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By inviting community members to join in school festivities, the school administration

can improve the overall satisfaction of the student body, increase the effectiveness of the
education and raise the likelihood that the school will continue to be supported by the
community. School events that include community members, both parents and non-parents,
benefit both the students and the community at large.
fs5 episode 3

source: my analysis 1. what has a table of specifications (tos) to do with the

content validity of tests?2. if validity as a characteristic of test me?
For your first question, a Table of Specification (TOS) is very important in the content
for validity of test as it puts the one who gave the test and the candidate on the same
footing. This meas that both are thinking of the same question, item, specification and other
details. This is very important when giving tests that has tendencies of multiple
For the second question, a multiple type of question may be a good way to
determine to know a person`s quality of learning but may not be very applicable to a set of
manipulative skills. The best way to test a person`s manipulative skill is to do an actual
demonstration. The same type of demo is required for other manipulative test like getting a
driver`s license. In your case,if you want to know a person`s skills on the microscope, have
an actual test. Give him or her a microscope with a subject on it, then give him or her
instructions and let him or her write what are his observation for every instruction.

source: If validity as a characteristics of test means that a test must measure

what is supposed to measure,is a multiple choice type of valid to determine le?

With your question "Is a multiple choice type of test valid to determine learning assessment
strategies?", the answer is dependent.
Validity means that a test must measure what is supposed to be measured. That`s
right. In order for a test to be valid, the purpose should be achieved. What is the purpose?
The purpose is your objectives. If your objective is to determine learning assessment
strategies, you should first know what level of cognitive domain you want. The levels of
cognitive domain of Bloom`s taxonomy are Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis,
Application, Synthesis, and Evaluation. If the objective is under the knowledge level, the test
should also be under the knowledge level. Each test item should be analyzed in order to
determine if the right level of cognitive domain is achieved. Multiple Choice, True or False,
Matching Type are best for Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis, and Apllication levels.

Essays are best for Synthesis level. In other words, multiple choice can be a valid type of
test if the items achieved the correct cognitive domain it is supposed to be in. If you want to
determine learning assessment strategies, analysis and application are the best levels in
the cognitive domain to use. You will be able to apply these levels in the multiple choice
type of test if you provide real-life situations in classroom assessment. This way, a multiple
choice type of test would be valid.

Types of validity
Construct validity
Construct validity occurs when the theoretical constructs of cause and effect accurately
represent the real-world situations they are intended to model. This is related to how well the
experiment is operationalized. A good experiment turns the theory (constructs) into actual
things you can measure. Sometimes just finding out more about the construct (which itself
must be valid) can be helpful.
Construct validity is thus an assessment of the quality of an instrument or
experimental design. It says 'Does it measure the construct it is supposed to
measure'. If you do not have construct validity, you will likely draw incorrect
conclusions from the experiment (garbage in, garbage out).

Content validity
Content validity occurs when the experiment provides adequate coverage of the subject being
studied. This includes measuring the right things as well as having an adequate sample.
Samples should be both large enough and be taken for appropriate target groups.
The perfect question gives a complete measure of all aspects of what is being investigated.
However in practice this is seldom likely, for example a simple addition does not test the
whole of mathematical ability.
Content validity is related very closely to good experimental design. A high content validity
question covers more of what is sought. A trick with all questions is to ensure that all of the
target content is covered (preferably uniformly).

Internal validity
Internal validity occurs when it can be concluded that there is a causal relationship between
the variables being studied. A danger is that changes might be caused by other factors.
It is related to the design of the experiment, such as in the use of random assignment of

Conclusion validity
Conclusion validity occurs when you can conclude that there is a relationship of some kind
between the two variables being examined.
This may be positive or negative correlation.

External validity
External validity occurs when the causal relationship discovered can be generalized to other
people, times and contexts.
Correct sampling will allow generalization and hence give external validity.

Criterion-related validity
This examines the ability of the measure to predict a variable that is designated as a criterion.
A criterion may well be an externally-defined 'gold standard'. Achieving this level of validity
thus makes results more credible.
Criterion-related validity is related to external validity.

Face validity
Face validity occurs where something appears to be valid. This of course depends very much
on the judgment of the observer. In any case, it is never sufficient and requires more solid
validity to enable acceptable conclusions to be drawn.
Measures often start out with face validity as the researcher selects those which seem likely
prove the point.

Validity as concluded is not always accepted by others and perhaps rightly so. Typical reasons
why it may not be accepted include:

Inappropriate selection of constructs or measures.

Insufficient data collected to make valid conclusions.

Measurement done in too few contexts.

Measurement done with too few measurement variables.

Too great a variation in data (can't see the wood for the trees).

Inadequate selection of target subjects.

Complex interaction across constructs.

Subjects giving biased answers or trying to guess what they should say.

Experimental method not valid.

Operation of experiment not rigorous.

source: Write down what you learned on what to do to ensure validity of tests.
did you ever experience taking a test which was very difficult because the i..?
The school prioritize assessment as an important component of learning. Our school
first empower the teachers to ensure validity in their periodic examinations through 1. Using
of item analysis to check which item is valid or not. 2. Bank the items that are valid. 3.
Conduct pre test 4. Conduct post test The valid periodic exam results should be on a
normal curve where items of easy and difficult falls on the median or middle.
As a teacher, validity of your test scientifically determines whether you measure what you
are supposed to measure. Let us say, you discuss about Techniques in Technical writing,
then you cover the lessons well. When you make a test the learning outcomes are clearly
measured because of high validity of the items. What I have learned is that a poor validity of
the test means that the scores of students are not too high, which indicates exam is not
easy nor too low which indicates exam is too difficult. In order to ensure validity, when you
analyzed the items the class performance is in the normal curve. Did you ever experience
taking a test which was very difficult because the items were not at all covered in class?
How did it affect you? Yes it happened to me as a student. And if a teacher doesnt know
the importance of assessment as a component of learning; sometimes he will test items
which were given lesser emphasis and it really affects the grades or the performance of the
students. It creates a domino effect, wrong teaching, wrong assessment equals wrong
grades. How will you prevent your future pupils / students from experiencing the same? You
have to aim validity as the most important criteria of a test. You have to make sure that your
test items reflect the objectives of the curriculum. The following questions will help you

determine the validity of your classroom test: 1. What content does my test assess? 2. Are
my tests items arrange from simplest to most difficult? 3. Do the test items reflect my
instructional priorities and objectives? 4. Do test items allow students to demonstrate their
knowledge and mastery of important topics and essential skills?

does the quiz measure what it is supposed to measure.

If a test is conducted within scientific boundaries or under controlled conditions, it

shall measure what it is supposed to measure accurately or nearly accurately (with some
degree of error which cannot be avoided). For example, an I.Q . or Intelligence Quotient
Test should Be given to all participants in an environment which is similar for all participants.
Meaning, same temperature conditions, same rules, and similar type of questions in terms
of degree of difficulty. Psychometritians, who conduct the test, use a process called
Standardization to be able to efficiently assess and interpret test scores. The test scores
typically follow a system called normal distribution, which, when shown on a chart, follows a
bell-shaped curve wherein most of the scores lie near or around the average score. As you
will observe the extreme ends of the distribution (the lowest and the highest scores), the
number of test scores that lie in these extremes tend to be fewer or in the minority. Above
average IQ is between 115 to 129 and the profoundly gifted is 180 and up. Thus, as I
repeat, when a test or quiz is conducted thru a scientific process, it can measure what is
supposed to be measured.