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Annotated Bibliography

Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Jabber, and Co, 1906. Print.
Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle and actually investigated the meatpacking industry and
the lives of the immigrants who worked there. This book was extremely important in
creating my website because it was a primary source and allowed me to see Sinclairs
viewpoints on important issues.
Sinclair, Upton. Letter to Theodore Roosevelt. 10 Mar. 1906. TS.
Sinclair wrote this letter to President Roosevelt about Federal Investigators in the
meatpacking industry. This letter allowed me to see how the meat industry was a national
issue and how strongly Sinclair advocated this issue and wanted to make a change.
Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Pub. L. 90-201. 81 Stat. 601. 30 June 1906. Print.
This was the original Meat Inspection Act passed in 1906. This allowed me to see that
this was a very serious issue to the American People and how much Sinclair impacted
what they were eating.

Federal Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. Pub. L. 58-384. 34 Stat. 768. 30 June 1906. Print.
This was the original Federal Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. This allowed me to see
that Sinclairs investigation did not only affect the meat people ate, but also caused a
change in food in general, as well as the drugs people took.
Hassman, Carl. The Meat Market. Cartoon Puck 13 June 1906. Print.
This was a cartoon in a popular satirical magazine in the early 20th century. This allowed
me to see the view of the public on the meatpacking industry and their views on what
they had been eating.
Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1890. Print.

This book was written by another muckraker before Sinclair wrote his book. This book
was written about the lives of immigrants and allowed me to deepen my knowledge about
immigrants during this time, important issues in Sinclairs book.
Riis, Jacob A. Italian Mother and Her Baby. 1889. The Jacob A. Riis Collection, Museum of the
City of New York. The New York Times. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.
This is an image of an immigrant family who had to work in giant industries, like the
meatpacking industry, which showed me why Sinclair wanted to better immigrants lives
and what their lives were like to begin with.
""Sanitary Inspector Welch Says "The Abattoir at Benning Is in the Most Sanitary Condition."
Washington Post 27 Jan. 1907: 187. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.
This is a Washington Post Article about a meatpacking factory inspection. This document
showed me how it was denied that the conditions of the meatpacking industry were
loathsome and how the media covered this issue seriously.
Young, James Harvey. Pure Food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton UP, 1989. Print.
This is a secondary source book about the Food and Drugs Act of 1906. I used this
because it allowed me to see how Sinclair specifically caused the passing of the Act and
to learn more about his legacy.
Trott, Steve. "Upton Sinclair and The Jungle." The Socialist Party of Great Britain. N.p., Nov.
2006. Web. 14 Nov. 2014.
This is a news report about Sinclairs The Jungle. This was an extremely useful
secondary source because it allowed me to see how Sinclairs socialist views led him to
write The Jungle.
ushistory.org. Muckrakers. N.p.: n.p., 2014. U.S. History Online Textbook. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.

This online textbook was useful for me to learn about the Muckrakers, the Progressive
Era and what the Muckrakers goals were as a whole. This information was useful in my
Context page.
Mintz, S., & McNeil, S. "Eugene Debs, The Outlook for Socialism in the United States." Digital
History. N.p., 2013. Web. 14 Nov. 2014.
This part of an online textbook was useful to me because it gave me background
information on what exactly Socialism was and how it was created, which was important
because Sinclairs socialist views impacted his book greatly.
Hussey, Michael. "Global Muckraking: The International Impact of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle."
Teaching History: A Journal of Methods (2009): n. pag. World History in Context. Web. 14 Nov.
2014.
This article was extremely useful because it helped me realize the global impact of
Sinclairs actions and how it affected meat around the world.
Bacon, Robert. "Letter from Acting Secretary of State Robert Bacon to U.S. Ambassador to the
United Kingdom Whitelaw Reid Discussing Postcards Regarding the Chicago Meatpacking
Industry." Letter to Whitelaw Reid. 9 Oct. 1907. MS. Chicago, Illinois.
These postcards from South Africa were really important to my project because they
showed me how this issue was known about throughout the world due to Sinclairs
muckraking and helped me learn about other countries viewpoints on the Chicago
meatpackers.
Applegate, Edd. Muckrakers: A Biographical Dictionary of Writers and Editors. Lanham, MD:
Scarecrow, 2008. Print.
This secondary source, a book, was really useful to me because it told me about Sinclairs
motivations behind his investigation, and also why and how he decided to investigate.
Roosevelt, Theodore. "The Man with the Muck Rake." Washington DC. 4 Apr. 1906. Speech.
This is a secondary source and I used it because it showed me what Theodore Roosevelts
personal opinion on muckrakers was and what he thought of their acts. Furthermore, this

