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.

Digitized by

VjOOQIC

'

f

_J

Digitized by Googk .

Digitized by GoogI .

Digitized by LiOOQ IC . .

Digitized by UOOQ IC .

Digitized by Google .

Digitized by LiOOQ IC .

Digitized by UOOQ IC . PERSIAN AND PASHTLT.THE CONYEKSATION MANUAL. HINDUSTANI. IK ENGLISH.

Digitized by Googk .

' E. PERSIAN WITH SUMMARIES OF THE GRAMMARS OF THESE LANGUAGES. ENGLISH.C. PALL MALL. 1875..W. 23. VOCABULARY OP NEARLY Jfox tty u*e <rf (Engineer ©fficer* hM 1500 ati)er$ an WORDS. CO.'] P Icj . '. A COLLECTION OP USEFUL PHRASES 670 AND PASHTU.. Gtt BOY1L ENGINEEBS.'". S.'•" • " Eontton: RICHARDSON & & 13. CORNHILL. tf)e fioxtfyWlttt dfrontier antr in fnttta* BY CAPTAIN •*y Tf PLUNKETT. HINDUSTANI.THE CONVERSATION MANUAL. [All Bights Reserved.

Digitized by e. ST. Googk . John's square.c.: LONDON PRINTED BY GILBERT AND BIVINGTON. and whitefriars street.

PAET I.CONTENTS. PAG& The Alphabet 9 .

Digitized by Googk .

and seems not unlikely to extend over other parts of the Continent the influence which she already exerts in the countries bordering on Hindustan.knowledge of Persian it is French of Asia. Believing that no such useful collection of phrases relating to the occurrences of everyday life. I therefore set to work. but in a comprehensive more methodical manner and on a more scale. with their equivalents in Persian and Pashtu. as well as to the special Digitized by Google . I also discovered how very advantageous even a slight knowledge of Pashtu must be to an officer serving in this district. So long as England retains her present position in Asia. some- what after the model of the three or four Hindustani Manuals already in use. as well as proficiency in the text-books used for the Examinations. and that and be more generally diffused among British this knowledge should embrace a practical acquaintance with the colloquial idioms. —the very desirable that a .West Frontier of India. I found myself frequently at a loss for the phrases required in ordinary conversation and for technical words . On to arriving for the first time in Peshawar. is almost indispensable for those who are employed on the North. though useless elsewhere. and. whenever I could spare time from professional duties. and the most widely-spoken language from the Bosphorus to the confines of China. to write down a number of sentences in English.PREFACE. Pashtu is the language of Eastern Afghanistan. and attempting converse with Kabulees and others in Persian. a tongue under- stood on the shores of the Caspian as well as in Kabul —should Yarkand Officers.

but also in the revision and correction of the whole. the well-known teacher of languages in Peshawar. PEEFACE. G. a subordinate of the Military and I have received great assistance by Saiyad Works Department Mahmud Khan from Kazi Ehatak. I cannot expect that this Manual will be free from imperfections. Digitized by Googk . 1875. Persian and Pashtu Grammars as will suffice for those who wish to obtain a colloquial knowledge only of any of these languages. more especially in the Pashtu. February. I have is added the Urdu. and have prefixed such brief abstracts of the Hindustani. common The Vocabulary. viii occupations of Engineers. and of which the spelling has not yet been reduced to a regular system —or even in the Persian may not be so numerous as to for whom it is intended. either in the Pashtu —a language in which almost as many dialects are met with as there are tribes among the Afghans. which gives the equivalents 1500 words in use. in the hope that of service to brother officers may this render the Work and others in India as well as on the Frontier. In compiling Khadim an index to the also forms of nearly this little Work I have been aided All. T. P. Peshawar. but can only hope that these detract from its value to those I may be allowed excuse for deficiencies or inaccuracies the very which I have been able to devote to this to plead as an few Leisure hours Work. and that .. sentences. to be found elsewhere.

THE ALPHABET. THE POWERS OF THE VARIOUS LETTERS USED.3 .PART I. 3s. The Consonants.

