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IMAGINE AutoSync

Users Guide
September 2008

Copyright 2008 ERDAS, Inc.


All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of ERDAS, Inc. This work is protected under
United States copyright law and other international copyright treaties and conventions. No part of this work may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by ERDAS, Inc.
All requests should be sent to the attention of:
Manager, Technical Documentation
ERDAS, Inc.
5051 Peachtree Corners Circle
Suite 100
Norcross, GA 30092-2500 USA.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Government Reserved Rights. MrSID technology incorporated in the Software was developed in part through a
project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, funded by the U.S. Government, managed under contract by the
University of California (University), and is under exclusive commercial license to LizardTech, Inc. It is used under
license from LizardTech. MrSID is protected by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835. Foreign patents pending. The U.S.
Government and the University have reserved rights in MrSID technology, including without limitation: (a) The U.S.
Government has a non-exclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced
throughout the world, for or on behalf of the United States, inventions covered by U.S. Patent No. 5,710,835 and has
other rights under 35 U.S.C. 200-212 and applicable implementing regulations; (b) If LizardTech's rights in the
MrSID Technology terminate during the term of this Agreement, you may continue to use the Software. Any provisions
of this license which could reasonably be deemed to do so would then protect the University and/or the U.S.
Government; and (c) The University has no obligation to furnish any know-how, technical assistance, or technical data
to users of MrSID software and makes no warranty or representation as to the validity of U.S. Patent 5,710,835 nor
that the MrSID Software will not infringe any patent or other proprietary right. For further information about these
provisions, contact LizardTech, 1008 Western Ave., Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98104.
ERDAS, ERDAS IMAGINE, IMAGINE OrthoBASE, Stereo Analyst and IMAGINE VirtualGIS are registered trademarks;
IMAGINE OrthoBASE Pro is a trademark of ERDAS, Inc.
SOCET SET is a registered trademark of BAE Systems Mission Solutions.
Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

iii

iv

Table of Contents
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Example Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Conventions Used in This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . .
ERDAS IMAGINE Icon Panel . . .
ERDAS IMAGINE Menu Bar . . . .
Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.xvii

More Information/Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Data Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Input and Reference Images . . . .
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) . . . . . . . . . .

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APM Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APM Strategy Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ideal Situations for Good APM Performance .
Situations to Avoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APM Trouble Shooting and Tips . . . . . . . . .

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Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image to Image (2D) Transforms . . . . . . . .
Ground to Image (3D) Transforms . . . . . . .
Approximate Sensor Models . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a DEM/DTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modeling Trouble-Shooting and Tips . . . . . .

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IMAGINE AutoSync Tips and Hints . . . . .


Interpreting Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation . .
Using the IMAGINE AutoSync Wizards . . . . .
IMAGINE AutoSync Workflows . . . . . . . . . .
General IMAGINE AutoSync Tips and Hints .

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Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Table of Contents

Using IMAGINE AutoSync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Using the Edge Matching Wizard
Using the Input tab . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the APM Strategy tab . . . . .
Using the Edge Match Strategy tab
Using the Projection tab . . . . . . .
Using the Output tab . . . . . . . . . .
Display Output Image . . . . . . . . .
View Summary Report . . . . . . . . .

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Using the AutoSync Workstation . . . . . .


Create New IMAGINE AutoSync Project . . . .
Add Input Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Reference Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collect Manual Tie Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run APM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preview Output Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improve Output Image Results . . . . . . . . . .
Review Image Map Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Output Image Projection . . . . . . . . . . .
Resample Output Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verify Output Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Summary Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

vi

Table of Contents

List of Tables
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table

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Session Menu Options . . . . . . .


Main Menu Options . . . . . . . . .
Tools Menu Options . . . . . . . . .
Utility Menu Options . . . . . . . . .
Help Menu Options . . . . . . . . . .
APM Parameter Tuning . . . . . . .
Tie Point-Based Model Selection .

List of Tables

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. xi
xiii
xiv
. xv
xvi
. 11
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vii

viii

List of Tables

Preface
About This Manual

The IMAGINE AutoSync Users Guide serves as a handy guide to help


you use IMAGINE AutoSync. Included is a comprehensive index, so
that you can reference particular information later.

Example Data

Sample data sets are provided with the software. This data is
separately installed from the data DVD. For the purposes of
documentation, <ERDAS_Data_Home> represents the name of the
directory where sample data is installed. The Tour Guides refer to
specific data which are stored in <ERDAS_Data_Home>/examples.

Documentation

This manual is part of a suite of on-line documentation that you


receive with ERDAS IMAGINE software. There are two basic types of
documents, digital hardcopy documents which are delivered as PDF
files suitable for printing or on-line viewing, and On-Line Help
Documentation, delivered as HTML files.
The PDF documents are found in <IMAGINE_HOME>\help\hardcopy
where <IMAGINE_HOME> represents the name of the directory
where ERDAS IMAGINE is installed. Many of these documents are
available from the ERDAS Start menu. The on-line help system is
accessed by clicking on the Help button in a dialog or by selecting an
item from a Help menu.

Conventions Used
in This Book

In ERDAS IMAGINE, the names of menus, menu options, buttons,


and other components of the interface are shown in bold type. For
example:
In the Select Layer To Add dialog, select the Fit to Frame option.
When asked to use the mouse, you are directed to click, Shift-click,
middle-click, right-click, hold, drag, etc.

Preface

clickdesignates clicking with the left mouse button.

Shift-clickdesignates holding the Shift key down on your


keyboard and simultaneously clicking with the left mouse button.

middle-clickdesignates clicking with the middle mouse button.

right-clickdesignates clicking with the right mouse button.

holddesignates holding down the left (or right, as noted)


mouse button.

dragdesignates dragging the mouse while holding down the left


mouse button.

ix

The following paragraphs are used throughout the ERDAS IMAGINE


documentation:
These paragraphs contain strong warnings.

These paragraphs provide software-specific information.

These paragraphs contain important tips.

These paragraphs lead you to other areas of this book or other


ERDAS manuals for additional information.
NOTE: Notes give additional instruction.
Shaded Boxes
Shaded boxes contain supplemental information that is not
required to execute the steps of a tour guide, but is noteworthy.
Generally, this is technical information.

Getting Started

To start ERDAS IMAGINE, type the following in a UNIX command


window: imagine, or select ERDAS IMAGINE from the Start ->
ERDAS menu.
ERDAS IMAGINE begins running; the icon panel automatically opens.

ERDAS IMAGINE Icon


Panel

The ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel contains icons and menus for
accessing ERDAS IMAGINE functions. You have the option (through
the Session -> Preferences menu) to display the icon panel
horizontally across the top of the screen or vertically down the left
side of the screen. The default is a horizontal display.
The icon panel that displays on your screen looks similar to the
following:

The various icons that are present on your icon panel depend on the
components and add-on modules you have purchased with your
system.

Preface

ERDAS IMAGINE Menu


Bar

The menus on the ERDAS IMAGINE menu bar are: Session, Main,
Tools, Utilities, and Help. These menus are described in this
section.
NOTE: Any items which are unavailable in these menus are shaded
and inactive.

Session Menu
1. Click the word Session in the upper left corner of the ERDAS

IMAGINE menu bar. The Session menu opens:

These menus are


identical to the ones
on the icon panel.

Click here to end


the ERDAS IMAGINE
session

You can also place the


cursor anywhere in the
icon panel and press
Ctrl-Q to exit ERDAS
IMAGINE

The following table contains the Session menu selections and their
functionalities:

Table 1: Session Menu Options


Selection

Preface

Functionality

Preferences

Set individual or global default options


for many ERDAS IMAGINE functions
(Viewer, Map Composer, Spatial
Modeler, etc.).

Configuration

Configure peripheral devices for ERDAS


IMAGINE.

Session Log

View a real-time record of ERDAS


IMAGINE messages and commands,
and to issue commands.

Active Process List

View and cancel currently active


processes running in ERDAS IMAGINE.

Commands

Open a command shell, in which you


can enter commands to activate or
cancel processes.

Enter Log Message

Insert text into the Session Log.

xi

Table 1: Session Menu Options (Continued)


Selection

Functionality

Start Recording Batch


Commands

Open the Batch Wizard. Collect


commands as they are generated by
clicking the Batch button that is
available on many ERDAS IMAGINE
dialogs.

Open Batch Command File

Open a Batch Command File (*.bcf) you


have saved previously.

View Offline Batch Queue

Open the Scheduled Batch Job list


dialog, which gives information about
pending batch jobs.

Flip Icons

Specify horizontal or vertical icon panel


display.

Tile Viewers

Rearrange two or more Viewers on the


screen so that they do not overlap.

Close All Viewers

Close all Viewers that are currently


open.

Main

Access a menu of tools that corresponds


to the icons along the ERDAS IMAGINE
icon bar.

Tools

Access a menu of tools that allow you to


view and edit various text and image
files.

Utilities

Access a menu of utility items that allow


you to perform general tasks in ERDAS
IMAGINE.

Help

Access the ERDAS IMAGINE On-Line


Help.

Properties

Display the ERDAS IMAGINE Properties


dialog where system, environment and
licensing information is available.

Generate System Information Report

Provides a mechanism for printing


essential IMAGINE operating system
parameters.

Exit IMAGINE

Exit the ERDAS IMAGINE session


(keyboard shortcut: Ctrl-Q).

