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Method of Design
a) Working stress design (WSD):
This method directs attention to stress conditions within the structural member under
working loads. Working stress design is based on just such a stress distribution, on
the grounds that elastic stress limits are not exceeded at working loads.

By working-stress methods, allowable stresses are established as some


fraction of the stress capacities of the materials i.e. the yield strength of the
steel and the cylinder strength of the concrete.
Members are proportioned so that these allowable stresses are not exceeded
when working loads are applied.
Working load is defined as the sum of the actual dead load of the structure
and an estimate of the maximum live load, which will be superimposed at
some time during its life.

b) Ultimate - strength design (USD):


This method focuses on the strength capacity of the member at conditions
corresponding to failure and is known as ultimate-strength design. This design is
based on the nonlinear compressive- stress variation, which is obtained before a
member fails.
USD method, base the design of members on conditions just before failure. Members
are proportioned so that the lull strength of the cross-section is just utilized when the
ultimate load is applied.
The ultimate load is obtained by multiplying the actual dead load and the anticipated
live load by separate overload factors greater than unit.

DEFINITION AND TYPES OF SLAB


Slab:
In reinforced concrete structures, slabs are used to provide flat, useful surfaces. A
reinforced concrete slab is a broad, flat plate usually horizontal with top and bottom
surfaces parallel or nearly so. Reinforced concrete beams, may support it by
masonry or reinforced concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by
columns or continuously by the ground.

Types of slab:
According to distribution of load along side, slabs are of two types
i.

One way slab

ii.

Two way slab

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There are other types of slabs, such as flat plate slab, flat stab, folded plate slab,
reinforced brick slab, ribbed slab, hollow slab etc.

i.

One way slab:


Slabs may be supported on two opposite sides only in which case, the
structural action of the slab is essentially one- way the loads being carried by the slab
in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beams, then the slab is called one
way slab.
Slabs may be supported on all four sides in which case if the ratio of length to width
of one slab panel is larger than 2, most of the load is carried in short direction and to
the supporting members and one- way action is obtained. In one way, slab main
reinforcement is placed in the shorter direction.

ii)

Two way slab


If the slab in two directions is essentially in two ways and the load carrying the

structural action of the slob then the slab is called two- way slabs. If the ratio of
length to width of one panel is equal or smaller than 2 then the slab is two way. In
two ways, slab main reinforcement is provided in both the shorter and longer
direction.

ONE WAY SLAB DESIGN


WSD Method:
Design procedure and formula:
1. Design data
La

= Clear span in short direction in ft

Lb

= Clear span in long direction in ft

fy

=Yield strength of steel, psi

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fc

= Crushing strength of concrete, psi

DL

= Sum of all Dead Load [excluding self weight]

LL

= Live load, psf

2. Condition:

Lb/La > 2

3. Elastic constant calculation :


Es

= 29 x 106 psi

Ec

= 57000 fc'

fs

= 0.4fy

fc

= 0.45fc

= fs/fc

= Es/Ec

= n/(n+r)

=1-k/3

4. Selection of slab thickness:


Minimum slab thickness from deflection point of view..
Support condition
Simply supported
One end continuous
Both end continuous
Cantilever

Thickness
La/20
La/24
La/28
La/10

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Assume, slab thickness = t inch


Effective depth, d=t 1
5. Load calculation:
Calculation, self-weight,

SW = t/12 x 150

Total load

W = DL+LL+SW

6. Moment calculation:
Moment from ACI code moment co-efficient
M

= C x W xLa2

= ACI code moment co-efficient

7. Dept check:
dreq

[b

= 12inch]

=t- 1

If, d>dreq.

Depth is ok

if, d<dreq. Change slab thickness and repeat from step (4)to (7)

8. Steel calculation:

As

Temperature and shrinkage steel:


Asmin

= 0.0025bt

If As<Asmin then As = Asmin


9. Distribution steel:
As

=0.002bt

Specification:
Maximum spacing = 2t.

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USD method:

1. Design data: Mentioned as above


2. Condition: Lb/La> 2
3. Elastic constant calculation:
If fc= 4000 psi then

= 0.85

If fc> 4000 psi then

= 0.8

x(

Balance steel ratio

= 0.85x1x

=max= 0.75b

= x

x(

4. Selection of slab thickness: Mentioned as above.


5. Load calculation:
DL = Dead load (including self weight)
LL = Live load
Total load, W = 1.4 x (DL+SW) + 1.7 x LL

6.

Moment calculation:
Moment from ACI code moment co-efficient
M = C x W x La 2
C = ACI code moment co- efficient.

7. Depth check:

dreq

[ = 0.9 ]

If d >dreq; Depth is OK.


If d < dreq; increase slab thickness.

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8.

