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LYSAGHT W-DEK

Structural steel decking system

Design and
Construction Manual

s/ptimised to bring greater efficiency, speed


of construction and economy.
sExceptional spanning characteristics
(up to 4.1m) reduces propping required.
s/ne of the best coverage-per-weight of
steel which makes it economical.
s,93!'(47 $%+ has excellent concrete
displacement characteristics which saves
material costs.

Warranty
BlueScope Lysaght has a number of comprehensive product warranties
that cover not only the corrosion performance of the material but also the
structural and serviceability performance of a wide range of products.
BlueScope Lysaght can back their products with over 150 years experience
and credibility. The LYSAGHT brand is widely recognised as setting
the benchmark on quality products, and is trusted and respected by our
customers and competitors nationwide.

Disclaimer, warranties and limitation of liability


This publication is intended to be an aid for professional engineers and is
not a substitute for professional judgement.
Terms and conditions of sale are available at local BlueScope Lysaght
sales ofces.
Except to the extent to which liability may not lawfully be excluded or
limited, BlueScope Steel Limited will not be under or incur any liability to
you for any direct or indirect loss or damage (including, without limitation,
consequential loss or damage such as loss of prot or anticipated prot,
loss of use, damage to goodwill and loss due to delay) however caused
(including, without limitation, breach of contract, negligence and/or
breach of statute), which you may suffer or incur in connection with this
publication.
LYSAGHT, LYSAGHT W-DEK, and GALVASPAN are trademarks of
BlueScope Steel Limited A.B.N. 16 000 011 058
The LYSAGHT range of products is exclusively made by BlueScope Steel
Limited trading as BlueScope Lysaght.

Copyright BlueScope Steel Limited March 10, 2009


Produced at BlueScope Lysaght Reseach and Development.
2

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

Contents
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1. Features and applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1 Spanning capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Composite action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Design efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Economical design for fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 Quicker trouble free installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Specification and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1 ,93!'(4 7 $%+ composite slabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 ,93!'(47 $%+ section properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Sheeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.4 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 Shear connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.7 Design methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Formwork design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1 Deflection limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Formwork design load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2.1 Design for strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2.2 Design for serviceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Formwork Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. Composite slab design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.3 Crack control options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4 Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5 Design load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5.1 Strength load combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5.2 Serviceability load combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.5.3 Superimposed dead load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.6 Design for Strength in negative regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.1 Negative bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.6.2 Shear strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.7 Design for strength in positive regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.7.1 Positive bending Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.7.2 Shear strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. Design for fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2 Design for insulation and integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3 Design for structural adequacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3.1 Design loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4 Reinforcement for fire design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.5 Location of longitudinal reinforcement
for fire design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. Design Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1 Use of design tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.2 Single span design tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.3 Interior span design tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.4 End spans design tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

7. Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.1 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.2.1 Propping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2.2 Laying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2.3 Interlocking the sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2.4 Securing the platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2.5 Installing 7 $%+ on steel frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.2.6 Fastening side lap joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2.7 Fitting accessories for edge form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2.8 Sealing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.2.9 Items embedded in slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2.10 Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.2.11 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2.12 Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.3 Reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.3.1 Transverse reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.3.2 Longitudinal reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.3.3 Trimmers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4

Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4.1 Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4.2 Concrete additives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4.3 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4.4 Construction joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.4.5 Placing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.4.6 Curing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.4.7 When to remove props . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.5 Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.5.1 Soffit and edge form finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.5.2 Plastering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.5.3 Change in floor loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.6 Suspended ceilings & services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.6.1 Plasterboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.6.2 Suspended ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.6.3 Suspended services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8. Composite beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.1 Shear stud capacities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
9. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

Background
LYSAGHT W-DEK is a new innovative profiled steel decking which brings
greater economy and design freedom to building with composite concrete
slabs. Our design engineers scoured the globe to find the best Wprofiles in the world. After careful examination, our engineers incorporated
the best aspects of each profile into new ,93!'(47 $%+. The profile
has been specifically developed for Australian high tensile steels - which
makes ,93!'(47 $%+ one of the best performing W profiles in the
world.
,93!'(47 $%+ is a profiled zinc-coated high tensile steel decking for use
in the construction of composite floor slabs. It has exceptional composite
performance no additional reinforcement is required in most applications.
It can be used as formwork during construction and as a reinforcement
system in composite slabs.
Our increased understanding of composite slabs, together with testing in
our NATA-accredited laboratory and leading Australian universities, has
paid off with an optimised product, which provides significant cost savings
for projects.
,93!'(47 $%+ has exceptional spanning characteristics and spans up to
4.1 metres, reducing the need for supporting structures.
The built-in properties of high tensile steel are maximised in the design
and fabrication of the deck profiles which result in products with high
strength-to-weight ratio. ,93!'(47 $%+ is currently the most economical
structural steel decking in Australia for typical applications because it
provides widest cover per weight of steel.
The profiled ribs are 78mm in height, resulting in ,93!'(47 $%+ having
excellent concrete displacement characteristics and minimal propping
requirements. This speeds up installation and makes the costs of delivery,
erection and structural framing significantly lower than for other systems.

Scope
This manual provides information on the design of formwork, propping,
composite slabs and design for fire and some information for composite
beams.
This manual is developed to the latest versions of the relevant Australian
Standards and Eurocodes.

Conditions of use
This publication contains technical information on the following grades of
,93!'(47 $%+:
s,93!'(47 $%+ 0.75 mm thickness
s,93!'(47 $%+ 1.00 mm thickness
Additionally,,93!'(4 7 $%+ software allows you to get quicker and
more economical solutions with a range of options. Call Steel Direct
on 1800 641 417 to obtain additional copies of the Design Manual and
Software.
Where we recommend use of third party materials, ensure you check
the manufacturer's requirements. Diagrams are used to explain the
requirements of a particular product. Adjacent construction elements of
the building that would normally be required in that particular situation
are not always shown. Accordingly aspects of a diagram not shown should
not be interpreted as meaning these construction or design details are
not required. You should check the relevant Codes associated with the
construction or design.

Warranties
Our products are engineered to perform according to our specifications
only if they are installed according to the recommendations in this manual
and our publications. Naturally, if a published warranty is offered for the
product, the warranty requires specifiers and installers to exercise due
care in how the products are applied and installed and are subject to final
use and proper installation. Owners need to maintain the finished work.
4

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

1. Features and Applications


Contact Steel Direct for advice on the design of concrete frame buildings.
Use on masonry buildings is acceptable if the requirements of Section 7
are satisfied.

1.1 Spanning Capacities


,93!'(47 $%+ has superior spanning capacities. 1.0 mm BMT ,93!'(4
7 $%+can span up to 4.1 metres when used on steel framed construction.
After careful examination, our engineers incorporated the best aspects of
each profile into new ,93!'(47 $%+ developed specifically for high
tensile steel. This resulted in a new innovative and optimised shape for
,93!'(47 $%+, having flange stiffeners and deep embossments, which
act as web stiffeners, to increase the load carrying capacity.
Due to the large depth of the profile, an increase of the flexural rigidity
reduces deflections.

1.2 Composite Action


Generally speaking, a profiled steel sheet forms permanent and integral
formwork for the concrete slab. Commonly, the ribs of the profiled sheeting
are perpendicular to the centreline of the steel I-section which supports it.
The stud shear connectors are welded through the thin steel sheeting into
the top flange of the steel beam. This creates a shear connection in the
longitudinal beam by way of the mechanical shear connectors, as well as
in the direction transverse to the beam by the embossments in the profiled
sheeting. It is this connection that allows a transfer for forces and gives
composite members their unique behaviour.
,93!'(47 $%+ has exceptional composite performance and leads to no
additional reinforcement requirement in most applications.

1.3 Design Efficiency


The range of ,93!'(47 $%+ gauges available (0.75 mm and 1.0
mm) allows much closer matching of design requirements and deck
performance.
1.2 mm BMT is not available in the design tables and software. However, a
solution with ,93!'(47 $%+ 1.2 mm BMT is available subject to enquiry.

1.4 Design for Fire


,93!'(47 $%+ composite slabs can be designed for up to 4 hours of
fire rating. Guide tables in our manual are developed for fire periods of
60 and 90 minutes. Where necessary, additional bottom fire reinforcement
is given in these tables. Our software can be used if other fire periods are
required.
Negative fire reinforcement is an additional design option in our ,93!'(4
7 $%+designsoftware.

1.5 Quicker Trouble-Free Installation


The installation of ,93!'(47 $%+ follows traditional methods for quick
and easy installation. It is available in long lengths so large areas can
be quickly and easily covered to form a safe working platform during
construction. ,93!'(47 $%+provides a cover width of 700 mm, which is
the widest cover per weight of steel currently available in Australia.

1.6 Technical Support


Contact Steel Direct on 1800 641 417 for access to our technical support
services.BlueScope Lysaght Technology at Chester Hill, NSW, together
with your local BlueScope Lysaght Technical Sales Representatives, can
be called upon also to provide comprehensive information regarding the
correct use of ,93!'(47 $%+ for engineers, architects and builders.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

2. Specication and Design


2.1 LYSAGHT W-DEK composite slabs
Bar reinforcement
Concrete

Mesh
reinforcement

Embossments
b

yb
dcb

tbm (BMT)

SHEETING
ELASTIC
CENTROID

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Cover width 700

Figure 2.1
LYSAGHT W-DEK profile dimension and
reinforcement

78mm

700mm
713.6mm

Figure 2.2
,93!'(47 $%+ profile and dimensions

2.2 LYSAGHT W-DEK Section Properties


LYSAGHT W-DEK

Thickness
B MT mm

1.00 BMT
0.75 BMT

1.00
0.75

Self Weight
(kg/m2)
11.63
8.85

Full C ross-sectional
area of W-DECK
Ash mm2/m

Effective second
moment of area
l x 104 mm4/m

1414
1060

119.9
77.5

Table 2.1
Notes: 1. Self weight is given for Z350 coating.
2. Effective second moment of area varies depending on span values in a table.
Values are given for longest spans only.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

2.3 Sheeting
,93!'(47 $%+ is rolled-formed from hot dipped, zinc-coated, high
tensile steels in base metal thickness (BMT) of 1.0 and 0.75 mm.
1.2 mm BMT is not available in the design tables and software. However,
the solution using ,93!'(47 $%+ 1.2 mm BMT is available subject to
enquiry.
The steel conforms to:
s!3 AND
sAND"-4 STEELGRADEIS'
s"-4nSTEELGRADEIS'
The coating is Z350 (350 g/m2 minimum coating mass) or Z450 (450 g/m2
minimum coating mass) is available subject to enquiry.
Embossments on the top of flanges and web embossing provide the
mechanical connection between the steel and concrete.