Persian words in which the h The vowel sounds . who and he should. (. Work is to . &c. ip with a a final short a represents the is silent. and s as *. are to be pronounced as the in up-hilly the th in hot-house. the dh in mad-house. all.THE ALPHABET. The Persian and Pashtu. &c. th. and the hard The h ( to the Hindi and the which peculiar to the Hindi is common strong aspirate of certain Arabic words. dot underneath final ah of is many not to be sounded . s. however. . 10 The foregoing table is according to the most approved method of representing the various Consonants of the Oriental Alphabets and symbols. and the h the making object of to enable anyone to write out the phrases correctly in the Oriental characters t represent f common represents the soft aspirate these distinctions in this and the t by and so on : but the learner may treat the t. learn the true sound of the gh (ghain) from the natives. only wishes to acquire a colloquial knowledge as t. dh. the 8. It ph must be noted that p h. thus the English letters respectively the soft t Alphabets.

which where The inhabitants of Persia thus. while the ts varies in sound 11 between s and z." is pronounced by them but with a drawl. as zh ." kaliyun . i( into u a pipe. THE ALPHABET. first ml rawed. an. Digitized by Googjc . is word They v soften the a in many words pronounced un. and kaliydn." is every- intelligible. " yes. " that.. and they sound the short a go. . ballet." bale. the English short a in " fan. " you pronounced ml rawld. to learn the eastern dialect of Yusufzai. It is sufficient. for instance. however." is instead of that in " fun like our syllable. which lengthens the also soften e into I . like " thus.

Digitized by Googk .

.. bread. mez. or turn se.. main. &e. mard-hd -he -hi.. rotiyoh ha. ' nom. generally change these into e in the thus. of Nouns and generally the feminine termination of declined thus is I (See Phrases. &c. mard se. the men or mardon se. : Plur. Singular. of man mardon-hd -he man mard-ko.* hutte ha. Gen. the in the Accusative Case. Dat. plural to the mezen.— 13 ( ) ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. is mardon-ho. we [me to me or hamdrd ~e ham ham ham se.. and Ace. I is The Noun in t and sh are also mostly feminine.. to Ace.' &c. man -7ci 9 of men men [men mardoh-ho or ward. Sing. Nouns ending in a oblique cases and plural hutte. In fem. or mardon ne. or us thou -l. to thee. thy [thee ko. I Gen.' and e in the oblique cases and plural. mvgh ho.' fem. Norn. and a. mvjh se.' in the mard9 'a good man. Singular. Abl. my Dat. i a dog . . tu our -i. ' of a dog Adjectives in a similarly take I . mard.. from thee ne. Digitized by Google . 38 and 39. Nos. to you. mera -e 4. mard-ko or mard. tujh Agent. Nom. . the to express : used.' rofit/dn. huttd. There is no Article Dative with ho Part II. your turn ho. to Dat. 'a good girl. nouns. 'a good man's son.. from us ne. Section Nouns ending Adjectives. ' thus. from me Agent. and Ace. to us. as achchhe mard ha larha.. tujh se. from the men. you by you turn ne. the man Abl. mezon dogs . I Plural. huttoh ha } &c.). Nom. you. we Plural.. mard ne. terd -e -t. as achchhd THE PEONOUNS. &c. you tumhdrd -e turn. Gen. ( a table.. main ne. . ham. ho. or Abl. man men mard. from man Agent. added en or yah is rofi.' lea. thou tu. men [men (used only with past tenses of transitive verbs).' achchhi larhi.

we the. in kd. wuh tu hai. main gir-d (fem. ' that. | fell. Indefinite. turn ho. &c. ham Digitized by gir-e (in). in). Plur.' or ' « it. uskd. ft* We were. &c. Present.in). l koi. Sing. girt-% thi). we giren. -0 -?. main girt-d hun. &c. Dat. hain. -a -i. Plur. &c. some.. to fall . <fec. Googk &c. ' own . Past. Gen. we £A#. Main girung-d. falling. &c. tfw&a. I shall tu gvreg-d. ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. Dat. #*&>. main hun. 100. &c. —I fall. . main thd (fern. | The Present. pi. Interrog. tdui. fall | —I am | The Imperfect. &c. pi. The Sing. Wuh. Plur. &c.' ' Plural.&e. Past. ham girt-e (fem. Gen. 1 l self. who ? A?at0t. Aorist. jo jiskd. Ac. . is ko. Correl. gir-d (fem.' 'he. &c. &c. giro. &c. Sing. that same. We ham giren. Imperative. Jcahe kd. I was.' AUXILIARY VEEB. — falling root. Interrog. 'this. gir. gir. &c. Plur. Nom. &c. she. Future. turn giro. &c. wuh #tn» the. *o. tu gire. Sing. Plur. thd. ham girt-e the (fem. Plur. -i.' Singular. Ap. Gen. falling. ham gvrt-e —I was hain. wi£a. \ Nom. Sing. fall. Sing. | he.' or 'it. <&c. EEGULAE NEUTEE VEEB. may fall. main girt-d thd (fem. main girun. *0.' she. ham Plur. who. A:a. &c. 14> Tih.' Apnd -e -i. may fall.' kuchh. fall. thin). -i). main girt-d (fem. lam. girt-i thin). town fon Eelative.—I Sing. what ? kyd. &c.' ' ye. wuh gire. and and in). CHrnd. We are hain. tfw kd. kUkd. I Plur. tffo fern. ye.' or ' your honour. yih.' Singular. is kd. fallen . Aa»» hai. Sing. ' any . -i. i). jojinkd. thi). girt-d (fem.

