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# Module 2: Mechanics

Diagnostic Test:
Direction: Write the letter of the correct answer on the paper provided by the instructor.
1. An object is in uniform motion if it travels in a straight line at constant speed. All other
motions are accelerated. Acceleration can involve changes of speed, changes of direction, or
both. Which of the following is in uniformly accelerated motion?
A. A car speeding north-east at 88 kph.
B. A car going around a circular curve at uniform speed of 88 kph.
C. An airplane cruising a distance of 100 000 km at 1 000 kph , N
D. None of the above
2. A 19.6 N laptop rests on a table. What force does the table exert on the laptop?
A. 0
C. 19.6 N
B. 9.8 N
D. 39.2 N
3. When forces acting on a chair are balanced, which characteristics of motion is zero?
A. velocity
C. speed
B. displacement
D. acceleration
4. Newtons first law of motion states that Every object remains at rest or in motion in a
straight line at constant speed unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. What is the net force
acting on an airplane in level flight at 500 kph due north?
A. 100N
B. 490 N
C. 980N
D. 0 N
5. Newtons second law of motion states that The net force of an object is equal to its mass
times its acceleration and points in the direction of the acceleration. What is the weight of a
weight-lifter who has a mass of 120 kilograms?
A. 1 100 N
B. 1 200 N
C. 1 400 N
D. 980 N
6. An object is in equilibrium,
I. if it is at rest
II. if it is moving at a constant velocity only
III. if it is in free fall
A. I only
B. II only

C. I and II only
D. I, II and III

7. If a car is moving along a constant speed in a straight line, it may be assumed that
A. a net force is pushing forward.
B. the sum of all forces is zero.
C. the sum of all horizontal forces is zero.
D. it is accelerating.
8. Which law of motion can be used to understand the effectiveness of using seatbelts to prevent
injury?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Law of inertia
Law of interaction
Law of acceleration
Law of gravitational attraction

## For numbers 8-9

In the following graph, the speed of small object as it moves along a horizontal straight
line is plotted against time.

9. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the object during the first 3 seconds?
A. 3 m/s2
B. 4 m/s2

C. 6 m/s2
D. 12 m/s2

10. What is the average speed of the object during the first 4 seconds?
A. 1.9 m/s
B. 4.0 m/s

C. 6.0 m/s
D. 7.5 m/s

11. Applying Newtons Law of Inertia, which of the following measures would prevent injuries
to a passenger when a car suddenly stops?
a
b
c
d

## The use of seat belt

The use of carrier
The use of brake

12. A cars acceleration is 4 m/s2. What happens to its acceleration if it will tow another car of
equal mass?
a.
b.
c.
d.

## It remains the same.

Its acceleration becomes zero.
It increases twice its original acceleration.
It decreases to half its original acceleration.

13. An object starting from rest accelerates at rate of 5m/s2 for 10 seconds. The velocity of the
object at the end of this time is ________m/s
A) 2

b) 5

c) 30

d) 10

## 14. Which of the following may be considered a scalar quantity?

a) displacement
b) acceleration
c) distance
d) power
15. What is the gravitational force of attraction between a planet and a 20-kilogram mass that is
freely falling toward the surface of the plant at 10 meter per second?
a. 2 N

c. 0.5 N

b. 20 N

d. 200 N

Module 2: MECHANICS
2.1. Motion
Motion is defined as the movement of an object.
- is exhibited by a change in position.
Rectilinear Motion the motion of an object travelling in a straight path
Curvilinear Motion the motion of an object travelling in a curved path
Angular Motion the motion of an object travelling at certain angles
2.1.1 KINEMATICS
Kinematics is the study that deals with the description of motion.
Reference point is a physical entity such as earths surface, the desk of a ship or
a moving vehicle, to which the position and motion of an object is relative.
Distance is the total path length traversed by an object moving from one location
to another, a scalar quantity
Displacement is the separation of an object and a reference point, a vector
quantity

Speed is the measure of how fast something is moving. Speed is the rate at which
distance is covered at a given time.

## Instantaneous Speed the speed at any instant

Average Speed is the distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed in
traveling that distance:

average speed ( V )=

## distance traveled (m)

total time elapsed( s)

V=

d 2d1 d
=
( Eqn.2 .1)
t 2t 1 t

V=

vi + vf
( Eqn.2 .2)
2

Sample Problem:
Rachel watches a thunderstorm from her window. She sees flash of lightning
bolt and begins counting the seconds until she hears the clap of thunder 5.0
seconds later. Assume that the speed of sound in air is 340.0 m/s and the light was
seen instantaneously. How far away was the lightning bolt?
Given:v = 340.0 m/s
t = 5.0 s
Solution:
d = v t
= (340.0 m/s)(5.0 s)
d = 1 700 m

Find: d

## Acceleration is the motion of an object in which the velocity changes in either

magnitude (speed) or direction or both. An object is accelerating when it speeds up,
and decelerating when slows down or changes direction.

acceleration=

a=

change velocity(m/s)
elapsed time( s)

v v f vi
=
(Eqn.2 .3)
t
t

Sample Problem:
Michael is driving his sports car at 30 m/s when he sees a dog on the road
ahead. He slams on the brakes and comes to a stop in 3.0 seconds. What was the
acceleration of Michaels car?
Given:vi = 30 m/s

Find: a
5

vf = 0
t = 3.0 s
Solution:

a=

v f v i
t

030 m/s
3.0 s

a=10 m/s 2
Kinematic Equations: Quantitative Description of Motion

d=

( v +2 v ) t( Eqn.2 .4)
f

at
d=v i t +
( Eqn.2 .5)
2

d=

v 2f v 2i
( Eqn .2.6)
2a

Sample Problem:
Albert is riding his scooter at a velocity of 80 km/h, when he sees an old
woman crossing the road 45 m away. He immediately steps hard on the brakes to
get the maximum deceleration of 7.5 m/s 2. How far will he go before stopping? Will
he hit the old woman?
Given:vi = 80 km/h or 22.22 m/s
vf = 0
a = -7.5 m/s2
Solution:

d=

Find: d

v 2f v 2i
2a

m 2
s
493.73 m2 /s 2

=
m
15 m/ s2
2 7.5 2
s

0 2 22.22

d=32.92 m