2.4 Concrete
All tables have been developed for the 32 MPa grade of concrete with
normal density of 2400 kg/m3 (wet density). Other concrete grades are
available in the software.

2.5 Reinforcement
s3TEELREINFORCEMENTISNECESSARYTOCONTROLSHRINKAGEANDTEMPERATURE
effects, as flexural negative reinforcement over supports and in
some instances for fire engineering purposes and as bottom tensile
reinforcement. It shall comply with the requirements of AS/NZS
4671:2001.
s&ORNEGATIVE POSITIVEANDFIREREINFORCEMENT $.OR9ISUSEDIN
the software. D500N is used only in the tables.
s$,OR$.REINFORCEMENTCANBEUSEDASSHRINKAGEMESH
s/URDESIGNTABLESASSUMETHEUSEOF$.MMMAXIMUMDIAMETER
bars for negative and fire reinforcement in addition to 500L shrinkage
mesh.

2.6 Shear Connectors


Extensive testing has been conducted in our NATA-registered lab and
the University of Western Sydney. Shear stud capacities are available
for secondary and primary composite beams. Those capacities can be
achieved using conventional reinforcement in secondary beams and
specific reinforcement developed by One Steel/University of Western
Sydney in primary beams.
For more information refer to Section 8 of this Manual: Composite Beams.

2.7 Design Methods


There are a number of ways you can design concrete slabs using,93!'(4
7 $%+:
s5SINGTHEDESIGNTABLESGIVENINTHISMANUAL
s#ALCULATEFROMFIRSTPRINCIPLESUSINGTHERELEVANT!USTRALIAN3TANDARDS
Eurocodes and data from this manual.
s2UNOUR,93!'(47 $%+design software. This is also likely to produce
a more economical design.
s#ONTACT3TEEL$IRECTON
However, if in doubt you should get advice from a specialist where
required.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

3. Formwork Design
The ,93!'(47 $%+ formwork shall be designed in accordance to AS
3610 - 1995 and AS2327.1.
,93!'(47 $%+ capacities and stiffness have been derived from tests
conducted at our NATA-accredited laboratory at BlueScope Lysaght
Technology, Chester Hill, NSW.
Our design tables can be used to detail ,93!'(47 $%+ acting as a
structural formwork, provided the following conditions are satisfied:
s4HESUPPORTLINESEXTENDACROSSTHEFULLWIDTHOFTHESHEETINGANDHAVEA
minimum bearing of 50 mm at the ends of the sheets, 100 mm minimum
bearing length for interior supports.
s4HESHEETSCONTINUEWITHINEACHSLABSPANLENGTHWITHOUTANYOVERLAPS
or intermediate splicing or jointing longitudinally.
s4HESHEETSAREDESIGNEDASSINGLEORCONTINUOUSSPANFORMWORK
s4HESLABHASAUNIFORMCROSSSECTION
s3EPARATECONSIDERATIONISGIVENTOSIDESOFTHESHEETINGWHEREEDGES
shall be restrained.
s,93!'(47 $%+ sheeting ends shall be securely fixed at all permanent
and temporary supports to the supporting structure
s4HERATIOOFTHELONGERSLABSPANTOTHESHORTERSLABSPAN,l/Ls) of any
two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.2 (i.e. Ll/Ls 1.2).
s4HESUPPORTSAREEFFECTIVELYRIGIDSUCHTHATTHEIRVERTICALDEFLECTIONS
during the construction phase can be ignored in design.

Outline of
concrete

Bearing on LYSAGHT W-DEK


(Not less than100 mm
where sheeting
is continuous.)

50mm
minimum

End
support

Equal sheeting spans L'


50mm
minimum

Interior
support

Temporary
props

Temporary
props

LYSAGHT
W-DEK
Slab span L

Interior
support

Slab span L
Interior
support

Figure 3.1
,93!'(47 $%+ formwork

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

3.1 Deflection Limits


AS-36101995 Formwork for concrete, defines five classes of surface
finish (numbered 1 to 5) covering a broad range of applications and
AS2327.1.
We recommend a deflection limit of span/240 for the design of composite
slabs in which good general alignment is required, so that the soffit
appears straight when viewed as a whole. We consider span/240 to be
suitable for a Class-3 and 4 surface finish and, in many situations, Class
2. Where alignment affects the thickness of applied finishes (for example
vermiculite), you may consider a smaller limit of span/270 to be more
suitable.
We consider span/130 to be a reasonable maximum deflection limit
appropriate for profile steel sheeting in situations where visual quality is
not significant (Class 5).

3.2 Formwork Design Loads


,93!'(47 $%+ must be designed as formwork for two stages of
construction according to AS 3610-1995 and AS2327.1.
Stage I
Prior to the placement of the concrete:
s

DURINGHANDLINGANDERECTIONOFTHEFORMWORKAND

s

O NCETHEFORMWORKISERECTEDBUTPRIORTOTHEPLACEMENTOFTHE
concrete,

When a live load due to stacked materials can be adequately controlled


on the site at less than 4 kPa, the reduced design live load must be clearly
indicated on the formwork documentation. (1kPa in tables from Section 3.3)
Stage II
During placement of the concrete up until the concrete has set (until fcm
reaches 15-MPa and concrete is able to act flexurally to support additional
loads such as stacked materials).
NOTE: No loads from stacked materials are allowed until the concrete has
set.
s$IFFERENTPATTERNLOADINGSHALLBECONSIDERED INCLUDINGWHENONE
formwork span only is loaded - with live loads, loads due to stacked
materials and wet concrete. The ,93!'(47 $%+ has sufficient
capacity for a concentrated point load of 2.0 kN for all spans and
BMT. It is not necessary to perform formwork capacity checks for
concentrated loads.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

3.2.1 Design For Strength


Design bending capacities
The positive bending moment should be calculated using partial plastic
theory. Negative moments over supports should not exceed the values
given in Table 3.1.
If the negative bending moment over the support obtained from linear
elastic analysis exceeds the design negative bending capacity - negative
moments shall be redistributed into positive area such as negative moment
does not exceed value given in the tables.
Bending moment in positive areas shall not exceed design moment
capacity given in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1
W-DEK moment capacities
Design positive
Design negative
Capacity
Capacity
tbm
F-u.sh (kN/m -u.sh (kN/m
1.0
1.0
0.75
0.75

9.73
Minimum value of:

7.2
3.2

(i) 6.61
(ii) 3.46 + 1.26Ll
where Ll is in metres (distance between centres
of permanent or temporary supports)

Shear (web crippling) capacity of end support


Interior supports shall not be checked for shear. The design shear capacity
(F Vu,sh) for end bearing length of 50 mm or more, is :
(F Vu,sh)

= 25 kN/m (0.75 BMT)

(F Vu,sh)

= 38 kN/m (1.0 BMT)

3.2.1 Design For Serviceability


The maximum vertical deflection ($), at completion of the concrete
placement in all spans, is calculated using:
sTHEVALUESOFTHECOEFFICIENTKdASGIVENIN4ABLEAND
sTHEVALUEOFTHEEFFECTIVESECONDMOMENTOFAREA)ef is calculated as
follows:
For 0.75 BMT
Ief = Minimum of 775000mm4
or
Maximum (Ll   MM4
For 1.00 BMT
Ief = Minimum (406500+Ll MM4
where Ll is in mm.

Table 3.2
Values of coefficient kd for calculation of $
(The maximum vertical deflection always occurs in the
end span for these conditions.)

10

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2009

3.3 Formwork tables

Formwork table 1.00 BMT


No props
Slab thickness, mm
Single span
Two spans
Three or more spans

130
3100
4100
3800

135
3050
4050
3750

140
3000
4000
3700

145
2950
3950
3650

150
2900
3900
3600

160
2850
3800
3500

175
2750
3650
3400

200
2600
3500
3200

130
5200
5200
5200

135
5200
5200
5200

140
5400
5400
5400

145
5600
5600
5600

150
5600
5600
5600

160
6000
6000
6000

175
6000
6000
6000

200
6000
6000
6000

1 prop
Slab thickness, mm
Single span
Two spans
Three or more spans

Formwork table 0.75 BMT


No props
Slab thickness, mm
Single span
Two spans
Three or more spans

130
2700
3500
3300

135
2650
3450
3250

140
2600
3400
3200

145
2550
3350
3150

150
2550
3300
3100

160
2450
3200
3050

175
2300
3050
2950

200
2100
2900
2800

1 prop
Slab thickness, mm
Single span
Two spans
Three or more spans

130
5200
5200
5200

135
5200
5200
5200

140
5400
5400
5400

145
5600
5600
5600

150
5600
5600
5600

160
6000
6000
6000

175
5950
5950
5950

200
5650
5650
5650

NOTES:

1. Continuous maximum spans are limited as given in composite slab tables for interior spans and total 6000mm limit.
2. Maximum formwork spans are based on Ll/240 deflection limit and ratio of two adjacent spans equal 1:1.
3. Use ,93!'(4 7 $%+software to get longer spans with Ll/130 deflection limit and wider supports.
4. 1kPa Live Load due to stacked materials is used.

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11

4. Composite Slab Design


4.1 General
This chapter discusses the parameters upon which our design tables and
software are based. Solutions to your design problems may be obtained by
direct reference to either our ,93!'(4 7 $%+ design software, or our design
tables in this Manual.
Design data about composite performance of slabs with,93!'(47 $%+
have been obtained from full scale slab tests conducted at the University of
Newcastle.