is going . thus. rat. &c. are ' to give. girt hain). girl thin). l l . ham khde jdenge (fem. somwdr. l given. —I have hun — I had main gird thd (fem. <fec. tu ne khdyd. c used in Some gone.' made for I may give. main ne khdyd. girl Plur. There are no Irregular Verbs in Hindustani . gone ') thus. main ne khdyd 15 'to eat.' dun. khdnd. sanlchar. Pluperfect. fallen. juma' Friday. named thus * Sunday. Tuesday.' gayd. Agent Case. tu The Passive Voice thl). jdnd. juma\ Saturday. thd. girl hain (fem. main khdyd gayd. <fec. we shall be eaten. mangalwdr. khdl jdengln). &c. main khdtd hun. Pluperfect Tenses. thus. Perfect and Transitive Verbs take the Perfect.' Past. tu ne khdyd hai. Past. &c. ' ' i eaten.' gayd. "Wednesday. Digitized by Google . .' is contractions are also generally used instead of dlun. formed by using the past participle with the going. I was Yerbjdna. but in some cases the Regular Past Participle has become obsolete. main gird ham gire Plur.' the sake of euphony.' &c. * fallen into disuse.' : Monday. Thursday. or plr. Sing. main khdun. Past Participle dlyd. khdl jdun) y I may be eaten . Pluperfect. of similar meaning. main khdyd jdun (fem.' Aorist. fallen. . ne khdyd hoi. itwdr. &c. hun). (fern. as from dend. with the Past. and the Past Participle of another Verb. &c. The days of the week l budh. . Sing. main ne khdyd thd. ' to go ' is {jdtd. Perfect.— ELEMENTS OP HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. to go. its place. &c. the (fem. and of which the Present Tense has jdtd. ham gire Present.

'second. is chaubls pachis 26 27 28 29 untis 30 tis 31 32 33 34 35 iktis 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 chbattis 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 chhabbis sata.. regularly. anawe satanawe athanawe ninanawe sau or sai. The Ordinal Numbers are—pakla. 'sixth. which may with advantage be written as Digitized by exercises.' panchwan. 10 ( ) THE CARDINAL NUMBERS IN HINDUSTANI. and in the feminine paUl and pdnchwin. For the application of the Grammar. 'third. is referred to the phrases in Part II. is te. in the oblique cases and plural.' cMatwan. asi satasi athasl nau.alls paiiitalis chhi. tirasi chaurasi pachas! cbhi.' dusrd. They are declined like Adjectives. asath satsath athsath unhattar satfcar ikbattar bahattar tihattar chauhattar pachhattar 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 cbhihattar sathattar athhattar unasi assi ikasi be. chauthd. asi nauwe ikanawe banawe tiranawe chauranawe pachanawe chhi.' 8atwan. the learner Section I.' tisra. asi. or to put the Adjective in the obbque case. by adding wan to the Cardinals. Googk .' seventh .. is atha. 'fifth. for instance. is batis taintis 59 60 chauritis pairitls untatis cbalis 61 62 63 64 65 iktalis 66 be. 'fourth.' and so on. alls 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 sairitis athtis tairitalis chau. for the remaining numbers. to learn when to use thus.alis sairitalls artalis unchas pachas ikawan bawan tirpan chauwan pachpan chhappan sattawan athawan unsath sath iksath bilsath tirsath chausath painsath chlii.. pahld the genitive termination -he instead of -kd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ek do tin char panch chha sat ath nau das gyarab barah terah chaudah pandrah solah satrah atharah unis bis ikkls ba. pahle and pdnchwen. and pdnchwdn become. ' 'first.

