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2010/11

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY


PHAS3226 QUANTUM MECHANICS
Problem Paper 3 - solutions
Solutions to be handed in on Tuesday 16 November 2010
1. (a) The component of spin S in the direction of the unit vector n
^ is Sn = S n
^ and has two normalized
eigenfunctions
j

+
n
^i

= cos ( =2) j i + sin ( =2) ei j i

and

n
^i

sin ( =2) e

j i + cos ( =2) j i

+
h +
h
satisfying Sn j n
^i = 2j n
^ i and Sn j n
^i =
^ i, where ( ; ) are the polar angles of the
2j n
unit vector n
^ . If j i = 1 (r) j i + 2 (r) j i is a normalized state, show that the probability of
obtaining the value h=2 in a measurement of Sn is

P (Sn = h=2) = j

(r)j cos2 ( =2) + j

(r)j sin2 ( =2) + sin Re

2e

[10]

Expand the state j i in terms of the eigenstates of Sn as


+
n
^i

j i = aj

+ bj

n
^i

(r) j i +

(r) j i:
+
n
^i

The probability of obtaining state with Sn = 21 h i.e. to be in state j


a = h
=

+
n
^j
1

i=

(r) h

(r) cos ( =2) +

+
n
^j
2

i+

+
n
^j
i

(r) h

(r) sin ( =2) e

(1)

is given by jaj2 . But

(2)
(3)

Hence
jaj2

(r) cos ( =2) +


2

(r) sin ( =2) ei

(r) cos ( =2) +

(r) sin ( =2) e

= j 1 (r) j cos ( =2) + j 2 (r) j sin ( =2)


+ 2 (r) sin ( =2) ei 1 (r) cos ( =2) + 1 (r) cos ( =2) 2 (r) sin ( =2) e i ;
= j 1 (r) j2 cos2 ( =2) + j 2 (r) j2 sin2 ( =2) + 2 Re 1 (r) 2 (r) cos ( =2) sin ( =2) e
= j

= j

1
1

(r) j cos ( =2) + j

(r) j cos ( =2) + j

2
2

(r) j sin ( =2) + Re

(r)

(r) j sin ( =2) + sin Re

2
1

(r) sin ( ) e

(r)

(r) sin ( ) e

(b) Obtain, using the raising and/or lowering operators, the six wave functions jj; mi for the p-states
of an electron in terms of the spherical harmonics Y1m ( j1; mi, m = 1; 0; 1) and the spinors
j i ( j 12 ; 12 i) and j i ( j 21 ; 12 i).
For the p-state electron the orbital quantum number ` = 1, has three z-projections m = 1; 0; 1,
i.e. states j1; 1i, j1; 0i, j1; 1i ( Y`m = Y11 ; Y10 ; Y1 1 ). The two spin states j i ( j 21 ; 12 i) and
j i ( j 12 ; 12 i) have ms = 12 and 12 respectively. The maximum total angular momentum has
J = ` + 12 , the minimum is J = ` 12 . The highest (top) state has J = 32 , MJ = 32 and is clearly
given by
3 3
3 3
1 1
(4)
;
= Y11 ;
j ; i = j1; 1ij ; i
2 2
2 2
2 2
as MJ = m` + ms . The state J = 32 , MJ =
3
;
2

3
2

= Y1

3
2

is clearly given by
3
j ;
2

3
1
i = j1; 1ij ;
2
2

1
i:
2

(5)

The state J = 32 , MJ = 12 can be obtained from the J = 23 , MJ = 32 one by application of the


p
lowering operator J^ . Recall that in general J^ jJ; M i = J (J + 1) M (M 1)hjJ; M 1i,
thus
s
p 3 1
3
3
3 3
3 3
3 1
(6)
J^ j ;
i=
+1
1 hj ; i = 3hj ; i:
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
^ + S^ so using L
^ j`; m` i =
In
J^ = L
p terms of the individual orbital and spin angular momenta,
p
^
` (` + 1) m` (m` 1)hj`; m` 1i and S js; ms i = s (s + 1) ms (ms 1)hjs; ms 1i, with

[10]

` = 1, m` = 1, s = 12 , ms = 12 ,
3 3
J^ j ; i =
2 2

1 1
j1; 1ij ; i;
2 2
1
1
^ j1; 1i j ; i + j1; 1iS^ j 1 ; 1 i;
L
=
2 2
2 2
p 3 1
p
p
1 1
1 1
3hj ; i =
2hj1; 0ij ; i + hj1; 1ij ;
i
2hY10 + hY11 ;
2 2
2
2
2
2
r
r
1 1
2 0
1
2
1 1
1
3 1
i
hY1 + p hY11 :
hj1; 0ij ; i + p j1; 1ij ;
j ; i =
2 2
3
2 2
3
2 2
3
3
^ + S^
L