Steel calculation:
As

[ = 0.9 ]

If, As <Asmin then As = Asmin


9. Temperature and shrinkage steel:
If fy= 50000 psi then, Asmin = 0.002bt
If fy

smin

= 0.0018bt

If fy> 60000 psi then Asmin = 0.0018 x 60000 x bt/fy

TWO WAY SLAB DESIGN


1. Selection of slab thickness:
Minimum slab thickness, tmin= 2(La + Lb) / 180 inch
Assume slab thickness = t
Effective depth in short direction; dsor = t-1 inch
Effective depth in long direction; dlon = t 1.5 inch
2. Load calculation:
Total load W = DL + LL + SW (Self weight) [For WSD]
Total load W = DL x 1.4 + LL x 1.7 + SW x 1.4 (Self weight) [For USD]

3. Moment calculation:
Panel ratio, m = La/Lb
(a) Negative moment at continuous edges:
Maneg = Caneg x W x La2
Mbneg = Cbneg x W x Lb2

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Caneg, Cbneg = Co- efficient for negative moments in slabs from panel ratio and
support con dition.
(b) Positive moment at mid span:
Ma.pos.dl

= Capdl x DL x La2

Ma.pos.ll

= Capllx LL x La2

Ma.pos.tot

= Mapos.dl + Mapos.ll

Mb.pos.dl

= Cbpdl x DL x Lb2

Mb.pos.ll

= Cbpll x LL x Lb2

Mb.pos.tot

= Mbpos.dl + Mbpos.ll

Ca.dl, Cbdl = Co- efficient for dead load positive moments.


Ca.ll, Cbll= Co- efficient for live load positive moments.
(c) Negative moments at discontinuous ends:
Ma.neg

= 1/3x Mapos.tot

Mb.neg

= 1/3x Mb.pos.tot

4. Depth check:
Find Mmax

dreq =

[For WSD]

dreq =

[For USD]

If, dreq.<dsor then depth is Ok.


If dreq>dsor then increse the depth and repeat depth check
5. Steel calculatin:
Calculate steel for long and short direction.
(a) For continuous ends
(b) For mid span
(c) For discontinuous ends

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By using the formula

For short direction, As

For short direction, As

[WSD]

[USD]

For long direction, As

[WSD]

For long direction, As

[USD]

6. Temperature and shrinkage steel,


Asmin

= 0025bt

[WSD]

Asmin

[USD]

If, As <Asmin then, As = Asmin

Flat slab design in USD method


Slab thickness calculation:
Slab thickness St = L/40

[with drop]

Slab thickness St = 4 inch

[with drop]

Slab thickness St = L/36

[without drop]

Slab thickness St = 5 inch

[without drop]

Slab with drop panel St

= 0.024L(

+1

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= 0.028L(

Slab without drop panel St

+ 1.5

Where c = length of Column caps;


w= total load including self- weight (psf)
Minimum thickness of the slab is established by the largest of the above criteria.

Punching shear check:


Vc

= 4 x 0.85 x

xbxd

Vall = Nominal shear force around the perimeter at d/2 distance from the
column capital.
If Vc>Vallthen depth is Ok. Otherwise, d will have to be increased.
Beam shear check:
Vc = 2 x 0.85 x

xbxd

Vall = Nominal shear force at the distance d from the support.


Moment calculation:
Moment Calculation:
Mo

= 0.09WLF(

Where, F

= 1.15 -

[W = total load (lb)]

Depth check:
If fc = 4000 psi then 1
If fc> 4000 psi then

= 0.85

= 0.8

Balance steel ratio


x(

= 0.85x1x

=max= 0.75b

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R

= x

x(

dreq =

[= 0.90]

If, d < dreq. then depth is Ok.


If d<dreq then increase the slab thickness
Steel area calculation:
Calculate steel for interior or exterior panel
(a) Column strip negative moment.
(b) Middle strip positive moment.
(c) Middle strip negative moment.
As

[ = 0.9 ]

Asmin= (200/fy) bd
If As<Asmin then As = Asmin
The maximum bar spacing = 2 x t.

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DESIGN PROCEDURE (BEAM)

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The of beams are mainly of three types (According to no. of span)


1. One span
2. Two span
3. More than two span

For two and more than two span beam, the moment and shear co- efficient are
followed from ACI moment co- efficient chart. For one span with various support
conditions, the moment co -efficient are followed from structural analysis.

Moment and shear values using ACI coefficients:


Positive moment:
If discontinuous end is unrestrained =

wl2

If discontinuous end is integral with the support =


Interior spans =

wl2

wl2

Negative moment at exterior face of first interior support:


Two spans =

wl2

More than two spans =

wl2

Negative moment at other faces of interior supports =

wl2

Negative moment at interior face of exterior supports for members build


integrally with their supports:
Where the support is a spandrel beam or girder =
Where the support is a column =

wl2

wl2

Shear in end members at first interior support = 1.15


Shear at all other support =
[Where w = uniformly distributed load through the span, l = Span length.]