4.2 Application
Our design tables and software can be used to design composite slabs
with ,93!'(4 7 $%+ provided the following conditions are satisfied:
s 4 HESPECIFIEDCONCRETESTRENGTHGRADEc is in the range 25 MPa to 40
MPa (as specified in AS-36002001). The concrete density Rc may be
for normal weight concrete, taken as Rc  2400kg/m3.
s 4 HECONCRETEMANUFACTUREANDMATERIALSSATISFYTHEREQUIREMENTSOF
AS 36002001, Section 19.
s 4 HELINESOFSUPPORTEXTENDACROSSTHEFULLWIDTHOFTHESHEETINGAND
have a minimum bearing of 50 mm at the ends of the sheets, and 100
mm at intermediate supports over which sheeting is continuous.
s 4 HERATIOOFTHELONGERSLABSPANL1) to the shorter slab span ( Ls ) of
any two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.2, that is L1/Ls b 1.2.
s 4HESLABHASAUNIFORMCROSS SECTION
s 4 HEDESIGNLOADSFORSERVICEABILITYANDSTRENGTHDESIGNSHALLBE
uniformly-distributed and static in nature.
s 4 HEBENDINGMOMENTSATTHESUPPORTSAREONLYCAUSEDBYTHEACTIONOF
vertical loads applied to the slab.
s 4HEEXPOSURECLASSIFICATIONIS! ! " OR"
s /
NLY,93!'(47 $%+ profiles can be used in conjunction with this
manual. High values of Tu,Rd responsible for composite performance can
only be achieved due to advanced features of ,93!'(47 $%+.
Refer to Table 4.1 for longitudinal shear resistance values.
s ATERIALANDCONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTSFORCONVENTIONALREINFORCING
steel must be in accordance with AS 36002001, Clause 19.2, and
the design yield stress, ( sy ), must be taken from AS 36002001,
Table 6.2.1, for the appropriate type and grade of reinforcement, and
manufacturers data.
s ATERIALANDCONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTSFORCONCRETEMUSTBEIN
accordance with AS 36002001, Clause 19.1.
s ,93!'(47 $%+ must not be spliced, lapped or joined longitudinally in
any way.
s 4 HEPERMANENTSUPPORTLINESMUSTEXTENDACROSSTHEFULLWIDTH
of the slab.
s 3
IMILARTOTHEREQUIREMENTINAS 2327.1, Clause 4.2.3, composite
action must be assumed to exist between the steel sheeting and the
concrete once the concrete in the slab has attained a compressive
strength of 15 MPa, that is cj r15 MPa. Prior to the development of
composite action during construction, potential damage to the shear
CONNECTIONMUSTBEAVOIDEDANDNOLOADSFROMSTACKEDMATERIALSARE
allowed.
s 4HEFIRSTINTERIORSPANMUSTHAVETHESAMETHICKNESSASTHEENDSPAN
s $ETAILINGOFCONVENTIONALTENSILEREINFORCEMENTOVERNEGATIVEMOMENT
regions shall be arranged in accordance with the Figures 4.1 and 4.2.
Refer to AS3600-2001, clause 9.1.3 for more information on detailing of
tensile reinforcement in one way slab.

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2009

4.3 Crack Control options


Tables and software are developed to the latest recommendations of
AS3600-2001, Clause 9.4.1 regarding flexural crack control. Our design
tables for continuous spans assume full crack control. The software allows
full and relaxed crack control.
s-AXIMUMBARDIAMETERANDMAXIMUMBARSPACINGDEPENDONTHESTRESS
fs in the reinforcement and the design crack width a smaller bar
diameter may result in less reinforcement being necessary.

0.3Ln

Wall

Wall

Negative
reinforcement

minimum 100mm

s&ORDETAILEDANALYSISOFCRACKCONTROLFORCOMPOSITESLAB REFERTO
AS3600-2001, Clause 9.4.

0.3Ln

Cover

Wall

Minimum 70mm
0.3Ln
Minimum 50mm

LYSAGHT W-DEK
Ln

Wall

Concrete slab

Ln
L (span)

L (span)
Restraint at
end support
by mass of wall

Little or no
restraint at
end support

Continuous over
interior support

0.3Ln

Wall

Wall

Figure 4.1
Pattern 1 for conventional reinforcement

0.3Ln

Cover

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Wall

0.3Ln

Wall

Concrete slab

1/3 of negative
reinforcement
Ln

Ln
L (span)

L (span)
Restraint at
end support
by mass of wall

Continuous over
interior support

Little or no
restraint at
end support

Figure 4.2
Pattern 2 for conventional reinforcement when imposed load exceeds twice the dead load

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2009

13

4.4 Durability
The exposure classification relevant to the design of ,93!'(47 $%+
slabs are A1, A2, B1 and B2 as defined in AS 36002001, Clause 4.3.
The minimum concrete cover (c) to reinforcing steel, measured from the
slab top face, must comply with AS-36002001, Table 4.10.3.2.

4.5 Design Loads


4.5.1 Strength load Combinations
For strength calculations, design loads for both propped and unpropped
construction must be based on the following load combinations.
Pattern loading shall be considered according to AS3600-2001 Clause
7.6.4.
As per AS3600-2001

1.25 Gc Gsh Gsup 1.5Q


and for bending (composite) and shear capacity in positive (with top outer
fibre of concrete in compression) areas. (as per prEN 1994-1-1)
1.35 Gc Gsh Gsup 1.5Q

where Gc SELFWEIGHTOFCONCRETE Gsh =SELFWEIGHTOFSHEETING


Gsup = superimposed dead load (partitions, floor tiles, etc.) Q = live load

4.5.2 Serviceability Load Combinations


Deflections due to loading applied to the composite slab should be
calculated using linear elastic analysis in accordance with AS3600-2001,
Clause 3.4. and 8.5.3. Note that the live load (Q) is applied after the
removal of any temporary props and after the addition of any deflectionsensitive finishes. The loading pattern of vertical load should be considered
in the analysis as per AS3600-2001, Clause 7.6.4 for short term loads.
Loads for crack control shall be in accordance AS3600-2001 Clause 9.4.1.

4.5.3 Superimposed Dead Load


The maximum superimposed dead load assumed in our design tables is
1.0 kPa. Use ,93!'(4 7 $%+ design software for other loads.

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Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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4.6 Design for Strength in Negative Regions


4.6.1 Negative Bending Strength
For the bending strength design in negative moment regions, the presence
of the sheeting in the slab is ignored and the slab shall be designed
allowing for 50% void area between ribs. For this purpose, use the
provisions of AS3600-2001, Section 9.
The minimum bending strength requirement of AS 3600-2001, Clause 9.1
must be satisfied.

4.6.2 Shear Strength


Negative moment regions must be designed for shear strength, to satisfy
AS 3600-2001, Section 9. The negative moment region of composite slab
shall be calculated allowing for voids between ribs which are 50% of cross
sectional area within decking profile.

4.7 Design for Strength in Positive Regions


4.7.1 Positive Bending Strength

Table 4.1
LYSAGHT W-DEK
Longitudinal shear resistance
BMT
0.75
1.0

u,Rd

115
185

(kPa)

Positive-moment regions are designed for bending strength such that at


every cross-section the design positive moment capacity is not less than
the design positive bending moment capacity.
Positive bending capacity shall be calculated as per prEN1994-1-1 Clause
9.7.2. Partial shear connection theory shall be employed using values of
Tu,Rd in Table 4.1.

4.7.2 Shear Strength


The positive shear capacity can be calculated as per Eurocode 2
Clause 4.3.2.3

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15

5. Design for Fire


5.1 General
The ,93!'(4 7 $%+ composite slabs shall be designed for fire conditions
in accordance to AS 3600-2001. The entire soffit of slab is assumed to
be exposed to fire over both positive and negative moments regions.
Temperature distribution through a cross section of a composite slab
subject to fire is affected by the geometry of sheeting profile.
Reduction factors are applied to allow for the adverse effect of elevated
temperatures on the mechanical properties of concrete and steel. Values of
these reduction factors shall be derived from the relationships given in
AS 3600-2001, Clause 5.9.
Our tables may be used to detail ,93!'(4 7 $%+ composite slabs when
the soffit is exposed to fire provided the following conditions are satisfied:
s4HECOMPOSITESLABACTSASAONE WAYELEMENTSPANNINGINTHEDIRECTION
of the sheeting ribs for both room temperature and fire conditions.
s4HECOMPOSITESLABHASBEENINITIALLYDESIGNEDANDDETAILEDFORROOM
temperature conditions in accordance to this manual.
s4HEFIREDESIGNLOADISESSENTIALLYUNIFORMLYDISTRIBUTEDANDSTATICIN
nature.
s!DEQUATEDETAILINGOFSLABJOINTING EDGES SLABHOLESANDCAVITIESFOR
penetrating, embedded or encased services) to provide the appropriate
fire resistance period. Alternatively the local provision of suitable
protection (such as fire spray material) will be necessary.
s&IREREINFORCEMENTASPER&IGUREAND&IGURE
s4HEFIREPERIODSARE   ORMIN
sXb= 140mm as per Figure 5.1 and 5.2 designates zone where fire and
negative reinforcement shall be placed.

5.2 Design for Insulation and Integrity


Minimum required overall depth (D) of ,93!'(4 7 $%+ slabs for
insulation and integrity for various fire resistance periods is given in
Table 5.1.
These values are derived from test results.
Table 5.1 Minimum overall depth
(D) of LYSAGHT W-DEK slabs for
insulation and integrity
Fire
Resistance
Period
(Minutes)
60
90
120
180
240

Depth
(D) mm
130
135
145
170
190

5.3 Design for Structural Adequacy


5.3.1 Design Loads
Use AS1170.1 Clause 2.5 together with
Design load for fire Wf = 1.1G + Yl Q

16

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

5.4 Reinforcement for Fire Design


The arrangement of reinforcement for fire design is shown in Figure 5.1.
Fire reinforcement may be necessary, in addition to mesh and negative
reinforcement required by our tables for composite slab design.
s$,REINFORCEMENTSHOULDBEIGNOREDASFIREREINFORCEMENTLOCATEDAT
the plastic hinges.
s4HELOCATIONOFREINFORCEMENT!st,f- for Fire detail 1 is in a single top layer
at a depth of dct below the slab top face (refer to figure 5.1). This detail
is applicable to continuous slabs only
s4HELOCATIONOFREINFORCEMENT!st,f+ for Fire detail 2 is in a single bottom
layer at a distance of yb above the slab soffit (refer to Figure 5.1). This
detail is applicable to both continuous and simple spans.
s4HECROSS SECTIONALAREAOFTHEADDITIONALREINFORCEMENTFORFIREDESIGN
is designated Ast,f+ in our tables (D500 N with bar diameter = 12 mm or
less).
s4HENEGATIVEREINFORCEMENT!st-) and the additional fire reinforcement
(Ast,f+ or Ast,f- as applicable), must be located as shown in Figure 5.1 &
5.2.
s4ABLESHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDFOR&IRE$ETAILnOURSOFTWAREPROVIDES
both options.
Ast