The state J = 32 , MJ = 12 can be obtained from the J = 32 , MJ =


or by applying J^+ to the state J = 32 , MJ = 32 ,
3
J^+ j ;
2
p

3
3hj ;
2
3
j ;
2

1
2

(7)

(8)
(9)

state by application of J^

3
i =
2

^ + + S^+ j1; 1ij 1 ; 1 i;


L
2 2
1 1
1 1
^
i + j1; 1iS^+ j ;
i;
=
L+ j1; 1i j ;
2 2
2 2
p
p
1
1 1
1 1
i =
2hj1; 0ij ;
i + hj1; 1ij ; i
2hY10 + hY1 1 ;
2
2
2
2
2
r
r
1
2
1 1
1
1 1
2 0
1
i =
hj1; 0ij ;
i + p j1; 1ij ; i
hY1 + p hY1
2
3
2 2
2
2
3
3
3

The state J = 12 , MJ = 12 must be a linear combination of Y10


j1; 1ij 12 ; 12 i since MJ = m` + ms , thus
1 1
1
1 1
j ; i = aj1; 0ij ; i + bj1; 1ij ;
2 2
2 2
2

(10)

(11)
1

(12)

= j1; 0ij 12 ; 12 i and Y11

1
i:
2

(13)

But
1 1
J^+ j ; i =
2 2

1 1
1 1
aj1; 0ij ; i + bj1; 1ij ;
i
2 2
2 2
^ + j1; 0i j 1 ; 1 i + bj1; 1iS^+ j 1 ; 1 i
=
a L
2 2
2 2
p
p
1 1
1 1
1 1
0 = a 2hj1; 1ij ; i + bhj1; 1ij ; i = a 2 + b hj1; 1ij ; i
2 2
2 2
2 2
^ + + S^+
0= L

p
giving a 2 + b = 0. Normalization requires jaj2 + jbj2 = 1, so jaj2 + 2jaj2 = 1 and a =
1 1
1 1
1
j ; i = p j1; 0ij ; i
2 2
2 2
3

2
1
j1; 1ij ;
3
2

1
i
2

1
p Y10
3

(14)

(15)
p1 .
3

2 1
Y :
3 1

Hence
(16)

Applying J^ gives
!
2
1 1
i ;
j1; 1ij ;
3
2 2
r
r
1 1
1 1
2p
1
2
1 1
1
2hj1; 0ij ;
i;
i
i =
hj1; 1ij ; i + p j1; 0ihj ;
2 2
2 2
3
2
3
2 2
3
r
r
r
1 1
2
1 0
1
2
1 1
1
i
Y1 1
Y :
i =
j1; 1ij ; i p j1; 0ij ;
2 2
3
3 1
2
3
2 2
3

1 1
J^ j ; i =
2 2
1
hj ;
2
1
j ;
2

^ + S^
L

Note the state J = 12 , MJ =

1
2

1
1 1
p j1; 0ij ; i
2 2
3

(17)

(18)

could also be found by requiring it to be orthogonal to the state

J = 32 , MJ =

1
2

i.e.

3 1 1 1
h ; j ; i =
2 2 2 2
0
0

0;
r

=
=

2
1 1
1
1
hh1; 0jh ; j + p h1; 1jh ;
2
3
2 2
3

!
1
1 1
1
j
aj1; 0ij ; i + bj1; 1ij ;
2
2 2
2

1
i ;
2

2
1
ha + p b;
3
3

as before.
^ S^ can be expressed in terms of the raising and lowering operators L
^+,
2. (a) Show that the operator L
^ + S^ + L
^ S^+ + L
^ z S^z .}
^ , S^+ , S , and the components L
^ z , S^z by L
^ S
^=1 L
L
2

[4]

^ x S^x + L
^ y S^y + L
^ z S.
^ But the the raising/lowering operators L
^ =L
^ x iL
^y
^ S
^=L
The operator L
1
1
^
^
^y =
^
^
^x =
give L
and L
L
and similar relations for S^x and S^y . Thus
2 L+ + L
2i L+
^ S
^ =
L
=

1 ^
1 ^
1 ^
^
L+ + L
S+ + S^ +
L+
2
2
2i
1 ^ ^
^ S^+ + L
^ z S:
^
L+ S + L
2

1 ^
S+
2i

^
L

S^

^ z S^
+L

(19)
(20)

(b) If a particle has spin 21 and is in a state with orbital angular momentum `, there are two basis states, j`; s; `z ; sz i which can be expressed in terms of the individual states as j`; s; `z ; sz i =
j`; `z ijs; sz i with total z-component of angular momentum mh, namely
jai

1 1
2; 2i

j`; m

1 1 1
2 ij 2 ; 2 i

= j`; m

and
j`; 12 ; m + 12 ;

jbi

1
2i

= j`; m + 12 ij 12 ;

