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JD

USING MARKET RESEARCH TO SUPPORT DECISION MAKING


1. Describe the difference between primary and secondary market research.
Ans. There are two types of market research: secondary market research and primary market
research. Here's a closer look at the difference between the two.
Secondary Market Research
Secondary research is based on information from studies previously performed by
government agencies, chambers of commerce, trade associations, and other organizations. For
example, U.S. Census Bureau information and Nielsen ratings are secondary market research.
Secondary market research is easy to find, and much of it is free or low-cost. For instance, you
can find secondary market research online at government or industry websites, at your local
library, on business websites, and in magazines and newspapers.
The downside of secondary market research is that it is not customized to your needs, so it may
not be as useful as primary market research. For example, secondary research will tell you how
much money U.S. teenagers spent last year on basketball shoes, but not how much they're
willing to pay for the particular shoe design your company has in mind.
Primary Market Research
Primary market research is tailored to a company's particular needs and is conducted either by
you or by a company that you pay to conduct the research for you. Focus groups, surveys, field
tests, interviews, and observation are examples of primary market research.
Primary market research lets you investigate an issue of specific interest to your business, get
feedback about your website, assess demand for a proposed service, gauge response to various
packaging options, find out how much consumers will pay for a new product, and more.
Primary research delivers more specific results than secondary research, which is an especially
important consideration when you're launching a new product or service. In addition, primary
research is usually based on statistical methodologies that involve sampling as little as 1 percent
of a target market. This tiny sample can give an accurate representation of a particular market.
The downside of professionally conducted primary market research is that it can be expensive -several thousand dollars or more. Fortunately, a growing number of online tools allow you to
conduct primary research such as surveys yourself at very little cost.

2. Use an example from the case study to explain the purpose of market research.
Ans.
Market research gathers data about a markets consumer in order to meet all of
their needs and wants. In the case study, they talked about how JD is constantly expanding
into new locations around the world and acquiring new businesses. Market research is
important in this scenario because JD needs to be fully knowledgeable in all of the new
markets they are entering and all of their new customers. With these new acquisitions, they
are gaining new consumers and will need to complete some market research in order to know
what these new customers like and want from a store like JD.

3. Analyze why market research should be viewed as an ongoing process.


Ans. Marketing is an ongoing business process that consists of four distinct stages; analysis,
planning, implementation and control. An understanding of the basic fundamentals of
marketing is important if your international marketing activities are to be successful.
The first stage of the process, analysis, involves collecting qualitative and quantitative
data about your products and potential markets. This information is generated by conducting
extensive market research using techniques such as surveys, audits, observations and can be
compared with data you have collected in the past. This information should be compared and
contrasted against your businesses objectives and resources to determine whether or not there
are any viable opportunities to expand into new markets.
If a competitive advantage is found during the analysis stage, the marketing process moves
on to the planning stage. Planning involves creating strategies that you can implement to
achieve results in your target market. You should consider both your short term strategies and
long term goals in the planning stage, paying particular attention to comparing the risks with
the potential rewards.
4. Evaluate how market research, if undertaken property adds value to the decisions made by a
large company. Why does it helps to reduce risk?
Ans.

Market research gives you information not only what your customer wants to buy, but
also who your customer is. As the article stated, it is possible to find the address, past
purchase history, and basic demographics of customers though market research. All of
this information will add value to a large company and help reduce risk because it
informs the company about where their customers live and how often they will buy
product. Not only that, but also how often they will go to a particular store and how much
they generally spend. All of this information will reduce the risk of a failed acquisition or
failed attempt at opening in a new location.