Ast.f

Ast, transverse
Concrete

xb

xb
dct
D
Mesh
(longitudinal - wires not shown)

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Ast

Ast.f

Concrete

LYSAGHT W-DEK

0.3 Ln
Ln
L

Fire detail 1

Ast, transverse

Ast.f+

Ast

Concrete

Ast
xb

xb
yb

Mesh
(longitudinal - wires not shown)

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Ast-

Ast.f+

Concrete

LYSAGHT W-DEK

0.3 Ln
Ln
L

Figure 5.1
Details of reinforcement for fire design

Fire detail 2
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17

5.5 Location of Longitudinal Reinforcement for Fire


Design

The longitudinal bars which make up Ast.f +, Ast.f - or A-st should be located
within the zone shown in Figure 5.2.
xb = 140mm
yb = varies depending on the diameter of the supporting bar

Transverse supporting bars


(shrinkage mesh)

Concrete

Ast.- (Ast.f-)
xb

xb
yb

Ast.f+
LYSAGHT W-DEK

Permissible zone for


longitudinal fire reinforcement Ast.f+, Ast.f- and A-st

Fig. 5.2
Permissible zone for location of longitudinal fire reinforcement for Fire
Detail 1 & 2.
Negative reinforcement A-st may be placed anywhere outside permissible
zone (See fig. 5.2) if design for fire is not required.

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6. Design Tables
6.1 Use of Design Tables
KEY - Single Spans

The design parameters specific for each table are given on the top of tables:
s3PANSSINGLE CONTINUOUSENDORINTERIOR

Fire reinforcement required for fire


resistance of 90 minutes (mm2/m)

s3PANSCENTRETOCENTRE
s4HICKNESSOFTHESLAB

50

s,IVELOAD

570

The rest of parameters are common for all tables and listed below:
Bottom reinforcement required for fire
resistance of 60 minutes (mm2/m)

s-ORETHANFOURSPANSFORCONTINUOUSSPANS
s#ONCRETEGRADEF1c = 32MPa.
s4YPEOFCONSTRUCTIONSTEEL FRAMECONSTRUCTION
s$ENSITYOFWETCONCRETEKGM3.

KEY - Continuous Spans


Top tensile (negative)
reinforcements over
supports (mm2/m)

1440
50

s,93!'(4 W $%+ used as a structural deck with thickness 0.75 or


1.0mm BMT
Fire reinforcement required
for fire resistance of 90
minutes (mm2/m)

570

s-INIMUMMMWIDTHOFPERMANENTSUPPORTS
s!EXPOSURECLASSIFICATION
s#OMPOSITESLABDEFLECTIONLIMITS,FORTOTALLOADSAND,FOR
incremental deflection.

Fire reinforcement required for fire resistance


of 60 minutes (mm2/m)

s)NDOORCONDITIONSFORCREEPANDSHRINKAGE
s2ATIOOFLONGERADJACENTSPANTOSHORTERDOESNOTEXCEED
s#RACKCONTROLREQUIRED

Notes:
1. Areas without cells mean that a design solution is
not possible.
2. Single spans do not require top tensile reinforcement,
relevant cells are not shown.
3. All spans are centre to centre.
4. A dash (-) means no fire reinforcement
is necessary.
5. N/A means a design solution with this particular fire
rating is not possible.
6. Top tensile/negative reinforcement is additional to
shrinkage mesh area
Table 6.1 Shrinkage mesh used with tables.
Depth
130
135
140
145
150
160
175
200

Mesh
SL62
SL62
SL62
SL62
SL62
SL72
SL72
SL82

s-AXIMUMMMDIAMETERREINFORCINGBARS
sK0AOFSUPERIMPOSEDDEADLOAD
s2EINFORCEMENT$.FORNEGATIVEANDFIREREINFORCEMENT
s,OCATIONOFNEGATIVEREINFORCEMENTASSHOWNON&IG
s,OCATIONOFFIREREINFORCEMENTASSHOWNON&IGAND &IREDETAIL
s3HRINKAGEMESHASINTHE4ABLEFORMINORDEGREEOFCRACKCONTROL
s&ORMWORKWITHATLEASTONESUPPORTASSUMEDFULLYSUPPORTEDCONDITIONS
sMMSUPPORTWIDTH
s.EGATIVEANDFIREREINFORCEMENTSHOWNINTABLESISINADDITIONTOSHRINKAGE
mesh specified in Table 6.1. If negative fire reinforcement is required,
at least one bar per ,93!'(47 $%+ rib should be placed. Smaller bar
diameter may result in less negative and fire reinforcement.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

19

6.2 Single Spans


Single Spans 130 mm slab
Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
5000
5200

60
90
120
150
190
230
280
330
380

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
90
130
160
200
250
290
350
410

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
100
130
170
210
260
310
370

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
110
140
180
230
270
330
390

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
120
160
200
240
290
340

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

110
140
180
220
260
300
350

110
140
170
200
240
280
320
370

100
130
160
200
230
280
320

Single Spans 135 mm slab


Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
Span
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000

80
100
130
170
200
240
290
340
390

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
110
140
180
220
260
310
360

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
120
150
190
230
270
320
380

90
120
150
180
220
260
300
350

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
130
160
190
230
270
320
370

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
130
170
200
240
290
340

90
120
160
200
250
300
360

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
140
180
220
270
320

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

120
160
200
240
280
330

110
140
180
210
250
290
340

110
140
180
210
260
300

Single Spans 140 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4000

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
140
180
220
280
330

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

120
150
200
240
290
350

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

140
170
210
260
310

120
160
190
230
270
320

120
160
190
230
280
330

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

130
170
220
280
340

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

150
190
240
300

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

150
210
260
330

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

180
230
290

7.5

5.0

10

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

170
210
260
320

140
170
210
250
300
350

150
190
240
280

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

200
250
310

N/A
N/A
N/A

Single Spans 145 mm slab


Span
(mm)
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200

20

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
2.5
80
110
140
170
200
240
280
320
360

100
120
150
180
220
250
290
340
380

90
110
140
180
210
250
290
340

100
130
160
190
230
270
310
350

90
120
150
190
220
260
310
350

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

5.0

7.5

10
170
210
250
300

2009

180
230
280

200
240
300

Single Spans 150 mm slab


Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
Span
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200

100
120
150
180
220
250
290
340

110
140
170
200
230
270
310
350

100
130
160
190
230
270
310
350

120
150
180
210
250
280
330
370

110
140
170
200
240
280
320

3
120
150
190
220
260
300
340

120
150
180
210
250
290
340

120
150
180
220
250
290
330

110
140
170
210
240
280
330

130
150
180
210
250
280
320

110
140
170
200
240
270
310

110
130
160
190
220
250
280
320
360

90
120
140
170
200
240
270
310

Single Spans 160 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200

90
120
150
180
210
250
280
320

110
140
170
200
230
270
300
340

100
130
160
190
220
260
300
340

120
140
170
210
240
280
320
360

110
130
160
200
230
270
310

100
120
150
180
210
240
270
310

110
140
170
190
230
260
290
330

100
130
160
190
220
250
290
320

120
150
170
200
240
270
310
340

110
140
160
190
230
260
300

130
160
200
240
280
320

130
160
190
230
260
300
350

120
160
190
230
270
310

130
160
190
220
260
290
330

130
160
190
220
260
300

120
140
170
200
230
260
290
330

100
130
160
190
220
260
290

Single Spans 175 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4200

4
130
160
190
230
270
310
360

5.0
140
180
210
250
290
340

140
180
210
260
300

140
170
210
250
290
330

140
170
210
250
290

150
170
210
240
280
320

140
170
200
240
280

130
150
180
210
250
280
320

110
140
170
200
240
280

7.5
160
190
230
270
320

170
210
260
310

160
190
230
270
310

170
210
250

160
190
220
260
300

170
210
240
290

140
170
200
230
260
300

140
170
210
240
280

5.0

10
190
230
280
330

210
250
310

190
230
270

200
250

190
230
260
310

200
240
290

160
200
230
270
310

170
200
240
280

7.5

5.0

220
270
320

10

7.5

220
270

10
220
260
310

Single Spans 200 mm slab


Span
(mm)
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
2.5
80
100
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
340

100
120
150
170
200
230
260
290
330
370

80
110
130
160
190
220
250
280
320

100
130
150
180
210
240
270
310
340

90
110
140
170
190
230
260
290
330

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

5.0

7.5

10

2009

190
230
270
310

21

6.3 Interior Spans


Interior Spans 130 mm slab
Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200

70
70
70
70
70
70
20
70
50
80
60
100
50
130
50
180
10
180
20
210
30
240
40
270
50
300
60
340
70
380
80

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
70
70
70
70
30
70
70
90
50
120
20
180
10
180
20
200
30
240
30
270
40
310
50
350
60
400
70

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

2.5

70
70
70
70
70
70
40
100
50
130
20
180
10
200
10
240
20
280
30
330
40
370
50
420
60

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
70
70
70
10
90
130
160
200
10
240
20
280
20
330
30
380
40
430
50

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
70
70
100
140
180
220
10
260
10
310
20
370
30
420
40

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
70
100
140
180
220
270
10
330
20
390
30
450
40

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
80
130
180
230
290
350
10
420
20

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
140
190
260
320
400
10

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

5400

Interior Spans 135 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200

80
80
80
80
80
80
20
90
50
110
20
130
10
160
10
200
20
210
20
240
30
270
40
300
50
340
60
370
70

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
80
80
80
80
30
100
10
120
10
150
200
10
200
20
240
30
270
40
300
40
340
50
390
60

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
80
80
80
10
90
10
110
10
140
200
10
200
10
230
20
270
30
310
40
350
50
390
60
440
70

2.5

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
80
80
90
120
160
200
230
10
270
20
320
30
370
30
420
40
470
50

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
80
100
130
170
210
250
10
300
20
350
20
410
30
470
40

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
100
130
170
220
260
320
10
370
20
430
30

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
120
170
220
280
340
10
410
20
480
20

