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+What is an engineer?

+Different types of engineers


+Civil engineers
+Transportation engineers
+Education
+New solutions
+Site transportation planning
=========
What is an Engineer?
+Engineers are problem solvers people who make things work better, more efficientl
y, quicker, and less expensively
+Engineers apply math and science to create something of value from our natural
resources
--------Different Types of Engineers
+Chemical
+Electrical & Computer
+Mechanical
+Industrial
+And Civil Engineers!
-------Civil Engineers
+Structures
+Hydraulics/Hydrology
+Wastewater/Environmental
+Geotechnical
+Transportation
-------Transportation Engineers
+What do Transportation Engineers do?
No ER, West Wing, L.A. Law that glamorizes the transportation profession
Transportation Engineers are, however, making a difference all around us
-------What is Transportation?
+Streets, highways, and transit systems that allow people and goods to move safe
ly and efficiently
Backbone for a strong economy
Key contributor in quality of life
==========
Surface Modes
Highways & Streets
Bicycle
Pedestrian
Transit
=========
Freight
+Truck and railroad:
Key component in the economy
Provides goods and services
=========
Air
+Dual purpose
Movement of people and goods
Creation/expansionof business and industry
========
Water
+Water transportation
Primarily for freight movement
Bulky commodities with low cost per unit
+National system

Waterways
Lakes
Oceans
Ports
=========
Transportation Facts Nationwide
+1.6 million hours per day stuck in traffic
+Avg. person spends one hour per day in their car
+160,000 traffic signalsin the US
+Cost of congestion is $40 Billion per year
=========
Transportation in Utah
+Solutions?
Optimize existing infrastructure
Construct new facilities
More widespread use of advanced technology
******************
History of the development of Road and Highway Engineering
=====
ROAD AND HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
+Road transport is one of the most common mode of transport.
+The history of highway engineering gives us an idea about the roads of ancient
times.
======
ANCIENT ROADS
+Thefirstmodeoftransportwasbyfoot.
+Thenextmajormodeoftransportwastheuseofanimalsfortransportingbothmenandmaterials
.
+TheinventionofwheelinMesopotamiancivilizationledtothedevelopmentofanimaldrawnve
hicles.
+TheearliestauthenticrecordofroadwasfoundfromAssyrianempireconstructedabout1900B
C.
======
ROMAN ROADS
+TheearliestlargescaleroadconstructionisattributedtoRomanswhoconstructedanextens
ivesystemofroadsradiatinginmanydirectionsfromRome.
+Romansrecognizedthatthefundamentalsofgoodroadconstructionweretoprovidegooddrain
age,goodmaterialandgoodworkmanship.
=====
ROMAN ROADS
+Theirroadswereverydurable,andsomearestillexisting.
+ThemainfeaturesoftheRomanroadsarethattheywerebuiltstraightregardlessofgradienta
ndusedheavyfoundationstonesatthebottom.
+Theymixedlimeandvolcanicpuzzolanatomakemortarandtheyaddedgraveltothismortartoma
keconcrete.ThusconcretewasamajorRomanroadmakinginnovation.
====
FRENCH ROAD
+ThenextmajordevelopmentintheroadconstructionoccurredduringtheregimeofNapoleon.
+ThesignificantcontributionsweregivenbyTresaguetin1764.
+Createdmajordrainageproblemswhichwerecounteractedbymakingthesurfaceasimpervious
aspossible,camberingthesurfaceandprovidingdeepsideditches
====
BRITISH ROAD
+TheBritishengineerJohnMacadamintroducedwhatcanbeconsideredasthefirstscientificr
oadconstructionmethod.
+StonesizewasanimportantelementofMacadamrecipe.
+250mmlayersofwellcompactedbrokenangularstonewouldprovidethesamestrengthandstiff
nessandabetterrunningsurfacethananexpensivepavementfoundedonlargestoneblocks.
=====
MODERN ROADS

+ThemodernroadsbyandlargefollowMacadam'sconstructionmethod.Useofbituminousconcre
teandcementconcretearethemostimportantdevelopments.
+Theneedfortraveltovariousplacesatfasterspeedsalsoincreased.
+Thisincreasingdemandledtotheemergenceofothermodesoftransportationlikerailwaysan
dtravelbyair.
******************
Formulax
Fr=Rr+Rg+ma+Wx+Ra
Ra= p/2 . Cd . Af . V^2
Rrl = frl w cos o` g
Rrl = frl W
frl = 0.01 (1 + v /44.73)
P=F.V(wats)
P=$Fv ; 35w=Ra . v + Rr; . v
Rg = wsin o'g
Rg = wtano'g
Rg = WG
----PRa= p/2 . CD . Af . V^3
PRrl=frl . W . V
----front: fmax = (mw)(lr + frl.w) / [1 + (mh)/L]
rear: fmax = (mw)(lf - frl.w) / [1 - (mh)/L]