1
2 i:

^ S
^
With these two states jai, jbi as a basis show that the matrix representation of the operator L
^+, L
^ , S^+ , S , and the
is (Hint: express L S in terms of the raising and lowering operators L
^ z , S^z .)
components L
0
h
i1=2 1
1
1
1
1 2
2
`+ 2
m
2 m
2
2
C 2
^ S
^ =B
L
i1=2
Ah :
@ h
1
1 2
1
1
2
`
+
m
m
+
2
2
2
2
^ S
^ with the basis states, jai, jbi is
The matrix representation of L
^ S
^=
L
^ j`; mi =
In general L
explicitly

p
` (` + 1)

^ + j`; m
L

1
2i

=
=
=

Similarly for

^ Sjai
^
hajL
^
^
hbjL Sjai

m (m

1)hj`; m

` (` + 1)
r

`2 + ` +

^ Sjbi
^
hajL
^
^
hbjL Sjbi

`+

1 2
2

q
` (` + 1)
q
2
=
` + 12

^ j`; m + 1 i =
L
2

m
1
4

(21)

1i with a similar relation for S^ . Thus


1
2

m+

1
2

hj`; m + 12 i;

(22)

m2 hj`; m + 12 i;
m2 hj`; m + 12 i:

m+

1
2

m2 hj`; m

1
2
1
2 i:

(23)

hj`; m

1
2 i;

(24)
(25)

[16]

For S^ , S^+ j 12 ;
S^ j 1 ; 1 i = hj 1 ;
2 2

1
2i =
1
2 i.

1
2

1
2

1
2

+1

1
2

hj 12 ; 12 i = hj 12 ; 12 i, S^+ j 12 ; 12 i = S^ j 12 ;

1
2i

= 0 and

^ + S^ + L
^ S^+ + L
^ z S^ j`; m 1 ij 1 ; 1 i note that
^ Sjai
^
To evaluate the matrix elements, L
= 12 L
2 2 2
^ operators only operate on the j`; m 1 i states and S^ operators only operate on thej 1 ; 1 i states.
L
2
2
2
^ and S^ operators on the states gives
Hence using the relations above for the action of L
^ Sjai
^
L
=
^ Sj`;
^ m
L

1 1 1
2 ij 2 ; 2 i

1 ^ ^
^ S^+ + L
^ z S^ j`; m 1 ij 1 ; 1 i
L+ S + L
2 2 2
2
q
1
1 1
2
` + 12
m2 hj`; m + 12 ihj ;
i+ m
2
2 2

(26)
1
2

1
h hj`; m
2

1 1 1
2 ij 2 ; 2 (i27)

and
^ Sjbi
^
L
=
=

1 ^ ^
^ S^+ + L
^ z S^z j`; m + 1 ij 1 ;
L+ S + L
2 2
2
q
1
1 1
2
` + 12
m2 hj`; m 12 ihj ; i + m +
2
2 2
1
2 i,

Hence using the orthogonality of the states j`; m + 12 i, j`; m

1
2i
1
2

(28)
1
h j`; m
2

j 12 ; 12 i and j 12 ;

1
2i

1 1 1
2 ij 2 ; 2 i

(29)

gives

1
m 12 h2 ;
2
1
2
` + 12
m2 h 2 ;
2
1
2
` + 12
m2 h 2 ;
2
1
m + 12 h2 :
2

^ Sjai
^
hajL
=
^ Sjbi
^
hajL
=
^ Sjai
^
hbjL
=
^ Sjbi
^
hbjL
=

3. (a) Write down, without proof, the wave functions for two spin- 21 particles which as eigenstates jS; Sz i
of denite total angular momentum S and z-component Sz .
The singlet state, S = 0, is
1
(30)
j0; 0i = p ( 1 2
1 2) :
2
The triplet states , S = 1, are
j1; 1i =

1 2;

1
p (
2

j1; 0i =
j1; 1i =

(31)
1 2

1 2) ;

(32)

1 2:

(33)

(b) Suppose that particles a and b interact through a magnetic dipole-dipole potential
V =A

b) r

3(
r5

r) (

r)

where r is the inter-particle separation and a and b are the Pauli matrices referring to particles
a and b respectively. If the two particles are a xed distance d apart along the z-axis, show
^ 2 and z-component S^z and recall,
that (Hint; express V in terms of the total spin operator S
2
2
2
2
= x + y + z = 3)
i. V does not mix the states jS; Sz i, i.e. the o -diagonal elements are zero,
ii. and that the diagonal elements are
h1; 1jV j1; 1i = h1; 1jV j1; 1i =

A
;
d3

h1; 0jV j1; 0i = 4

A
;
d3

h0; 0; jV j0; 0i = 0:

[4]

