Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 130
LEARNING SOLUTIONS FOR SCOTLAND’S COLLEGES F1BD 34 Reflexology June 2009 © COLEG

LEARNING SOLUTIONS FOR SCOTLAND’S COLLEGES

F1BD 34 Reflexology

June 2009

© COLEG

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Acknowledgements

No extract from any source held under copyright by any individual or organisation has been included in this publication.

© Colleges Open Learning Exchange Group (COLEG) – Material developed by Jewel & Esk

College.

No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior written consent of COLEG, except as authorised in the paper entitled “Intellectual Property Rights of COLEG Members”.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Contents

Acknowledgements

2

Contents

3

Introduction to the unit

6

What this unit is about

6

Outcomes

6

Unit structure

6

How to use these learning materials

7

Symbols used in this unit

8

Other resources required

10

Assessment information

13

How you will be assessed

13

When and where you will be assessed

13

What you have to achieve

13

Opportunities for reassessment

13

Section 1: Consultation and development

15

Introduction to this section

17

Assessment information for this section

18

Purposes and processes of reflexology

19

History and philosophy of reflexology

20

Reflexology consultation

24

Client assessment

25

Foot analysis

27

Contraindications to reflexology

28

Special care conditions for reflexology

30

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Medications

32

Treatment objectives and limitations

34

Comparison of subsequent treatments

35

Summary of this section

37

Answers to self assessed questions

38

Answers to activities

39

Section 2: Preparation for treatments

41

Introduction to this section

43

Assessment information for this section

44

Preparation for reflexology treatment

45

Position and comfort of the client

48

Health and safety

50

Summary of this section

53

Answers to self assessed questions

54

Section 3: Performing treatments

55

Introduction to this section

57

Assessment information for this section

59

Timing, sequence and duration of treatment

60

Relaxation techniques

62

Reflexology techniques

64

Structure of the foot

67

Structure of the lower leg

70

Reflexology points

73

Physiology of the body and possible effects

85

Summary of this section

93

Answers to self assessed questions

94

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to activities

95

Section 4: Evaluation

97

Introduction to this section

99

Assessment information for this section

100

Possible reactions to reflexology treatment

101

Sensitivity chart

104

Evaluation

107

Summary of this section

109

Glossary

111

Appendices

113

Appendix 1

113

Appendix 2

119

Appendix 3

127

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Introduction to the unit

What this unit is about

This is a Higher National Unit worth 2 credits at level 7 and is an optional unit for both Complementary Therapies and Beauty Therapy. This unit is designed to enable you to gain the basic knowledge of, and develop the practical skills required to perform, reflexology treatments. It will guide you through the processes of consultation and client management.

Outcomes

On completion of the unit you should be able to:

1. Consult with clients to develop reflexology treatment plans

2. Prepare for reflexology treatments

3. Perform reflexology treatments

4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the reflexology treatments.

Unit structure

This unit contains the following study sections:

1 2 3 4 Section number and title Consultation and development Preparation for treatment Performing
1 2 3 4 Section number and title Consultation and development Preparation for treatment Performing

1

2

3

4

Section number and title

Section number and title

Consultation and development

Preparation for treatment

Performing treatments

Evaluation

Approximate

Approximate

study time

study time

20

20

30

10

hours

hours

hours

hours

Reflexology

F1BD 34

How to use these learning materials

This unit has been developed in flexible learning format for students on the HN

Complementary Therapy course.

with the terms and landscape of the therapy environment. There may be unfamiliar terms or concepts and you should work through them in the way suggested in the text until you become familiar with them. You will also learn skills that can be transferred to other therapy areas. The written theory can be studied in an open learning format and supported by practical training carried out in college and at home. Self assessment questions and tasks are included in each section to help check your understanding of a topic before moving on. Attempting these will help to consolidate your learning and highlight any areas that you need to work on. The student files supplied will aid you in learning and practising the consultation and practical application of the reflexes. They should be used as a guide to maximise learning the practical element of this unit. It is recommended that attendance at college is undertaken at least one full day per month to receive guidance and support with the practical element of this unit.

In studying these materials you will become familiar

You should hold an existing anatomy and physiology qualification prior to undertaking this unit or be studying towards one. There is a COLEG pack Complementary Therapies: Anatomy and Physiology F1BN 34 published August 2008 which should complement this unit.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Symbols used in this unit

These learning materials allow you to work on your own with tutor support. As you work through the course, you’ll encounter a series of symbols which indicate that something follows which you’re expected to do. You’ll notice that as you work through the study sections you will be asked to undertake a series of self assessed questions (SAQs), activities and tutor assignments (TAs). An explanation of the symbols used to identify these is given below and in the next page.

Self assessed question

is given below and in the next page. Self assessed question 1.1 This symbol is used

1.1

This symbol is used to indicate a Self Assessed Question (SAQ). Most commonly, SAQs are used to check your understanding of the material that has already been covered in the sections.

This type of assessment is self contained; everything is provided within the section to enable you to check your understanding of the materials.

The process is simple:

you are set SAQs throughout the study section

you respond to these, either by writing in the space provided in the assessment itself, or in your notebook

on completion of the SAQ, you turn to the back of the section to compare the model SAQ answers to your own

if you’re not satisfied after checking out your responses, turn to the appropriate part of the study section and go over the topic again

Remember – the answers to SAQs are contained within the study materials. You are not expected to ‘guess’ at these answers.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Activity

Reflexology F1BD 34 Activity 1.1 This symbol indicates an activity which is normally a task you’ll

1.1

This symbol indicates an activity which is normally a task you’ll be asked to do which should improve or consolidate your understanding of the subject in general or a particular feature of it.

The suggested responses to activities are at the end of each section.

Remember that the SAQs and activities, if contained within your package, are intended to allow you to check your understanding and monitor your own progress throughout the course. It goes without saying that the answers to these should only be checked out after the SAQ or activity has been completed. If you refer to these answers before completing the activities, you can’t expect to get maximum benefit from your course.

Tutor assignment – formative assessment

from your course. Tutor assignment – formative assessment 1.1 This symbol means that a tutor assignment

1.1

This symbol means that a tutor assignment (TA) is to follow. These will be found at the end of each study section. The aim of the TA is to cover and/or incorporate the main topics of the section and prepare you for unit (summative) outcome assessment.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Other resources required

The other resources which you will require to complete this unit are:

Therapy bed or reflexology chair

Foot support

Pillows

Towels

Blanket

Tissues

Cream

Antiseptic wipes

Couch roll

Trolley

Bowls

Watch

Pens

Consultation sheet – supplied as student file in the appendix

Blank foot charts – supplied as student file in the appendix

Reflex sensitivity sheet – supplied as student file in the appendix

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Recommended reading

Books

Arnold, M, 1999, Chi-Reflexology Guidelines For The Middle Way, Hazlebrook, Moss Arnold (self published)

Byers, D C, 2001, Better Health with Foot Reflexology, St Petersburg, Ingham Publishing.

Crane, B, 2005, Reflexology Therapies and Techniques for Well-being, London, Duncan Baird Publishers

Crane, B, 1997, Reflexology The Definitive Practitioner’s Manual, London, Element

Corvo, J, 1990, Zone Therapy – The Unique New System of Pressure Point Massage, London, Guild Publishing

Cross, J R, 2001, Acupressure & Reflextherapy in the Treatment of Medical Conditions, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann

Dougans, I, 2005, Reflexology – the 5 elements and their 12 meridians a unique approach, London, Thorsons

Dougans, I, Ellis, S, 1992, The Art of Reflexology, Shaftesbury, Element

Gillanders, A, 2002, Reflexology – Simple routines for home, work & travel, London, Gaia Books Ltd

Hall, N, 1994, Reflexology for Women, London, Thorsons

Ingham, E D, 1938, Stories the Feet can Tell Thru Reflexology and Stories the Feet Have Told Thru Reflexology, St Petersburg, Ingham Publishing.

Kunz, B. Kunz, K, 2003, Reflexology – health at your fingertips, London, Dorling Kindersley

Kunz, B, Kunz, K,1984, Hand and Foot Reflexology – The Unique Self-Health Approach to Wellness, Wellingborough, Thorsons

Mackereth, P, Tiran, D, 2002, Clinical Reflexology A Guide For Health Professionals, Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone

Norman, L, Cowan, T, 1988, The Reflexology Handbook – A Complete Guide, London, Piatkus

Oxenford, R, 2002, Healing with Reflexology, Hong Kong, Hermes House

Parsons, T, 2003, An Holistic Guide to Reflexology, London, Thomson Learning

Peeters, J, 2005 Reflexology – A gentle therapy for correcting and preventing ill health, Bath, Parragon

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Rick, S, 1987, The Reflexology Workout, Rochester, Thorsons

Stormer, C, 1995, Language of the Feet, London, Hodder & Stoughton

Wagner, F, 1987, Reflex Zone Massage, The Handbook of Therapy and Self-Help, London, Thorsons

Wright, J, 1999, Reflexology and Acupressure – pressure points for healing, London, Hamlyn

Websites

General Regulatory Council for Complementary Therapies – www.grcct.org

Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council – www.cnhc.org.uk

Association of Reflexologists – www.aor.org.uk

British Reflexology Association – www.britreflex.co.uk

Centre for Clinical Reflexology – www.clinicalreflexology.org.uk

Complementary Therapists Association – www.embody.uk.net

International Federation of Reflexologists – www.IntFedReflexologists.org

Barbara & Kevin Kunz – http://www.reflexology-research.com

International Institute of Reflexology – http://www.reflexology-usa.net

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Assessment information

How you will be assessed

Two papers of ten extended response questions in closed-book, supervised conditions will be required to ensure that you have knowledge of all four learning outcomes. In addition, 4 case studies of 6 treatments each will be carried out with one observation completed by your tutor or qualified practitioner. A reflective account should accompany the 4 case studies showing the learning achieved and assessments made.

When and where you will be assessed

Formative assessments in the form of tutor assignments (TAs) are provided as part of these materials and are intended to prepare you for the type of question you will receive in the summative assessment, but are not as in-depth. Summative assessments will be produced and supplied by your college. Please contact your college for summative assessment information.

What you have to achieve

You have to achieve 70% pass marks on each of the two exam papers and produce 4 client consultation documents that show the process and treatments of 4 clients for 6 treatments each and include a reflective account of the treatments.