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

5400

22

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

130
190
240
310
380
10
460
20

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

Interior Spans 140 mm slab


Span
(mm)
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
90
90
90
90
90
90
20
110
10
140
160
220
10
220
20
250
20
280
30
310
40
340
50
380
60
410
70

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
90
90
90
90
110
10
130
150
220
10
220
10
240
20
270
30
300
40
340
50
380
50
420
60

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

2.5

90
90
90
90
90
120
140
220
220
10
230
20
260
20
300
30
340
40
380
50
430
60

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
90
90
90
120
150
190
230
10
270
10
310
20
360
30
400
40
460
40
510
50

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
90
100
130
170
220
250
290
10
340
20
390
30
450
30
510
40

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
90
130
170
220
260
310
10
360
20
420
20
480
30

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

120
160
210
270
320
390
10
460
20

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

180
230
300
370
440
10

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

5600

Interior Spans 145 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600

100
100
100
100
100
100
120
140
170
230
10
230
10
250
20
280
30
310
30
340
40
380
50
410
60
450
70

10
10
10
20
30
30
40
50
60
60
70

100
100
100
100
100
110
130
160
190
230
10
240
20
270
20
300
30
340
40
370
50
410
60
450
60

10
20
20
30
40
40
50
60
70

100
100
100
100
100
120
150
170
230
10
230
10
260
20
300
30
330
30
370
40
420
50
460
60

2.5

3
10
10
20
30
30
40
50
60

100
100
100
100
120
150
180
230
260
10
300
10
340
20
390
30
440
40
500
50

4
10
10
20
30
40
40

100
100
100
130
160
200
240
280
10
330
10
380
20
430
30
490
40

5.0
10
10
20
30
30
40

100
100
130
160
200
250
300
350
10
400
20
460
30
530
30

7.5
10
20
20

120
160
200
260
310
370
10
440
10
510
20

10
10
20

170
230
290
350
430
10
510
10

10
20
N/A

30
N/A

30
40
N/A

N/A

50
N/A

60
70

80

80

5800

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

23

Interior Spans 150 mm slab


Span
(mm)
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
110
110
110
110
110
120
150
170
200
240
10
250
20
280
20
310
30
340
40
380
40
410
50
450
60

10
10
20
20
30
40
40
50
60
70

110
110
110
110
120
140
160
190
240
10
240
10
270
20
310
30
340
30
370
40
410
50
450
60

10
10
30
30
30
40
50
50
60
70

2.5

110
110
110
110
130
150
180
240
240
10
270
10
300
20
330
30
370
40
410
40
450
50
500
60

3
10
20
20
30
30
40
50
60

110
110
110
120
150
180
240
250
290
10
340
20
380
20
430
30
480
40
530
50

4
10
10
20
20
30
40
50

110
110
120
160
190
240
280
320
10
370
20
420
20
480
30
530
40

5.0
10
20
20
30
40

110
120
160
200
240
290
340
10
390
10
450
20
510
30

7.5
10
10
20

150
200
250
300
360
420
10
490
20

10
10
10

220
280
340
410
480
10

10
10
20

20
N/A

30
30
N/A

40
N/A

50
N/A

70
N/A

70

5800
6000

Interior Spans 160 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000

24

270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
410
410
410
10
410
10
410
20
410
30
440
40
480
40
510
50

10
20
30
30
40
40
50
60

270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
410
410
410
410
10
410
20
410
20
440
30
470
40
510
50

10
10
20
30
30
40
50
60

270
270
270
270
270
270
270
410
410
410
410
10
410
10
410
20
430
30
470
40
510
40

2.5

3
10
20
20
30
40
40
50

270
270
270
270
270
270
410
410
410
410
410
10
410
20
420
20
460
30
510
40

4
10
10
20
30
30
40

270
270
270
270
270
410
410
410
410
420
10
480
10
540
20
600
30

5.0
10
20
20
30

270
270
270
270
410
410
410
410
450
10
510
10
580
20

7.5
10
10

270
270
410
410
410
430
500
580
10

10
10
20
N/A

20
30
N/A

N/A
N/A

50
60

60

60

70

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

270
410
410
430
500
580
-

10
N/A

Interior Spans 175 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
10
450
20
450
20
480
30
520
40

10
10
20
30
30
40
50
50

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
10
450
10
450
20
470
30
510
30
550
40

10
10
20
20
30
40
40
50
60

Interior Spans 200 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
520
-

10
10
20
20

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
520
550
10

10
20
20
30

2.5

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
450
10
450
20
470
20
510
30
550
40
590
50

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
520
540
580
10

3
10
10
20
30
30
40
50
50

300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
10
450
10
460
20
500
30
540
30
580
40

4
10
20
20
30
40
40

300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
450
490
10
550
20
610
30
670
30

5.0
10
10
20
30
30

300
300
300
300
450
450
450
450
470
530
10
590
20
650
20

7.5
10
10

300
300
450
450
450
460
520
590
10

10
10

300
450
450
450
530
610
-

10
N/A

10
20

20
30
30
N/A

N/A
N/A

50
60

60

2.5

3
10
10
20
20
30

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
530
570
10
610
10

4
10
10
20
30

350
350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
520
570
630
10
690
10

5.0
10
10
20

350
350
350
350
350
520
520
520
520
520
560
610
680
-

7.5
-

350
350
350
520
520
520
520
560
630
700
-

10
-

350
350
520
520
520
570
650
820
-

N/A

10
10

10
20
20

30
30

30

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

25

6.4 End Spans


End Spans 130 mm slab
Span
(mm)
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
70
70
70
20
70
50
70
80
70
110
90
130
110
150
180
130
180
180
200
200
230
230
270
250
360
270

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
10
70
30
70
60
70
90
80
110
100
130
130
140
180
150
190
180
230
200
270
220
360
250

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

2.5

70
70
10
70
30
70
60
70
100
100
110
130
120
180
120
200
150
240
170
290
200
360
230

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
10
70
40
70
70
90
100
120
100
180
100
190
130
240
150
280
180
330
210
380
250

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
70
20
70
50
90
70
120
80
180
90
210
120
250
140
300
170
360
210
420
240

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
10
70
30
80
60
120
60
180
80
210
110
260
130
310
160
370
190
440
230

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

70
30
100
40
150
60
200
80
260
110
320
140
390
170
470
210

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
30
160
50
220
80
280
110
360
140
440
170

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

4600

End Spans 135 mm slab


Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
Span
(mm)
1.5
2
2.5
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400

80
80
10
80
30
80
60
80
90
100
100
120
120
150
130
200
130
210
160
240
190
270
210
380
230

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
10
80
40
80
60
90
90
110
100
140
110
200
120
200
150
230
170
270
190
310
220
380
250

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
80
20
80
40
80
70
100
90
120
100
200
100
200
120
220
150
260
170
310
200
380
230

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
10
80
20
80
50
80
80
120
80
150
90
200
110
230
130
270
160
320
180
380
210

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
10
80
30
90
60
120
60
160
80
200
100
250
120
290
150
350
180
400
210

5.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

80
20
80
50
120
50
160
70
200
90
250
110
300
140
360
170
420
200

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

100
30
140
50
200
70
250
90
310
120
380
140
450
180

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

4600

26

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

150
40
210
60
270
90
340
120
420
150

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

End Spans 140 mm slab


Span
(mm)
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
2.5
90
10
90
20
90
40
90
70
100
80
130
90
150
110
220
110
220
140
240
160
280
180
310
210
400
230

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
10
90
20
90
50
90
70
120
80
140
100
220
100
220
120
230
140
270
170
300
190
400
220

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
10
90
30
90
50
100
70
130
80
160
90
220
110
220
130
260
150
300
180
340
200
400
230

3
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
10
90
30
90
60
120
70
150
80
220
100
220
120
270
140
310
160
360
190
410
220

4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

5.0

90
20
90
50
120
50
150
70
220
90
240
110
280
130
340
150
390
180
450
210

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

90
30
110
40
150
60
220
80
240
100
290
120
350
150
410
170
470
200

7.5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

140
40
190
60
240
80
300
100
360
130
430
150
510
180

10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

220
50
260
80
330
100
400
130
490
150

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

4800

End Spans 145 mm slab


Span
(mm)
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600

Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)


1.5
2
100
100
10
100
30
100
50
110
70
130
80
160
90
190
100
230
120
250
140
280
160
320
190
420
210

20
30
40
60
80
100
110
120
140
160
180
200
230

100
100
20
100
30
100
60
120
70
150
80
180
90
230
110
240
130
270
150
310
170
340
200
420
220

20
30
50
70
80
90
110
120
140
170
190
210

100
10
100
20
100
40
110
50
130
70
160
80
230
100
230
120
260
140
290
160
340
180
420
210

2.5

3
20
30
50
70
90
100
110
130
150
180
200

100
10
100
20
100
40
120
60
150
70
230
80
230
100
260
120
300
150
350
170
400
190

4
20
40
60
70
80
100
120
140
160
180

100
10
100
30
120
50
150
60
230
80
230
100
280
120
330
140
380
160
430
190

5.0
30
40
60
70
90
110
130
150
180

100
20
110
30
150
50
190
70
230
90
280
110
340
130
390
150
450
180

7.5
30
50
60
80
100
120
140

130
30
180
50
230
70
290
90
350
110
420
140
490
160

10
50
60
80
100
130

190
50
250
60
320
90
390
110
470
140

60
80
100
120
N/A

150
N/A

170
190

200

210

230

240

4800
5000

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

27

End Spans 150 mm slab


Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
Span
(mm)
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800

1.5
110
10
110
20
110
30
110
60
140
60
160
80
190
90
240
110
250
130
280
150
320
170
350
190
440
220

2
20
30
50
70
80
100
110
120
140
160
190
210

110
10
110
20
110
40
130
60
150
70
180
80
240
100
240
120
270
140
310
160
340
180
440
200

2.5
30
40
60
70
80
100
110
130
150
170
200
220

110
10
110
30
110
50
140
50
170
70
200
90
240
110
260
120
300
150
330
170
370
190
440
220

3
30
40
60
70
80
100
120
140
160
180
210

110
20
110
30
120
50
150
60
180
80
240
90
250
110
300
130
340
150
390
180
440
200