Main Menu
2. Click the word Main in the ERDAS IMAGINE menu bar. The Main

menu opens

xii

Preface

The following table contains the Main menu selections and their
functionalities:

Table 2: Main Menu Options


Selection

Functionality

Start IMAGINE Viewer

Start an empty Viewer.

Import/Export

Open the Import/Export dialog.

Data Preparation

Open the Data Preparation menu.

Map Composer

Open the Map Composer menu.

Image Interpreter

Open the Image Interpreter menu.

Image Catalog

Open the Image Catalog dialog.

Image Classification

Open the Classification menu.

Spatial Modeler

Open the Spatial Modeler menu.

Vector

Open the Vector Utilities menu.

Radar

Open the Radar menu.

VirtualGIS

Open the VirtualGIS menu.

LPS Project Manager

Open the LPS Project Manager Startup


dialog.

Stereo Analyst

Open the Stereo Analyst Workspace.

Tools Menu
3. Click the word Tools in the ERDAS IMAGINE menu bar. The Tools

menu opens:

Preface

xiii

The following table contains the Tools menu selections and their
functionalities:
Table 3: Tools Menu Options
Selection

xiv

Functionality

Edit Text Files

Create and edit ASCII text files.

Edit Raster Attributes

Edit raster attribute data.

View Binary Data

View the contents of binary files in a


number of different ways.

View IMAGINE HFA File


Structure

View the contents of the ERDAS


IMAGINE hierarchical files.

Annotation Information

View information for annotation files,


including number of elements and
projection information.

Image Information

Obtain full image information for a


selected ERDAS IMAGINE raster image.

Vector Information

Obtain full image information for a


selected ERDAS IMAGINE vector
coverage.

Image Command Tool

Open the Image Command dialog.

Coordinate Calculator

Transform coordinates from one


spheroid or datum to another.

Create/Display Movie
Sequences

View a series of images in rapid


succession.

Create/Display Viewer
Sequences

View a series of images saved from the


Viewer.

Image Drape

Create a perspective view by draping


imagery over a terrain DEM.

DPPDB Workstation

Start the Digital Point Positioning


DataBase Workstation (if installed).

View EML ScriptFilesa

Open the EML View dialog, which


enables you to view, edit, and print
ERDAS IMAGINE dialogs.

Preface

a. UNIX only.

Utilities Menu
4. Click Utilities on the ERDAS IMAGINE menu bar. The Utilities menu

opens:

The following table contains the Utilities menu selections and their
functionalities:

Table 4: Utility Menu Options


Selection

Preface

Functionality

JPEG Compress Images

Compress raster images using the JPEG


compression technique and save them
in an ERDAS IMAGINE format.

Decompress JPEG Images

Decompress images compressed using


the JPEG Compress Images utility.

Convert Pixels to ASCII

Output raster data file values to an


ASCII file.

Convert ASCII to Pixels

Create an image from an ASCII file.

Convert Images to Annotation

Convert a raster image to polygons


saved as ERDAS IMAGINE annotation
(.ovr).

Convert Annotation to Raster

Convert an annotation file containing


vector graphics to a raster image file.

Create/Update Image Chips

Provide a direct means of creating chips


for one or more images.

Mount/Unmount CD-ROMa

Mount and unmount a CD-ROM drive.

Create Lowercase Parallel


Linksa

Make a set of links to items on CD for


systems that convert CD paths to
uppercase.

xv

Table 4: Utility Menu Options (Continued)


Selection

Functionality

Create Font Tables

Create a map of characters in a


particular font.

Font to Symbol

Create a symbol library to use as


annotation characters from an existing
font.

Compare Images

Open Image Compare dialog. Compare


layers, raster, map info, etc.

Reconfigure Raster Formats

Start a DLL to reconfigure raster


formats.

Reconfigure Vector Formats

Start a DLL to reconfigure vector


formats.

Reconfigure Resample Methods

Start a DLL to reconfigure resampling


methods.

Reconfigure Geometric Models

Start a DLL to reconfigure the geometric


models.

a. UNIX only.

Help Menu
5. Select Help from the ERDAS IMAGINE menu bar. The Help menu

opens.

NOTE: The Help menu is also available from the Session menu.
The following table contains the Help menu selections and their
functionalities:

Table 5: Help Menu Options


Selection

xvi

Functionality

Help for Icon Panel

View the On-Line Help for the ERDAS


IMAGINE icon panel.

IMAGINE Online
Documentation

Access the root of the On-Line Help


tree.

Preface

Table 5: Help Menu Options


Selection

Functionality

IMAGINE Version

View which version of ERDAS IMAGINE


you are running.

IMAGINE DLL Information

Display and edit DLL class information


and DLL instance information.

About ERDAS IMAGINE

Open ERDAS IMAGINE Credits.

Dialogs

A dialog is a window in which you enter file names, set parameters,


and execute processes. In most dialogs, there is very little typing
requiredsimply use the mouse to click the options you want to use.
Most of the dialogs used throughout the tour guides are reproduced
from the software, with arrows showing you where to click. These
instructions are for reference only. Follow the numbered steps to
actually select dialog options.
For On-Line Help with a particular dialog, click the Help button in
that dialog.
All of the dialogs that accompany the raster and vector editing tools,
as well as the Select Layer To Add dialog, contain a Preview window,
which enables you to view the changes you make to the Viewer
image before you click Apply.
Most of the functions in ERDAS IMAGINE are accessible through
dialogs similar to the one below:

More
Information/Help

As you go through the tour guides, or as you work with ERDAS


IMAGINE on your own, there are several ways to obtain more
information regarding dialogs, tools, or menus, as described below.

On-Line Help
There are two main ways you can access On-Line Help in ERDAS
IMAGINE:

Preface

xvii

select the Help option from a menu bar

click the Help button on any dialog.

Status Bar Help


The status bar at the bottom of the Viewer displays a quick
explanation for buttons when the mouse cursor is placed over the
button. It is a good idea to keep an eye on this status bar, since
helpful information displays here, even for other dialogs.
Bubble Help
The User Interface and Session category of the Preference Editor
enables you to turn on Bubble Help, so that the single-line Help
displays directly below your cursor when your cursor rests on a
button or frame part. This is helpful if the status bar is obscured by
other windows.

xviii

Preface

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync


Introduction

This chapter explains what to expect from IMAGINE AutoSync and


how to adjust the underlying engine for optimal results. It also
provides practical tips and hints, and describes the best strategies to
handle difficult situations you may encounter.

Overview

Imagery always needs to be geometrically corrected to a map


coordinate system to be useful. This is especially true for applications
such as change detection, resolution merge (pan sharpening),
mosaic, and even simple layer stacking. The geometric correction
must be highly accurate, because misalignment of features at the
same location could render the results useless. Additionally, many
applications require the creation of a large database of
georeferenced images.
The current process of manual point measurement can be
prohibitively labor intensive for large applications, and it does not
enforce sub-pixel level correlation between images due to the
limitation of human visual interpretation. Block triangulation,
although tying imagery together photogrametrically, does not
enforce any correlation to already existing image layers.
IMAGINE AutoSync uses an automatic point matching algorithm to
generate thousands of tie points, and produces a mathematical
model to tie the images together. The resulting workflows
significantly reduce or sometimes completely eliminate manual point
collection. The output should be generally equal or better in accuracy
in comparison to the current methodology.

Benefits

Constraints

Some of the benefits of using IMAGINE AutoSync include:

Automatic point matching algorithm for mass tie point


generation.

Automatic sensor detection (if sensor information is available).

Streamlined wizard workflow that can handle a large number of


similar images.

Powerful workstation that provides an efficient environment and


tools for tie point quality assessment, point measurement,
preview of the output, and is useful in the organization of
complex projects, and so on.

Iterative model refinement and instantaneous rectification


results in the workstation environment.

As with any tool, poor data quality and/or inappropriate parameters


can produce less than desirable results. As a user, you should be
aware of the following:

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Default parameters are appropriate for most data, but may


require adjustment to work well for more varied scenes.

Data quality of the input images, reference image, and Digital


Elevation Model (DEM) directly affects the final output results.

User intervention may be required in some workflows to


compensate for poor data quality, erroneous model selection,
incorrect tie point measuring, and so on.

The more experienced you are with using IMAGINE AutoSync and the
more knowledge you have about the data and workflow, the better
the output will be using our software.

Data Preparation

The quality of your input data plays a crucial role in determining the
accuracy of the output and extent of user intervention required.
Additionally, the type of the input data largely determines which
workflow to follow for optimal results. This section discusses various
data you can use in IMAGINE AutoSync and how to best prepare the
data. It also provides suggested remedies for potential problems.

Input Images

When using the edge matching workflow, you can use georeferenced
or calibrated input images. In the georeferencing workflow, input
images can be georeferenced, calibrated, or raw images. You can
also use images that have map information but are not
georeferenced to a particular projected coordinate system.
If you are using raw input images, you must first establish a footprint
with the reference image before running automatic point
measurement. This is a necessary step since raw images lack the
map information to place the image at an approximate location to
overlap with the reference image.
Another consideration when using raw imagery is the potential for
matching problems between the uncorrected, vertically displaced
mountainous regions in the raw image and an orthorectified
reference image. This displacement can cause poor points to be
generated from the automatic point measurement process. You can
alleviate this problem by choosing an appropriate sensor model that
allows for the specification of a DEM (DLT, RPC, or ROP) and using
an accurate DEM. See Modeling on page 12 for more details.
Sensor metadata can be very helpful in establishing models for
rectification. For example, QuickBird images contain enough
information to build a rigorous model. Generally, data that are
rectified using a rigorous model and an accurate DEM produce the
best results.