Opportunities for reassessment

Normally, you will be given one attempt to pass an assessment with one reassessment opportunity.

Your college will also have a policy covering 'exceptional' circumstances, for example, if you have been ill for an extended period of time. Each case will be considered on an individual basis and is at your college's discretion (usually via written application) and they will decide whether to allow a third attempt. Please contact your tutor for details regarding how to apply.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Section 1: Consultation and development

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Introduction to this section

What this section is about

This section will cover the following topics:

Purposes and processes of reflexology

History and philosophies of reflexology

Client assessment

Foot analysis

Contraindications/special care situations

Treatment objectives and limitations

Comparison of subsequent treatments

Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:

assess the client, taking into consideration physical condition, emotional state and lifestyle

confirm treatment objectives with client indicating limitations

analyse the foot in terms of skin texture, temperature, colour, smell, tone, moisture content, mobility, abnormalities and condition of nails

recognise diseases and disorders of the foot

discuss the possible effect of common medication in terms of the agreed treatment

deal with contraindications and cases requiring special care

establish a measurable marker of client condition to allow comparison of one treatment to the next

interact with clients in a professional and empathic manner.

Approximate study time

This section should take approximately 20 hours study time.

Other resources required

In addition to the text in this section you will require the:

Consultation sheet – supplied as student file in the appendix

Blank foot charts – supplied as student file in the appendix.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Assessment information for this section

How you will be assessed

This section will form part of the two papers of ten extended response questions. These will be closed-book. This means that you will not be permitted to take notes, handouts, books or any other aid into the assessment location when you sit the assessment. The assessment will be conducted in supervised conditions. In addition, 4 case studies of 6 treatments each will be carried out with one observation completed by your tutor or qualified practitioner. A reflective account should accompany the 4 case studies showing the learning achieved and assessments made.

When and where you will be assessed

Normally, assessment will be arranged when you and your tutor agree that you are sufficiently prepared to undertake each assessment. This will usually take place at the college or centre where you are enrolled. Please contact your college for assessment information.

What you have to achieve

You have to achieve 70% pass marks on each of the two exam papers and produce 4 client consultation documents that show the process and treatments of 4 clients for 6 treatments each and include a reflective account of the treatments.

Opportunities for reassessment

Normally, you will be given one attempt to pass an assessment with one reassessment opportunity.

Your college will also have a policy covering 'exceptional' circumstances, for example,

if you have been ill for an extended period of time.

individual basis and is at your college's discretion (usually via written application) and

they will decide whether to allow a third attempt. regarding how to apply.

Each case will be considered on an

Please contact your tutor for details

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Purposes and processes of reflexology

The purpose of a reflexology treatment will vary with each client. It should always be the intention of the therapist to carry out a treatment in a way that will assist the client

in reaching their expected outcome. A therapist should always use their clinical

judgement as to whether a treatment is appropriate for each client based on a full and thorough consultation. It is always the therapist’s prerogative to refuse treatment if

they do not feel it is in the best interests of the client.

A reflexology treatment will usually be carried out on the feet but can also be performed

on the hands, face and ear with the appropriate training. Pressure is applied to the

reflex areas of the feet in order to bring about change and balance within the body. The pressure applied will depend on the area of the feet being treated and the condition of the client’s feet.

Reflexology works on the basis that the whole body is mapped onto the feet and that by treating the feet the whole body is being worked. The feet are mapped into reflex areas that are a reflection of the anatomy of the body and are treated in a sequential order.

This sequence is adhered to throughout all treatments. No area of the foot should be missed. The left foot represents the left side of the body and the right foot the right side of the body. It is sometimes not possible to treat both feet (eg if a client has had an amputation), in which case the hands can be treated.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

History and philosophy of reflexology

Reflexology as a treatment dates back to ancient times. There is evidence of such treatments in the tomb of Ankhmahor (which is also known as the physicians tomb) at Saqqara in Egypt dating from 2300 BC. The Indian and Chinese cultures both record methods of treating the feet and hands, as do Russian, Japanese and Inca histories. The Chinese in particular used the method of applying pressure using the thumbs and fingers to different areas of the body to relieve pain and bring about healing. The treatment became known as acupressure and was developed into different forms including acupuncture, shiatsu and reflexology.

Modern reflexology is based on the ‘Zone Theory’ which was developed by Dr. William H. Fitzgerald in America. He published his book in 1917 entitled Relieving Pain At Home. This was one of the first times that there was a correlation made between mind and body, albeit in the form of neural responses. He mapped the body into ten longitudinal zones with 5 on each side of the body. There are also 5 complete zones in each of the thumbs and big toes. Dr Fitzgerald discovered that when pressure was applied to an area within a particular zone that an analgesic effect was achieved in a corresponding area within the zone and that all organs, tissue and structures within that zone were affected and/or aided by the pressure applied.

In the 1930s Dr Fitzgerald’s work was used and enhanced by Eunice Ingham who treated many people using zone theory. She concluded that some areas of the body may be more accessible and effective for treatment and discovered that the feet were one of the best areas to treat as they were extremely sensitive. She developed this treatment known as ‘compression massage’ and, later, reflexology. She went on to produce the first reflex map of the feet and many reflexology charts are based on this first map, although many other therapists have produced their own versions. It is generally accepted that by varying the pressure applied in the mapped areas of the feet that pain could be reduced or relieved and that other changes are taking place.

The other theory that reflexology is based on is the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) aspect of ‘Meridians’. There are 12 main meridians in the body, 6 starting on the feet and ending on the body and 6 starting on the body and ending on the fingers. These are energy pathways that keep the ‘Chi’ or energy of the body flowing. If the chi becomes stuck, or out of balance, then the meridian and all associated organs and structures will be affected. In the same way that zones are longitudinal so are meridians. They are also bilateral. As with zone theory when accessing meridians on the feet it is possible to affect all the associated areas of the body within each meridian, helping to unblock stuck energy or causes of imbalance. Each meridian is known by the name of its associated organ and two meridians are paired with each other in the same away that TCM pairs them, these are:

Lung – Colon (large intestine)

Stomach – Spleen

Heart – Small Intestine

Bladder – Kidney

Pericardium – Triple Burner

Liver – Gall Bladder

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 Reflex map of the feet © COLEG 2 1

Reflex map of the feet

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 1.1 What are the two theories that reflexology is based on? Check your

1.1

What are the two theories that reflexology is based on?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

your answer with the one given at the end of this section. 1.2 Apart from the

1.2

Apart from the feet what other parts of the body can reflexology be carried out on?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Holism

Reflexology is a holistic therapy and this means that the therapist should take a holistic approach to treatment. Holism is an approach to treatment that does not treat in isolation and considers all factors that may affect a client or their environment. The

body is seen as a working entity that cannot necessarily be broken down into individual parts without taking into account how those individual parts interact with the rest of the body. It also allows for assessment of the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual nature of disease or imbalance and how this may have impacted on the person on all

four of these planes.

symptoms and will attempt to return the person to a state of harmony rather that perfect health. The concept of wellness in holism is slightly different too. The absence of illness or disease does not necessarily indicate that a person is well and this is another reason why client observation is so important. When observing a client, do so holistically and look at their physical body as well as their manner, emotional state, posture, mood, reactions and how they interact.

Holism tends to look at the cause of disease rather than the

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology consultation

Whenever you see a new client it is extremely important to do a full consultation with them. Under the Data Protection Act any information gathered needs to be for a specific purpose and used only for that purpose. The consultation is designed to get the relevant information that the therapist needs. The therapist should only ask questions which result in relevant information. It is not necessary to ask questions

which will merely express the client’s opinion on something, ie their favourite colour.

This will not assist the therapist at all in their assessment and treatment.

should ask about medical history, family medical history, lifestyle factors, exercise, fluid

intake, mental state, emotional health and reasons for seeking treatment.

The therapist

Procedure

1. Introduce yourself

2. Explain the treatment and how the client may feel afterwards (see section 4)

3. Check contraindications and special considerations

4. Fill out a consultation sheet

5. Note any health problems the client tells you about

6. Remember ethics

7. Check for foot disorders

8. Check feet for colour, shape, tissue or temperature changes – note these on the record card and/or the blank foot charts

9. Communicate facing the client and use eye contact often to show interest in him/her

10. Maintain a professional and empathic attitude at all times and always be tactful

11. Consultation should always be carried out in private.

It is important to conduct a consultation prior to a reflexology treatment for the following reasons:

1. To record the client’s details

2. To check contraindications and to establish whether you may require a doctor’s consent to treat

3. To explain the treatment to the client and how they may feel afterwards

4. To check for any foot diseases or disorders

5. To establish the client’s reasons for attending treatment

6. To enable a suitable treatment plan to be formed

7. To allow the therapeutic relationship to be established and built upon.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Ethics

Ethics are the principles by which we work as therapists. We each have our own personal code of ethics that govern how we deal with and react to everyday situations in our lives. It is important to remember that we will also have to work to a code of professional ethics. These are published by both professional and governing bodies and it is your responsibility to familiarise yourself with the code published by the professional or governing body you choose to join. These codes are to protect the therapists as well as the client. They include items such as confidentiality, respect for others, non judgement of others, controlled emotional involvement and empathy.

Client assessment

Client assessment is essential when treating as it is important to gain a full medical history for the client as well as lifestyle and emotional information. In this way it is possible for the therapist to assess the needs of the client and then carry out the best treatment for the client.

It is important to establish with the client their expectations of the treatment before it begins. Many people will come for treatments purely to relax and unwind from their daily life, while others may want help with coping with medical or emotional conditions.

It is important to remember that while reflexologists assess the client and the feet they

do not diagnose.

out a treatment reflexologists do not cure. specific ailment.

Also, it is important to remember that while it is possible to carry

A reflexologist also does not treat for a

When a client comes into your clinic or treatment room you will start your observations right away. You will be looking for the manner in which they present themselves. Are they happy, tired, angry, lethargic or apprehensive?

When doing the consultation, are they willing and eager to provide information or nervous and reticent at answering questions? Do they seem agitated or relaxed, stressed or calm? Is their physical appearance at odds with their emotional appearance? Are they weepy, loud, timid or expressive?

All of these (and many more) are indications of the emotional and physical state of the client and may be noted on the consultation sheet. You should continue to observe your client once the treatment has started to see any changes that occur as well as any reaction to the areas being worked. It is often the non-verbal signs that tell us more about the client than what they actually say.

