjfalu-Szentmrton-Morotva (Sz. Mth
1979, 3556).3 Of the three pits excavated at the
site, Pit A and especially Pit C contained archaic
finds (published only partly). These archaic traits
are the short, incised or grooved decorations on
the vessel body or the low pedestal (Fig. 23. 15;
Sz. Mth 1979, Pl. VII, top right), semi-barbotine (oblique or horizontal Schlickwurf) covering coarse pots (Fig. 23. 68, 1011), rims decorated with impressions (Fig. 23. 8), short, oblique
or vertical double ribs (Fig. 23. 9), small, shallow
cup with thickened foot and traces of black painting, the monochrome, incarnadine or crimson
(purple-red) slip applied before firing (Fig. 23.
1213), horizontal rib handles set inside the vessels (Sz.Mth 1979, Pl. IX, middle), vertical and
oblique black or, rarely, white painted linear (or
pearled) design on lustrous purple-red slip, occurring in late KrsStarevo, Vina A and ALP 1
contexts (Horvth 1996, 132).
The fragment of a biconical vessel with constricted mouth and a lug handle provides a chronological anchor (Fig. 23. 1516). Similar lug handles have been found at Kosovo and in southern
Morava at sites contemporaneous with late Vina A
(Anza IVab sites of Anzabegovo) and with Vina
B1 (Zelenikovo II-Angelci) (Gimbutas 1976,
130131, Fig. 80; Sanev 2006, 155, Fig. IIa. 3, Fig.
IIIb. 8, 1315). A variant of this handle type with
truncated terminal spread from the Skopje region
to the northernmost Szaklht distribution in a
3
Debrecen, Dri Mzeum, inv. nos 79.2.41, 79.3.24, 79.3.20,
79.3.49, 79.3.15, 79.6.7, 79.5.62, 79.3.30, 79.10.1, 79.2.1, 79.2.12,
79.2.36.

straight line from south to north in the Vina A


and B1 periods (Horvth 2006a, 315, Fig. 3. 48).
A black topped fragment from a red slipped,
black painted vessel from Feature 8 of the Biharkeresztes-Kis Szrcss dl site (HajdNagy 2000,
Fig. 8) provides additional chronological proof
for an earlier dating of certain Esztr assemblages (Fig. 23. 14). As Vladimir Miloji aptly noted,
this technique has no antecedents in the Danube
region. Widely used during the Vina A period,
black-topped wares, which had their origins in the
south, disappeared at the onset of the next period
(Miloji 1949, 268, 294). Black-topped pottery at
Gornea in the Lower Danube Basin in the Vina
A1 period accounted for 30% of the fine ware. This
proportion decreased to 10% in Vina A2 and to
1.5% in Vina A3 assemblages (Lazarovici 1977,
55, 57, 60). Milojis observation is supported
by the gradual decline of black-topped pottery at
Gornea and its virtual disappearance by the end
of the Vina A period.
The record from the Upper Mure/Maros and
Morava Valley variants of the Vina complex farther east and south indicates that the black-topped
technique is typical during the Vina A period
and that a variant of this technique apparently
survived into the Vina AB transition and the
beginning of Vina B, although its proportion and
quality decreased (GaraaninGaraanin 1979,
69, 71, 73, 77; Florescu 2007, 32). The ceramics
from the latter period, however, were not made by
the genuine black-topped technique. After personally examining variants of the black-topped technique, John Chapman noted that Black-topped
wares are the products of experiments in surface
treatment. Such experiments are consistent with
the innovative character of late Starevo and earliest Vina potters (Chapman 1981, 36). Bearing
in mind the period during which this firing technique was popular, the black-topped vessel fragment from Biharkeresztes (HajdNagy 2000,
Figs 1, 4, 6) can be put at the end of the Vina A
period or the Vina AB transition. The other
published pottery sherds (rim decorated with impressions, short incised lines, vertical ribs, spouted vessel) make this site one of the earliest Esztr
settlements.
Returning briefly to radiocarbon dating, the
first question is how the earliest Esztr and Satchinez dates (Berettyjfalu-Szilhalom: Bln 2580,
5579; Satchinez: Deb 2579) relate to the Vina A

127

Ferenc Horvth Florin Drasovean


period. The earliest dates for Esztr fall into Cluster V, as defined in an earlier study (Horvth
Hertelendi 1994, 122128) which, according to
the group calibration, falls between 53805220
cal BC, predating the Vina A settlements both at
Tiszasziget (Bln 1631) and Satchinez (Deb 2579).
The Esztr dates are also earlier than the ones for
the ALP sites at Tiszavasvri-Keresztfal (Bln 505)
and Tarnabod-Templomfld (Bln 123), the earliest Szaklht dates from the lowermost level of
the Tp-Leb A tell settlement (Deb 1366), and
the earliest dates from Battyonya-Parzstanya
(Bln 1967). The latter dates, however, fall between
52905110 cal BC, part of Cluster VI (Horvth
Hertelendi 1994, 122128).
The second question is whether it is possible
to determine the onset of the Vina B period with
an accuracy of at least fifty years? Since the first
analysis (Chapman 1981, 1732), new series of radiocarbon dates have become available. Wolfram
Schier and Roland Glser defined the end of Vina
A and the beginning of the Vina B period around
5200 cal BC at Vina-Belo Brdo (Glser 1991, 177;
Schier 1991, Fig. 12). W. Schier later modified this

date and defined it as nearer to Chapmans opinion


based on uncalibrated dates (4260/4240 bc), dating the beginning of the Vina B1a period between
5180/50405130/5040 cal BC (Schier 1995, 330,
Abb. 149). The dates for the Banat II period fully
correspond to Vina B1 (Lazarovici 2006, 282). It
follows from the above that the dates of Clusters V
and VI, containing the earliest dates for Esztr and
Satchinez, fall into the time-span of Vina A, well
before the earliest dates representing the Vina B1
period. The combined dates of Cluster VII, containing one sample from szentivn VIII/e-Pit 4
(Bln 477), however, overlaps partly with Vina A
and partly with Vina B.
In spite of the problems concerning the internal periodisation of Esztr pottery and the definition of its typo-chronological position relative to
Vina A type assemblages, the radiocarbon chronology would suggest that the appearance of this
pottery can be dated to the period corresponding
to Vina A. A detailed correlation between the
sub-phases of the ALP and Vina A can only be
established in the light of reliable stratigraphic observations.

References
Bakalakis, G.Sakelariou, A. 1981: Paradimi. Mainz am Rhein.
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