Reference Images

The reference image must be georeferenced and have projection


information. For best results, the reference image should have a
higher or spatial resolution equal to the input images. IMAGINE
AutoSync has been tested with datasets that do not adhere to the
above suggestion and at a factor of six difference, it was generally
found that tie point editing was required to improve the solution.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Selecting Input and


Reference Images

When selecting input and reference images to use, it is preferable to


use images with maximum similarity. This largely improves the
result of the automatic point measurement. If the images are too
dissimilar, the results from the automatic point measurement
process may be undesirable.
Some of the main factors that affect the similarities of images include
the following:
Time of Capture
Time of capture, especially the season, could greatly alter the
radiometric characteristics of the images. For example, a winter
scene will not match well with a summer scene with high vegetation.
Resolution
Resolution is another factor that affects point matching results,
because it creates a difference in the details of the two images. Avoid
mixing input and reference images with a resolution difference larger
than a factor of six.
Elevation Variation
Variation in the elevation could also cause a difference between the
input and reference images. This is because the reference most likely
will be an orthorectified image and therefore vertical displacement is
minimal compared to the input. As a result, features that should be
in the same location could be far apart when the input and reference
images are attempted to be matched. To avoid this problem, you can
select a model that will allow for the specification of a DEM.
Spectral Range of Selected Band
The automatic point matching process uses a single band of a
multiband image to locate the tie point pairs. Consequently, it is
important to make sure similar bands are selected from the input
image and the reference image to achieve maximum similarity in
radiometric characteristics. Selecting a band within the visible
spectrum will produce the best results. Infrared and thermal bands
should generally be avoided.
Sensor
The sensor used in capturing the image (Landsat, IKONOS, SPOT,
and so on) affects the resolution and radiometric characteristics of
the images. It also determines the mathematical models that can be
used in the rectification. For example, the Rigorous Orbital
Pushbroom sensor model can only be applied to sensors such as IRS,
QuickBird, and so on. See Modeling on page 12 for details on
selecting an appropriate model.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Digital Elevation Model


(DEM)

The availability of a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can


drastically impact the quality of rectification results, especially for
mountainous areas. A DEM provides additional model-solving
information in determining the location of features in the output. This
could greatly reduce the negative impact of vertical displacement
when matching input and reference images.

APM Engine

Automatic Point Measurement (APM) is a software tool that uses


image-matching technology to automatically recognize and measure
the corresponding image points between two raster images. In
IMAGINE AutoSync, APM aims to deliver the coordinates of evenly
distributed corresponding points between an input image and a
reference image.

APM Strategy Parameters

APM works automatically to find the needed image points, but there
are a set of parameters you can adjust in circumstances where the
default settings fail to produce acceptable results. An Advanced Point
Matching Strategy dialog is also provided for more control over the
process. Please note that the defaults that appear in these dialogs
can be set from IMAGINE properties under the IMAGINE AutoSync
listing.
APM Strategy Tab
You can adjust APM parameters on the APM Strategy tab on the
IMAGINE AutoSync Project Properties dialog in the workstation, or
on the APM Strategy tab in the wizards.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Input Layer to Use: Select the layer of the input image to use for
APM. IMAGINE AutoSync automatically assigns a layer name for each
layer in the input image, using the following format: Layer_1,
Layer_2, and so on. Layer 1 refers to band one of the image. If you
have multiple input images in your list and they contain a different
number of bands, all possible bands will be listed. If you choose
Layer_5 and one or more images only contain four bands, band 5 will
be used on any images containing 5 bands, but band 4 or the next
available band will be used on any images with fewer than 5 bands.
Reference Layer to Use: Select the layer of reference image to
use for APM. IMAGINE AutoSync uses the actual reference layer
names.

Try to select the layers of two images with same or similar


spectrum. For example, if you use two color images, then try to
choose the same green bands. The more similar the radiometric
characteristics of two images are, the better APM results it can
achieve. In case you are using images with different band widths
(such as a black-white image and a multi-spectral image), you
may still get good results, but you may also encounter less
accurate matching points depending on the specific situation.
Find Points With: Select either the Default Distribution or
Defined Pattern type of point distribution.
Default Distribution APM superimposes a regularly spaced grid
onto each image in an attempt to find matching points in a well
distributed pattern. When you are attempting to collect fewer than
100 points, a 5 x 5 grid is used. If you want to collect 100 points or
more, a 10 x 10 grid is used.
APM tries to collect matching points within an area of 512 X 512
pixels centered on the corresponding grid intersection of each image.
If a matching point is not found within this area, APM moves to the
next grid intersection. This optimizes the likelihood of finding well
distributed points while minimizing search time on large images.
10% 30% 50% 70% 90%
10%
30%

The 5 X 5 grid divides each


image as shown at left. The 10 X
10 grid begins at 5% and
increments by 10%.

50%
70%
90%

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

In both cases, the maximum


search area is 512 X 512 pixels
centered on each grid
intersection.

Default distribution is most appropriate for standard aerial


photography and less so for the more varied possible inputs to
IMAGINE AutoSync. For that reason, Default Distribution is
available as an option to those working with aerials, but the
standard default setting for finding points is set to Defined
Pattern in anticipation of a wider use of data.
Defined Pattern If you select Defined Pattern, the options
Starting Column, Starting Line, Column Increment, Line
Increment, Ending Column, and Ending Line become active.
Using those options, you can define the exact placement of tie points
throughout the images of the block. With this option, you can also
define the intended number of points per pattern.
Intended Number of Points/Pattern (Image) This section of
the APM Strategy tab changes depending on whether you have
selected Default Distribution or Defined Pattern, above. In the
case of Default Distribution, enter the intended number of tie
points generated for each image. The minimum is 9 and the
maximum is 500. The default is 400. In the case of Defined
Pattern, enter the intended number of tie points generated per
pattern. The minimum number of points per pattern is 1 and the
maximum is 8. The default is 1.

If you want to define a tie point pattern, select Defined


Pattern. However, you should consider the overlap percentage
when you define your own pattern and try to get each pattern
location inside as much of the overlap as possible.
Keep All Points Select this checkbox to use all tie points
generated regardless of accuracy or distribution. If this checkbox is
active, the number of collected tie points will be greater than the
intended number of points per image. You do not normally need to
choose this option unless your images have low contrast, yielding
few points without this option selected.
Starting Column, Starting Line: Define the starting location of
tie points you want to find on the image in pixels. You will get better
results if you define the starting location close to the upper-left
corner of the overlap area on the higher resolution image. It is safe
to define the location close to the upper-left corner of the image, but
you may get bad results if it is close to the lower-right corner.
Column Increment, Line Increment: Define the increment in
pixels for tie point locations along column and line direction. APM will
try to find tie points around the image locations with these
increments to the previous locations.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Ending Column, Ending Line: Define the last column and line for
tie point collection. If you want to define them, they should not
exceed the lower-right corner of the overlap area. If you leave them
at the default of 0, 0, APM will automatically use the last column and
last line of the overlap area.
Automatically Remove Blunders: Click this checkbox to
remove blunders (wrong tie points) automatically from the APM
generated tie points. Removing blunders is an iterative process
based on a 3rd order polynomial model. When this option is selected,
the points that do not fit well with the majority of tie points are
considered blunders and are discarded. By default, this option is
selected. You should deselect this option only if you suspect that it
is removing correct tie points. For example, you should deselect this
option when most of the APM tie points are wrong, or when there is
a large difference in the terrain between the inputs and reference
image.
Maximum Blunder Removal Iterations: This option becomes
available when you choose to automatically remove blunders with
the Automatically Remove Blunders option. The default is 2. In
most cases, increasing this number means more iterations of the
blunder removal algorithm will be run. As a result, more tie points
will be considered as blunders and discarded.
Advanced Point Matching Strategy Dialog
On the Advanced Point Matching Strategy dialog in IMAGINE
AutoSync, you can adjust the more advanced APM parameters to
optimize automatic tie point collection.

Search Size: Enter the window size in pixels to use for searching
for corresponding points. IMAGINE AutoSync searches for the
corresponding point within a square window defined by this
parameter. The default value is 17 (a 17 x 17 pixel window). For flat
areas, this value could be smaller, for steeper areas, it could be
larger. A larger value could cause more computation time and more
wrong points, but a smaller value could result in fewer matched
points.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Feature Point Density: Defines the feature point density


percentage based on an internal default. Increasing the value above
100% (for example, in poor contrast area) will get more feature
points to get more matched points. Decreasing the value below
100% (for example, in an area with crowded details) will result in
fewer feature points to accelerate the computation.