INFINITI
1. Describe what is meant by the term marketing mix and what the key ingredients of the
mix are.
Ans.
The marketing mix is probably the most famous marketing term used across all
industries. Its ingredients are the basic components found in all marketing plans.
They have been categorized into the following: product, price, place and promotion.
Its a simple concept that can be easily related to the food industry. Think about making a
cake and all the ingredients that create the mix, which ultimately produces something
delicious. Most cakes contain eggs, milk, and sugar and flour.but as in every recipe; you
can alter the cake (the final product) by altering the amounts of elements contained in your
mix. If you want a sweeter cake, you add more sugar. You want a little heat, add some chilis.
Its the same with marketing. The offer you promote to your customers can be altered by
changing up the ingredients in your mix. The key to producing a good marketing plan is to
make decisions that centre on the four Ps of the customers in your target market in order to
create perceived value and generate a positive response. By blending these four marketing
mix ingredients your end product will vary just like the recipe for a cake.

2. Explain the difference between above the line and below the line promotional activity.
Ans.
The way in which promotion is targeted is traditionally split into two types above the line and below the line.
Above the line promotion
This is paid for communication in the independent media e.g. advertising on TV or in the
newspapers. Though it can be targeted, it can also be seen by anyone outside the target
audience.
The main aims of above-the-line promotion are to inform customers, raise awareness and
build brand positioning. Above-the-line tends to have a higher cost since the promotional
methods used are less precise.
Below the line promotion
This concerns promotional activities where the business has direct control over the target or
intended audience. There are many methods of below-the-line, including sales promotions,
direct marketing, personal selling and sponsorship.

3. Analyze how forming the partnership with red bull racing will help infiniti to achieve its
key marketing objective of international growth.
Ans.
In March 2011 Infiniti became the key partner to the Red Bull Racing team and,
in November 2012, announced that it would become the title sponsor and exclusive
technical partner to what is now known as Infiniti Red Bull Racing. Infinitis products
and technology will support the F1 team from 2013. Like Infiniti, Red Bull Racing is a
relatively new organization but has made rapid progress in Formula One. There is a clear
link between what Red Bull Racing and Infiniti are each trying to achieve as both have a
shared ambition for incomparable performance. This is known as brand synergy. Synergy
is where the combination of two brands leads to results that are potentially greater than
the brands would achieve individually. Infinitis customers stand out from the crowd.
They are passionate about design and technology and they want the best possible
performance from their cars Inspired Performance. These qualities fit perfectly with
Red Bull Racings core values of being creative, innovative and doing things differently.

4. Evaluate Infiniti below the line promotional activity. To what extent do you think the
success of this activity relies on having Sebastian vettel as its brand ambassador?
Ans.
Below-the-line promotion is a narrower, more targeted approach to communicating
with consumers. These methods allow for more control and can be tailored to create deeper
engagement with target audiences through specific initiatives.
Examples of below-the-line promotion include:
Public Relations
Sponsorship
Hospitality
Merchandising
Social Media (Facebook and YouTube).
Infiniti uses a range of below-the-line techniques to support its sponsorship of Red Bull
Racing. This activity is underpinned by three-time F1 World Champion Sebastian Vettels work
as Infinitis brand ambassador. Sebastian Vettel goes beyond just endorsing Infiniti products; he
is the global ambassador for the brand. His own personal car is an Infiniti FX50. Last year he
used his experience and passion for cars, working with Infiniti to design the Infiniti FX Vettel
Edition which was unveiled at Frankfurt Motor Show.
Public Relations is defined as:
A strategic communication process to build mutually beneficial relationships between an
organization and its public.
Competitions. Infiniti ran a test-drive campaign giving consumers the chance to win a
money-cant-buy experience with Infiniti and Red Bull Racing. It also ran incentives for
salesmen and dealers to win Grand Prix tickets.
Viral marketing. Social media has played an integral part in Infinitis promotional
activity. Infinitis Inspired Performers video clips created a huge amount of global
exposure as Sebastian Vetter and Mark Webber swap skills with other like-minded,
inspired performers. These were all leaders in their respective fields, including martial

arts expert Celina Jade, music star Melanie Fiona and Red Bull Air Force Manager Jon
Devour.