Any changes that occur should be noted on the consultation sheet and measured and compared with subsequent treatments to gauge improvement, worsening of conditions or behaviours and a return to homeostasis.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 1.3 Why is it important to carry out a client assessment? Check your

1.3

Why is it important to carry out a client assessment?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Foot analysis

In addition to assessing the client it is necessary to observe and assess the feet too. When first seeing the feet it is always a good idea to take time to look at them and touch them to assess their condition and traits.

When looking at the feet note on a blank foot chart where there are marks, cuts or abrasions present. There may be corns, blisters or verrucas that you will want to mark then cover with a plaster before treatment. The colour of the feet and any changes that appear should be noted as this can indicate the emotional state of a person as well as any trauma being caused by footwear or walking. The tone of the skin and muscles of the feet should be noted and areas of imbalance mapped on a blank foot chart to measure change. The temperature of the feet should be noted and, in particular, if this changed during treatment. It can often be the case that feet will sweat during treatment and this can be a sign or symptom of emotional or physical responses. Conditions of the nails are important as they can reveal the first signs of fungal infections. The moisture content can help to assess the amount of fluid intake of the client and also be an indication of particular conditions such as dehydration or infection. You will also need to check the mobility of the foot as this can impact on the treatment and you may need to adapt. It is also important that you do not move the client’s feet in a way that will cause damage or harm if mobility problems exist.

The smell of the feet is important. If there is a sweet smell this may indicate a viral infection is present and an earthy smell may indicate a bacterial infection is present. In addition, those with diabetes often display a distinct ‘pear drop’ smell. Smells may also change during the course of a treatment indicating changes in the body and these should be noted and used as an indicator of whether it is appropriate to continue treatment or refer to another health care professional or doctor.

The angle that the feet lie at can be an indication of physical and emotional conditions and should be noted on the consultation notes and any change noted at the end of the treatment and at the beginning and end of any subsequent treatments to show

improvement or change.

more lateral and with pelvic problems more medial. Emotional disharmony can cause

feet to react and can be flaccid and limp (for more on this read Cross, 2001 and Stormer, 1995).

Someone with lower back problems may have a foot leaning

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Contraindications to reflexology

Contraindicated conditions, when present, indicate that reflexology treatment should not take place, as doing so could worsen the condition or harm the client. If these conditions are present do not treat or only treat after consent is sought from the client’s GP. Among these conditions are:

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot. Increased blood flow may disturb the clot. Thrombosis may become lodged in other areas of the body, brain, heart, lungs causing serious medical problems.

Phlebitis

Phlebitis is a blood clot in the deep leg veins, called thrombophlebitis, which can lead to the clot travelling to the lungs. The client may be under medical care and receiving medication.

Shingles

Shingles is a skin condition caused by the herpes zoster virus and is characterised by a painful rash that often restricts itself to a particular dermatome on the body surface and is painful and infectious.

Heart conditions

Increased blood flow may not benefit all heart conditions.

may be present. The client may be on drugs to regulate the heart or thin the blood. Other body systems may already be depleted and it would be unwise to carry out a full treatment in case the client’s body could not deal with toxins being released into already overburdened tissue and organs.

A possible other illness

Increased temperature

The client may have an infection and increased blood flow could spread an infection and treatment may release more toxins into the body. The cause of the increased temperature may be undiagnosed or unclear. The client may already feel irritated and unwell by the increased temperature and would not benefit from the treatment.

Cancer

Systems may already be depleted and reflexology would release toxins into already overburdened organs and tissue. The lymphatic system would be overloaded and may cause the spread of cancer to other areas of the body. The client may be unwell due to the type and stage of cancer or other allopathic treatment being received. Treatment may be carried out on terminally ill clients for pain relief and relaxation with medical approval.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Trauma to the foot

If damage has occurred to the structure of the foot it may be too painful to treat. Broken bones, inflammation and bruising are all contraindicated. The condition would need to have healed fully before treatment could take place.

Recent surgery

The increase in blood flow would make reflexology unsuitable. There is also a risk of thrombosis immediately after surgery. The area may also be too painful to touch. Healing organs should not be stimulated by reflexology.

Medication

Unexpected side effects may occur (allergic reaction); powerful drugs have powerful side effects. Some drugs alter chemical reactions within the body. There may be another reason why the client is on medication and this itself may be contraindicated.

Foot infection

Bacterial, fungal or viral infections may be present which could be passed to the therapist and other clients. Any increase in the circulation will move the infection through the body. The area may be painful and inflamed.

Sepsis

Sepsis is a pus filled organism. The client would be too unwell and unsuitable for

treatment.

body quicker.

Any increase in the circulation will move the infection throughout the

Pregnancy

It is not recommended that pregnant clients have reflexology, especially in the first trimester and where there has been a history of miscarriage. Organs such as the uterus should not be stimulated. Increased blood flow may not benefit all pregnant clients.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Special care conditions for reflexology

Special care must be taken in certain circumstances or medical permission sought to carry out treatments. Each client is an individual and must be treated as such. As you become more experienced and knowledgeable at assessing a client you will be able to recognise automatically when to provide treatment and when to adapt the techniques for each client. Some special care conditions are:

Epilepsy

Epilepsy requires extreme care when working the head and brain areas. Clients may be on medication. Precise techniques can be used to work areas of assistance.

Diabetes

People with diabetes have a slower rate of healing, their skin is thinner and bruises easily and, therefore, less pressure is needed. Careful attention is needed not to scratch the skin and treatment time may be shorter. Diabetic clients also often have impaired blood supply to extremities and reduced tactile sensation.

Clients currently undergoing medical treatment

This depends on the individual type of medical treatment and the need for that treatment. You may wish to ask for GP consent.

High blood pressure

A client may be on medication and there may be other conditions present. You

may wish to seek GP consent before treating.

Low blood pressure

A client may be on medication. They may feel lightheaded and should not be left

unattended. You may wish to seek GP consent before treatment.

Electronic implant

It depends where the implant is fitted and you should adapt the treatment accordingly.

Arthritic foot

This requires gentle pressure.

Osteoporosis

This requires gentle pressure as bones are fragile.

Broken bones or sprains

This requires gentle pressure or, alternatively, treat the hands.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

1.1 Contraindication Special care
1.1
Contraindication
Special care

Place these conditions in the correct column:

High blood pressure

Cancer

Diabetes

Pregnancy

Electronic implant

Epilepsy

Increased temperature

Thrombosis

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Medications

It is important to have a working knowledge of some of the more common types of medication and some of the brand and generic names that are used for them. It is always a good idea to keep a reference book of drugs in your clinic and refer to it when necessary. This would be useful prior to treatment if you are concerned about the effects reflexology may have on medication the client is taking. It is also important to understand any changes that may be present in the client and their feet as a result of the medication they are taking. Some medications may change the appearance and function of the foot and this will need to be explored and checked before treatment commences. The treatment may need to be adapted or altered to take these changes into account.

Main categories of medication

The main categories of medication are:

Prescription – this is medication that has been prescribed by a doctor or hospital and should be taken under their guidance and following the instructions given (remember to include herbal and homeopathic prescriptions)

Over The Counter (OTR) – this is medication that can be bought freely without consulting a doctor or pharmacist and are commonly used

Supplements – these can be prescribed by doctors, other health professionals or bought over the counter and should be noted on consultation

Recreational – people do take recreational drugs including illegal ones and some knowledge of these and their impact on the body is essential.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Here are some common types of medication, the purpose they are used for and the brand or generic names by which they are known:

Type of medication

Purpose

Names

Anti-inflammatories

Non-steroidal anti- inflammatories are used in conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic conditions

Ibuprofen, Acelofenac, Benorylate, Diclofenac, Naproxen

Anti-coagulants

Help to maintain normal blood flow in people who are at risk from clot formation. They are also given when a clot is present but do not dissolve the clot. (Thrombolytic drugs are used to dissolve the clot)

Warfarin, Heparin

Hormonal

Oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy

Estradiol, Estrone, Tibolone, Levonorgestrel, Norgestrel

Diuretics

Most commonly used in treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) by removing a larger amount of water from the bloodstream. The kidneys reduce the volume of blood circulating and this reduces the pressure within the blood vessels

Bumtanide, Furosemide, Amiloride, Trimatrene, Bendroflumethiazide, Chlortalidone

Analgesics

These are drugs that relieve pain

Co-codamol, Codeine, Co- proxamol, Morphine, Pethidine, Tramadol, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Mefenamic Acid, Paracetamol

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Treatment objectives and limitations

It is important to discuss with your client prior to treatments commencing their reasons for seeking treatments and their expectations of the course of treatments.

When consulting with a client it can be helpful to:

record their experience of any previous treatments they have had

get a clear understanding of what they would like to achieve from the treatments

find out their reasons for seeking treatments

explain any limitations to treatment, ie not treating specific conditions, contraindicated or special care conditions.

Throughout a course of treatments it is important to discuss with your client any feedback at the end of each session and at the start of the subsequent one. At the end of a course of treatment it is always a good idea to ask the client for feedback on the course of treatments.

The reasons for doing this are:

to ascertain the satisfaction level of the client

to monitor and record progress made throughout the course of treatments

to ensure that the objectives the client set have been met

to provide reflective feedback for the therapist and indicate any changes that may need to be made.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Comparison of subsequent treatments

Each consultation document should have a follow up sheet attached for each subsequent treatment. At the start of each treatment the client and their feet should be reassessed and changes recorded. In this way the original consultation will act as a standard by which changes can be gauged and recorded.

Each treatment may or may not show changes in the feet and the client and this can aid the therapist in assessing the effectiveness of the treatment and help to identify areas where there may be imbalance.

and help to identify areas where there may be imbalance. 1.4 Why is it important to

1.4

Why is it important to record the condition of the client and their feet and how will these help you to build a picture of treatments?

A ‘Client Consultation Sheet’ is included as a student file in the appendix for your use throughout this unit.

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 1.1 1. Explain what holism is. 2. Name four things you would look

1.1

1. Explain what holism is.

2. Name four things you would look at on the feet when assessing them.

3. What kind of questions should be included in the consultation sheets? Think about the things listed below, which ones should be included and why?