Normally, you do not need to adjust this parameter if you are


using scanned aerial photos. However, if you select the Avoid
Shadow option, you should set this parameter to a higher
value (for example, 200%).
Correlation Size:
Enter the window size in pixels for crosscorrelation. The default window size is 11 (11 x 11). A larger window
size could cause a smaller correlation coefficient due to the
geometric difference within the two correlation windows and,
therefore, fewer matched points. A smaller window size could result
in a larger correlation coefficient due to insufficient contents,
therefore yielding more bad points.
Minimum Point Match Quality: Enter the limit for the cross
correlation coefficient. The allowed value is between 0.6 and 0.99.
The default value is 0.80. A larger limit results in fewer points
accepted and less error. A smaller limit results in more correlated
points but possibly more errors.
Least Squares Size: Enter the window size in pixels for least
square matching. A larger window size could reduce the number of
badly matched points, and could also reduce the number of good
points. A smaller window size could increase the number of both bad
and good points. The default is 21. You should increase this number
for flatter areas and decrease the number for steeper areas. Setting
the window size too small could result in insufficient contents in the
window for the least square computation.
Initial Accuracy: Enter the relative accuracy of your initial values
used by the automatic tie point generation process. Generally, a
large value here increases the initial search area for possible
corresponding points at the initial estimation phase. This value can
be seen as the relative accuracy of the source you have chosen for
your initial values (for example, initial map coordinates or relative
terrain change). The default value is 10%. You should use initial
values with an accuracy of 10% or better for the automatic tie point
collection.
Avoid Shadow: When you select this checkbox, APM will try to
avoid generating tie points in areas of shadow. Avoiding areas in
shadow improves tie point accuracy. You should choose the type of
images you are working with; negative or positive image scans.

You do not need to use this option unless shadows are very
prominent in your images.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Image Scan Type: Positive Select this option if you are working
with a positive image (bare ground appears white in the image).
Image Scan Type: Negative Select this option if you are
working with a negative image (bare ground appears black in the
image).
Use Manual Tie Points for Initial Connection between
Images: Select this option if the manually measured tie points will
be used as the initials for APM to find additional tie points
automatically. Select this option when the initial map coordinates are
very coarse, or when no map information is available for one or more
of the images. If you try to rectify a raw image to another raw image,
you should also select this option. You should manually collect a
minimum of three points.
Exclude Background Area: Select this option if you want to
exclude the background of the image. When you select this option,
a bounding box excluding the background area will be calculated and
used as the active image area for APM. The default starting column
and starting row will move inside of this bounding box. If you
manually changed the values in the Starting Column and Starting
Row, then your new values will take precedence above the
calculated bounding box.
Background Value: This option becomes available when you
select the Exclude Background Area option. Enter the background
value of the image. The default value is zero. If you do not know the
background value, you can use the IMAGINE ImageInfo tool and
review the pixel values of the image.
Ideal Situations for Good
APM Performance

For the best APM results, try to ensure that the following conditions
are met as much as possible. Not meeting one or more of these
conditions does not necessarily mean that the APM results will be of
poor quality.

Use images with an overlap larger than 40%.

Use images with the same or similar resolution or pixel size.

Use images that were captured in the same season, at the same
time of day (similar illumination conditions), and with similar
weather situations with good visibility.

Use images that were captured by the same or similar sensor.

Select the same band or a similar band in the images for point
matching to ensure similarity of radiometric characteristics.

Use images that are properly orthorectified (if appropriate). This


reduces the impact of vertical displacement and other
distortions. Pay special attention to quality of orthorectification.
A poorly orthorectified image produces bad results and is
misleading in raising your expectation.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Situations to Avoid

Use images with relatively flat terrain. There is minimal vertical


displacement and the radiometric characteristics are better
preserved because they have not gone through extensive
modification in a prior rectification process.

Ensure good initial map information is available for the images.


Images with less than 10% misalignment in the overlap region
tend to yield better results. When there is no initial image map
information, you need to perform an initial manual registration.
You can do this by digitizing 3-4 high quality points that are
evenly distributed and preferably placed close to the image
corners.

When using images with mountainous terrain, use an accurate


DEM in order to remove the image displacement caused by the
steep terrain change.

These are some situations you should try to avoid, since any or a
combination of the following conditions could result in poorly
matched points.

If you are unable to improve any of the following conditions,


refer to "APM Trouble Shooting and Tips" on page 11 to learn
about possible remedies by adjusting the APM parameters.

10

Using images with an overlap that is less than 256 x 256 pixels
or with an overlap region that is too narrow. Since APM requires
a sufficient region to deploy the matching strategy, an overlap
less than 20% will not produce desirable results.

Resolution differences (or pixel size difference) larger than 6


times. This is the threshold for any meaningful results.

Using images with a drastic time difference can result in a poor


match. For instance, a winter scene does not match well with a
summer scene due to the change in vegetation. Images do not
match well if they were captured too many years apart if there
has been a high level of change.

The band to match selection for inputs and reference should not
differ too much in electromagnetic wavelength. For example, an
infrared band might not match well with a blue band.

Sensor characteristics between the images if too different can


affect performance. For instance, a very high flying sensor does
not match well with a low flying sensor. The band width used,
sensor mechanism (pushbroom or discrete sensors) all could play
a role in making the images distinct from each other.

If using images with large, uncorrected terrain relief, the vertical


displacement can drastically reduce the likelihood of successful
APM results.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

APM Trouble Shooting


and Tips

Large scale, high-rise urban scenes do not match well due to the
vertical displacement effect, which is difficult to orthorectify.

Bad initial image registration. If misalignment in the overlap


region is larger than 20%, or manually digitized points are
unevenly distributed too far from image corners or of poor
quality, results may be affected.

Inappropriate placement of the starting point too close to the


ending edge (lower-right corner) of overlap area. This will result
in the overlap area not having enough search regions.

Refer to this section if the APM results are not as expected. If APM
results in a large RMSE, it may indicate bad APM results and/or
inappropriate modeling. Examine the tie points carefully to ensure
that the problem is from the APM results (many bad points, not
enough points, and so on.) before applying the following steps to fine
tune the APM parameters for improved results. If the APM points are
correct but the output does not reflect the quality of the points, you
most likely have chosen an inappropriate model.
Problem Diagnosis and Solutions
Sometimes you may not be able to rectify or improve any of the
conditions. If that occurs, you can adjust the APM parameters by
following the steps listed in the next section.
APM Parameter Tuning
When you need to adjust the APM parameters, first match your
situation with one of the following, and then adjust the APM
parameters accordingly.
Table 6: APM Parameter Tuning

Situation

Remedies

Many points, but


many poor quality
points

On the APM Strategy tab, change one or more


of the following parameters:

Increase the Minimum Point Match


Quality (> 0.9)

Increase the Correlation Size and Least

Squares Size

Decrease the Intended Number of Points

Too few points, but On the APM Strategy tab, change one or more
good quality
of the following parameters:

Increase the Intended Number of Points

Decrease the Column Increment and Line

Increment

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

11

Situation

Remedies

Too few points, and On the APM Strategy tab, change one or more
poor quality
of the following parameters:

Increase the Search Size

Decrease the Correlation Size

Decrease the Least Squares Size

Increase the Intended Number of Points

NOTE: Most likely, you have one or more


undesirable conditions, such as a large
misalignment. If the problem is a large
misalignment, manually collect a few tie points
and select the Use Manual tie points for
initial connection between the images
option under APM Strategy | Advanced
Options.
Too many points

On the APM Strategy tab, change one or more


of the following parameters:

Decrease the Intended Number of Points

Increase the Column Increment and Line

Increment

Increase the Minimum Point Match


Quality (> 0.9) and increase the Correlation
Size and Least Squares Size

NOTE: A large of number of points is


unnecessary and slows down the APM
processing. A large number of points does not
necessarily improve the accuracy. Try to trim
down the numbers and keep the best points.
Edge Matching
The nature of APM is to avoid edges of images. Features on the edge,
if no points were found, could be misaligned. For the edge matching
workflow, it will typically align features towards the center of the
overlap. If the next step of processing is mosaicking, a cutline down
the center of the overlap will eliminate issues on the edge. To match
the entire overlap, it may be necessary to manually collect points on
the edge, especially on linear features, to obtain full alignment.

Modeling

12

This section provides a brief explanation of the various mathematical


models available in IMAGINE AutoSync. You can apply these models
to the input images in order to geometrically correct them.
Understanding the model properties helps you select the model that
will generate the most accurate results for your dataset.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Image to Image (2D)


Transforms

An image-to-image transform can warp one image onto another


without the use of an earth model (DEM). The fit will not be as good
as a rigorous sensor model that requires a DEM because much of the
distortion comes from the terrain.
Rubber Sheeting
Rubber sheeting is a two dimensional image-to-image
transformation which is implemented as a piecewise transformation
based on the triangles formed from the tie points. This has the
property that the transformation is always perfect at the control
points and there is always a well behaved transition from triangle to
triangle. However, if an image has hilly or mountainous terrain, you
will have to collect a large number of tie points. In effect, the tie
points will be forming a model of the terrain surface. This can be
impractical since the performance of rubber sheeting decreases as
the number of points increases. Rubber sheeting is best used in an
area of moderate relief when an actual sensor model and a DEM is
not available.
Polynomial
A polynomial model is a two dimensional image-to-image
transformation. The polynomial model is of the form:

X =

i (n i)

Ai x y
i

Y =

i (n i)

Bi x y
i

If the order is set to 1, then the result is an affine or linear


transformation that is appropriate for cases where there is little or
no terrain displacement and most of the image to image difference
is in the form of scale, offset, and rotation. You can use higher orders
in cases where there is slowly varying terrain effects with scale,
offset, and terrain rotation. In both cases, it is assumed that the
actual sensor model and DEM are not available.
Ground to Image (3D)
Transforms

Every image is a mapping of three-dimensional (3D) coordinates into


a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The ground-to-image transformation
models this mapping using a DEM as the earth model.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

13

Rigorous Orbital Pushbroom (ROP)


Many current satellite imaging systems use pushbroom sensors. This
is a sensor that has a linear sensing array associated with an optical
system. The whole system is moved forward by the orbital motion of
the satellite. As it moves, the single line is pushed forward, scanning
a whole image. The linear array can be thought of as a very narrow
camera, which can be modeled with the same six parameters as a
frame camera. Each line has a different set of six parameters.
Because the orbit of the satellite is very stable and well known, the
position (x, y, z) and orientation, omega, phi and kappa (, , ) can
be modeled as time varying parameters. The time is related to each
line so these parameters can be computed give the line number in
the image. In the case of the Rigorous Orbital Pushbroom (ROP), the
parameters of the orbit model are refined using the tie points.