KELLOGGS
1. Describe the purpose of market research.
Ans. A market research is a specific and very important part of marketing strategy. It tries to
known what are the things that consumer need and how the company has to design and advertise
the product to the consumers will buy it when it will be launched. This type of research is used
by businesses to increase the likelihood that the products will be well received by consumers
when they are launched. In conclusion, the purpose of market research is get important
information about market need, market size and competition to get a successful product.
2. Explain the difference between primary research and secondary research.
Ans. There are two types of market research: secondary market research and primary market
research. Here's a closer look at the difference between the two.
Secondary Market Research
Secondary research is based on information from studies previously performed by
government agencies, chambers of commerce, trade associations, and other organizations. For
example, U.S. Census Bureau information and Nielsen ratings are secondary market research.
Secondary market research is easy to find, and much of it is free or low-cost. For instance, you
can find secondary market research online at government or industry websites, at your local
library, on business websites, and in magazines and newspapers.
The downside of secondary market research is that it is not customized to your needs, so it may
not be as useful as primary market research. For example, secondary research will tell you how
much money U.S. teenagers spent last year on basketball shoes, but not how much they're
willing to pay for the particular shoe design your company has in mind.
Primary Market Research
Primary market research is tailored to a company's particular needs and is conducted either by
you or by a company that you pay to conduct the research for you. Focus groups, surveys, field
tests, interviews, and observation are examples of primary market research.
Primary market research lets you investigate an issue of specific interest to your business, get
feedback about your website, assess demand for a proposed service, gauge response to various
packaging options, find out how much consumers will pay for a new product, and more.
Primary research delivers more specific results than secondary research, which is an especially
important consideration when you're launching a new product or service. In addition, primary
research is usually based on statistical methodologies that involve sampling as little as 1 percent
of a target market. This tiny sample can give an accurate representation of a particular market.

The downside of professionally conducted primary market research is that it can be expensive -several thousand dollars or more. Fortunately, a growing number of online tools allow you to
conduct primary research such as surveys yourself at very little cost.

3. Analyse why an organisation like Kelloggs would use both qualitative and quantitative data.
Ans. Quantitative research is data which is in numerical form and is usually gathered from a
large sample of respondents. Quantitative research is specifically associated with figures or
numbers that help to make the research more objective from a large number of consumers.
Kelloggs use Quantitative research to develop their marketing plans because this method of
research is more reliable as it is based on figures and statistics which would give Kelloggs a
accurate opinion on the public response to their ideas. An example of quantitative research
which Kelloggs has undertook is survey in which they find out the statistics and majority of
people who would have a positive response or negative response to survey questions
Qualitative research is concerned specifically about consumer responses, feelings, attitudes and
descriptions. Qualitative research creates a conversation with consumers regarding Kelloggs
new ideas which encourage the consumers reaction also. An example would be that Kelloggs
introduces a new product idea and allows researchers to understand what they think of it and
how it makes them feel, whether they find it interesting or not. Focus groups are a method used
for Qualitative research; where someone moderates a group of six or seven consumers to the
ideas shown to them. An example of this would be new drawings or images, or even different
types of new food prototypes to taste. Kelloggs do this to gain the best feedback through
consumers which will benefit them immensely as it will allow them to have a much better idea
on what to give their consumers as they will know what...

4. Evaluate why market research can reduce the risks of a new product launch.
Ans. Companies strive to develop and produce exactly what customers want, when they want it
and to accomplish all of that with no risk of overstocks. But such a manufacturing nirvana has
become increasingly difficult to attain, given customers quickly changing preferences, the
heterogeneity of their demands and the resulting micro segmentation of many product
categories. Today, many consumer goods companies have been forced to accommodate smaller
markets, as these niches often provide the only path to growth and escape from heavy price
competition. At the same time, forecasting the exact specifications and potential sales volumes
of new products is becoming more difficult than ever. Recent studies have confirmed the
problems of new product commercialization,1 with newly launched products suffering from
notoriously high failure rates, often reaching 50% or greater. The main culprit has been a faulty
understanding of customer needs. That is, many new products fail not because of technical
shortcomings but because they simply have no market. Not surprisingly, then, studies have
found that timely and reliable knowledge about customer preferences and requirements is the

single most important area of information necessary for product development. To obtain such
data, many firms have made heavy but often unsuccessful investments in traditional
market research.

