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## Alternators and motors

Calculating the short-circuit current across the terminals of a synchronous generator is very complicated
because the internal impedance of the latter varies according to time.
When the power gradually increases, the current reduces passing through three characteristic
periods:
1. Subtransient (enabling determination of the closing capacity of circuit breakers and electrodynamic
contraints), average duration, 10 ms
2. Transient (sets the equipments thermal contraints), average duration 250 ms
3. Permanent (this is the value of the short-circuit current in steady state).
The short-circuit current is calculated in the same way as for transformers but the different states must be
taken account of.

## The short-circuit current is given by the following equation:

Isc = Ir / Xsc
Xsc - Short-circuit reactance c/c
The most common values for a synchronous generator are:

State
Xsc

Subtransient Xd

Transient Xd

Permanent Xd

10 20%

15 25%

200 350%

Example
Calculation method for an alternator or a synchronous motor.
Alternator 15 MVA

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Voltage U = 10 kV
Xd = 20%

All electrical installations have to be protected against short-circuits, without exception, whenever there is an
electrical discontinuity; which more generally corresponds to a change in conductor cross-section.
The short-circuit current shall be calculated at each stage in the installation for the various configurations that
are possible within the network, in order to determine the characteristics of the equipment that has to
withstand or break this fault current.
Reference: Medium voltage design guide Schneider Electric

Jump to original technical article at EEP - Calculating the short-circuit current across the terminals of a
synchronous generator
Category & Tags: Energy and Power, Motor, alternator, short circuit current, short-circuit, short-circuit

## reactance, subtransient, synchronous generator, synchronous motor

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