14

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Satellites which are currently handled by the ROP model include:

Approximate Sensor
Models

SPOT 5

EROS 1A

ASTER

QuickBird

OrbView

It is possible to use mathematical approximations for many sensor


models. These approximations do not directly model the sensor.
Instead, they are based on mathematic formulas whose results are
very close to the rigorous sensor model.
Projective Transform Model
The Projective Transform model provides a more powerful modeling
capability for multiperspective satellite images such as Landsat,
SPOT, and QuickBird. While the best way to transform is to use the
sensor-specific models, the Projective Transform can be used in
situations where no ephemeris is available, where there is no
applicable sensor model, or where the satellite image has already
been geometrically corrected.
Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC)
Rational Polynomial Coefficients are (as the name implies) ratios of
polynomials. These can model reasonably complex transformations
and remain stable (high order polynomials tend to be unstable). Like
a polynomial, a rational polynomial is described by an order and a
set of coefficients for the numerator and denominator for the X and
Y term. A rational polynomial is a 3D to 2D transformation in the
sense that a ground x, y, and z are used along with the coefficients
to compute the image row and column values.
The RPC coefficients are typically computed using a solved rigorous
model. One reason to use RPCs is that you do not need to know the
original rigorous model, so it is a good way to provide a common
framework which is independent of the actual sensor used.
The following satellites data and formats provide RPCs:

IKONOS

QuickBird

OrbView

NITF Data

The RPC values themselves cannot be computed from the tie points
and ground points. However, existing RPC values can be refined to
provide more accurate transforms.
Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

15

Direct Linear Transform (DLT)


The Direct Linear Transform (DLT) is actually an RPC whose order is
equal to one. The DLT is an excellent approximation for frame
cameras, and when it is known that the data comes from a frame
camera, you can use this without knowing the specifics of the frame
camera. The DLT coefficients can be computed from the tie and 3D
points.
Selecting a Model

You will get the best results when using a rigorous sensor model and
an accurate DEM. Most of the satellite data are shipped with sensor
model data (either parameters for the rigorous orbital pushbroom or
RPCs) which IMAGINE AutoSync can read. If the model is unknown
but a DEM is available, then it is a reasonable strategy to first try
using a DLT. If the results from the DLT are not acceptable, the
image may have been created using a pushbroom sensor. In this
case, the pushbroom orbital parameters are unknown, so the next
best candidate is to use one of the image-to-image (2D)
transformations as described above.

Selecting a DEM/DTM

The quality and accuracy of the results will be directly tied to the
quality of the DEM or DTM (Digital Terrain Model) used. A DTM
usually does not include man-made structures such as buildings or
bridges, so it can be expected that these features will have the most
mismatch in the final results.

Modeling TroubleShooting and Tips

Refer to this section for additional modeling troubleshooting help and


tips.

The more rigorous the model, the better the result. Follow the list
to make the best of the available information from the data. The
recommended order of models from the most rigorous to the
least is:

1. Rigorous Orbital Pushbroom (ROP)


2. Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPC)
3. Direct Linear Transform (DLT)
4. Polynomial
5. Rubber Sheeting

16

The quality of the points is essential in determining the outcome


of the image-to-image transformation models. Ideally they
should be evenly distributed and closely matched. If a particular
region has very few points, you may collect some points
manually to compensate.

If you determine that image to image (2D) transform is the best


available model for the images, the following tips can help you
decide whether to use an Affine, Polynomial, or Rubber Sheeting
model.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Table 7: Tie Point-Based Model Selection

Number of Tie
Points
< 10
1050
> 50

Appropriate Model
Affine
Polynomial (3rd Order)
Polynomial or Rubber Sheeting
Note: When the density of points is satisfactory with
an even distribution, use Rubber Sheeting.
Otherwise, use the 3rd Order Polynomial.

IMAGINE
AutoSync Tips and
Hints

Rubber sheeting models always have an RMSE of zero. Points


would need to be manually reviewed in order to assess accuracy.
When using the Linear or Non-Linear Rubber Sheeting model,
you can first try using a Polynomial model for the data. Then use
the RMSE as threshold to find and remove any mismatched
points using the RMSE threshold selection tool in the IMAGINE
AutoSync Workstation. The RMSE threshold selection tool will
select all points that do not meet the specified value. By right
clicking in the far left column on the CellArray, you can delete all
selected points quickly eliminating the bad points. Finally, apply
the Rubber Sheeting Model. Only the remaining points will be
used, yielding better results.

When results from using the Linear or Non-Linear Rubber


Sheeting model show significant misalignment in a region,
selectively collect some manual tie points in that area and resolve
the model to correct the situation. This process can be very
effective in correcting a situation where the overall model fits
well, but is problematic in a small number of regions.

Deleting points with an Error Mean + 2 x Standard Deviation, and


resolving the model 3-4 times will drastically improve the overall
error results. Repeating this process more than 3-4 times will
have diminishing results. This is more applicable when using a
rigorous model such as RPC, Orbital Pushbroom, or DLT. When
using other models (Polynomial, Linear, or Non-Linear Rubber
Sheeting, and so on.), this method may not be as beneficial.

During the process of resolving the model, you can undo the last
deletion of points if the model results are not what you expected.

This section provides additional tips and hints for using IMAGINE
AutoSync to generate the best results.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

17

Interpreting Results

After careful data preparation, you can run APM and tie the images
together through a mathematical model. Then you can review the
results. This section explains how to correctly interpret the results,
identify any problems, and how to resolve them.
Visual Inspection
Visual inspection in the workstation is the most reliable method to
verify results. Use the Swipe tool on overlaying images to inspect
them for proper alignment. A well-aligned set of images will swipe
smoothly without sudden visual interruption, except where there are
real changes (for example, new buildings) or shadows.
Tie Point Quality Analysis
Inspect selected areas and use the Zoom tool in the workstation to
assess the quality. Also look for an uneven distribution of tie points.
If this occurs, you may need to manually collect some points to
compensate. An easy way to locate suspect points is to select points
based on RMSE (for instance, RMSE > Error Mean + 2 x Standard
Deviation). Then use the Drive To tool to locate the points quickly.
RMSE Analysis
RMSE is the cumulative result of point matching and modeling. A
large RMSE could be caused by one or both. Inspect the tie points to
determine whether the points are the culprit. Often times, the
inappropriate use of a model is responsible for a large error value.
An example would be when the point quality is very good, yet the
results show a large RMSE. Conversely, a small RMSE may not
necessarily indicate good overall results. It could be an artifact of the
model that is being used. For example, the Linear or Non-Linear
Rubber Sheeting model by definition will produce a zero error
because all tie points are meant to match exactly in the results while
the regions surrounding the points may be distorted. Therefore, you
should always perform a visual inspection along with analyzing the
RMSE to ensure correct judgment of the error conditions.
Follow-up Actions
When your analysis of the results point to problems either in APM or
modeling, refer to the proper sections of this chapter for specific tips
for improvement:

18

For better data preparation, refer to Data Preparation on page 2.

For APM parameter tuning, refer to APM Engine on page 4.

For a better model choice, refer to Modeling on page 12.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Using the IMAGINE


AutoSync Workstation

Using the IMAGINE


AutoSync Wizards

This section provides some helpful tips when using the IMAGINE
AutoSync workstation.

Use the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation for complex workflows


that require more user intervention. The workstation provides
more flexibility, tools for visual inspection of the results, and for
manually collecting tie points.

Set the color of the GCPs in the IMAGINE AutoSync preferences


before running APM in the workstation. You will avoid having to
select all of the GCPs individually generated by APM to change
their color. Selecting a large number of GCPs (> 2000) can be
very time-consuming.

Use the Preview Output option on the Input Image context


menu to view the results of the model before calibrating or
resampling the imagery. While in the preview mode, you can
continue to delete GCPs and resolve the model. Also, whenever
you select Preview Output again, the model will be recomputed
and the viewer updated appropriately. This avoids having to
return to the Point Review mode.

When both the input and reference image contain projection


information and the two images are of different resolutions, click
the Set Same Scale icon on the toolbar in the workstation to set
the display scale of each image to be the same. During point
review, it will be easier to find similar features between the two
images.

If large errors are produced when using imagery with no


projection information, review the manually collected points to
ensure they were collected over the same features. Low quality
manual GCPs will produce low quality models.

Using very low resolution elevation data with the rigorous models
may result in a shearing affect in the output imagery. This is due
to the difference in the resolution of the input image and the
elevation data.

It saves time to turn off the display of a large number of tie points
in the Overview in the workstation.

This section provides some helpful tips when using the IMAGINE
AutoSync wizards.