As the two particles are separated by a xed distance d along the z-axis, the dipole-dipole
interaction reduces to
V =A
since r = d^
z so
The total spin

b) d

r=

3(
d5

^
zd =

az ) (

az ,

bz ) d

S2 =

h2
4

and so

But

2
x

2
y

2
z

2
a

1
2

h
2

A
[(
d3

h
(
2
2
b

b)

3(

az ) ( bz )]

(34)

r.

b)

(35)

+2

(36)

4 2
S
h2

2
a

2
b

(37)

= 3 so
a

Similarly since Sz =

and similarly for

S = Sa + Sb =
and

az

bz ),

2 2
S
h2

3:

(38)

then

az bz

=
=

1 4 ^2
S
2 h2 z
2 ^2
Sz 1:
h2

2
az

2
bz

;
(39)

Using eq(??) and eq(??) in eq(34) gives


V

A
d3
2A
d 3 h2

2 2
S
3
3
h2
h
i
S2 3S^z2 :

2 ^2
Sz
h2

;
(40)

^ 2 jS; Sz i = S (S + 1) h2 jS; Sz i and S^z jS; Sz i = Sz hjS; Sz i then S^z2 jS; Sz i = Sz2 h2 jS; Sz i
Thus since S
and
i
2A h
2A
(41)
V jS; Sz i = 3 2 S2 3S^z2 jS; Sz i = 3 2 S (S + 1) h2 3Sz2 h2 jS; Sz i:
d h
d h
Hence the matrix elements are
hS 0 ; Sz0 jV jS; Sz i =

2A
S (S + 1) h2
d 3 h2

3Sz2 h2 hS 0 ; Sz0 jS; Sz i:

Since the states jS; Sz i are orthonormal, i.e. hS 0 ; Sz0 jS; Sz i =


o-diagonal matrix elements are all zero.
The diagonal elements are
h1; 1jV j1; 1i =
h1; 0jV 1; 0i =
h1; 1jV j1; 1i =
h0; 0jV j0; 0i =

S 0 S Sz0 Sz

2A
2h2 3h2 =
d 3 h2
2A
4A
2
= 3;
2 2h
3
d
d h
2A
2
2h
3h2 =
d 3 h2
0:

(42)

eq(??) shows that the


[2]
[8]

2A
;
d3

(43)
(44)

2A
;
d3

(45)
(46)

(c) At time t = 0 the two spins are pointing towards each other. By expressing this state in terms of
hd3
a linear combination of the jS; Sz i states show that after a time t = 4A
the spins will be pointing
away from each other.
Recall from the secondPyear course, that the general solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger
iEn t=h
equation is j (t)i =
where j n i satises the time-independent Schrdinger
n cn j n ie
^
equation Hj n i = En j n i with energy eigenvalue En .
At time t = 0 if the two spins are pointing towards each other the spin state j (0)i must be either
1 2 or 1 2 depending on which particles are labelled a and b. Taking the rst case 1 2 , then
state can be expressed in terms of the total spin states jS; Sz i as
j (0)i =

1 1

1
= p [j1; 0i + j0; 0i] :
2

(47)

Thus the general time-dependent wavefunction is


j (t)i = aj1; 0ie

iE10 t=h

+ bj0; 0ie

iE00 t=h

(48)

where E10 and E00 are the energies of the j1; 0i and j0; 0i states respectively. These are found from
the time-independent Schrdinger equation V jS; Sz i = ESSz jS; Sz i. Hence ESSz = hS; Sz jV jS; Sz i
and so E10 = h1; 0jV j1; 0i = 4A
d3 and E00 = h0; 0jV j0; 0i = 0, and thus
j (t)i = aj1; 0ie

i4At=hd3

+ bj0; 0i:

Thus evaluating eq(??) at t = 0 and comparing with equ(??) gives a = b =


1
j (t)i = p j1; 0ie
2

i4At=hd3

(49)
p1 ,
2

and hence

1
+ p j0; 0i:
2

(50)

Express this in terms of the individual particle spin states gives


3
1
1
1
1
p p ( 1 2 + 1 2 ) e i4At=hd + p p ( 1 2
1 2) ;
2
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
e i4At=hd + 1 1 2 +
e i4At=hd
1 1 2
=
2
2
h
i
3 1
3
3
3
i2At=hd3
= e i2At=hd
e i2At=hd + ei2At=hd
ei2At=hd
1 2+ e
2
3
2At
2At
i 1 2 sin
:
= e i2At=hd
1 2 cos
3
hd
hd3

j (t)i =

1 2

(51)

Thus initially at t = 0 the system is in a pure 1 2 state. It is in a pure 1 2 state when


2At
cos 2At
hd3 = 0, i.e. when hd3 = (2n + 1) =2, with n a positive integer. Thus the spins are rst
pointing away from each other at a time t = hd3 =4A.

[6]