4
30
50
60
70
90
110
130
150
170
190

110
20
120
40
150
50
190
70
240
90
270
100
320
120
370
150
420
170
480
200

5.0
40
50
70
80
100
120
140
160
190

110
30
140
40
180
60
240
80
270
100
330
120
380
140
440
160
500
190

7.5
40
60
70
90
110
130
150

170
40
240
60
280
80
340
100
400
120
470
150
550
170

10
60
70
90
110

240
60
310
80
370
100
450
120

70
90
110
140

140
160
N/A

180
N/A

210

220

230

230

5000
5200

End Spans 160 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000

270
270
10
270
20
270
40
270
50
270
60
270
80
410
100
410
110
410
130
410
150
410
170
430
200

20
30
40
50
70
80
100
110
130
150
170
190

270
270
10
270
30
270
40
270
50
270
70
410
90
410
100
410
120
410
140
410
160
430
190

20
30
40
60
70
90
100
120
140
160
180
200

270
270
20
270
30
270
40
270
60
410
70
410
90
410
110
410
130
410
150
410
170
440
200

2.5

3
20
30
50
60
80
90
110
130
150
170
190

270
10
270
20
270
30
270
50
270
60
410
80
410
100
410
120
410
140
410
160
430
180

4
20
40
50
60
80
100
120
140
160
180

270
10
270
30
270
40
270
60
410
70
410
90
410
110
410
130
430
150
490
180

5.0
30
40
60
70
90
110
130
150
170

270
20
270
30
270
50
410
70
410
80
410
100
410
120
450
150
510
170

7.5
30
50
70
80
100
120

270
30
410
50
410
70
410
90
420
110
490
130

10
50
70
80
100
130
150

140
160
190

200

200

210

220

5200

28

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

410
50
410
70
410
90

60
80
100

End Spans 175 mm slab


Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
Span
(mm)
1.5
2
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400

300
300
10
300
20
300
40
300
50
300
60
300
80
450
90
450
110
450
130
450
140
450
160
490
180
500
200

20
30
40
50
60
80
90
110
130
140
160
180
200

300
300
20
300
30
300
40
300
50
300
70
450
80
450
100
450
120
450
130
450
150
450
170
490
190

20
30
40
60
70
80
100
120
130
150
170
190

2.5

300
10
300
20
300
30
300
40
300
60
450
70
450
90
450
100
450
120
450
140
450
160
490
180

3
20
30
50
60
70
90
100
120
140
160
180
200

300
10
300
20
300
30
300
50
300
60
450
80
450
90
450
110
450
130
450
150
470
170
510
190

4
30
40
50
60
80
90
110
130
150
170
190

300
10
300
30
300
40
300
60
450
70
450
90
450
100
450
120
450
140
510
160
570
190

5.0
30
40
60
70
90
100
120
140
160
180

300
20
300
30
300
50
450
60
450
80
450
100
450
120
470
140
530
160
600
180

7.5
40
50
60
80
100
110

300
30
450
50
450
70
450
80
450
100
510
120

10
50
70
80

450
50
450
60
450
80

60
80
100

100
120
140

130
150
170
N/A

200

210

210

220

5600

End Spans 200 mm slab


Span Characteristic Imposed Load Qk (kPa)
(mm)
1.5
2
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800

350
350
350
350
10
350
30
350
40
350
50
350
70
520
80
520
100
520
110
520
130
520
150
540
160
580
180

10
20
30
50
60
70
90
100
120
130
150
170
190
210

350
350
350
10
350
20
350
30
350
40
350
60
520
70
520
90
520
100
520
120
520
140
530
150
570
170
620
190

20
30
40
50
60
80
90
110
120
140
160
180
200

350
350
350
10
350
20
350
30
350
50
520
60
520
80
520
90
520
110
520
120
520
140
560
160
610
180

2.5

3
10
20
30
40
50
70
80
100
110
130
150
170
180

350
350
350
10
350
20
350
40
350
50
520
70
520
80
520
100
520
110
520
130
550
150
590
170

4
10
20
30
40
60
70
90
100
120
140
150
170

350
350
10
350
20
350
30
520
40
520
60
520
70
520
90
520
110
520
130
560
150
600
170

5.0
10
30
40
50
70
80
100
110
130
150
170

350
350
10
350
20
520
40
520
50
520
70
520
80
520
100
520
120
570
140
630
160

7.5
20
30
40
60
70
90

350
10
350
20
520
40
520
50
520
70
520
90

10
30
40

520
20
520
40

40
60

60
80
90
110

110
120
140
160
180

190

190

200

220

6000

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

29

7. Construction
7.1 Safety
,93!'(47 $%+ is available in long lengths, so large areas can be quickly
and easily covered to form a safe working platform during construction.
One level of formwork gives immediate protection from the weather,
and safety to people working on the floor below. The minimal propping
requirements provide a relatively open area to the floor below.
It is common sense to work safely, protecting yourself and work mates
FROMACCIDENTSONTHESITE3AFETYINCLUDESTHEPRACTICESYOUUSEASWELL
as personal protection of eyes and skin from sunburn, and hearing from
noise. For personal safety, and to protect the surface finish of ,93!'(4
7 $%+, wear clean dry gloves. Dont slide sheets over rough surfaces or
over each other. Always carry tools, dont drag them.
Occupational health and safety laws enforce safe working conditions in
most locations. Local laws may require you to have fall protection which
includes safety mesh, personal harnesses and perimeter guard rails where
they are appropriate. We recommend that you adhere strictly to all laws
that apply to your State.
,93!'(47 $%+ is capable of withstanding temporary construction loads
including the mass of workmen, equipment and materials as specified in
Section 3.0 of this manual. However, it is good construction practice to
ensure protection from concentrated loads, such as barrows, by use of
some means such as planks and/or boards.

7.2 Installation
,93!'(47 $%+ is delivered in strapped bundles. If not required for
immediate use stack sheets or bundles neatly and clear of the ground, on
a slight slope to allow drainage of water. If left in the open, protect with
waterproof covers.

Cover

Cover

Concrete slab

LYSAGHT W-DEK
Bearing of LYSAGHT W-DEK
(Not less than 50 mm
at end of sheets)

Figure 7.1
Typical layout

30

Props where
required

Props where
required

Bearing of LYSAGHT W-DEK


(Not less than 100 mm
where sheeting is
continuous)

Slab span
(Interior span)

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

Slab span
End span)

2009

7.2.1 Propping
It is a common practice to specify unpropped ,93!'(4 7 $%+ formwork,
however, depending on the span of a ,93!'(47 $%+ slab, temporary
propping may be needed between the slab supports to prevent excessive
deflections or collapse of the formwork.
,93!'(47 $%+ formwork is normally placed directly on prepared
propping. Props must stay in place during the laying of ,93!'(47 $%+
formwork, the placement of the concrete, and until the concrete has
reached the strength of 15 MPa.
Propping generally consists of substantial timber or steel bearers
supported by vertical props. The bearers must be continuous across the full
width of LYSAGHT W-DEK formwork.
Propping must be adequate to support construction loads and the mass of
wet concrete. Maximum propped and unpropped spans are given in
Section 3.3.

7.2.2 Laying
,93!'(47 $%+ must be laid with the sheeting ribs aligned in the
direction of the designed spans. Other details include the following:
s

4 HESLABSUPPORTSMUSTBEPREPAREDFORBEARINGASREQUIRED

s

, AY,93!'(47 $%+ sheets continuously over each slab span


without any intermediate splicing or jointing.

s

, AY,93!'(47 $%+ sheets end to end. Centralise the joint at the


slab supports. Where jointing material is required the sheets may be
butted against the jointing material.

s

3 UPPORT,93!'(47 $%+ sheets across their full width at the slab


support lines and at the propping support lines.

s

& ORTHESUPPORTSTOCARRYTHEWETCONCRETEANDCONSTRUCTIONLOADS
the minimum bearing is 50 mm for ends of ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets,
and 100 mm for intermediate supports over which the sheeting is
continuous.

s

&IXTOEVERYSUPPORTTEMPORARYANDPERMANENT ENDANDINTERNAL

7.2.3 Interlocking the Sheets


Overlapping ribs of,93!'(47 $%+ sheeting are interlocked.
Place the female lap rib overlapping the male lap rib of the first sheet at
an approximately 45 angle to the one previously laid, and then simply
lower it down, through an arc (see Figure 7.2) until the laps engage.
If sheets dont interlock neatly (perhaps due to some damage or distortion
from site handling or construction practices) use screws to pull the laps
together tightly (see Section 7.2.6, Fastening side-lap joints).

Position LYSAGHT W-DEK sheet at a


45 angle. Interlock sheets by lowering
female lap of sheet over male lap
through an arc.

Figure 7.2
Method of interlocking adjacent ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets
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31

7.2.4 Securing the Platform


Once laid,,93!'(47 $%+ provides a stable working platform. ,93!'(4
7 $%+shall be fixed to supporting structure at all permanent and temporary
supports with screws or nails or equivalent.
Where additional security is needed you can use:
s

WEIGHTS

s

SCREWSORNAILSINTOTHEPROPPINGBEARERS

Take care if you use penetrating fasteners (such as screws and nails)
because they can make removal of the props difficult, and perhaps result in
damage to the ,93!'(47 $%+

7.2.5 Installing LYSAGHT W-DEK on Steel Frames


,93!'(47 $%+ may be installed directly on erected structural steel works.

General fastening of LYSAGHTW-DEK


The sheeting shall be fixed to the structural steel using spot welds, or
fasteners such as self-drilling screws or equivalent.
Place the fixings (fasteners and spot welds) in the flat areas of the pans
adjacent to the ribs or between the flutes. The frequency of fixings depends
on wind or seismic conditions and good building practice. However at least
one fastener per pan shall be provided at all supports.
Use one of the fixing systems as appropriate.
s

&IX,93!'(47 $%+ with self-drilling screws or spot welds or


equivalent.

s

& ORSTRUCTURALSTEELUPTOMMTHICK USE XMMSELF DRILLING


hexagon head screws or equivalent.

s

&ORSTRUCTURALSTEELOVERMMTHICK PRE DRILLANDUSE XMM


hexagon head screws or equivalent.

s

3POTWELDSSHOULDBEMMMINIMUMDIAMETER3URFACESTOBE
welded must be free of loose material and foreign matter. Where
the LYSAGHT W-DEK soffit or the structural steel works has a prepainted surface, securing methods other than welding may be more
appropriate. Take suitable safety precautions against fumes during
welding zinc coated products.