Date of birth

Favourite colour

Fluid intake

Sleep pattern

Occupation

Contraceptives

Medication

Religion

Ethnic origin

Marital status

Exercise

Medical

 

conditions

Reasons:

4. What is the difference between a contraindication and a special care condition?

5. Who discovered the main theory that reflexology is based on and who went on to develop the treatment and map the reflexes of the feet?

When completed, submit this assignment to your tutor for marking and feedback. Please remember to include your name, contact details and your tutor’s name on your submitted work.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Summary of this section

This section has introduced you to what reflexology is, how it has developed into the therapy it is today and what theories it is based on. The purposes and processes of reflexology were outlined and described. The need for client assessment and foot analysis were set out as were the reasons a therapist needs to carry out these activities.

Contraindications and special care conditions were listed along with any appropriate action the therapist needs to take. The need for treatment objectives and limitations were discussed and the need for comparison of subsequent treatments was outlined.

A client consultation sheet is supplied as a separate file in the appendix and this can be

used when treating clients for case studies later in this unit.

introduced you to the theory and practice of reflexology as well as some of the skills

you will need as a practitioner.

This section has

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to self assessed questions

Answer to SAQ 1.1

Reflexology is based on ‘Zone Theory’ or ‘Meridian Theory’.

Zone Theory – 10 longitudinal zones running down the body, there are 5 on each side of the body from the midline.

Meridian Theory – based on the TCM concept of 12 main meridians that carry the ‘chi’ or energy in the body and are associated with the organs and structures of the body.

Each theory works on the premise that, by working the reflexes of the feet, any associated organs and structures within the zone or meridian area will be affected and may benefit from the treatment.

Answer to SAQ 1.2

Reflexology can be performed on the hands, ear and face with appropriate training.

Answer to SAQ 1.3

Client assessment is essential when treating as it is important to gain a full medical history for the client as well as lifestyle and emotional information. In this way it is possible for the therapist to assess the needs of the client and then carry out the best treatment for the client.

Answer to SAQ 1.4

It is important to have a record of the client and their feet at the outset of treatments to mark progress and the effect of the treatments. The foot analysis should be recorded on the consultation sheet and any changes marked each week after treatment which will allow the therapist to gauge the changes taking place and any associated benefits. This will help the therapist to assess the impact that reflexology treatments are having and decide if there is any need to adjust the treatment or techniques to aid the client.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to activities

Answer to activity 1.1

Contraindication

Special Care

Cancer

High blood pressure

Increased temperature

Electronic implant

Thrombosis

Epilepsy

Pregnancy

Diabetes

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Section 2: Preparation for treatments

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Introduction to this section

What this section is about

This section is about:

the preparation of the treatment environment/equipment/the client and yourself

the position and comfort of the client

health and safety.

Objectives

By the end of this section you should be able to:

ensure the treatment environment is clean, warm and relaxing for the client

prepare equipment in accordance with good practice

correctly position couch and stool to ensure good posture and freedom of movement

ensure your personal presentation is to a high standard in terms of appearance and hygiene

position and cover the client to ensure comfort and enable treatment to be performed.

Approximate study time

This section should take approximately 20 hours study time.

Other resources required

No other resources in addition to the learning materials in this section are required.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Assessment information for this section

How you will be assessed

This section will form part of the two closed-book papers of ten extended response questions in supervised conditions. In addition, 4 case studies of 6 treatments each will be carried out with one observation completed by your tutor or qualified practitioner. A reflective account should accompany the 4 case studies showing the learning achieved and assessments made.

When and where you will be assessed

Normally, assessment will be arranged when you and your tutor agree that you are sufficiently prepared to undertake each assessment. This will usually take place at the college or centre where you are enrolled. Please contact your college for assessment information.

What you have to achieve

You have to achieve 70% pass marks in each of the two exam papers and produce 4 client consultation documents that show the process and treatments of 4 clients for 6 treatments each and include a reflective account of the treatments.

Opportunities for reassessment

Normally, you will be given one attempt to pass an assessment with one reassessment opportunity.

Your college will also have a policy covering 'exceptional' circumstances, for example,

if you have been ill for an extended period of time.

individual basis and is at your college's discretion (usually via written application) and

they will decide whether to allow a third attempt. regarding how to apply.

Each case will be considered on an

Please contact your tutor for details

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Preparation for reflexology treatment

Equipment

Different equipment will be used depending on where the treatment takes place. It is not always possible to carry a treatment couch with you and therefore as a therapist you must be able to adapt your treatment to the environment. A portable reflexology

chair is useful and can be stored and carried much easier than a couch. equipment includes:

Couch roll – to cover the pillows, bed and towels during treatment to ensure the bed is clean and ready for each new client

Foot support – for under the client’s feet to raise them to the optimal working height

Pillows – to ensure the client is well supported throughout the treatment

Pillow cases – to cover the pillows and ensure a clean environment for the client

Towels – to cover the bolster and the client’s feet

Blanket – to put over the client if they feel cold

Tissues – to have to hand in case the client becomes emotional

Cream – to use as the treatment agent on the feet

Wipes – to wipe the feet prior to treatment

Consultation sheet – to record the treatment session

Pen – always have 2 with you in case one fails to work

A watch or clock – to ensure you keep to time as you may have another client waiting

A glass of water – for the therapist and one for the client.

Other

Reflexology

F1BD 34

The therapist

Clothes

The therapist should be dressed appropriately for the clinical environment. This may include tunic, trousers and flat shoes. They should allow for ease and range of movement for the therapist. As the therapist moves round the feet during treatment there should be no areas of restriction. In particular, when elbows or shoulders are raised the therapist needs a good range of movement and be able to maintain comfort.

Hair

Long hair should be pulled back out of the eyes to make sure the therapist’s view of the feet is not hampered throughout the treatment. The hair should also not come into contact with the feet and tying it back ensures this does not happen.

Nails

Nails need to be short and clean. They should be cut as short as possible then filed to ensure that any rough edges are removed as this can cause the client pain or discomfort during treatment. Nail enamel should not be worn.

Hands

Hands should be washed thoroughly before touching the feet. It is also important to ensure they are dried thoroughly to ensure cleanliness at all times.

Working environment

The treatment couch or chair should be height adjustable to ensure the therapist is working at the optimum height that will allow safe access to all areas of the feet. A stool or chair with wheels is recommended as it allows for movement throughout the treatment to gain access to reflex areas while remaining in the correct postural position. It is best to ensure that all areas of the feet are accessible before treatment begins as adjusting the height of the bed or stool once started can interrupt the flow of the treatment.

Trolley

It can be helpful to have a trolley at the side of the treatment couch with the items the therapist will need throughout treatment. Ideally this should also be on wheels so it can be moved throughout the treatment too. All items needed should be placed on the trolley prior to treatment commencing so that the therapist does not need to break contact with the foot which interrupts the flow of treatment and can disturb the client.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Jewellery

Jewellery should be removed before treatment, particularly rings or bracelets that may hurt the client. This is good practice for hygiene reasons too.

the client. This is good practice for hygiene reasons too. 2.1 When carrying out a treatment

2.1

When carrying out a treatment what steps would you take to minimise the possibility of cross-infection?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Position and comfort of the client

Explanation of treatment

It is important to explain the reflexology treatment to the client and some of the principles of reflexology as part of the consultation. Painful reflexes should be explained as areas where there are corresponding painful/congested areas on the body or imbalances in the body’s energy. Explain that this is a common reaction to reflexology treatment and note any area and reaction on the consultation sheet. The consultation should take into account medical history, lifestyle, contraindications and any specific complaints. Remember to record any reactions the client has throughout the treatment as you may not be able to ask questions of the client if they are relaxed or sleeping. There may be verbal and non-verbal reactions to treatment such as pulling a face, wincing, pulling or jerking of the foot or body.

Positioning the client

When using a treatment couch it is best to have the client semi-reclined as this allows them to relax while allowing the therapist to observe the client’s face. If using a reflexology chair the position is set and the client will be in a semi-reclined position. The client should have ample support at the head and neck from pillows and under the thighs to support the lower back. It is helpful to use a bolster or rolled up towel under the ankles to ensure the feet are in the optimum position for the therapist to access them throughout the treatment. A blanket should be offered to the client as their temperature can drop as they relax during the treatment. Clients should be asked if they need to visit the toilet before the treatment begins to minimise potential disruption to the treatment.

Treatment environment

The best place for a treatment to take place is a private treatment room within a clinic, although if treating at the clients home this can be adapted to suit. Treatment rooms are not always available and therefore it is often necessary to carry out a treatment in a private area that is screened by curtains. The therapist should be aware of the impact this may have on treatment and will need to ensure their client’s comfort and confidentiality at all times. It is the therapist’s duty to create a therapeutic space wherever the treatment takes place.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 2.2 What benefits are there from spending time explaining the treatment process to

2.2

What benefits are there from spending time explaining the treatment process to a client?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Health and safety

It would be beneficial to familiarise yourself with current Health and Safety Legislation. The Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974 and Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2002 are the minimum it is recommended that you look at. Both are available from the Health and Safety Executive website www.hse.gov.uk

There are several factors the therapist will need to consider when carrying out treatments whether at home or within a clinic setting. These include:

temperature

lighting

hygiene

washing and toilet facilities

privacy.

Temperature

The temperature of the treatment room is important for both the client and the therapist. If the room is too hot it will be difficult for the therapist to stop from becoming lethargic and tired. Also, clients will overheat and become uncomfortable and irritable. If the room is too cold the client will not relax and will not enjoy the treatment. The therapist will also become uncomfortable and will not perform the best treatment possible. A room temperature of between 20ºC and 25ºC is ideal and any heating should have a thermostatic control to accommodate seasonal changes. It would be beneficial for there to be natural ventilation via a window or adjustable air vents.

Lighting

Lighting can make a huge difference to the ambience of the treatment room but there are also other considerations. The client needs to feel they can relax and not have a light directly in their face; however the therapist needs to be able to see the feet clearly. The ideal solution is a dimmer switch overhead and a lamp that can be positioned by the therapist at the client’s feet.

Hygiene

Reflexology uses very little equipment but that which is used must be kept clean and hygienic. Towels, blankets, pillow cases and couch covers should be changed after each client to ensure cleanliness. As this can be costly it is recommended that paper couch roll be used which will reduce the amount of times the couch cover and pillow cases need to be changed. Fresh towels should be used for each client. It is important to be aware of the potential for cross-infection and the therapist must wash their hands

Reflexology

F1BD 34

prior to touching the client’s feet and immediately after the treatment is finished. Plasters should be kept to cover corns or verrucas on the feet. The premises should be kept clean and germ free at all times, as should all surfaces such as sinks and floors. A therapist may decide not to treat a client who has a contagious condition of the feet.