Use the Georeferencing or Edge Matching wizards when you want


to be guided through a workflow.

The wizard workflow can be labor-saving when the datasets are


homogenous, large, and can be processed with the same settings
of parameters and models.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

19

IMAGINE AutoSync
Workflows

Do not mix different types of datasets where each dataset


requires different settings in the same wizard workflow. Separate
the datasets into different projects.

Before batching large homogenous datasets with the wizard, try


to run one dataset through the wizard and inspect the results in
the workstation. Experiment with the settings of the workflow to
find one that generates optimal output. Then batch the large
datasets with the same settings.

After you determine a good workflow, you can make batching


easier by creating a template IMAGINE AutoSync .lap file with the
proper settings but no images in the workstation. Then load the
template .lap file in the wizard and add the large datasets.

IMAGINE AutoSync supports three main types of workflows. Use the


workflow that is suitable to the nature of the data and your
applications.
Georeferencing Workflow
Use the georeferencing workflow if you know that one input image is
clearly of better accuracy, and both images are georeferenced. For
example, use the georeferencing workflow if you have a database of
high-accuracy images and you want to introduce another
georeferenced image of lesser quality to the database.
Edge Matching Workflow
Use the edge matching workflow to bring the overlap area of image
pairs into alignment. This workflow will modify both images due to
the fact that the required shifts will be divided between the images.
Edge matching may also be a good choice when the overlap area is
small and it is undesirable to apply the same transform that is
suitable for the overlap region to the entire image.
Raw Imagery Workflow
Use the raw images workflow when an image does not have
georeferencing information available, or when it is unreliable. When
the georeferencing information is unreliable, you should ignore the
existing georeferencing information. With raw images, you need to
manually collect at least three tie points that are evenly distributed,
close to the image corners, and high quality.

General IMAGINE
AutoSync Tips and Hints

Some miscellaneous tips and hints for using IMAGINE AutoSync


include:

20

If you calculate statistics on all imagery before using the image


within IMAGINE AutoSync, this will improve the overall
performance.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Summary

IMAGINE AutoSync will recompute pyramids at the start of the


APM process for any image that does not have 3 x 3 pyramids
previously computed. ERDAS IMAGINE defaults to producing 2 x
2 pyramids. You can change the ERDAS IMAGINE Image File
preferences to always produce 3 x 3 to save time.

Work with local files whenever possible. Saving IMAGINE


AutoSync project files that contain a large number of GCPs may
be slow over a network.

When resampling, ensure the output cell size is reasonable for


the images. The IMAGINE AutoSync defaults may not be suitable
for your application.

When properly used, IMAGINE AutoSync is a powerful tool for fast


image rectification with a tremendous saving of manual labor. This
is achieved by a streamlined workflow, user-friendly workstation
environment, a state-of-the-art automatic point matching engine,
and a wide selection of intelligent modeling methods.
The final output from IMAGINE AutoSync is the cumulative result of
the workflow you select, the data quality, APM engine usage
(parameter settings), and the model selected. To ensure the best
results, you should make careful and judicious decisions on these
factors, starting with the data preparation, and proceeding with the
steps as outlined in the sections of this chapter.
As with any sophisticated system, using IMAGINE AutoSync requires
that you have a basic understanding of the various components of
the embedded technologies. The more knowledge you have with
regard to the data and the internal working of IMAGINE AutoSync,
the better your chance of success.

General Guidelines

Some general guidelines you should follow when using IMAGINE


AutoSync include:
1. Start with careful data preparation to ensure that you obtain the
best data available (refer to Data Preparation on page 2).
2. Ensure that you understand the parameters of the APM engine.
Analyze the data to see how many ideal or undesirable scenarios
the data may exhibit and try to rectify them. (refer to APM Engine
on page 4).
3. Select the most accurate model for rectification and utilize the
provided metadata. Understand the limitations of each model
and troubleshoot accordingly (refer to Modeling on page 12).
4. Follow the tips and hints in IMAGINE AutoSync Tips and Hints on
page 17. This will help you avoid frustration caused by improper
use.

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

21

5. If your APM results are not as expected, analyze whether it is the


result of bad tie points or improper choice of a sensor model
(refer to Modeling on page 12). Then proceed to rectify the
situation accordingly.

We are continually improving the technology in IMAGINE


AutoSync to improve results and widen the scope of the product.

22

Introduction to IMAGINE AutoSync

Using IMAGINE AutoSync


Introduction

IMAGINE AutoSync provides both wizard-driven and workstation


workflows for the automated rectification of imagery. The IMAGINE
AutoSync wizards guide you through the geometric correction
process or you can use the workstation for customizable control of
your workflow. This chapter explains the steps for edge matching
two images using the Edge Matching Wizard and how to use the
IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation to georeference a raw image.

All of the data used in this chapter are in the


<ERDAS_Data_Home>/examples directory.

Using the Edge


Matching Wizard

In this section, you use the IMAGINE AutoSync Edge Matching wizard
to align two images so that features in the overlapping area match
up.
The two files to be edge matched are air-photo-1.img and
air-photo-2.img.
These data files are air photo images of the Oxford, Ohio area.
You must have ERDAS IMAGINE running.
1. Click the IMAGINE AutoSync icon on the ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel.

The IMAGINE AutoSync menu opens.

Click here to start


the Edge Matching Wizard

2. Select Edge Matching Wizard... from the IMAGINE AutoSync

menu.

The IMAGINE AutoSync Edge Matching Wizard opens.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

23

Click here to
select images

Using the Input tab

In the Input tab, you will add the images to be edge matched.
IMAGINE AutoSync will edge match neighboring images, so input
image order in the CellArray is important.
1. In the Input tab, click the Open File icon

The Input Images dialog opens.

Click here
to display
the file
Click here
to select
the file

Preview
window

2. In the Input Images dialog under File name, select

air-photo-1.img from the file list.

3. Click OK in the Input Images dialog.

The file air-photo-1.img displays in the Input Images column in the


Edge Matching Wizard dialog.

24

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Input
image

4. Repeat step 1. through step 3. for the second image, selecting

air-photo-2.img this time.

5. Click Next> to continue to the APM Strategy tab in the Edge

Matching Wizard.

Using the APM Strategy


tab

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

In the APM Strategy tab, you can adjust the algorithm settings that
control the placement of automatically generated tie points in your
images. You can also select which input image layer to use to achieve
a better point matching result.

25

Make sure
Defined Pattern
is selected

1. Accept the default settings in the APM Strategy tab. Make sure that

Defined Pattern is selected.

2. Click Next> to continue to the Edge Match Strategy tab in the Edge

Matching Wizard.

Using the Edge Match


Strategy tab

In the Edge Match Strategy tab, you can select a refinement method
and choose to apply the refinement to the overlapping area only or
the whole image.

Click to select
Linear Rubber
Sheeting

Make sure the


buffer size is 180

1. In the Edge Match Strategy tab, click the Refinement Method list and

select Linear Rubber Sheeting.

26

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

2. Accept the Apply Refinement to default of Overlapping Area

Only to apply refinement only to the overlapping area between the


images.

3. In the Edge Match Strategy tab, in the Buffer Around the

Overlapping Area (pixels): field, keep the default of 180.

4. Click Next> to continue to the Projection tab in the Edge Matching

Wizard.

Using the Projection tab

In the Projection tab, you can set a projection for your output
images. You can set it to the same projection as the corresponding
input image or to another specified projection.
NOTE: The Output Projection fields will be greyed out in the
Projection tab until you select the Resample geocorrection method
in the Output tab.

1. In the Projection tab, accept the default Output Projection of Same

as Input Image.

2. Click Next> to continue to the Output tab in the Edge Matching

Wizard.

Using the Output tab

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

In the Output tab, you can specify the properties for your output
images, including selecting the geocorrection method and specifying
names for the output files and summary report.

27

Click here
to open the
Resample
Settings
dialog

Click here to select


the Resample method

Enter a
summary
report
name here

Click here to open


the Output File
Names dialog

1. In the Output tab, select the Resample geocorrection method.


2. Click Resample Settings... in the Output tab.

The Resample Settings dialog opens.

For more information on the geocorrection methods, see


Resampling vs. Calibration on page 30.

Make sure Cubic


Convolution
is selected

3. Accept the default settings in the Resample Settings dialog. Make

sure the Cubic Convolution resample method is selected.

4. Click OK in the Resample Settings dialog.


5. In the Output tab, click the Set Output File Names... button.

The Output File Names dialog opens.

28

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Enter a default
file name suffix here

Click here to
select a default
output directory
6. In the Output File Names dialog, click the File Selector icon

to

select a default output directory of your choice.


7. In the Default Output File Name Suffix field, enter a default file

name suffix of your choice, or use the default _output.

8. Click OK in the Output File Names dialog.


9. In the Output tab, make sure the Generate Summary Report

checkbox is selected and enter a name of your choice for the HTML
summary report. You can also click the File Selector icon
select a directory of your choice.

to

10. In the Output tab, click Save to save the project. A File Selector

opens, and you can save the project to a directory of your choice.

11. In the Output tab, click Finish to complete the edge matching

process.

The AutoSync Job status dialog appears, stating the progress of the
edge match operation.

12. Click OK in the AutoSync Job status dialog when the operation is

finished.