Plur. &c. I. em. me. am. ma. Imperative. astand.' \ Rasem. they may arrive. she.' plur. Plur. mirasi. The thus. ? eh or mard.' rasand. 'an arriver. budand. astern. and. you .' \ 2nd.. 1st. what ? he is. ' arrive thou . mard. o. rased.' rasanda. they. hast. mirasem. kuddm. asti.' rasida. 'I may arrive. hastand. thou wast . Plur. we. { 3rd. shuma. ast. Bason. Plur. buded. ras). 'arrived. ha for inanimate objects mardan . ' i (after the book of me. There is no Article Dative (with ra) is. eshan.' the r#$<wZ. Rasidan. budam. budem. rased. thou Kiy who or which what sort of ? or me man . ' kitab. genitive is formed by adding noun i . man. mirasad. a slave/ bandagan . 'you may arrive. Present. he was. I am. 'thou mayest arrive. : The a vowel e) to the governing ' book.. thou art.' . &c. .. Aorfi.i 1* ( ) ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.' rasi. PKONOTJNS. — ' I Mirasam. 'to arrive' (root. ki. may arrive. (See Phrases 38.' or ' my plural ends in an for animate. Rasam.' &c. who . it. f Sing. 39.' Tenses from the Eoot. astam. suba. thus.) used. . hastam. ed. a district/ subajat. Sing. I mard. which ? any ? VERBS. bud. mirasand. Aorist. banda. or 9 which ? or Plur. Section I. hastem. Digitized by Googk . hasted. Sing. am arriving. Sing.. kitab man. Sing. Also without the aspirate. ast. Jcitabhd or after a thus. but to express the in the Accusative Case the . —Ras. mlrased. 'arriving. 'we may arrive .. tu. budl. to . he. Also the simple affix. I was asted.

.

18

;:;
;

.

elements of peb8ian grammar.
Tenses from the Infinitiye.
The Past.

1st,

Rasidam,

i

I arrived

;'

rasidi, rasid.

Plur. rasidem, rasided, rasidand.

2nd, Imperfect.

Ml rasidam,

'

I was arriving ;' mirasidi, mirasid.

Plur. mirasidem, mirasided, mirasidand.
3rd, Past Potential.

—I

might

*

arrive,'

See

(Seldom used.

&c.

Phrases 61 to 65).
Rasidame, rasidi, raside ; rasideme, rasidede, rasidande.

Section

I.,

4th, Future.

Khwaham

i&wdhi

rasid, 'I shall arrive;'

Plur. Jchwahem rasid, Jchwahed

r.,

khhwdhad

r.,

ihwhdhand

r.

Tenses from Past Participle.
1st,

Rasida am, rasida

i,

Perfect

rasida ast

2nd,

Rasida budam,.. .budi,

— I have

arrived.*

'

; plur., rasida

Pluperfect. — I had
'

. .

bud;

The Roots are formed
1. Infinitives in adan,

plur., rasida

as follows

em, rasida ed, rasida and.
arrived.*

budem,

;

buded,

. .

budand.

idan and ddan reject the termination

chidan, to collect, chin

come, a or ay;

.

:

firistddan, to send, firist ; pursidan, to ask, purs
give, dih

. .

;

;

sit ddan,

:

thus,

except, dddan, to

didan, to see, bin

zadan, to strike, zan

dmadan, to prepare, dmd;

:

dmadan, to

;

to seize, sit an ;

zddan, to bring forth, zd;

gddan, to

embrace, gd; kushddan, to open, Jcushd; dfridan, to create, dfrin;
shunidan, to hear, shunau ; guzidan 9 to choose, guzin.
2. Infinitives in

udan, change

for d or de, as situdan, to praise,

it

sitae or sitd: except, budan, to be,

bit

or bash; shudan, to be,shaw;

tanudan, to draw, tanau ; durudan, to reap, duru

zinau

;

3. Infinitives in

kan

:

;

zinudan, to mingle,

ghunudan, to sleep, ghunu.
rdan or udan reject the dan, as kandan, to

except, dwurdan, to bring, ar or

kardan, to do, kun

;

murdan, to

afshurdan, to press, afshar
to count,

;

dig,

bear, bar

mir; dzurdan, to vex, dzdr

sipurdan, to entrust, sipdr ; shumurdan,

shumdr; farkandan, to

4. Infinitives in

die,

awar ; bur dan, to

khtan take

dig, farkand;

z,

gandan, to rot, gand.

as andajdttan, to throw,. andaz

except, shindkhtan, to recognize, shinds ; farokhtan, to

Digitized by

sell,

Google

farosh

;:

ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.