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This chart is applicable within the following limitations:
1. There are two or more spans.
2. Sans are approximately equal, with the longer of two adjacent spans not
greater than the shorter by more than 20 percent.
3. Loads are uniformly distributed.
4. The unit live load does not exceed 3 times the unit dead load.
5. Members are prismatic.
Moment and shear values for one span:
Simply supported:
Moment at mid span =

wl2

Shear at support =
One end fixed another end hinged:
wl2

Moment at fixed support =

wl2

Moment at mid span =


Shear at fixed end =

wl

Both end fixed:


Moment at fixed support =
Moment at mid span =

wl2

wl2

Shear at support =
Cantilever:
Moment at support =

wl2

Shear at support = wl
[w = uniformly distributed load, l = span length.]

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Section chooses:
The sections of a beam choose according to maximum moment at continuous end
support or mid span from the following equations:
kjbd2

Mn

= fybd2 (

for WSD method

for USD method

If the total thickness of the beam is greater than the span length by inch/ft
then total thickness will be inch /ft of span length.
Steel area calculation:
Design procedure and formula for WSD:
1. Design specification:
L

= Length of beam

fy

= Yield strength of steel

fc

= Compressive strength of concrete

2. Elastic constant calculation:


Es

= 29 x 106 psi

Ec

= 57000 fc'

fs

= 0.4fy

fc

= 0.45fc

= fs/fc

= Es/Ec

= n/(n+r)

=1-k/3

M = Design moment
d = Effective depth
d = Clear cover
t = Beam thickness.
Then, d = t -d

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3. Steel area:
Concrete resisting moment, Mr

= Rbd2

If M < Mr ; singly reinforced beam is confirmed

Then, steel area As

If M > Mr, design as doubly reinforced beam


M1

= Mr

M2

= M - Mr

As1

As2

Then tension steel area, Ast = AS1+ AS2


Compression steel:
f s

= 2 x fs x

fs

Taking least value of fs & fs


Compression steel area, AS f =

T-Beam at mid span (if beam with slab):


Selection of flange width (Bf):
(I). Bf = L/4
(II). Bf = 16 x t + bw [b=bw]
(III). Bf = C/C spacing of beam
Selected Bf

= minimum of the above three value

Depth of compression block (a):


AS 1

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= kxd

If a > t; real T - Beam


If a t; false T - Beam
Then, the beam can be analyzed as if it wares a rectangular beam of width
equal to
Bf, the flange width.
As =
If, AS< AS1

then AS1 = AS.

Design procedure and formula for USD:


1. Design specification:
L

= Length of beam

fy

= Yield strength of steel

fc

= Compressive strength of concrete

2. Elastic constant calculation:


If fc= 4000 psi then

= 0.85

If fc> 4000 psi then

= 0.80

Balance steel ratio


x(

= 0.85x1x

=max= 0.75b

= x

x(

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3. Load and moment calculation:
DL

= Dead load (including self weight)

LL

= Live load

Total load, W = 1.4 x DL + 1.7 x LL


Calculate, M = Design moment
V = Design shear
4. Beam type check:

5.

As

= max x b x d

Mr

Steel area calculation:


If, M < Mr; singly reinforced beam is confirmed.

As

If, M > Mr; Design as doubly reinforced beam

As1

= max x b x d
M1

M2

= Mr

= M - Mr

Compression steel area


As2

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Tension steel area
Ast

= As1+ As2

'

cy

= 0.851

fs

= u Es

17

Check:

As revised

+ '

= Astrial

T-Beam at mid span (If Beam with slab):


Selection of flange width (Bf):
(I). Bf = L/4
(II). Bf = 16 x t + bw [b=bw]
(III). Bf = C/C spacing of beam
Selected Bf

= minimum of the above three value


As1

If, a > t ; then real T - Beam


If, a < t ; then false T Beam
Then, the beam can be analyzed as if it ware as a rectangular beam of width equal to
Bf, the flange width.
Steel calculation:
For flangeAsf

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M1

= 0.9 x Asf x fy x

M2

= M M1

Asw

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For web-

Total steel area, Ast = Asf + Asw

Shear reinforcement:
For WSD analysis:
Vc

= 1.1

bd

For vertical U -stirrup:


S

[V = Developed shear at distance d from the support Face]


Smax

For USD analysis:


Vc

= 2

bd

For vertical U - stirrup:


S

Smax

Smax = d/2
Smax = 24 inch.
The minimum of above three is the maximum spacing.

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Minimum bar spacing:
Spacing

= 1.5 x Aggregate size.

Spacing

= Bar dia.

Spacing

= 1 inch.

The maximum of above three is the minimum bar spacing

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