PORTAKABIN
1) Describe how a business such as Portakabin uses marketing to drive business.
Ans. Portakabin operates in a highly competitive market. There are now other businesses
producing similar buildings. Portakabin needs to provide products and services that satisfy
customers needs. Portakabin must also ensure that customers understand the difference
between Portakabin products and competitors products in terms of quality and levels of
service. To keep its leading position and market share, Portakabin focuses on two areas: it
seeks new customers and provides exceptional service to retain existng ones.
Marketing is therefore about finding and keeping customers. Business writer Peter
Drucker points out how important good marketing is to a business
Portakabin supplies premium working environments to clients who demand everhigher standards. It maintains its leading position in a competitive market with a balanced
marketing mix.This is designed to provide clients with quality products and highest service
levels. It has developed as a trusted brand.
2) Explain how Portakabin uses different types of market research, both primary and
secondary, and different methods within these.
Ans. Portakabin demonstrates innovation in its exciting range of products and new ideas.
Portakabin uses both primary and secondary market research to find out what its customers
need.
Primary research is first-hand research, such as interviews and focus groups. Such
research often gives better qualitative data in the form of opinions, views and comments.
Portakabin held focus groups with customers and found that they wanted more light in office
buildings as this increased productivity. Portakabin was able to respond with the Ultimo
Vision range, which lets in more light through its increased window space. Secondary
research uses data and information that has already been published. It may provide market
and industry quantitative data, often in the form of statistics. Brand vision quantitative
research showed the importance of 'on time and on budget' delivery. In 2009, Portakabin
delivered 99.6% on time and on budget. This compares very well against a constructionindustry average of 50% on time and 46% on budget.

3) Analyze the balance of price, product, promotion and place in Portakabin. Explain why
the balance of the marketing mix is more important than any single element
Traditionally the marketing mix- the balance of elements needed for effective
marketing- is referred to as 'four PS. These are Product, Price,Promotion and Place.
Portakabin adds a fifth
'P' to mix with 'Positioning'. This shows how the business intends to position itself to
customers so that isit is different from its competitors. It is closely linked to its Unique
Selling Point (USP).
An example of getting the product right can be seen in its portakabin Decant School concept.
The process of moving a school into new buildings is often a difficult and lengthy one. Many
short-term buildings may be needed during the move.
Promotion helps to return 'prospects' into actual customers. Research shows that it takes
around five 'touches' to turn a prospect into a customer. A 'touch' can be a communication,
such as advertising, or a sales contact. Portakabin used both above-the-line and below-the
line methods. Above-the-line involves paid-for advertising through targeted channels such as
trade magazines.
Place refers to where customers can buy products or to distribution channels.
Portakabin is a business-to-business (B2B) operation, which has 45 hire centers across the
UK. This means no customer is more than a one-hour away. Service teams ate therefore close
to customers so can resolve issues quickly.
4) Evaluate the contribution of custmor feedback to the success of Portakabin. Suggest at
least one other way by which Portakabin could collect feedback and give reasons for your
suggestion.
Ans. Portakabin also uses market research to find out what new products or services
customers may want. Sometimes it carries out one-off research projects. This is called 'ad hoc
research. These may focus on developing a specific new product or finding out how to
develop an existing one. For instance, Portakabin developed the new Ultra Vision range in
response to the need to provide existing buildings with more light. Portakabin Diatom has
met the need to deliver data cabling to office buildings by providing telecoms systems,
computer access points and air conditioning already installed. This allowed customers to
move in and bein work straightaway.
Portakabin market research focuses on two key performance indicstors(KPIs)-customer
satisfaction and Net Promoter Score(NPS).Using over 2,000 customer surveys a year,
Portakabin finds out if clients are happy and what issues affect them. It asks customers to rate
portakabin on a scale of 1 to 10 on aspects such as administration, delivery and installation,
the quality of the building and their overall experience. The results are used to target and
improve customer satisfaction. The average score has risen from 8.2 per customer in 2003 to
9.1 in 2009.