19

gusikhtan, to break, gusil; dkhtan, to draw (a sword), dlch

to milk, dosh

;

dokhtan,

;

suJchtan, to weigh, sanj.

5. Infinitives in

stan reject the stan, as zistan, to live, zl

:

except,

ju; khdstan, to rise, khez
khwdstan, to wish, l$hwah; paiwastan, to join, paiwand; justan, to
Leap, jah ; rastan, to escape, rah ; rustan, to grow, ruy ; ristan, to
bastan, to bind, band; justan, to seek,

spin, ris ;

shustan, to wash, shuy

kdstan, to diminish, kah

make
6.

to

sit,

nishdn

nishdstan, to

;

nishin.

gard ; nawishtan, to

Ml; dghashtan,

ddr

low, kdr

;

write, navois

;

:

except,

hishtan, to

to accumulate, aghdsh; agjioshtan, to embrace,

Ighpsh ; qfrdshtan, to exalt, afrdz

7.

sit,

Infinitives in shtan take r, as dash tan, to have,

yashtan, to become,
juit,

nishistan 9 to

;

shikastan, to break, shikan

;

gusastan, to break, gusil

;

kushtan, to

rishtan, to spin, ris

;

;

hishtan, to

hush.

kill,

Infinitives inyfow take

b,

as t aft an, to Bhine, £«£

;

or retain^ as

wftan, to weave, 5«f : except, hhuftan, to sleep, Mw*p ; r oftan, to
jo, raw; giriftan, to take, y*r; guftan, to say, yo or yoy ; pa^lraftan

o

accept, pazir

huguft

;

;

to bore, suft

suftan,

shinuftan, to hear, shinau

ormed by lengthening the

The days

;

;

shuguftan, to blossom,

kaftan, to dig, haw.

Some

are

penult, as ruftan, to sweep, rob.

of the week are

named thus

in Persian

:

Sunday,

yak shanba (pronounced shambd).

Monday,

do shanba.

Tuesday,

sih shanba.

"Wednesday, chahdr shanba.
Thursday,

panj shanba.

Friday,

juma\

Saturday,

shanba.

b2
Digitized by

VjOOQIC

(

20

)

CAKDINAL NUMBEES IN PERSIAN AND PASHT&.

dob anra. dobi. shpun. spai. shpana . to a Ace. ukha. fern. man from a sari. Digitized by Googk . 2. Nouns in i. in ah. in in ai ai. as in is Urdu and are masculine or feminine. da sari. evil. in anra . DEOLEN8ION OF NOUNS. a hat. a shepherd. ai Sariya. in a upon a sari pore. Masc. ukh. a dog .— — ! 21 ( ) ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GRAMMAR. Masc. in Masc. in ana . as fopai. man of a Dat. a washerman. 4. i. la sari na. feminines are generally formed as follows Masc. Voc. by a man Oh. man la sariyo na. 2nd sari. 2. of a house . tar sariyo pore. a camel. a . 3. The 1. sarai. in a consonant (except ah) add for fem. as. as zhibah. — Declension Masculine Nouns ending in a consonant. g&obana. 4. The following are usually : Nouns in ar nafdida. having u in last syllable as. sari ta. Nouns in ah. : — . pa pa sariyo (Jckhe) he. crying. a Gen. up to a sari bdnde. plur. &c. hor. a house plur. asjdrd. gAobah. Singular. sariyo bdnde. as. sariyo ta. Nouns in ai. Tcoruna. wanting. Abl. pa pa o tar a man man da sariyo. Persian. : spai. man man man sari (Jckhe) he. as. as badl. a cowherd. 5. ai sariyo. man Agent sari. The All Article Nouns feminine 1. sarai. 1st Declension —Masculine Nouns in ai — : Plural. da koruno. da kor. a bitch. Nom. fem. sariyo. 3. fem. denoting inanimate objects Gen. and masc. advantage. tongue or language. and Nom. . Purely Pashtu Nouns in a.