Fastening composite beams

10-24x16mm hex. head


self-drilling screw, midway
between embossments.

Stud welding through the sheet has been considered a suitable securing
METHODFORTHESHEETINGINACOMPOSITEBEAMHOWEVERSOMEPRELIMINARY
fixing by one of the methods mentioned above is necessary to secure the
sheeting prior to the stud welding. Some relevant welding requirements are:
s

ATINGSURFACESOFSTEELBEAMANDSHEETINGTOBECLEANEDOF
scale, rust, moisture, paint, over spray, primer, sand, mud or other
contamination that would prevent direct contact between the parent
material and the,93!'(47 $%+

s

7ELDINGMUSTBEDONEINDRYCONDITIONSBYACERTIFIEDWELDER

s

&ORPRE PAINTED,93!'(47 $%+ sheets, special welding procedures


MAYBENECESSARYAND

s

&ORSHEETSTRANSVERSETOBEAMS 3TUDWELDINGMUSTBEWITHINTHEPAN

Figure 7.4
Fixing at a side lap

Fixing at sheeting supports

Figure 7.3
Positions for fixing ,93!'(47 $%+ to steel framing

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7.2.6 Fastening Side lap joints


If ,93!'(47 $%+sheeting has been distorted in transport, storage or
erection, side-lap joints may need fastening to maintain a stable platform
during construction, to minimise concrete seepage during pouring, and to
gain a good visual quality for exposed soffits (Figure 7.4).

7.2.7 Fitting accessories for EDGE FORM


EDGE FORM is a simple C-shaped section that simplifies the installation of
most ,93!'(47 $%+ slabs. It is easily fastened to the ,93!'(47 $%+
sheeting, neatly retaining the concrete and providing a smooth top edge for
quick and accurate screeding. We make it to suit any slab thickness.
EDGE FORM is easily spliced and bent to form internal and external corners
of any angle and must be fitted and fully fastened as the sheets are
installed. There are various methods of forming corners and splices. Some
of these methods are shown in Figures 7.5 and 7.6.
Fasten EDGE FORM to the underside of unsupported ,93!'(47 $%+
panels every 350mm. The top flange of EDGE FORM must be tied to the
ribs every 700mm with hoop iron 25mm x 1.0mm (Figures-7.7). Use 1016
x 16mm self-drilling screws.

Fastening bottom flange of EDGE FORM


LYSAGHT W-DEK

EDGE FORM

Fastening positions
Fasten EDGE FORM to the underside
of unsupported LYSAGHT W-DEK at
350 mm maximum centres.

Fastening top flange of EDGE FORM


EDGE FORM

EDGE FORM

Hoop iron

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Hoop iron

Tie top flange of EDGE FORM,


to LYSAGHT W-DEK ribs, with hoop iron,
every 700 mm maximum.

Figure 7.5
Typical fastening of EDGE FORM to ,93!'(47 $%+

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33

External corner
1. Notch top flange
for the required angle

3. Bend corner of EDGE FORM


to the required angle,
overlapping bottom flanges.

2. Cut 'V'
in bottom flange

Internal corner
2. Bend EDGE FORM
to required angle.
1. Cut top and bottom
flanges square.

3. Fasten top flange,


each side of corner,
to LYSAGHT W-DEK
rib, 100mm maximum
from corner.

Splicing two pieces

1. Cut-back top and bottom flanges of one


EDGE FORM section approximately 200mm.
2. Cut slight taper on web.
3. Slide inside adjoining EDGE FORM, and fasten
webs with at least 2 screws

Figure 7.6
Fabrication of formwork is easy with
%$'%&/2-

Brackets from hoop iron


EDGE FORM
A galvanised section that creates a permanent
formwork at the slab edgescut, mitred and
screwed on site. Stock length: 6100 mm

Figure 7.7
Fabrication accessories for %$'%&/2-

7.2.8 Sealing
Seepage of water or fine concrete slurry can be minimised by following
common construction practices. Generally gaps are sealed with waterproof
tape or by sandwiching contraction joint material between the abutting
ends of ,93!'(47 $%+ sheet. If there is a sizeable gap you may have to
support the waterproof tape. (Figure 7.8).

Figure 7.8
Use waterproof tape to seal joints in ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets and end capping to seal ends
34

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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7.2.9 Items Embedded in Slabs


Included are pipes and conduits, sleeves, inserts, holding-down bolts,
chairs and other supports, plastic strips for plasterboard attachment,
contraction joint material and many more.
Location of items within the slab (Figure 7.9)
Minimise the quantity and size of holes through ,93!'(47 $%+ sheeting,
by hanging services from the underside of ,93!'(47 $%+.

Top-face reinforcement
Bottom-face reinforcement

Zone for pipes laid across the ribs


(between top and bottom reinforcement)
Concrete

Figure 7.9
Zones for location of items embedded in slabs

LYSAGHT W-DEK

Zones for pipes and other items


laid parallel with the ribs

7.2.10 Holes
,93!'(47 $%+ acts as longitudinal tensile reinforcement similarly
to conventional bar or fabric reinforcement does in concrete slabs.
Consequently, holes in ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets, to accommodate pipes
and ducts, reduce the effective area of the steel sheeting and can
adversely effect the performance of a slab.
Some guidelines for holes are (Figure 7.10):
s

0LACEHOLESWITHINTHEPANOFANYSHEET WITHAMINIMUMEDGE
distance of 15 mm from the rib gap.

(OLESSHOULDBEROUND WITHAMAXIMUMDIAMETEROFMM

&ORSLABSDESIGNEDASACONTINUOUSSLABSPACEHOLESFROMANINTERIOR
support of the slab less than one tenth of a clear span.

Zone for holes through


sheet in central pan
Max. diameter 110 mm

15 mm
minimum

Minimum
0.1 Ln

Zone for holes


in continuous slabs

Minimum
0.1 Ln

Interior supports

Location of holes in sheet

Figure 7.10
Zones for location of holes through ,93!'(4 7 $%+.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

Ln
Location of holes relative to
supports in continuous slabs

2009

35

7.2.11 Inspection
We recommend regular qualified inspection during the installation, to be
sure that the sheeting is installed in accordance with this publication and
good building practice.

7.2.12 Cutting
It is easy to cut ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets to fit. Use a power saw fitted
with an abrasive disc or metal cutting blade. Initially lay the sheet with its
ribs down, cut through the pans and part-through the ribs, then turn over
and finish by cutting the tops of the ribs.

7.3 Reinforcement
,93!'(47 $%+ sheeting acts as longitudinal tensile reinforcement.
The condition of sheeting should be inspected before concrete is poured.
Reinforcement in slabs carries and distributes the design loads and
controls cracking. Reinforcement is generally described as transverse
and longitudinal in relation to span, but other reinforcement required for
trimming may be positioned in other orientations. Figure 7.11 shows a
typical cross-section of a ,93!'(47 $%+ composite slab and associated
terms.
Reinforcement must be properly positioned, lapped where necessary to
ensure continuity, and tied to prevent displacement during construction.
Fixing of reinforcement shall be in accordance with AS 3600 - 2001
Clause 19.2.5.
To ensure the specified minimum concrete cover, the uppermost layer of
reinforcement must be positioned and tied to prevent displacement during
construction.
Where fabric is used in thin slabs, or where fabric is used to act as both
longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, pay particular attention to the
required minimum concrete cover and the required design reinforcement
depth at the splicessplice bars are a prudent addition.
Always place chairs and spacers on pan areas. Depending upon the type
of chair and its loading, it may be necessary to use plates under chairs
to protect the ,93!'(47 $%+, particularly where the soffit will be
exposed. Transverse reinforcement may be used for spacing or supporting
longitudinal reinforcement.
Bar
reinforcement

Concrete
cover
Depth of
composite
slab

Transverse
wires of mesh

LYSAGHT W-DEK

sheeting

Mesh
reinforcement
(fabric)

Figure 7.11
Typical cross-section of a slab showing common terms
For fire reinforcement requirements, see Figure 5.2.

7.3.1 Transverse Reinforcement


Transverse reinforcement is placed at right-angles to the ribs of ,93!'(4
Deformed bar or fabric reinforcement may be used. In most
applications the transverse reinforcement is for the control of cracks
caused by shrinkage and temperature effects, and for locating longitudinal
reinforcement
7 $%+.

To control flexural cracking in the top face of the slab, transverse


reinforcement in the top-face may be required over walls or beams which
run in the same direction as the ,93!'(47 $%+ sheets.
For ease of construction, reinforcement for control of cracking due to
shrinkage and temperature is usually fabric reinforcement.
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Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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7.3.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement


Longitudinal reinforcement is positioned to carry design loads in the
same direction as the ribs of ,93!'(47 $%+. Deformed bar or fabric
reinforcement may be used.
Top-face longitudinal reinforcement is usually located over interior supports
of the slab and extends into approximately a third of the adjoining spans.
Bottom-face longitudinal reinforcement is located between supports of
the slab but, depending upon the detailing over the interior supports, it
may be continuous, lapped, or discontinuous. Bottom-face longitudinal
reinforcement may be placed on top of or below transverse reinforcement.
Location of top and bottom-face longitudinal reinforcement in elevated
temperatures requires special design. (Figure-5.2)

7.3.3 Trimmers
Trimmers are used to distribute the design loads to the structural portion of
the slab and/or to control cracking of the concrete at penetrations, fittings
and re-entrant corners. Deformed bar or fabric reinforcement may be used.
Trimmers are sometimes laid at angles other than along or across the span,
and generally located between the top and bottom layers of transverse and
longitudinal reinforcement. Trimmers are generally fixed with ties from the
top and bottom layers of reinforcement.

7.4 Concrete
7.4.1 Specification
The concrete is to have the compressive strength as specified in the
project documentation and the materials for the concrete and the concrete
manufacture should conform to AS 3600 - 2001.

7.4.2 Concrete Additives


Admixtures or concrete materials containing calcium chloride or other
chloride salts must not be used. Chemical admixtures including plasticisers
may be used if they comply with AS 3600 - 2001 Clause 19.

7.4.3 Preparation
Before concrete is placed, remove any accumulated debris, grease or
any other substance to ensure a clean bond with the ,93!'(47 $%+
sheeting. Remove ponded rainwater.