Portakabin also used mystery shopping, where researches pose as normal customers. The
results of mystery shopping show that clients are impressed with the 'human' skills of
Portakabin staff.Thse include courtesy, being helpful, building rapport and professionalism.
Such skills are a key factor in building customer satisfaction, creating loyal customers and
generating repeat business.
Business writer Frederick Reich held, who devised the Net Promoter Score tool, claims that
the only real question a business needs to ask its customers is: 'How likely are tou to
recommend us to a friend or colleagues?' Then PS score shows how popular Portakabin is
with existing customers. This is important as procuring a building is a large and often longterm commitment. A high score shows that customers are happy with Portakabin and ready to
recommend them. PS also predicts sales growth-the higher the score, the faster the business
grows. Portakabin uses NPS to measure the strength of this customer loyalty. The results are
extremely positive. On average, across thw UK hire and sales business. Portakabin achieves
an NPS score of 89. That compares very well with the scores of other industry leaders, such
as Google (78), Waitrose (73), Nokia (60), and Starbucks (56). Customers are clearly happy
with the quality of Portakabin products and the service they receive. This is vital in the
competitive industry Portakabin operates in as repeat business is an important and costeffective way of generating sales.

JOHNSON MATTHEY
1. State two benefits to a business of carrying out a PEST analysis.
Ans.

It helps your business to avoid failure on up and coming projects, because it doesnt meet

the PEST analysis expectations. Provides a wider understanding on how the business works.
Explain why STEM subjects are important to technology-focused businesses.
Ans.

Because STEM education creates innovators and critical thinkers/workers. A STEM-

literate person is able to make meaningful connections between work, communities, school and
global issues
3. Analyze how a company like Johnson Matthey can use a PEST analysis of factors in its
external environment to create a competitive advantage.
Ans.

The Company would operate in a stable environmental way. Avoiding having a violating

economic business, having good social factors, such as good marketing, and having the company
on a leading position.
4. Evaluate which of the changes in Johnson Mattheys external environment has had
the biggest impact on the business. Give reasons for your answer. (8 marks)
Ans.

The recession in 2008 causing a drop in demand for JM products. The company had to

drop their costs and increase their efficiency. This makes it hard for people to invest. and also
finding skilful people that can make product more efficient without using more resources

ADIDAS
1 Ans.
The marketing mix is often referred to as the '4 Ps', i.e. product, price, place and promotion. To
meet customers' needs a business must develop products to satisfy them, charge the right price,
get the goods to the right place, and it must make the existence of the product known through
promotion.

2 Ans.
A form marketing in which a corporation pays for all of some of the costs associated with
a project or program in exchange for recognition. Corporations may have their logos and brand
names displayed alongside of the organization undertaking the project or program, with specific
mention that the corporation has provided funding. Corporate sponsorships are commonly
associated with nonprofit groups, who generally would not be able to fund operations and
activities without outside financial assistance. It is not the same as philanthropy.

3 Ans.
Marketing comprising of activity that, traditionally, is commission free or charged at a
fixed fee by advertising agencies which, mainly, excludes mass media advertising.
Below the line marketing generally refers to marketing practices making use of forms of
promotion that do not involve the use of mass media, where, in a firms use of an advertising
agency, there is usually no commission charged by the advertising agency, and thus the expense
typically appears below-the-line on the ad agencys bill to the firm.
Below-the-line marketing activity can be contrasted with above-the-line marketing activity,
which typically is that where an ad agency would charge a firm a commission based on
advertising placements in mass media such as television, newspaper, and radio. (See above-theline marketing.)
Above-the-line marketing refers to a marketing approach that makes use of both abovethe-line marketing and below-the-line marketing. Below-the-line advertising can involve the use

of any form of non-mass media promotion including sales promotions (e.g. premiums, price
reductions, displays, and related point-of-sale activity), direct marketing, public relations
activity, sponsorship, etc.
4 Ans.
Promotional activity is very expensive. Organization want to see a return on investment (ROI)
for the money they spend on a promotional campaign. Sponsorship of London 202 was no
exception. Every aspects of its promotional campaign, both online and offline, was continuously
monitored and measured. This enabled adidas to demonstrate that that becoming the official
sportswear Partner of the London Games and exclusive licensee of all branded and event branded
apparel was cost effective. Throughout the campaign adidas monitored all of its media
coverage .This data was then then used to establish whether the marketing objective had been
achieved.