Washing and toilet facilities

There should be access to toilet facilities for the client and therapist within the clinic or home. There should be access to hand washing facilities and clean towels or paper towels for client and therapist use. Hands should be washed after using the toilet to prevent any germs being passed between clients and the therapist. In addition, there should be adequate laundry facilities and an adequate supply of the linen required for the clients that will be seen that day.

Privacy

Clients need to feel that they are free to disclose their personal details. Total privacy should be a priority. The client only has to remove shoes and sock for reflexology but this is still a big deal for some clients and if the treatment room is not private a curtain should be drawn round the client when they enter the treatment area. This will ensure the area is appropriate for the treatment to be carried out and encourage the client to relax and get the best out of the treatment.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 2.1 1. Name the equipment you will need to carry out a reflexology

2.1

1. Name the equipment you will need to carry out a reflexology treatment within a clinical environment.

2. Why is it important to discuss the client’s expectations of reflexology before treatments begin?

3. The therapist’s hands and nails are important to the treatment; explain how they should be when treating a client?

4. When thinking about the health and safety aspects of the treatment area and therapists, what things should be taken into consideration?

When completed, submit this assignment to your tutor for marking and feedback. Please remember to include your name, contact details and your tutor’s name on your submitted work.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Summary of this section

This section has focused on the way the therapist needs to prepare for a treatment and the equipment and procedures needed to achieve this. How to approach the client was explained and how to position the client to ensure maximum comfort so that the treatment is as effective as possible. Health and safety has been discussed and the things that the therapist will need to think about, manage and adhere to before, during and after treatment. This section has also introduced the equipment that will be needed and the need for the therapist to be able to create a therapeutic space wherever the treatment is being carried out.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to self assessed questions

Answer to SAQ 2.1

The therapist should always ensure that the treatment area is as clean as possible. This means that each client should have freshly laundered linen and towels and the couch roll should be replaced for each client if it is being used. The therapist should always wash their hands thoroughly before touching feet and should wipe the feet with wipes prior to touching them for the first time. When assessing the feet the therapist should be looking for any signs of infection or contagious conditions, eg athlete’s foot, and decide whether or not to proceed with the treatment. The therapist should wash their hands thoroughly at the end of the treatment before touching anything else.

Answer to SAQ 2.2

The time taken to explain the treatment and some background to reflexology is that it allows for a more in-depth observation and assessment of the client. It also allows the therapist to build a rapport that will aid the therapeutic relationship. It can put the client at ease by demystifying the treatment and allows them time to ask questions should they want to.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Section 3: Performing treatments

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Introduction to this section

What this section is about

This section is about:

the timing, sequence and duration of treatment

relaxation techniques – effleurage, petrissage, mobilisation techniques

foot support

reflexology techniques – thumb and finger walking, hooking, pointing

location of body organs

the physiology of body systems

the possible effects on the body systems

the structure of the foot, ankle and lower leg

reflex points

safe and effective treatments.

Objectives

By the end of this section you should be able to ensure that treatment is appropriate in terms of timing, sequence and duration. This includes the following:

apply techniques appropriate to the client

support the foot throughout the treatment

identify tenderness in reflex points in the foot

record position and degree of tenderness in the reflex points using a scale and diagram

define cross-reflexes

explain possible reactions during the treatment to the client

maintain a safe and effective treatment when diseases and disorders are presented.

Approximate study time

This section should take approximately 30 hours study time, including time needed for practical activities.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Other resources required

In addition to the text in this section you will require the following:

coloured reflex map of the feet – a good example can be downloaded from http://www.reflexology-research.com/footchart.html

clinical space and equipment to carry out a treatment.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Assessment information for this section

How you will be assessed

This section will form part of the two closed-book papers of ten extended response questions in supervised conditions. In addition, 4 case studies of 6 treatments each will be carried out with one observation completed by your tutor or qualified practitioner. A reflective account should accompany the 4 case studies showing the learning achieved and assessments made.

When and where you will be assessed

Normally, assessment will be arranged when you and your tutor agree that you are sufficiently prepared to undertake each assessment. This will usually take place at the college or centre where you are enrolled. Please contact your college for assessment information.

What you have to achieve

You have to achieve 70% pass marks in on each of the two exam papers and produce 4 client consultation documents that show the process and treatments of 4 clients for 6 treatments each and include a reflective account of the treatments.

Opportunities for reassessment

Normally, you will be given one attempt to pass an assessment with one reassessment opportunity.

Your college will also have a policy covering 'exceptional' circumstances, for example,

if you have been ill for an extended period of time.

individual basis and is at your college's discretion (usually via written application) and

they will decide whether to allow a third attempt. regarding how to apply.

Each case will be considered on an

Please contact your tutor for details

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Timing, sequence and duration of treatment

The treatment should be carried out appropriate to the client’s needs. The average time it will take for a consultation will be from 20-30 minutes prior to treatment commencing. On subsequent treatments it is good practice to ask for feedback prior to the treatment commencing. This should take approximately 5-15 minutes depending on what the client has to tell you. The treatment itself should take between 40-60 minutes, although to begin with it may take a little longer. Practice makes perfect and, once proficient, a consultation and treatment can be done in 1 hour. It is up to the client and therapist to agree the length of a course of treatment but it is often beneficial to have at least 4 consecutive weekly treatments in order to see any significant changes and benefits from the treatments.

Treatment sequence

1. Introduction to the feet and application of cream

2. Relaxation techniques (minimum of 3 techniques)

3. Solar plexus

4. Diaphragm

5. Plantar thoracic

6. Heart

7. Breast dorsal (including lymphatic drainage)

8. Sinuses

9. Thyroid/great toe

10. Eyes/ears/thymus

11. Upper GI

12. Lower GI

13. Pelvic

14. Lymph/groin/fallopian tubes

15. Chronic pelvic area

16. Spine

17. Musculature of the spine

18. Leg/hip/knee

19. Endocrine (may be used for treatment or balance)

20. Grounding techniques (hacking, feathering)

21. Close treatment.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 3.1 What is the average time for a consultation and treatment once you

3.1

What is the average time for a consultation and treatment once you are a proficient therapist?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Relaxation techniques

It is a good idea to include some relaxation and warm up techniques in every treatment. In order to maximise the treatment the feet need to be introduced to the therapist's touch and also to the work that is about to commence. The therapist can also assess the tone and structure of the feet at this stage.

It is suggested that three or four of the following moves are included in the treatment. Use whichever ones you prefer or which you think would suit your client.

Foot brushing

Using the flat palms and fingers, brush the foot surface in one direction. Remove the hands and repeat on another surface. For the medial aspects of the foot use the flat back of the hand.

Foot rotations

Holding the heel firmly in the palm of your supporting hand, grip lightly just below the toes and rotate the foot clockwise 6 times then anti-clockwise 6 times.

Wringing

Using the hands on the medial aspect of the foot, ‘wring’ the foot from the ankle to the toes and back again. This is a surface move and should not drag over the skin.

Tapping

Using the fingertips, tap all over the foot surfaces.

Metatarsal relaxation

This move is carried out on the dorsal surface of the foot. Using your thumbs to support at the solar plexus, use your first two fingers of both hands to walk/glide down the intertarsal spaces from the toes webbing to the ankle – work only in a downward direction.

Spinal twist

Using your supporting hand, grip the ankle firmly on the medial edge and with the other hand twist the foot away from you, working the medial edge from the ankle up to the toes. This is similar to wringing but is a firmer move and the foot should be well supported as this opens up the spinal area.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Ankle rotations

Place your thumbs in the small indent at the front of the ankle with your hands on the malleolus on each side of the ankle. Using the knuckles of the index finger rotate clockwise round the malleolus together and then repeat anti-clockwise.

Feathering

Using your fingertips in a firm manner, pull the hands up over the feet in an upward motion working from the ankle up to the toes on plantar and dorsal surfaces.

Hacking

The hand should be flat for this move with fingers together. Using the lateral edge of your hand, ‘hack’ over the feet – this is like a loose ‘karate chop’ move and should come from the wrist with only the top third of the hand making contact. This is a great move for grounding the client and reducing the feeling of light-headedness and a good move to finish on.

These moves can be mixed and matched and should always be included at the start and finish of a treatment.

always be included at the start and finish of a treatment. 3.2 Why is it important

3.2

Why is it important to perform relaxation moves on the feet at the start of treatment?

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology techniques

When carrying out reflexology treatments it is important that nails are cut very short and filed to remove any areas of roughness. Skin around the nails should be smooth and callous free. When using the reflexology techniques the thumb is pressed into the foot on the medial edge and if nails are long this can cause pain, discomfort and even damage to the foot. The hands should be soft, pliable and free from warts, infection or cuts. Hands and nails should be clean at all times.

Wiggle

The main technique is the ‘wiggle’ which is performed with the medial aspect of the thumb. To find the medial aspect, place the hands palm down on a flat surface. The edge of the thumb that is farthest from the fingers is the medial edge (when the palms are flat on the surface the thumb will naturally lie on the medial edge). To wiggle, the thumb lies on the working surface and is bent at the first joint of the thumb and moves forward in bite-sized ‘caterpillar’ movements so that the thumb moves forward with each bite. (A bite is the tiny forward movement that occurs when the thumb is bent and moved forward as described above.)

The pressure used will depend on the reflex area being worked but can be from a very light pressure right up to a heavy pressure when hooking or pointing. The pressure should always be within the client’s tolerance.

This move is the most important and frequently used and should be practised on your own using a flat surface, your forearm or other hand. You will need to be able to use both thumbs to do the wiggle and practice is essential especially in your less dominant hand.

The wiggle is a slow move to start with until some experience allows you to move more quickly over an area. As you practise, the ‘bites’ that your thumb takes will be smaller and smaller and the wiggle will become more refined. As you perfect this move you will feel the responses in the feet more keenly. The sensitivity of the thumb increases and more information is picked up from the feet areas being worked.

Each reflex area is usually worked three times with a wiggle. (More information is contained in the reflex descriptions later in the section.)