7.4.4 Construction Joints


It is accepted building practice to provide construction joints where a
concrete pour is to be stopped. Such discontinuity may occur as a result of
a planned or unplanned termination of a pour. A pour may be terminated
at the end of a days work, because of bad weather or equipment failure.
Where unplanned construction joints are made, the design engineer must
approve the position.
In certain applications, the addition of water stops may be required,
such as in roof and balcony slabs where protection from corrosion of
reinforcement and sheeting is necessary.
Construction joints transverse to the span of the ,93!'(47 $%+sheeting
are normally located at the mid-third of a slab span) and ideally over a line
of propping. Locate longitudinal construction joints in the pan (Figure 7.12).
It may be necessary to locate joints at permanent supports where sheeting
terminates. This is necessary to control formwork deflections since
formwork span tables are worked out for UDL loads.
Form construction joints with a vertical facethe easiest technique is to
sandwich a continuous reinforcement between two boards.

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37

Prior to recommencement of concreting, the construction joint must be


prepared to receive the new concrete, and the preparation method will
depend upon the age and condition of the old concrete. Generally, thorough
cleaning is required to remove loose material, to roughen the surface and
to expose the course aggregate.

Form boards sandwiching


continuous reinforcement.
Lower board shaped to match
LYSAGHT W-DEK profile

It may be necessary
to locate joints at
permanent supports
where sheeting
terminates to control
formwork deflections.

Concrete

LYSAGHT W-DEK
Prop

Transverse construction joint


Form boards sandwiching
continuous reinforcement.
Concrete

Figure 7.12

Longitudinal construction joint

Typical construction joint

7.4.5 Placing
The requirements for the handling and placing of the concrete are covered
in AS 3600 - 2001 Clause 19.1.3.
The concrete is placed between construction joints in a continuous
operation so that new concrete is placed against plastic concrete to
produce a monolithic mass. If the pouring has to be discontinued for more
than one hour, depending on the temperature, a construction joint may be
required.
Start pouring close to one end and spread concrete uniformly, preferably
over two or more spans. It is good practice to avoid excessive heaping of
concrete and heavy load concentrations. When concrete is transported by
wheel barrows, the use of planks or boards is recommended.
During pouring, the concrete should be thoroughly compacted, worked
around ribs and reinforcement, and into corners of the %$'%&/2-3by using
a vibrating compacter. Ensure that the reinforcement remains correctly
positioned so that the specified minimum concrete cover is achieved.
Unformed concrete surfaces are screeded and finished to achieve the
specified surface texture, cover to reinforcement, depths, falls or other
surface detailing.
Surfaces which will be exposed, such as %$'%&/2-3and exposed
soffits, should be cleaned of concrete spills while still wet, to reduce
subsequent work.

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Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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7.4.6 Curing
After placement, the concrete is cured by conventional methods, for
example, by keeping the slab moist for at least seven days, by covering the
surface with sand, building paper or polythene sheeting immediately after
it has been moistened with a fine spray of water. Follow good building
practice. Be particularly careful when curing in very hot or very cold
weather.
Until the concrete has cured, it is good practice to avoid concentrated
loads such as barrows and passageways with heavy traffic.

7.4.7 When to Remove Props


Various factors affect the earliest time when the props may be removed
and a slab initially loaded. Methods of calculating times and other guides
are given in AS-36101995, Clause 5.4.3

7.5 Finishing
7.5.1 Soffit and EDGE FORM Finishes
For many applications, 7 $%+ gives an attractive appearance to the
underside (or soffit) of a composite slab, and will provide a satisfactory
ceiling for example, in car parks, under-house storage and garages,
industrial floors and the like. Similarly, %$'%&/2-will give a suitable
edging. Additional finishes take minimal extra effort.
Where the ,93!'(47 $%+ soffit is to be the ceiling, take care during
construction to minimise propping marks (refer to Installation Propping),
and to provide a uniform surface at the side-laps (refer to Installation
Fastening Side-lap joints).
Exposed surfaces of ,93!'(47 $%+ soffit and %$'%&/2-may need
cleaning and/or preparation for any following finishes.

7.5.2 Plastering
Finishes such as vermiculite plaster can be applied directly to the
underside of ,93!'(47 $%+ with the open rib providing a positive key.
With some products it may be necessary to treat the galvanised steel
surface with an appropriate bonding agent prior to application.
Plaster-based finishes can be trowelled smooth, or sprayed on to give
a textured surface. They can also be coloured to suit interior design
requirements.

7.5.3 Change of Floor Loadings


Where a building is being refurbished, or there is a change of occupancy
and floor use, you may need to increase the fire resistance of the ,93!'(4
7 $%+ composite slabs. This may be achieved by the addition of a suitable
fire-protection material to the underside of the slabs.

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39

7.6 Suspended Ceilings and Services


7.6.1 Plasterboard
A ,93!'(47 $%+ soffit may be covered with plasterboard by fixing to
battens.

Fixing to battens
Steel ceiling battens can be fixed directly to the underside of the slab
using powder-actuated fasteners. The plasterboard is then fixed to ceiling
battens in the usual way (Figure-7.13).
Concrete

Batten
Plaster board

Figure 7.13
Fixing plasterboard to,93!'(47 $%+

7.6.2 Suspended Ceiling


Ceilings are suspended from hangers attached to eyelet pins power driven
into the underside of the slab.

7.6.3 Suspended Services


Services such as fire sprinkler systems, piping and ducting are easily
suspended from,93!'(47 $%+ slabs using traditional installation
methods to support these services.

40

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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8. Composite Beams
Research by BlueScope Lysaght Technology, University of Sydney and
University of Western Sydney was conducted to determine the design
parameters of composite beams with ,93!'(47 $%+.
Primary and secondary composite beams can be designed in accordance
with AS 2327.1 provided the following design rules are followed:
s0ROVIDE(!5.#(-%3(WELDEDMESHWITH(ANDLEBARS ASREINFORCEMENT
in the haunch in the primary composite beams. Refer to Figure 8.1.
Contact Steel Direct for more information.
s!LTERNATEANDSTAGGEREDPOSITIONFORASINGLESTUDPERPANINTHECASEOF
secondary composite beams) shall be used. Refer to Figure 8.2.
s3TAGGEREDPOSITIONFORPAIRSOFSTUDSPERPANINTHECASEOFSECONDARY
composite beams).
s0RIMARYANDSECONDARYBEAMSAREDESIGNEDASSIMPLYSUPPORTED
s-INIMUMREINFORCEMENTFORSECONDARYBEAMIS3,MESHAND.BARS
at 300mm spacing on tops of ,93!'(47 $%+ ribs.
s%DGEBEAMSSHALLBEDESIGNEDASNON COMPOSITEORTREATEDASINTERNAL
beams provided minimum overhang is 600 mm, alternatively follow
AS2327.1 requirements
s3HEARSTUDCAPACITIESAREDETERMINEDASGIVENIN3ECTIONBELOW
Primary beams can be designed as continuous - prEN1994-1-1 or
BS5950-3.1:1990 should be followed.

8.1 Shear Stud Capacities


120mm long shear studs (115mm after welding) with 19mm nominal shank
diameter shall be used. Capacities of shear studs in primary beams with
single rows of studs (see Figure 8.1) shall be determined without applying
reduction factors. Contact Steel Direct for reinforcement options and
capacity of studs when two rows of studs are necessary and capacity of
shear studs in secondary beams.

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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41

19mm stud x 115mm high after welding


(may be single studs as shown or
pairs of 60 - 80mm transverse centres)
Slab reinforcement

Haunchmesh
Handlebar when necessary

150mm
q7.5mm
q9.5mm

LYSAGHT
W-DEK

240mm
LYSAGHT
W-DEK
Haunch and studs not necessarily
centred over steel beam (omitted for clarity).

HAUNCHMESH - STRAIGHT
Supported directly on top of
LYSAGHT W-DEK and placed
centrally in haunch.

Figure 8.1
Primary beams

Bar reinforcement
Staggered single
shear studs

Mesh reinforcement or
equivalent
Staggered pairs of studs

Steel beam
Alternate location of single studs

Figure 8.2
Shear stud position in secondary beam (alternate
location - single studs)

42

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

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9. References
s!3.:33TEEL2EINFORCING-ATERIALS
s!3.:3#OLD &ORMED3TEEL3TRUCTURES
s!3.:33UPPLEMENTARY#OLD FORMEDSTEELSTRUCTURES
Commentary
s!3 #OMPOSITE3TRUCTURES0ART 3IMPLYSUPPORTEDBEAMS
s!3 #ONCRETESTRUCTURES
s!3 &ORMWORKFORCONCRETE
s"3 0ART$ESIGNINCOMPOSITECONSTRUCTION
Section 3.1 Code of practice for design of simple and continuous
composite beams
s%UROCODE$ESIGNOFCONCRETESTRUCTURES0ART'ENERALRULESANDRULES
for buildings
sPR%.  $ESIGNOFCOMPOSITESTEELANDCONCRETESTRUCTURES
Part 1-1 General rules and Rules for buildings
sPR%.  $ESIGNOFCOMPOSITESTEELANDCONCRETESTRUCTURES
Part 1-2 General rules Structural fire design

Lysaght W-Dek Design & Construction Manual

2009

43

Disclaimer, warranties and limitation of liability


This publication is intended to be an aid for all trades and professionals involved with specifying and
installing LYSAGHT products and not to be a substitute for professional judgement.
Terms and conditions of sale available at local BlueScope Lysaght sales offices.
Except to the extent to which liability may not lawfully be excluded or limited, BlueScope Steel Limited
will not be under or incur any liability to you for any direct or indirect loss or damage (including, without
limitation, consequential loss or damage such as loss of profit or anticipated profit, loss of use, damage
to goodwill and loss due to delay) however caused (including, without limitation, breach of contract,
negligence and/or breach of statute), which you may suffer or incur in connection with this publication.
Copyright BlueScope Steel Limited 9 March, 2009

Information, brochures and your local distributor

1800 641 417


Please check the latest information which is always available at www.lysaght.com
BLUESCOPE, LYSAGHT, LYSAGHT W-DEK, EDGE FORM, GALVASPAN & ZINCALUME are registered trademarks of BlueScope Steel
Limited, ABN 16 000 011 058. THE LYSAGHT range of products is exclusively made by BlueScope Steel Limited trading as
BlueScope Lysaght. Printed by BMP 1M0309