ALDI
1. Describe what is meant by the term marketing.
Ans. The activities of a company associated with buying and selling a product or service. It
includes advertising, selling and delivering products to people. People who work in marketing
departments of companies try to get the attention of target audiences by using slogans, packaging
design, celebrity endorsements and general media exposure. The four 'Ps' of marketing are
product, place, price and promotion

2. Explain why it is important to balance the marketing.


Ans. Organizations need a balanced marketing mix to meet the needs of its customers. Aldis
focus is on offering the best possible quality products at the lowest possible prices. Every buyer
for Aldi, from fresh fruit and vegetables to meats and electronics, is an expert in their field. They
look for products from around the world. This enables them to get the finest quality products that
Aldi then sells under its own brand labels.
Price
Selecting the prices is one of the most difficult considerations when developing a marketing mix.
Different pricing strategies that are commonly used include:
Market penetration charging lower prices for new products to help them enter the
market and gain market share quickly.
Competitive pricing pricing at a slightly lower prices than competitors.
Strategic pricing emphasizing the quality or brand positioning of a product to allow a
higher price to be charged.

3. Analyze the factors that might affect the location of a new Aldi store.
Ans. The place element of the marketing mix involves identifying where the product or service
will be sold. Aldi keeps its store layouts simple to limit waste and keep costs down. This means
Aldi can focus on offering its customers the lowest possible prices for its products. When
considering new store locations, Aldi takes into account:

The number of people visiting an area as well as the demographic of the area - for example, the
population of the area should be more than 30,000 people the position of store - Aldi focuses on
edge of the town center locations with good visibility from a main road and not too much
competition The accessibility of the store and its public transport linksThe number of parking
spaces available.
4. Evaluate how Aldi has identified a unique position within a competitive marketplace.
Ans. Aldi has a distinct approach to retailing that has given it a competitive advantage in a
crowded market place. Aldis unique balance of the marketing mix enables it to provide high
quality own branded products at the lowest possible price. Aldis innovative like brands and
swap and save marketing campaigns are improving brand perception. They are aiding the
achievements of Aldis marketing objectives. The campaigns have increased Aldis sales per
store by +100% over 3 years through creating more loyal customers.

UNISON
1. Use an example, describe one of the activities of a trade union.
Ans. A trade union is an organization made up of members (a membership-based
organization) and its membership must be made up mainly of workers. One of a trade union's
main aims is to protect and advance the interests of its members in the workplace.
Most trade unions are independent of any employer. However, trade unions try to develop close
working relationships with employers. This can sometimes take the form of a partnership
agreement between the employer and the trade union which identifies their common interests and
objectives.
2. Explain the difference between above-the-line and below-the-line promotion
Ans. Above the Line (ATL) and Below the Line (BTL) advertising are two terms that
are bandied around often these days in the advertising world and often have the lay person
confused as to what they stand for. It might be worth our while to begin this by defining what
constitutes the metaphoric Line. To quote Michael John Baker from The Marketing Book , the
terms Above The Line and Below The Line came into existence way back in 1954 with the
company Proctor and Gamble paying their advertising agencies a different rate and separately
from the agencies who took on the other promotional activities.
Below the line (BTL) advertising is more one to one, and involves the distribution of
pamphlets, handbills, stickers, promotions, brochures placed at point of sale, on the roads
through banners and placards. It could also involve product demos and samplings at busy places
like malls and market places or residential complexes. For certain markets, like rural markets
where the reach of mass media like print or television is limited, BTL marketing with direct
consumer outreach programmers do make the most sense. Says Raghu Khanna, CEO, CASH or

DRIVE, When budget is issue and the brand wants to have a consumer connect BTL has better
ROI.