NOTE: Edge matching can take several minutes to run, based upon
your hardware capabilities and the size of the image files.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

29

Resampling vs. Calibration


Resampling
Resampling is the process of calculating the file values for the
rectified image and creating the new file. All of the raster data
layers in the source file are resampled. The output image has as
many layers as the input image.
ERDAS IMAGINE provides these widely-known resampling
algorithms:

Nearest Neighbor

Bilinear Interpolation

Cubic Convolution

Bicubic Spline

Calibration
Instead of creating a new, rectified image by resampling the
original image based on the mathematical model, calibrating an
image only saves the mathematical model into the original image
as a piece of auxiliary information. Calibration does not generate
new images, so when the calibrated image is used, the math
model comes into play as needed.
For example, if you want to see the calibrated image in its rectified
map space in a Viewer, the image can be resampled on the fly
based on the math model, by selecting the Orient image to map
system option in the Select Layer To Add dialog.
A major drawback to image calibration is that the processes
involved with the calibrated image is slowed down significantly if
the math model is complicated. One minor advantage to image
calibration is that it uses less disk space and leaves the images
spectral information undisturbed.
NOTE: We recommend that image calibration be used only when
necessary, due to the drawbacks of the process.
Display Output Image
1. Click the Viewer icon in the ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel.

The Select Viewer Type dialog opens.


2. Select Classic Viewer.
3. Click OK in the Select Viewer Type dialog.

A new Viewer displays.


4. Click the Open icon

30

in the Viewer you just created.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

The Select Layer To Add: dialog opens.


5. Click the Raster Options tab at the top of the Select Layer To Add:

dialog.

6. Select the Background Transparent option.


7. Click the File tab at the top of the Select Layer To Add: dialog.
8. In the Select Layer To Add: dialog under Filename, select the output

images from the directory in which you saved them.

9. Click OK in the Select Layer To Add dialog.

The edge matched output images display in the viewer.

Use the Viewer Swipe Tool


1. To perform visual verification using the Viewer Swipe tool, select

Utility -> Swipe... from the Viewer menu bar.

2. The Viewer Swipe dialog opens.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

31

Use the slide to swipe


over the images
Choose either
Vertical or Horizontal
Use Auto Mode and
Speed to watch the
images being swiped
at a rate you choose

3. Check Auto Mode in the Viewer Swipe dialog, and type 500 for the

Speed. You can watch as the swipe tool slowly works its way over
the images allowing you to evaluate the quality. Experiment with
both Vertical and Horizontal direction and different speeds.

View Summary Report

Once you have finished edge matching the images, you can view the
HTML summary report to review information about the error, tie
points, etc.
1. In a Windows Explorer window, browse to the directory where you

saved the HTML report (in the Output tab).

2. Click to open the HTML file.

The summary report opens in a browser window.

You can experiment with selecting different options in the Edge


Matching wizard tabs to produce different results. For example,
in the Edge Match Strategy tab, select to apply refinement to the
Whole Image (instead of the Overlapping Area Only) or
change the Buffer Around the Overlapping Area (pixels)
number to see the differences in the resulting output images.

Using the
AutoSync
Workstation

32

In this section, you use the georeference workflow in the IMAGINE


AutoSync Workstation to georeference a raw Landsat TM image of
Atlanta, Georgia, using a SPOT panchromatic image of the same
area. The raw Landsat TM image does not have any map information
and the SPOT image is rectified to the State Plane map projection.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

This section explains the steps for using the georeference


workflow in the workstation to georeference a raw image (an
image without any map information). When georeferencing a
rectified image, you do not need to manually collect tie points
before running APM.
To georeference a raw image in the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation,
follow these basic steps:

Create New IMAGINE


AutoSync Project

create a new IMAGINE AutoSync project

add an input image

add an image to reference against the input image

collect manual tie points

run APM

preview the output image

improve output image results (if necessary)

review the input and reference image map data information

set the output image projection

resample or calibrate the output image

verify the rectification process

view the summary report

First, create a new IMAGINE AutoSync project.


You must have ERDAS IMAGINE running.
1. Click the AutoSync icon on the ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel.

The AutoSync menu opens.

Click here to start


the IMAGINE AutoSync
Workstation

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

33

2. Select AutoSync Workstation... from the AutoSync menu.

The IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation Startup dialog opens.

Click here to create


a new IMAGINE
AutoSync project

3. On the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation Startup dialog, select Create

a new project.

4. Click OK.

The Create New Project dialog opens.

Enter a project
name here

Click here to select the


georeference workflow

Click to open the


Resample
Settings dialog

Click here to select the


Resample geocorrection
method

Enter a summary report


name here

5. On the Create New Project dialog, select the Georeference

workflow.

6. In the Project File (*.lap) field, click the File Selector icon

or

enter a project file name of your choice.


7. On the Create New Project dialog, select the Resample

geocorrection method.

8. Click the Resample Settings... button.

34

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

The Resample Settings dialog opens.

Make sure
Cubic
Convolution
is selected

Click to accept
the default
resample settings

9. Accept the default settings in the Resample Settings dialog. Make

sure the Cubic Convolution resample method is selected.

IMAGINE AutoSync provides these widely-known resampling


algorithms: Nearest Neighbor, Bilinear Interpolation, Cubic
Convolution, and Bicubic Spline. In some cases you may want to
change the Resample Method, but for this chapter, leave it set
to Cubic Convolution.
10. Click OK in the Resample Settings dialog.
11. In the Create New Project dialog, in the Default Output Directory:

(*) field, click the File Selector icon


directory of your choice.

to select a default output

12. In the Default Output File Name Suffix field, enter a default file

name suffix of your choice, or keep the default _output.

13. In the Create New Project dialog, make sure the Generate

Summary Report checkbox is selected. The name of the project in


the Project File field defaults as the summary report name, but you
can also click the File Selector icon
and directory of your choice.

to select a different name

14. If you are using SPOT DIMAP for input and you selected an

imagery.tif file for the input image file name, you can run APM
without manually measured points.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

35

Menu bar
IMAGINE AutoSync
toolbar
Project Explorer

Viewer panes

GCP toolbar
CellArray

Status bar

Add Input Image

After you have created the IMAGINE AutoSync project, the next step
is to add the input image you want to georeference.
1. To add an input image to the project, do one of the following:

In the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the Open Input Images


icon

Select File -> Add Images -> Input Images... from the menu
bar

Right-click on the Input Images folder in the Project Explorer


Tree View and select Add Input Image...

The Select Images To Open dialog opens.

36

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Click here
to add the file

Click here
to select
the file

Preview
window

2. In the Select Images To Open dialog under Filename, click the file

tmAtlanta.img.

This file is a Landsat TM image of Atlanta that has not been rectified.
3. Click OK in the Select Images To Open dialog.

The input image tmAtlanta.img displays in the IMAGINE AutoSync


Workstation.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

37

The input file


displays in the
Project Explorer
and left viewer
panes

Add Reference Image

After you have added an input image, the next step is to add an
image to reference against the input image.
1. To add a reference image to the project, do one of the following:

In the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the Open Reference


Images icon

Select File -> Add Images -> Set Reference Image... from
the menu bar

Right-click on the Reference Image folder in the Project Explorer


Tree View and select Set Reference Image...

The Select Images To Open dialog opens.

38

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Click here
to add the file

Click here
to select
the file

Preview
window

2. In the Select Images To Open dialog under Filename, click the file

panAtlanta.img.

This file is a SPOT panchromatic image of Atlanta. This image has


been georeferenced to the State Plane map projection.
3. Click OK in the Select Images To Open dialog.

The reference image panAtlanta.img displays in the IMAGINE


AutoSync Workstation.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

39

The reference
file displays in the
Project Explorer
and right viewer
panes

Collect Manual Tie Points

Once you have loaded the input and reference images in the
IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation, you can manually collect tie points.

This step is necessary here because the input image


(tmAtlanta.img) is a raw image (without any map
information). When using the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation to
georeference images with map information, you do not need to
manually collect tie points before running APM and you can skip
this step.
1. In the GCP toolbar, click the Create GCP icon

40

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Click to
collect tie points

Click to show tie points Click to change the


in the viewer panes
tie point color to yellow

2. In the GCP toolbar, click the Show Selected Points icon

3. To make the input image tie points easier to see in the viewer om

the left, right-click in the Color column to the right of Point ID in


the first row of the CellArray and select the color Yellow. Repeat this
for each tie point in the CellArray.

4. To make the reference image tie points easier to see in the viewer

on the right, right-click in the Color column to the right of Y Input


in the first row of the CellArray and select the color Yellow. Repeat
this for each tie point in the CellArray.

5. In the Main View pane of the input image, click a location to collect

a tie point.

The point you have created is labeled as 1 in the Main View pane and
its X and Y inputs are listed in the CellArray. Also notice that the input
image icon in the Project Tree View now has a green border since it
now has tie points.
6. In the Main View pane of the reference image, click the same location

to collect a tie point.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

41

Click to create
tie points on both the
input and reference
images

These are the X and Y


map coordinates for
tie points in the input image
(tmAtlanta.img)

These are the X and Y


map coordinates for
tie points in the reference
image (panAtlanta.img)

7. Collect at least three manual tie points in both the input and

reference images.

You should choose points that are easily identifiable in both


images, such as road intersections and landmarks, so that the
images match properly. Also, make sure you scatter your tie
points around the images so they are not all concentrated in one
place. Try to collect tie points that are close to each of the four
corners of the images.

