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World leader in Ammonium Phosphatide

Palsgaard AMP 4448

Palsgaard AMP 4448 Ammonium Phosphatide (E 442) is the best and most
efficient alternative to lecithin in chocolate and compound products. Palsgaard
AMP 4448 has been used since the 1960s by the chocolate industry. It provides
the chocolate manufacturer with a number of valuable advantages. One advantage
is that Palsgaard AMP 4448 significantly outperforms lecithin in terms of viscosity
reduction in chocolate production. Furthermore, Palsgaard AMP 4448 ensures a
stable supply.

Save 4 % of cocoa butter

Avoid supply problems

Batch-to-batch consistency

Palsgaard AMP 4448 offers a better

Palsgaard AMP 4448 is experiencing in-

Lecithin can sometimes have a fluctuating

cost-in-use calculation when comparing

creased interest due to the uncertain fu-

functionality in chocolate. This is not the

with a lecithin based recipe. The outstan-

ture supply of IP soy lecithin and sunflower

case when using Palsgaard AMP 4448.

ding performance of Palsgaard AMP


With the all important focus on the func-

4448 means that the chocolate manufacturer can save up to 4% cocoa butter in
the recipe compared to a recipe containing
lecithin, and still achieve the same flow
properties in the chocolate.

Such a fat reduction will give the chocolate manufacturer considerable savings.
The better performance also opens up for
greater innovation potentials like lower fat
and lower calorie products.

tionality of the Palsgaard products in the

Palsgaard AMP 4448 offers a stable supply, which means that there is no need to
worry about next years supply of lecithin
when using Palsgaard AMP 4448.

Palsgaard AMP 4448 is based on non

hardened rape seed oil, but can be manufactured on other edible oils or fat bases.
Hereby, it is possible to maintain the nonGMO and non-allergenic status of Palsgaard AMP 4448. Having a broad raw
material base means that the supply of
Palsgaard AMP 4448 will never become
an issue.

final application, Palsgaard secures the

effect of all its chocolate emulsifiers in the
actual application, before it is supplied to
the customers.

Every batch of Palsgaard AMP 4448 is

tested in a specifically designed chocolate system, where the exact viscosity reducing power (VRP) of the batch
is determined. Not performing the VRP
tests would mean not knowing if the VRP
of each batch is fluctuating, nor knowing
what dosage is needed to achieve the correct viscosity reduction in the chocolate.

Measuring the VRP ensures a unique

Not being able to source the needed le-

batch-to-batch consistency, which is high-

cithin could mean that the chocolate ma-

ly valued by the confectionery industry.

nufacturer would have to adjust the total

The chocolate manufacturer is able to fol-

fat content in the chocolate e.g. from 32%

low the VRP of each batch as it is stated

to 36 %. Making this recipe adjustment

on the Certificate of Analysis of each de-

would mean substantial increases in costs

livered batch of Palsgaard AMP 4448.

and loss of revenue. Such adjustments will

be avoided when using Palsgaard AMP

World leader in
Ammonium Phosphatide


No thickening effect

Optimum performance
Both lecithin and Palsgaard AMP 4448

Lecithin is especially outperformed by

It is costly to change the labelling on the

have an impact on the plastic viscos-

Palsgaard AMP 4448 at dosages above

packaging of chocolate products, but in

ity and the yield value. Palsgaard AMP

0.4%. This is due to the undesired thick-

cases where it has been proved that it is

4448 outperforms lecithin on both plastic

ening effect of lecithin that take place at

possible for the chocolate manufacturer to

viscosity and yield value, meaning that

dosages above approximately 0.4%.

the total fat content and thereby the recipe

cost when using Palsgaard AMP 4448.

The thickening effect of lecithin in the

chocolate is due to weak attractive forces
between lecithin molecules and its sur-

Palsgaard AMP 4448 has its optimum

save up to 4% cocoa butter by replacing

the lecithin with Palsgaard AMP 4448

the chocolate manufacturer can reduce

the extra costs will quickly turn into a significant profit for the chocolate manufacturer.

roundings (hydrogenbonds). This thic-

performance at 0.8% dosage. At this dos-

kening effect restricts the flow of the

The switch from lecithin (E 322) to Pals-

age it is possible to take out up to 4% co-

chocolate mass and manifests itself as an

gaard AMP 4448 (E 442) still means de-

coa butter.

increase in the yield value instead of the

claring only one E-number, and exhang-

desired decrease. The plastic viscosity is

ing only one ingredient on the labelling.

Palsgaard AMP 4448 enables you to de-

not affected due to the higher shear rates.

velop more low fat and low calorie products than with lecithin.