3. Analyze the potential uses for electronic media in communicating with different audiences of
individuals.
Ans. It has become an increasingly important and measurable way of reaching different
target groups of people. It also allows for elements measurable way of reaching different target
group of people. It also allows for elements interactivity by providing an opportunity for user to
express their views and providing an opportunity for users to express their views and support.
For example, Unison placed videos on YouTube and setup pages on the social networking sites
Facebook targeted at local users and people who had already shown an interest in public
services. The website featured an interactive map which allowed users to click onto their
postcode to see how cuts could affect them and demonstrate the level of support for the
campaign.

4. Evaluate why a promotional campaign would benefit from using a range of promotional
techniques.
Ans. A promotional campaign needs to meet its objectives. Unison does not sell a product or
service. Instead it uses promotional campaign that aim to influence different activities to
communicate with not just those working in the public sector, but also the public

HEWDEN
1. Describe what is meant by the term workforce planning.
Ans.

Workforce planning is a set of procedures that an organization can implement to maintain

the most efficient employee/management team possible, maximizing profits and ensuring longterm success. Workforce planning falls into two broad categories: operational and strategic.
Operational workforce planning functions on a person-to-person level and streamlines employeerelated operations day by day. Strategic workforce planning deals with broad-based issues that
evolve over months and years and can encompass all the aspects of an enterprise.
2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of having an ageing workforce.
Ans. Advantages of having ageing workforce:
Employers increasingly see the value that older workers bring to the job.
Older workers have greater institutional knowledge and usually more experience. They often
possess more productive work habits than their younger counterparts. They report lower levels of
stress on the job, and in general, they get along better with their coworkers. Finally, they tend to
be more cautious on the job and more likely to follow safety rules and regulations.
Disadvantages of having ageing workforce:
Departments also see disadvantages in having an older workforce.
Topping the list are health problems, followed by 'adverse to change', and 'limiting career
opportunities for younger staff' (see Figure 4). Interestingly, few departments cite a 'negative
attitude' as one of the disadvantages of having an ageing workforce At least one department

picked up on this theme of negative attitude and said it was not due to ageing as much as having
been in the same place for a long time. Individuals had been through a number of restructurings
and downsizings, and had possibly developed a cynicism and suspicion of management, resulting
in a fear of change.

3. Analyze the difference between external and internal factors, and why this is important
when developing strategies.
Ans. Once an objective of the business or project is determined, the internal and external
factors that can impact the objective are identified using a two-by-two matrix. The two columns
of the chart are labeled "Helpful" and "Harmful." The two rows of the chart are labeled "Internal
Origin" and "External Origin."
The Helpful/Internal element box is designated for the strengths of the venture, while
Harmful/Internal is for weaknesses. Helpful/External is for opportunities and Harmful/External
is for threats. Strength elements include characteristics of the business or project that give it an
advantage over others, while weaknesses include characteristics that place the business or project
at a disadvantage compared to others.
Opportunities include external elements the business or project can exploit to its advantage,
while threats include external elements that can cause problems for the business or project. As
explained by Business News Daily, external factors typically reference things the decisionmakers are unable to control. A complete SWOT analysis allows decision-makers to consider
whether the objective is attainable. If not, the objective can be amended, or a different objective
may be put into place. A new SWOT analysis must be performed with any change in objective.
4. Evaluate the relative importance of different elements of its SWOT analysis in helping
Hewden to improve its future prospects.
Ans.

Hewden has used a SWOT analysis to help it plan for the future in an increasingly

competitive and difficult market. By identifying its main strength it was able to focus on
reinforce sing its core business. Identifying key weakness and changing its practices was vital in
adjusting the business operation to become more efficient.

A key outcome of its SWOT analysis was identifying potential opportunities and
threats to prepare the business for the future .However SWOT analysis on its own is worthless
unless it is used to plan and drive change. All other must interact to facilitate changes.