... Gen. as. Loc. a Nouns. oh. heavy. Google na. Feminine road. a snake. (See Section I. <fcc. pa you . sour.... . .. &c.. .. a as.. *»a... 'thee. stdso. : shin. spai.. td. 2nd like the a horse. tarMka. &c.. mdran.. black.. dsuna. .. mung. * .la tdso ai td. hhaze.. ta he .. . following form their feminines irregularly The Masc. from me. thee. Feminine da ohldo. Plur.. . \ . 22 3rd Declension. denoting i.— — ELEMENTS OF PA8HTU GRAMMAR. da plor. . in a. Jchwaga... . . . da hhazo.. &c. to thee. hot. Norn. dzama) n . sweet. Phrases 11 to 14). sAwa. . or mar.. In. to me.. . plur. da mar as. thou Digitized by ! .. dzamunga. scattered . fa da spo.. plur. . munga. wmfo.bitter. g±ld. tfaso..pa tdso he. (Jckhe). ma na . number. forfl. td ta. we. da gMa\ da laro. 2nd Declension. . mo. da ihaze . like ending consonants in tauda. zuh. trihh. Masc. tod. &c. tdsoy tuh.. declen- ending in a consonant denoting krap. by me. | data. . . ftwo. triw. me. . pa ma he (Jckhe) . Masculine sounds.. plur. [he. plur. plur. . Personal Pronouns.. tdso ta... Masculine animate objects . da krap. . tor.. by £a. thee. mung ta. from thee. khwara.. da lare —Nouns Adjectives ore declined and case. fern. hrapahdr. as. da- krapahdro. woman. Feminine — Nouns in a. . as.' or 00 ma j Dat.pa munga Abl. as. ai tdso. Jchor. —Nouns 4th Declension. &c. in thee. . tarwd. Ace. N. Idre. . . /a munga na. Feminine spal . a crunch. iu me.. . a bitch... tndrdno. Many such Nouns are declined sion as. drana. Tchog. fern. —Nouns 3rd Declension.B. .. . . Degrees oe Comparison.. 1st Declension. — Nouns in a consonant. spai. la thou. drund.. green.. lar. ihaza. &c. ahlet 4lh Declension. _ J-of me. std or la td na.. and agree in gender. . —Nouns in at or i. I. .. mung. theft.. Plur.

da or de. zllag&a dai. de. and Ace. thee. by you. Tdso yai. Third Person Proximate. bul hum one. We are. it. hag&uh. . with you . . Nom. us comp. thee. Demonsteative Pbonouns. mu. Jce (Jshhe). this . Miiny yu. thine him. haghoi or hag ho. omitted in speaking. dar. The following forms are Section Phrase 66) I. 2%tVrf Person Remote. are. is. Phrases 44 and 45)." nor cfer. ttore «fer& "other person. She is. your. plur. Zuh yam.. us. me. . "every body. . him. — Tarn. : we. it. hag&e. following : yo. cfoyo. fem. Oblique cases." fern. fem. she or hagha.'* nor pi. ye. " Every one.— — ELEMENTS OE PASHTU GRAMMAB. occasionally. " what else?" har tsok. Future. da or de} he. and Ace. Tuh ye. "other thing:" nor tsok. &c. . our. though seldom. " however many. his plur. daghdi or de. ." bul tsa." — fem. huma yuwa . bala yuwa.. verbs. fem. by me." har tsuh. dagko or deo." har tso. he. plur. Oblique dagha or da . used.. . The Personal Pronouns hag&a and de are used for * that khpul* * own/ corresponds to the Hindi ffp/w. I am. With the (Fern. " many more. by us. dou plur. do or . in. " nobody . dagha or da. ' : The bat (bul) yo. Present. " all the rest. "lam. {See Section (See : mu." .. " Which — compounds are in common use " Other one. : The Auxiliary Vebb Indicative. Also. are. however. by them. Aara ^wwa. Thou He \l£agka dah. . the following are used war. " every thing " hets tsoh na.. nore (ole. mine ye. 23 f Masc. I. by thee. you. art." Aar yo. Nodi. affixes ta.. her. to. "who else?" nor tsa. she or it. also in me. You Haghoe They de." tsoh. by him. and rd. The affixes are.