If pain is felt when wiggling over an area it can be beneficial to stop and hold the area for a count of 6 breaths to see if the pain passes. When the pain or tenderness is chronic it can be beneficial to use other techniques such as pointing, etc.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Finger walking and reinforced finger

Finger walking is where the flat pad of the index finger is used to treat, instead of the thumb. This is used on the breast dorsal, eyes and ears and fallopian reflexes. The move should still employ a wiggle and cover the reflex thoroughly.

Reinforced finger is the same thing but the middle finger is placed on top of the index finger nail to apply more pressure and stability.

Hooking

Hooking is carried out on the ileo caecal valve, sigmoid colon and pituitary reflexes. The thumb tip is used and is applied vertically to the reflex and pushed in with some pressure. The thumb then ‘hooks’ under the flesh towards the mid-line (for pituitary more information is contained in the reflex descriptions). It is best to hook three times to the midline. This can be uncomfortable for the client so proceed with care.

Pointing

To perform pointing the foot is firmly grasped round the shoulder line (at the bottom of the toes) by the holding hand. The thumb of the working hand is then pressed firmly into the tender reflex in a ‘squeeze’ action. The foot is then circumducted by holding the hand in a circular motion. This gives the benefit of a varying pressure. As the foot is rotated the thumb should be slackened off or increased while it remains pressed in on top of the painful reflex. Six clockwise and six anti-clockwise rotations are sufficient to treat with this method. Having treated the area the thumb is moved to the next area and the technique can be reapplied if necessary. This technique is used for plantar reflexes.

Pointing in the eyes and ears is carried out with the tip of the index finger rocked back and forth with pressure over the reflex.

Dorsal reflexes also use the index finger but the foot is circumducted as per the plantar reflexes.

Pointing should not be used on the sinus or pituitary reflexes and care must be taken when pointing on the endocrine reflexes.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 3.3 1. What is the most important and most frequently used technique? 2.

3.3

1. What is the most important and most frequently used technique?

2. Name 2 reflexes that this move would be used on.

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Structure of the foot

The foot has three main functions which are support, leverage and propulsion. We would not be able to move in different directions efficiently if the feet were not structured in the way they are.

Bones of the foot

There are 26 bones in each foot. These are:

Tarsals

This is the name given to the group of seven bones, two large and five smaller bones which support the weight of the body. They are calcaneum, talus, navicular, cuneiforms and cuboid.

Calcaneum

This is the heel bone and the largest in the foot. It articulates above with the talus and anteriorly with the cuboid.

Talus

This is superior to the calcaneum and the second largest bone. It articulates with the medial and lateral malleolus above, anteriorly with the navicular and below with the calcaneum.

Navicular

This is on the medial side of the tarsus. It articulates with the talus posteriorly, the cuboid laterally and anteriorly with the three cuneiform.

Cuneiform

There are three cuneiform bones; medial, intermediate and lateral. They articulate posteriorly with the navicular and anteriorly with the 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd metatarsals.

Cuboid

This is anterior to the calcaneum and lateral to the navicular and cuneiform. It articulates posteriorly with the calcaneum, medially with the navicular and cuneiform and anteriorly with the 4 th metatarsals.

Metatarsals

This is a group of five long bones which form the upper dorsal of the foot. They join the tarsus with the phalanges. The 1 st , 2 nd & 3 rd articulate posteriorly with the cuneiform and the 4 th and 5 th with the cuboid.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Phalanges

The big toe has two bones while the other toes have 3; the proximal (1 st and nearest to the metatarsals), the intermediate (2 nd and in the middle) and distal (3 rd and the tip of the toes).

the intermediate (2 n d and in the middle) and distal (3 r d and the

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 3.1 1. There are bones in the feet 2. The big toe has

3.1

1. There are

bones in the feet

2. The big toe has only

3. The 3 cuneiform are called

phalange bones

, intermediate and

4. The heel bone is called the

5. The group of 5 long bones are called the

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Structure of the lower leg

Bones and joints

The lower leg has two bones. The tibia is the larger of the two and is medial. The fibula is the smaller bone and it is located on the lateral side of the lower leg. The distal end of each bone creates the malleolus, the tibia the medial malleolus and the fibula the lateral malleolus.

Muscles

The lower leg is divided into four compartments, these are:

the anterior compartment

the lateral compartment

the posterior compartment

the deep posterior compartment.

The anterior compartment

The anterior compartment holds the tibialis anterior, the extensor digitorum longus, the extensor hallucus longus and the peroneus tertius muscles. These muscles dorsiflex the foot and toes (pull the foot and toes upward). The tibialis anterior is also involved in turning the foot inward.

The lateral compartment

The lateral compartment holds the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles. These muscles pull the foot outward. They also help with plantar flexion (pointing the foot).

The posterior compartment

The posterior compartment holds the calf muscles the gastrocnemius and soleus. It also holds the plantaris muscle. The gastrocnemius is shorter, thicker and has two attachments (inner and outer). It is the most visible of the calf muscles. The soleus lies underneath. These three muscles attach to the Achilles tendon. They all aid with plantar flexion.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

The deep posterior compartment

The deep posterior compartment holds the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucus longus. Tibialis posterior pulls the foot inward, flexor digitorum longus flexes the toes and flexor hallucus longus flexes the big toe. All three assist plantar flexion.

Other terms and groups of bones

Ankle joint

The medial and lateral malleolus are the bottom ends of the bones of the leg, ie tibia (medial malleolus) and fibula (lateral malleolus).

Medial longitudinal arch

This is the first three metatarsals. All three are cuneiform, navicular, talus and calcaneum.

Lateral longitudinal arch

This is the fourth and fifth metatarsals. They are cuboid and calcaneum.

Proximal transverse tarsal arch

This is cuboid. All three are cuneiform.

Posterior transverse metatarsal arch

This is five proximal metatarsal heads.

All three are cuneiform. Posterior transverse metatarsal arch This is five proximal metatarsal heads. © COLEG

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 3.2 Fill in the names of the two leg bones in the first

3.2

Fill in the names of the two leg bones in the first row of each column below and the blanks spaces in the muscles in the column relating to each bone.

peroneus

extensor

longus

tendon

brevis

hallucus longus

tibialis

Check your answer with the one given at the end of this section.

Cross-reflexes

The foot also has cross-reflexes where areas of the body are energetically reflected to other areas of the body (and foot). These are worked if the area of treatment is too tender or if there is a chronic problem which would benefit from being worked in more than one area.

These energetically linked areas are:

Shoulder – hip

Elbow – knee

Wrist – ankle

Big toe – thumb

Foot – hand

Top of foot – back of hand

Sole of foot – palm of hand.

In addition to the longitudinal zones there are also transverse zones which are represented by four transverse lines on the feet. The shoulder line transverses the feet at the base of the toes in zones 1 to 5, following the phalangeal metatarsal joints. The diaphragm line is the same as the diaphragm reflex and transverses the feet below the ball of the feet from zone 1 to 5. The waistline transverses the feet in line with the base of the metatarsal bones, just above the bladder reflex from zones 1 to 5. The pelvic line transverses the feet between the tarsals and calcaneum from zones 1 to 5.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology points

All treatment should start on the left foot as this is the foot that receives energy. All reflexes should be covered on the left foot then repeated on the right. It will be necessary to treat both feet at the same time when carrying out some of the balance sequences. The right foot expels any excess energy.

Clinical application of reflexes

(More information on these applications can be gained from reading Crane 1997)

Diaphragm:

to commence treatment and encourage relaxation of the client

to relax the muscles and structures of the thoracic cage

to help breathing and digestion

to promote the movement of energy

Plantar thoracic:

to enhance relaxation

to assist with breathing difficulties if present

to enhance the respiratory rhythm of the client

to help reduce diaphragm and thoracic tension aiding cardiac function

Breast dorsal:

to assist clients with respiratory problems

to help reduce fluid retention linked to the menstrual cycle

to help alleviate pre menstrual syndrome

to assist circulation of breast and thoracic lymph

Sinus:

to assist with upper respiratory conditions

to alleviate pain in the facial area caused by sinus congestion

to assist with the relief of any symptoms of allergies

to clear congestion in the nasal cavities due to colds, etc

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Great toe/thyroid:

to help alleviate stress levels

to help ease headaches and migraines

to help reduce anxiety and tension

to assist with problematic sleep patterns

to improve and aid circulation

Ear:

to help with sinus problems

to help with toothache

to assist with hearing problems and disorders

Eye:

to help with sinus problems

to help with eye conditions or infections

to assist with headaches and migraines

to help with tooth problems

Thymus:

to aid the production of lymph tissue

to stimulate the immune system

to support the elimination of infections

to promote endocrine function

Upper GI:

support digestion

to aid relaxation

to encourage the elimination of toxins from the body

to aid digestive problems

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Lower GI:

to support digestion

to stimulate elimination

to promote mucus production

Pelvic:

to support treatment and management of lower back pain

to assist with effective movement patterns and skeletal alignment

to promote and support reproductive function

Spinal:

to assist with effective movement patterns and skeletal alignment

to support treatment and management of musculo-skeletal pain

to support integrated functioning of organs and body systems

Leg/hip/knee:

to help with muscular pain

to assist with effective movement patterns and skeletal alignment

to help with lower back pain

Endocrine:

to maximise endocrine function

to stimulate the immune system

to reduce stress levels

to assist reproductive function

to help with digestive problems.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexes, surfaces, zones and treatments

The following table lists surfaces, zones and treatments for each of the reflexes shown:

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Solar Plantar 3 plexus surface of both feet This move is
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Solar
Plantar
3
plexus
surface of
both feet
This move is done on both feet at the same time
and each hand supports and treats at the same
time. Using the thumb to locate the reflex just
below the diaphragm line, place the thumb on
the reflex while using the fingers on each hand
to support the foot round the lateral edge onto
the dorsal surface.
Push into the reflex three times asking your
client to breathe in as you push in and breathe
out as you release. It is beneficial if the
therapist also does this as it helps to centre and
ground as well as set the tone for the treatment.
Diaphragm
Plantar
1-5
surface of
both feet
Location – appears on both feet and follows a
line across zones 1 to 5 and is proximal to the
ball of the feet.
Supporting hand – place this hand with fingers
over the dorsal surface and the thumb under the
toes on the plantar surface and hyper extend the
foot.
Working hand – working from medial to lateral
edge use medial aspect of the thumb to wiggle
across the metatarsal heads.
Plantar
Plantar
2-5
thoracic
surface of
Location – under the shoulder line and above
the diaphragm line in zones 2-5 on both feet.
both feet
Supporting hand – place the hand on the
dorsal surface and use the index and middle
finger to separate the toes when working
between the metatarsal spaces. The thumb
supports each toe on the plantar surface.
Working hand – use the medial hand and work
from medial to lateral edge of the foot. Using
the medial edge of the thumb wiggle start from
zone 2 and work up the metatarsal spaces from
the diaphragm line to the toe webs. Cover the
move three times. Repeat from lateral to medial
in the metatarsal spaces. Then cover the area
again from medial to lateral with the flat of the
thumb on the flat of the metatarsals.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Heart Plantar 1 surface of left foot Location – located on
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Heart
Plantar
1
surface of
left foot
Location – located on the plantar surface in
zone one proximal to the big toe. It is situated
below the shoulder line and above the
diaphragm line on the left foot (there is a small
section of the heart reflex on the medial border
of the plantar surface of the right foot).
This reflex is treated using a cross hatching
technique.
Supporting hand – the fingers rest on the
dorsal of the foot and the thumb on the plantar
surface of the 2 nd toe.
Working hand – the fingers of this hand rest on
top of the supporting hand and the medial edge
of the thumb is used to cover the area in vertical,
horizontal and diagonal strips.
Breast
Dorsal
1-5
dorsal
surface of
both feet
Location – this is on the dorsal aspect of the
foot and covers zones 1 to 5. It is located
between the shoulder and diaphragm line.
Supporting hand – either this is formed into a
fist and pressed into the plantar thoracic area or
the thumb is placed on the dollar plexus reflex
and pressure applied to open up the metatarsals
on the dorsal surface and the fingers of this
hand are placed on the edge of the dorsal
surface.
Working hand – working from medial to lateral
use reinforced index finger to walk from the toe
webs to the end of the metatarsals. Do three
passes and then repeat lateral to medial.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Lymphatic Dorsal 1-5 drainage surface of Location – the same area
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Lymphatic
Dorsal
1-5
drainage
surface of
Location – the same area as the breast
dorsal reflex.
both feet
Supporting hand – form a fist and place this
on the plantar surface over the ball of the
foot.
Working hand – work from lateral to medial
edge and using all 4 fingertips march across
the breast reflex three times.
Sinus
Plantar
2-5
Location – toes 2-5
surface of
the toes
Supporting hand – hold fingers against the
dorsum of the toes to provide support.
Working hand – work from medial to lateral
on each toe using the flat of the thumb.
Cover the toes in strips from the bottom of
the toe to the tip. Cover toes 2-5 then repeat
from lateral to medial toes 5-2.
Sinus
Medial/
lateral
surfaces
of the toes
2-5
Location – toes 2-5
Supporting hand – place this flat against
the dorsum of the toes to support the
working hand.
Woking hand – use the flat of the thumb
and index finger to work in strips down the
medial and lateral edge of each toe in turn –
each toe will only need 2 or 3 strips to cover
this area.
Sinus
Dorsal
2-5
Location – toes 2-5
surface of
the toes
Supporting hand – the thumb should
provide support against the plantar surface
of each toe being treated.
Working hand – rest the thumb against that
of the holding hand and use the index finger
to cover the dorsal surface of each toe in
strips.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Thyroid Plantar 1 surface of both feet Location – this reflex
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Thyroid
Plantar
1
surface of
both feet
Location – this reflex is located between the
base of the big toe and the interphalangeal
joint.
Supporting hand – use the index finger and
thumb to separate the toes.
Working hand – use the medial edge of the
thumb to cross hatch this area vertically,
horizontally and diagonally. As this is such a
small area the wiggle will need to be very
slow and small.
Great toe
Plantar
1
As per sinus reflexes
Great toe
Dorsal
1
As per sinus reflexes
Eyes, ears
Plantar
1- 5
and
surface of
Location – along the ridge at the bottom of
the toes where they meet the foot.
thymus
both feet
Holding hand – hold the foot across the
metatarsals on the dorsal surface and place
the thumb on the plantar surface.
Working hand – this hand adds support to
the supporting hand by resting on top of it on
the dorsum. The index finger is used to
wiggle along this reflex from medial to lateral
then lateral to medial three times.
Reinforced finger can also be used if
preferred.
Upper GI
Plantar
1-5
surface of
both feet
Supporting hand – support the foot by
placing the fingers on the dorsum and the
thumb on the plantar thoracic area. The foot
may be gently hyper extended to allow
access to the reflex area.
Working hand – using the medial hand, work
from medial to lateral edge using the fingers
to support the medial edge of the foot while
cross-hatching the reflex area using the
medial edge of the thumb. Work in vertical,
horizontal and diagonal strips.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex

Surface

Zone

Treatment

Organs of

the upper

GI

Spleen

Left foot

4/5

Location – below the diaphragm line between zones 4 and 5.

plantar

Stomach

Left foot

1-4

Location – lies below the waistline in zone 1 and between the waistline and the diaphragm line in zones 2-4.

plantar

 

Left foot

1-3

Location – this lies behind the stomach reflex above the waistline on the medial edge in zones 1-3.

plantar

Pancreas

Left foot

2-3

Location – lies above and below the waistline towards the medial edge in zones 2 and 3.

plantar

Kidney

Left foot

1-2

Location – directly above the kidney towards the medial edge in zones 1 and 2.

plantar

Adrenal

Right foot

1-5

Location – covers the whole area between the diaphragm and waistline in zones 1-5.

plantar

Liver

Left Foot

1-2

Location – lies between the diaphragm line and waistline towards the lateral edge in zone 4.

Gall

Right foot

4

Location – lies between the diaphragm line and waistline towards the lateral edge in zone 4.

bladder

plantar

Kidney

Right foot

2-3

Location – Lies above and below the waistline towards the medial edge in zones 2 and 3.

plantar

Adrenal

Right foot

1-2

Location – directly above the kidney towards the medial edge in zones 1 and 2.

plantar

Pancreas

Right foot

1

Location – a small section is located on the medial edge of zone 1 immediately above and below the waistline.

plantar

Stomach

Right foot

1

Location – a small section of the stomach is located in zone 1 above and below the waistline on the lateral edge of the pancreas.

plantar

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex

Surface

Zone

Treatment

Lower GI

Plantar

1-5

Supporting hand – support the foot by placing the fingers on the dorsum and the thumb on the waistline. The foot may be

surface

of both

feet

gently hyper extended to allow access to the reflex area.

 

Working hand – using the medial hand work from medial to lateral edge using the fingers to support the medial edge of the foot at the malleolus while cross-hatching the reflex area using the medial edge of the thumb. Work in vertical, horizontal and diagonal strips. When doing diagonal strips the flat of the thumb can be used.

Organs of

the lower

GI

Descending

Left foot

5

Location – lies in zone 5 between the pelvic line and the waistline.

colon

plantar

Sigmoid

Left foot

4

Location – directly above the pelvic line in zone 4 (a hooking technique is used here which is described earlier in the pack).

colon

plantar

Rectum/

Left foot

1-2

Location – above the pelvic line in zones 1 and 2 and onto medial border of the foot below the bladder reflex.

anus

plantar

Ileocaecal

Right foot

5

Location – lies above the pelvic line towards the lateral edge in zone 5 (a hooking technique is used here which is described earlier in the pack).

valve

plantar

Ascending

Right foot

5

Location – lies in zone 5 from the ileocaecal valve upwards to the waistline.

colon

plantar

Transverse

Both feet

1-5

Location – runs across all five zones from the lateral edge of the right foot to the lateral edge of the left foot (connects to ascending colon on right foot and descending colon on left foot).

colon

plantar

Small

Both feet

2-4

Location – lies within the boundaries of the ascending, transverse and descending colon in zones 2 to 4 of both feet and cover a significant part of the lower GI area.

intestine

plantar

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Pelvic Both feet 1 medial Location – the lower part of
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Pelvic
Both feet
1
medial
Location – the lower part of the foot to
anterior the malleolus and inferior to the
Achilles tendon.
Lateral
5
both feet
Supporting hand – support the foot placing
the fingers of this hand over the dorsum
and the thumb on the plantar at waistline
level.
Plantar
1-5
both feet
Working hand – cross-hatch this area in
vertical, horizontal and diagonal strips using
the medial edge of the thumb to wiggle.
Work immediately inferior to the malleolus
and inferior to the achilles tendon, using
fingers to support the heel.
Use the same technique on the lateral
surface swapping supporting and working
hand for comfort.
These areas are worked as part of the
lower GI reflex.
Lymph,
Medial,
1-5
groin,
lateral and
fallopian
dorsal of
Location – inferior to the malleoli up
towards the dorsal of the foot at the head of
the tibia and fibula.
tube
both feet
Supporting hand – these reflexes are
treated together on all surfaces using both
hands. Place the fingers of each working
hand on the lateral and medial side of the
foot while using the thumb to treat. When
using the fingers it may be more
comfortable to form a fist and rest this on
the lateral and medial surface of the foot to
offer support.
Working hand – with both thumbs use the
medial edge to start palpation immediately
inferior to the malleoli and work upwards
onto the dorsum in a wiggle movement
three times. Pressure should be upwards
towards the leg. Repeat the move using
the lateral edge of both index fingers from
the dorsum downwards to the malleoli.
Pressure should be downwards towards the
toes.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex

Surface

Zone

Treatment

Chronic

Anterior of

1-5

Location – from the apex of the tibia to the approximate line of the sock (usually one hand width up the leg). Supporting hand – the fingers of the supporting hand can rest on the medial and lateral edges of the leg to guide and support the thumb and finger while working. Working hand – using the medial edge of the thumb ‘wiggle’ up in strips to the top of the reflex and then using thumb or reinforced index finger come back down the leg in strips.

pelvic

leg

 

Posterior of the leg

1-5

Location – one hand width up the leg from the Achilles tendon. Supporting hand – this should be the medial hand and is used to support the heel during treatment. Working hand – starting at the top of the reflex area (on the leg) work down towards the heel massaging the area with the thumb and index finger in a ‘milking’ action. Repeat three times.