quote showed me how new the idea of a muckraker was and how muckrakers fit into
Sinclairs time.
Bain News Service. Upton Sinclair, Portrait Bust, Studio at 56 Fifth Ave., N.Y.N.d. New York.
This image was of Upton Sinclair. This image showed me that he had become famous
enough to have his picture taken by a news corporation. I used this image on the Home
page of my website.
A Half Mile of Pork (2 Rows of Pigs Hanging Up) at Armour's Great Packing House, Chicago,
Ill. 1897. Chicago.
This image was of Pork at a packing house in Chicago. This image showed me how
extensive the meatpacking industry was. I used this image in the title.
The Jungle Cover. 1906. New York, n.p. Ed. Page Doubleday.
This image was an image of the original cover of Sinclairs The Jungle. I used this
image as a part of the title images.
Riis, Jacob. Street Arabs -- Night, Boys in Sleeping Quarter. 1890. How the Other Half Lives,
n.p.
This image was taken by Jacob Riis in the 1890s. I used this image to show the
conditions of immigrants during Sinclairs time and to show why Sinclair wanted a
change in the progressive era.
Hine, Lewis. Some Boys and Girls Were so Small They Had to Climb up on to the Spinning
Frame to Mend Broken Threads and to Put Back the Empty Bobbins. 1909. Macon, Georgia, n.p.
This image was taken by Lewis Hine and shows child laborers in Macon, Georgia. This
image was used in the the context page in order to show what the purpose of the
Progressive Era was and what Muckrakers were uncovering.
Splitting Backbones and Final Inspection - Hogs Ready for Cooler, Swift & Co., Chicago. 1906.
Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

This image was taken to show how pigs were inspected in the meatpacking industry and
what the process of splitting backbones looked like. I included it on the page titled
The Jungle.
Chicago Meatpacking Plant Workers. 1905. McGraw Hill Online Textbook, n.p. Comp. Thomas
Wadsworth.
This image shows the conditions of the meatpacking laborers and how they had to toil
even when it was raining. This image helped me realize why Upton Sinclair had such an
enmity to Capitalism. I used this image in the Socialist Propaganda page.
H.C White C.O. Making Link Sausages--machines Stuff 10 Ft. per Second, Swift & Co.'s
Packing House, Chicago, U.S.A. 1905. Library of Congress. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Library of
Congress. Web. 3 Nov. 2014.
This image shows how vast the sausage making operations were and how many laborers
it involved. This image also showed me how exposed the meat was and how it was
therefore easily contaminated.
Chicago - Meat Packing Industry: Dressing Beef, Removing Hides and Splitting Backbones,
Swift's Packing House. 1906. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
This image shows the process of cutting the beef and preparing it for packaging. This
image was appalling because the beef seemed to be casually thrown on the floor and
there was no importance to hygiene given and therefore showed the poor conditions of
the beef.
Chicago - Meat Packing Industry: Dropping Hides and Splitting Chucks, Beef Dept., Swift &
Co.'s Packing House. 1906. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
This image further showed the process the meat went through when being packed. I used
this image on the page titled The Meat.
Chicago - Meat Packing Industry - Swift & Co.'s Packing House: Killing Hogs, Shackling Pen
and Wheel. 1906. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

This image showed me how hogs were killed and made me realize how inhumane the
meatpackers were when it came to the lives of these animals. I used this image on the
page titled The Meat.
Chicago - Meat Packing Industry - Swift & Co.'s Packing House: Knocking Cattle before
Slaughtering. 1906. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
This image showed me how the animals were hit on the head before killed. This image
was extremely disturbing to me and showed me what it must have been like to work in a
meatpacking factory and kill animals.
Cutting up the Hogs, Armour's Great Packing House, Chicago, U.S.A. 1893. Library of
Congress, Washington D.C. Comp. Strohmeyer and Wyman.
This image showed me how many people touched the meat when it was being packaged
and how dangerous it was to work in a meatpacking factory with butchers everywhere. I
used this image on the page titled The Meat.
Glackens, Louis M. "The Real Packingtown-- If You Let the Packers Tell It." Puck. Vol. 59. New
York: Keppler & Schwarzmann, 1906. Print.
This cartoon showed me how the meatpacking industry was satirized and how much of an
issue the meat that was packed became: not only because of the unhygienic situations of
the meat, but also because of the inhumane animal treatment.
Impact of Sinclair's 'The Jungle' on Food Safety. Narr. Melissa Block. Morning Edition. NPR.
Natl. Public Radio. Web. 30 July 2009.
This online podcast about the impact of The Jungle really helped me view Upton
Sinclairs legacy from the point of a historian and also helped me learn more about what
Upton Sinclair actually did.
Armour, Jonathan O. "The Packers and the People." Saturday Evening Post. 10 Mar. 1906: 6.
Print.
This article was written by J. Ogden Armour, the President of the Armour meatpacking
and slaughtering company during the early 1900s. His response toward Sinclairs The
Jungle showed me how big business owners didnt want their reputation to be spoiled and
would not admit to their wrongdoings.

Keppler & Schwarzmann, comps. "Watch the Professor." Puck 23 Apr. 1906: n. pag. Print.
This was a political cartoon by Puck that was published shortly after Sinclairs
discoveries. This image showed me how Sinclairs leadership led to education of public
on the horrible meat they were eating and how complacent the meat inspectors were on
this matter.