I shall become. Jcedalai. -fiT<?y». Gerund. Tou ha kegai.. Kegu." The Intbansitive Auxiliabt Vebb —Shwal. kedala. Present. i)." Present Part. kedunkai. He becomes. Kegal. kedala. kedal. Imperfect. ha kegl. Jcedale." to become. ha kegu. I was becoming. fem. ha kegam.. &c. become. Jcedu. kedalam or Jcedam. or Noun of Agency. kedalu. kedana.ELEMENTS OF PASHTU OBAMMAB. " becoming." Mood. Tcedah. "We become. Kegam. (fem. fem. "the becoming. kedun. Thou becomest. fem.. keduh. Indicative Future. " to become. &c. Jcedale or £i<fe." Active Part. ifoyi. ha kegl. JST<?y<?. They become. keduh. fem. "i becomer. 24 The Intbansjtive Auxiliabt Verb —Kedal." or "to be/ . ha kege. kedal. I become.

— ——

>

:

.

elements of pashtu gbammab.

25

Tbansitiye Vebb.
wahal, " to strike."

Active Voice

Indicative Present

—I

strike,

Sing, waham, wahe, wahi

Aorist

—I may

Future

—I

strike,

thou

;

strikest, &c.

Plur. wahu, wahai, wahi.

&c, wu toaham, wu wahe, &c.
&c, wu ha waham, &c, or, with Pronoun,

shall strike,

wu

zuh ba

toaham, &c.

The Imperfect, Past, Perfect and Pluperfect require the Agent Case
instead of the Nominative, and the Verb agrees with the object.

The Imperfect.
Thou, you,

eta tdso,

>i

he, she, it

[was (were) striking

or they,

)

me

]

^haghp
us

I,

we, he,

she, it

J

mung wahalu.

...

cmd

-\

mung,-\

or was (were) striking thee Xhaghuh ovyta toahale.

they,

^hagho

)

thou)
[ was

or you,

)

tdso
you
(him) ma mungi)
.

I, we,

-\

haghuh or \zuh wahalam.

(were) striking-!

(them

(wahal.

)

<

>

haghoi

...

(.them (fem.))

The
Thou, you,
he, she,
or they,

(have) struck

me

...

mung wahali yu.

similarly:

has or have struck thee,

tuh wahalai ye.

you,

tdso wahali yal.

him or
(them,

hagha wahalai dah.

her,

haghoe wahali

)

them (fem.) )
is

~\

haghuh ot> zuh wahalai yam.
^hagho
)

us

The Past

(toahale.

\

)

And,

<

Perfect.

Cta tdso,

)

it £ has

wahalai.

Cwahuh.
\hagha]
(wahala.
td or taso)

>

(;ber )

)

.

haghe wahali

formed from the Imperfect by prefixing

di.

di.

wu

td zuh

wu

wahalam, " thou didst strike me."

The
1

*"
\

Continuative Past

is

formed thus

:

Ma

ba hagha voahuh, " I

used to strike him/'

The

Pluperfect thus

The Doubtful

:

Ma

Pluperfeot

:

hagha wahalai wuh, u I had struck him."

Hagha ba zuh wahalai yam, " He might

have struck me."
Digitized by

Google

——

—)
26

"

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GBAMMAB.

The Imperative :

— " Strike," wu waha;

Plur.

" Let him strike," wu de wahi ;

The Subjunctive Mood

is

...

wu wahai.
wu de wahi.

formed by prefixing kaf "if," to the

Indicative.

The Potential Mood, corresponding
formed from the Past Part.
shwal thus,

;

to the use of sakna in Urdu, is

the Present with the Present of

Wahalai sham, " I can strike ; " wdhalai she, " thou canst
strike " wahalai shu, " we can strike," <fcc.
;

In the Past the Verb agrees with the
the Indicative

Thou, you,.
he, she,
it

C could

(tdtdsohaa&a')
,
T
7
7
,
»
have struck me, i
\zuh wahalai shwam.

or they )

^

ovha

<*

.

)

mung wahall

us,

...

shuri.

(md, mung ")
she,
(could have struck thee, j hagha or r tuh wahalai shwe.
or they
)
^haa&o
we,

I,

it

he,>.

tdso wahall ihwal.

you,

...

I,

object, as in the past tenses of

:—

him irnamung

we, thou")
or you
)

her

them

...

f

marians say

is

itself,

(haghol wahall shwal
(shwu).
^haghol wahall shwe.

\

wahalai

—according

a curious anomaly, and some

impossible, but the

it is

...

(fem.) )

The change of termination of the Verb
to the gender of the object

haghawahalaishuh.

( td or tdso ) haaha wahall shwa.

them")

...

~)

Gram-

Afghans certainly give the in-

flection.