Spinal

Medial

1

Location – cervical spine starts proximal phalanx of the big toe on the medial edge of the foot. The thoracic runs the length of the first metatarsal, the lumbar along the cuneiform and navicular bones to the distal margins of the talus. The sacrum descends from the distal end of the talus to the calcaneum. The coccyx is at the base of the calcaneum. Supporting hand – supporting the forefoot on the dorsal, the hand will move down the foot to ensure support at the reflex is worked. Working hand – starting at the cervical spine on the medial edge of the thumb, wiggle to the 7 th vertebrae then move onto flat of thumb and continue down the rest of the spinal reflex in a wiggle three times. Repeat the move from the coccyx starting on flat of thumb and changing to medial edge at the 7 th vertebrae.

edge of

both feet

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflex Surface Zone Treatment Musculature of the spine Medial 1-2 border onto Location – from
Reflex
Surface
Zone
Treatment
Musculature
of the spine
Medial
1-2
border
onto
Location – from the medial arch of both
feet up to the dorsal surface up to the edge
of zone 2.
dorsal of
each foot
Supporting hand – this should be placed
on the plantar of the foot and used to
support and absorb any pressure from the
working hand through the foot.
Working hand – use the flat of the thumb
to treat this area on the medial edge of the
foot from thoracic to lumbar vertebrae
working from the lower margins of the
medial arch upwards towards the dorsal
surface of the foot. This will usually allow
three or four passes depending on the size
of the foot. Treat in a downward move only
and from medial to lateral.
Leg/hip/
Lateral
2-5
knee
surface of
both feet
Location – on the lateral surface of the foot
from the proximal metatarsal heads to the
anterior of the malleolus and extend from
the lateral edge of the foot to the highest
point on the arch formed by the
intermediate cuneiform and navicular
bones.
Supporting hand – use the medial hand
and place the fingers on the dorsal surface
of the foot and the thumb on the plantar
surface and secure the foot.
Working hand – using the medial edge of
the thumb, wiggle in vertical and diagonal
strips over the reflex three times. Change
hands and walk the flat tips of the fingers
down the reflex from zone 2 to 5.
Pituitary
Plantar
1
surface of
Location – located in the centre of the
whorl pattern on the big toes of each foot.
big toes
Supporting hand – either place this flat
against the dorsal of the big toe or grip
medial and lateral sides of the big toe with
the thumb and index finger.
Working hand – using the tip of the toe
‘hook’ the pituitary three times to the midline
and turn and hook three times to the tip of
the big toe.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Physiology of the body and possible effects

It is important to understand how the body works from a reflexology point of view as it will enable you to give informed advice to the client about their body and any symptoms they may be concerned with. It will allow an understanding of how the organs and systems work together and it will allow you to give a safe and effective treatment. This knowledge is essential to ensure that the therapist has an understanding of why some conditions are contraindicated and the effects that reflexology may have on the systems of the body during or after treatment. Good health depends on balance/ equilibrium of the natural functioning of all the body systems and reflexology causes all systems of the body to work efficiently and effectively

Brief overview of the systems

The following table shows, for each body system, the related organs, functions of the system and the effects reflexology has on the body system:

Effects of Body system Organs Functions of the system reflexology Skeletal All bones and joints
Effects of
Body system
Organs
Functions of the
system
reflexology
Skeletal
All bones and
joints
Support and protection,
movement, storage of
calcium and
phosphorous, formation
of blood cells
Assists with effective
movement patterns
and skeletal
alignment, relaxation,
to assist pain
management and
repair to damaged
bones
Muscular
All muscles
and tendons
Muscle tissue shortens
or contracts resulting in
movement (a by-product
of movement is
generation of heat),
gives body posture
Relax muscles,
increase blood flow
to muscles and
encourage
elimination of toxins
that have built up,
removes blocked
energy
Respiratory
Nasal cavity,
oral cavity,
pharynx,
larynx,
trachea,
bronchi, lungs
To warm clean air,
alveoli in the lungs
absorb oxygen into the
blood, remove carbon
dioxide and excess
water vapour from the
blood, helps maintain
acid base balance of the
body, helps produce
vocal sounds
Enhance respiratory
rhythm, assist
breathing difficulties,
to help eliminate
mucous build up,
support function,
support emotional
conditions of the
system

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Functions of the system Effects of Body system Organs reflexology Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Functions of the
system
Effects of
Body system
Organs
reflexology
Nervous
Brain, spinal
cord, nerves
Speedy communication
within the body, control
of body functions, eg
gut movements and
secretions, recognition
and communication of
changes in the internal
and external
environment, eg sight
Supports functioning
of the system,
encourages
relaxation, removal of
toxins in the system,
restores energy flow,
supports mental
functions of the
system
Circulatory
Heart, veins,
artery
Transportation of
nutrients and oxygen to
cells, removal of waste
and carbon dioxide from
cells, maintenance of
acid base balance in the
body, helps regulate
body temperature, helps
fight infection
Improved flow of
blood and oxygen in
the body, regulates
function of the
system, removal of
blockages or toxins
within the system,
assists emotional
disturbances
Lymphatic
Thymus,
lymph nodes,
spleen, lymph
vessels
Return of tissue fluid to
blood, immunity against
disease, eg by
production of antibodies
Increased efficiency
of lymph drainage,
increased removal of
infection and toxins,
supports immunity
Endocrine
Pineal,
hypothalamus,
pituitary,
thyroid,
parathyroid,
thymus,
adrenals,
pancreas,
testes, ovaries
Slower but longer lasting
communication within
the body, stimulation of
target organs, control of
body function, eg growth
and reproduction,
control of changes in the
internal environment, eg
water balance,
testosterone
Stimulation of the
immune system, aids
production of lymph,
to promote the
functions of the
systems, supports
hormone function,
balances menstrual
cycle, calms and
balances the
emotional and mental
state
Integumentary
Skin, hair,
nails
Protection of underlying
structures, sense organ
of touch, body
temperature regulator,
eliminates some wastes,
helps with production of
Vitamin D
Assists with skin
complaints,
increased removal of
toxins and allergens,
supports functions of
system, regulates
body temperature

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Effects of Body system Organs Functions of the system reflexology Digestive Mouth, tongue, salivary glands,
Effects of
Body system
Organs
Functions of the
system
reflexology
Digestive
Mouth,
tongue,
salivary
glands,
pharynx,
oesophagus,
liver, gall
To mechanically and
chemically digest
complex chemicals of
food so that they may be
absorbed into the body.
The liver is involved in
heat production
bladder,
stomach,
pancreas,
small
intestine, large
intestine,
appendix,
rectum, anus
Increased functioning
of the system,
removal of toxins or
allergens, regulates
body temperature,
supports emotional
elements of the
system, aids
digestion, assists
with recovery from
digestive conditions,
removes blocks in
waste removal and
energy in the system,
altered bowel habits
Urinary
Kidney, ureter,
urinary
bladder,
urethra
Removal of metabolic
waste, maintenance of
water and acid base
balance, production,
storage and excretion of
urine
Supports functions of
the system,
increased urination,
increased removal of
metabolic waste,
supports emotional
elements of the
system
Reproductive
Male: penis,
scrotum,
Production, storage and
ejaculation of sperm
testes, vas
deferens,
prostate
gland, urethra
Female: vulva,
vagina,
Production of ova,
protection, development
and birth of offspring
Increased functioning
of the system,
support of hormonal
and menstrual
activity, elimination of
toxins, supports
emotions of system,
support of developing
foetus
uterus, uterine
tube, ovary

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 3.1 1. Name two of the reflexology techniques used when treating a client

3.1

1. Name two of the reflexology techniques used when treating a client and which reflex areas you might use them on.

2. How many bones are there in the feet? Please list them by name.

3. There are 4 transverse zone lines on the foot – please draw and name them on the following foot chart.

There are 4 transverse zone lines on the foot – please draw and name them on
There are 4 transverse zone lines on the foot – please draw and name them on

Reflexology

F1BD 34

4. Explain how reflexology treatment might affect the following body systems:

a) The Lymphatic System

b) The Cardiovascular System

c) The Digestive System

Reflexology

F1BD 34

5. On the following blank foot chart please map and label the location of the following reflexes:

a) The solar plexus

b) The thyroid

c) The bladder

d) The fallopian tubes

e) The chronic areas

f) The ileocaecal valve

g) The sigmoid colon (flexure)

h) The spine – clearly label cervical/thoracic/lumbar and sacral

i) The pancreas

j) The shoulder

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 © COLEG 9 1

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology F1BD 34 When completed, submit this assignment to your tutor for marking and feedback. Please
Reflexology F1BD 34 When completed, submit this assignment to your tutor for marking and feedback. Please

When completed, submit this assignment to your tutor for marking and feedback. Please remember to include your name, contact details and your tutor’s name on your submitted work.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Summary of this section

This section has dealt with the practical elements of working with clients, setting up the clinical environment and how to carry out a treatment. Introduction to the feet, support and leverage were outlined along with the relaxation techniques employed by you as a therapist. The physical structure of the foot and lower leg were described as well as basic physiology of the body systems and organ locations. How these are affected by the reflexology treatment has been described as well as how to ensure the treatments are safe and effective. The reflex areas and their clinical application were laid out in order to allow the therapist to perfect their application.

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to self assessed questions

Answer to SAQ 3.1

Once proficient the average time for a consultation and treatment will be 1 hour.

Answer to SAQ 3.2

Relaxation techniques are important as they maximise the treatment by allowing the therapist to introduce their touch to the feet and the treatment that is about to commence. It also allows the therapist to assess the structure and tone of the feet.

Answer to SAQ 3.3

The main technique used is the ‘wiggle’ and is used in the following reflexes:

diaphragm

plantar thoracic

heart

upper GI

lower GI

pelvic

chronic areas

spinal

leg/hip/knee

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Answers to activities

Answer to activity 3.1

1. There are 26 bones in the feet

2. The big toe has 2 phalange bones

3. The 3 cuneiform are called medial, intermediate and lateral

4. The heel bone is called the calcaneum

5. The group of 5 long bones are called the metatarsals

Answer to activity 3.2

Tibia

Fibula

peroneus longus

extensor digitorum longus

Achilles tendon

peroneus brevis

flexor hallucus longus

tibialis posterior

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Section 4: Evaluation

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Reflexology

F1BD 34

Introduction to this section

What this section is about

This section is about:

short term effects after a single treatment

long term effects after multiple regular treatments