The good news is that AMP does not have

a thickening effect. AMP actually keeps

Even more radical recipe adjustments

are possible when combining Palsgaard AMP 4448 with PGPR and other
Palsgaard chocolate emulsifiers.

plastic viscosity compared to lecithin at

dosages above 0.4% This means that a
higher amount of cocoa butter savings
can be achieved.

Plastic Viscosity (Pa.s)


on reducing both the yield value and the

The two figures show the effect on plastic visYield value (Pa)






Soya lecithin

Palsgaard AMP 4448





Dosage (%)

Using Palsgaard AMP 4448 means no unde-


sired increase in yield value at higher dosage lev-

els which enables efficient manufacturing of very

Palsgaard AMP 4448


compared to soya lecithin in a standard chocolate


Soya lecithin

cosity and yield value of Palsgaard AMP 4448





Dosage (%)

low fat chocolates.

No off-flavor no allergens non GMO

Easy flow at ambient temperatures

Using Palsgaard AMP 4448 means that

Palsgaard AMP 4448 is unlike lecithin in

the chocolate manufacturer can avoid the

liquid and easy flowing form, which makes

hay-like off-taste and odour, often associ-

it easy to dose at any temperature, avoid-

ated with lecithin. Palsgaard AMP 4448

ing heating rooms and excessive energy

is unlike lecithin taste and odorless and

use. Palsgaard AMP 4448 can therefore

undetectable in even the mildest types

be used directly in the production without

of chocolate. This is the case even up to

delay and without applying heat.

dosages of 1%.
This advantage will also minimize possible off flavours from burnt lecithin due

Palsgaard AMP 4448 contains no aller

gens. Palsgaard AMP 4448 is based on

Palsgaard AMP 4448 is produced in such a

non-GMO, non-hydrogenated rape seed

way that the functional properties are always on

oil, meaning it is an all vegetable product.

a highly efficient and stable level, which gives the

The rape seed oil is only sourced from re-

chocolate manufacturer the advantage of a stable

stricted areas in the EU, where the non-

and uniform production flow.

to excessive heating over longer periods.

Palsgaard AMP 4448 is like lecithin added approximately 1 hour before the end of

GMO status is guaranteed.

With Palsgaard AMP 4448 there is also

no risk of microbiological contamination.
Extensive testing has shown that Palsgaard AMP 4448 offers a microbiologically
safe product.
Viscosity of emulsifiers
measured at different temperatures


Viscosity (Pa.s)

Soya lecithin

Palsgaard AMP 4448





Palsgaard AMP 4448 benefits

Palsgaard offers

Outperforms lecithin on viscosity

No thickening effect

Savings by cocoa butter reduction

Lower fat and lower calorie

products possible

Avoid unstable supply

Outstanding functional stability

Neutral taste and odour

Documented functionality - (VRP)

VRP stated on Certificate of


Pumpable at ambient temperature

Non-GMO and non-allergenic


Microbiologically safe

Kosher & halal certified

One line - one product type



State of the art production


ISO 9001 and 22000 certification

Hands on application expertise

Palsgaard is a registered trademark of Palsgaard A/S. Layout: Palsgaard April 2011. Print: Grafisk Forum A/S, May 2011. Palsgaard A/S, May 2011. All rights reserved.

Palsgaards chocolate pilot plants

Our two fully equipped chocolate pilot plants in Denmark and Mexico provide the best basis for understanding the complex nature of chocolate manufacturing. Palsgaards chocolate pilot plants starts
with mixing equipment, followed by refining, conching, tempering and cooling. With this equipment
Palsgaard can study the effect of emulsifiers all the way through the manufacturing process. In addition to its traditional chocolate pilot plant, Palsgaard has an all-in-one refiner and a conche machine
which is suitable for production of a wide range of confectionery products such as chocolate, compound coatings, chocolate spreads, fillings and ice cream coatings.

Get your own recipes optimized

Adjusting recipes, optimizing flow properties, reducing costs - along with making the impossible
possible, are only some of the services we can offer you in our pilot plants in Denmark and Mexico.
Palsgaards setup creates an ideal base for prototyping all the way from idea to success in the market, and for making the transition from lecithin to Palsgaard AMP 4448 in your recipes as smooth
as possible.

Get your own cost-in-use calculations

To learn how you can turn the shortage of lecithin into an economical benefit and to get your own
cost-in-use calculation resulting from a possible switch from lecithin to Palsgaard AMP 4448, please
visit www.palsgaard.com to locate your local Palsgaard office.

Palsgaard A/S
DK-7130 Juelsminde, Denmark
Phone +45 76 82 76 82
Fax +45 76 82 76 83
Palsgaard treats our environment and our health with respect. This brochure meets the stringent requirements of the
Nordic Swan (Ecolabel). The Nordic Swan is a contribution towards a cleaner environment. License number 541 656.