If you are using SPOT DIMAP for input and you selected an
imagery.tif file for the input image file name, you can run APM
without manually measured points.
Your project in the IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation should now look
similar to the following:

42

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Run APM

After collecting several tie points in the input and reference image,
the next step is to run automatic point matching (APM) to
automatically generate more control points for your images.
1. In the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, do one of the following to run

APM:

In the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the Run APM icon

Select Process -> Run APM from the menu bar

Right-click on the input image (tmAtlanta.img) in the Project


Explorer Tree View and select Run APM

The Status bar at the bottom of the workstation displays the RMSE
and Error Standard Deviation results. The APM points generated
populate the CellArray and display in the viewers for both the input
and reference images.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

43

The APM points


display in the viewers
and populate the
CellArray
The Status bar displays
the RMSE and error
standard deviation
results

Preview Output Image

After you run APM, you can preview the output image to make sure
you are satisfied with the results before resampling or calibrating.
1. To preview the output image, right-click on the input image

(tmAtlanta.img) in the Project Explorer Tree View and select


Preview Output.
The output image displays in the viewer.

44

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Improve Output Image


Results

If you preview the output results and the image is warped, shows
black images, or produces other unacceptable output, it is most
likely the result of incorrect APM tie points or an inappropriate sensor
model. In this chapter, if you are dissatisfied with the results, there
are most likely incorrect tie points that you should delete before
resampling. If the Error Std. Dev. is higher than 2.0, you should
also follow these steps to improve the tie points. If you delete
incorrect APM points and the results are still poor, then you should
try changing the sensor model in the IMAGINE AutoSync Project
Properties dialog.

To learn more about improving APM results, see APM Engine on


page 4.
1. Right-click on the input image (tmAtlanta.img) in the Project

Explorer Tree View and select Review Points.

The input and reference images display in the viewer panes, showing
the tie points.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

45

Enter 2 for the error


threshold search
criteria

Click to select tie


points with an error
threshold of 2 in the
CellArray
2. In the GCP toolbar, enter or use the nudgers to the right of the field

to select 2 in the error threshold text box.

3. In the GCP toolbar, click the Select GCPs with Error Threshold icon

.
The tie points with an error higher than 2 are highlighted in the
CellArray.

46

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Click here to drive through


the selected points in
the CellArray
4. Click the Drive To icon

to click through the selected points in the

CellArray.
As you click through the points, the points in the viewers will be
highlighted with a box.
5. When you find a point with a high error, click the Delete GCP

icon.
The selected point is deleted from the viewers and the CellArray.
6. After you delete all the points with a high error, right-click on the

input image (tmAtlanta.img) in the Project Explorer Tree View and


select Preview Output.

Review Image Map Data

The next step is to review the image map data for the input and
reference image. You can review the map data to learn about the
map and projection information in order to determine if you want the
output image to have the same projection as the reference image.
1. Click on the reference image in the Main View pane or in the Project

Explorer Tree View to select it.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

47

Click to open the


ImageInfo dialog

Click to select
panAtlanta.img

2. On the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the ImageInfo icon

The ImageInfo dialog for panAtlanta.img opens.

48

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Note map and


projection
information

Note the information in the Map Info section and that the
Projection Info section shows that the map is georeferenced to
State Plane.
3. When you are finished, select File -> Close in the ImageInfo dialog.
4. Click on the input image in the Main View pane or in the Project

Explorer Tree View to select it.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

49

Click to open the


ImageInfo dialog

Click to select
tmAtlanta.img

5. On the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the ImageInfo icon

6. The ImageInfo dialog for tmAtlanta.img opens.

50

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Note map and


projection
information

Note the information in the Map Info section and that the
Projection Info section shows that this is a raw image with no
projection information. Therefore, for this chapter, use the input
projection from the reference image (panAtlanta.img) for the
output image.
Set Output Image
Projection

Since the image to be georeferenced is a raw image with no


projection information, you need to change the project properties to
set the output projection before resampling or calibrating the image.
1. To change the output projection, do one of the following:

Select Process -> Project Properties... from the menu bar

In the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar, click the Edit Project


Properties icon

The IMAGINE AutoSync Project Properties dialog opens.


2. Click the Projection tab.

The Projection tab opens in the IMAGINE AutoSync Project Properties


dialog.
3. In the Output Projection section, select Same as Reference

Image.

The projection information from the reference image displays


(greyed out).

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

51

Click here to use the


same projection
as the reference
image
The reference
image projection
info displays here

4. Click the OK button to close the IMAGINE AutoSync Project

Properties dialog.

Resample Output Image

Resampling is the process of calculating the file values for the


rectified image and creating the output file. All of the raster data
layers in the source file are resampled. The output image will have
as many layers as the input image.
1. To resample the output image, do one of the following:

Select Process -> Calibrate/Resample from the menu bar

Right-click on the input image (tmAtlanta.img) in the Project


Explorer Tree View and select Calibrate/Resample

You can change the resample settings in the Output tab in the
IMAGINE AutoSync Project Properties dialog. You may want to
experiment with changing the resample settings later, but this
chapter uses the default settings.
The resampled output image (tmAtlanta_output.img) displays in
the workstation viewer and the output image name now displays in
the Output Images folder in the Project Explorer. Your project in the
IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation should now look similar to the
following:

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Using IMAGINE AutoSync

The resampled
output image
displays in the viewer
and Project Tree View

Verify Output Image

Once the output image is created, you can use the workstation to
perform the output image verification. You can verify that the input
image (tmAtlanta.img) has been correctly georeferenced to the
reference image (panAtlanta.img) by visually checking that they
conform to each other using the Viewer Blend/Fade, Viewer Swipe,
or Viewer Flicker verification tools.
Use the Viewer Blend/Fade Tool
1. To perform visual verification using the Viewer Blend/Fade tool, click

the Start Blend Tool icon

on the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar.

The Viewer Blend/Fade dialog opens.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

53

Use the slide to blend


and fade the images

Use Auto Mode and


Speed to watch the
images being blended
together at a rate you
choose

2. Select Auto Mode in the Viewer Blend/Fade dialog, and type 500 for

the Speed. You can watch as the tool slowly blends the images,
allowing you to evaluate the quality. Experiment with both different
speeds or use the slide to blend and fade the images.
Use the Viewer Swipe Tool

1. To perform visual verification using the Viewer Swipe tool, click the

Start Swipe Tool icon

on the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar.

The Viewer Swipe dialog opens.

Use the slide to swipe


over the images
Choose either
Vertical or Horizontal

Use Auto Mode and


Speed to watch the
images being swiped
at a rate you choose

2. Check Auto Mode in the Viewer Swipe dialog, and type 500 for the

Speed. You can watch as the swipe tool slowly works its way over
the images allowing you to evaluate the quality. Experiment with
both Vertical and Horizontal direction and different speeds.

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Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Use the Viewer Flicker Tool


1. To perform visual verification using the Viewer Flicker tool, click the

Start Flicker Tool icon

on the IMAGINE AutoSync toolbar.

The Viewer Flicker dialog opens.

Use Auto Mode and


Speed to watch the
images switch from
top to bottom at a rate
you choose

Click to quickly switch


between the images

2. Check Auto Mode in the Viewer Flicker dialog, and type 500 for the

Speed. You can watch as the flicker tool switches between the top
and bottom images, allowing you to evaluate the quality. You can
also click Manual Flicker to quickly switch between the images.
Experiment with different speeds.

View Summary Report

You can view the summary HTML report for more information.review
information about the error, tie points, etc.
1. To view the summary report, do one of the following:

In the GCP toolbar, click the Summary Report icon

Right-click on input image (tmAtlanta.img) in the Project


Explorer Tree View and select Review Report.

Open a Windows Explorer window, browse to the directory where


you saved the HTML report (in the Create New Project dialog) and
open the .html file

The summary report opens in a separate browser window.

Using IMAGINE AutoSync

55

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Using IMAGINE AutoSync

Index

Bicubic Spline 30, 35


Bilinear Interpolation 30, 35

Cubic Convolution 30, 35

D
Data
SPOT panchromatic 32
Dialog xvii

E
ERDAS IMAGINE icon panel x
example data ix

G
gotolink project_properties 45

I
Icons
Open 30
Viewer 30
IMAGINE AutoSync
IMAGINE AutoSync menu 23
IMAGINE AutoSync Edge Matching Wizard 23
APM Strategy tab 25
Edge Match Strategy tab 26
Input tab 24
Output File Names dialog 28
Output tab 27
Projection tab 27
Refinement method list 26
Resample settings dialog 28
IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation 32
Create New Project dialog 34
GCP toolbar 40
Georeference workflow steps 33
IMAGINE AutoSync Project Properties dialog 51
IMAGINE AutoSync Workstation Startup
dialog 34
Resample Settings dialog 35
Viewer Blend/Fade tool 53
Viewer Flicker tool 55
Viewer Swipe tool 54

Index

Landsat 32

Map projection
State Plane 32
Menu
Session xi
Tools xiii
Utilities xv

Nearest Neighbor 30, 35

O
On-Line Help xvi
Open icon 30

P
Preview window xvii

R
Resample 30
Bicubic Spline 30, 35
Bilinear Interpolation 30, 35
Cubic Convolution 30, 35
Nearest Neighbor 30, 35

S
sample data ix
Session menu xi

T
Tools menu xiii

U
Utilities menu xv

V
Viewer icon 30
viewer swipe tool 31

57

58

Index