The Potential Future

is

formed with

ba, as

zuh ba

tlai

sham, I shall

be able to go.
wahun, fem. w ahan a, " striking ; "
Pres. Part., wahuh, fem. wahala, " striking 5"
Noun of Agency
wahunkai or wahunai, " a striker

Gerund

:

:

;

Past Part., wahalai, fem. wahall, "struck."

Passive Voice.
Wahalai kedal, "to be struck."

The Passive Voice

is

formed by conjugating the Past Participle

with the auxiliaries kedal and shwal, and making the usual changes
for

number, gender, and person.

Gerund, wahalai Tceduh ; Past.

Part., wahalai

Digitized by

shawaL

Google

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GEAMMAB.
Indicative

Mood.

27

Singular. Masc." kawi. khwazeduh. —Present. " a mover . f j \ ka kari wai. Sing. " The Tbansitite Auxiliary Indicative. (See Phrase 62.. bhwazedalai. khwazedalai shanty &c. him move . to do. khwazedalai ha sham. Past. ka kawi or kande. Ma td. h agh a de wu kri or kande. " having moved. ka kari wai. Fem. formed by prefixing ha to the Present : zah ha karam. If thou doest. Imperfect. kawala. Do thou. hhwazedun.. ka kawu. or Tcre Tcawal or krai." . I doj katvam or Tcram Thou He Jcawu or kru. In agreement with the objects in number and gender Masc. ka karai wai ka kari wai. Part. Gerund. " let " wu ihwazegai. If I do. plur.) Digitized by Googk . wu de l&wazegi. The Future is kawuh . dost." Noun of Agency. or wu ka .. &c. kri or kande.. . Fem. u move de J&wazegi. Future. kawi. kri or kande does.— " ELEMENTS OP PA8HTU OBA1CKAB. . . ka kawi. hag&a de wuh ka Subjunctive. Plural. Let him wu kra do.. " Past Part. ihwazedunkai. Plural.. Sing. Section I. Potentials • Present. kawe. Past. &c. Singular. ka kawam. : plur. .. " a moving Pres. Imperative. kawal. kawale. plur. —Kawul. &c. wu krai or wu kai. ka kawe. " . • wu wu hhwazega. 28 Imperative. thwazedalai shwam. — Present. If he does.. "moving. ka kawai. &c..

For the Numerals. &c. The Future Subjunctive karam (or ham). Digitized by Googk . them in 29 ba. see end of " Elements of Persian Grammar." page 20. The is formed by prefixing Irregular Yerbs in Pashtu are very useless to attempt any explanation of difficult. as ha ba and it wu would be this "Work.ELEMENTS OP PASHTU GRAMMAS.

Digitized by Googk .

Phrase 28. Note. differ "By translation of the English expression is literal. in Sec- in Hindustani. which this reason the is all that can be given in a words given in the Vocabulary. in Section L. it is it is in each student in picking out rapidly the equivalents of the several English words tion italics. many For cases.( 31 PART ) II. Persian. halak.. and in Pashtu. lar-Jca. for instance. seen at once that boy is . to assist the is printed in in I. Again. " are in his possession." this means the idiomatic shown instead of only the Vocabulary. SENTENCES. in from those given in this Part. Digitized by Googk . Phrase 2. — In most of the Phrases one word of the four languages. tifl . seen that has he must in this and similar phrases be rendered in Hindustani by us he pas hain and in Pashtu by da 9 haghuh dzalcha d% both of which mean.

Digitized by Googk .

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—The numbers column opposite to any word in the second indicate the Section and Phrase where but owing to the it may be found in Fart II. Push. hawal. as the Neuter Verbs " To hurt " and " To lighten" and in these cases the stands for the Hind." When a Hindi word has been lary. VOCABULARY AND INDEX. difference of idiom it will often occur that the translation there given will not agree with that given in this Vocabufor instance: the Urdu for "To have" is given in the Vocabulary as rakhnd. but on referring to I.( 95 PART ) III. Pers. reference will supply the translation. 28 it will be seen that the affix " kepds" with the Verb "To be" is idiomatically used instead. Some English words can only be rendered by a Phrase. K used in Persian (as being current in Kabul) the English. .. kardan. Note. letter H is affixed. " To do. karnd.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 96 English. .

English. 97 .TOCABULABX AND INDEX.

98 English. .VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

English.VOOABULABT AND INDEX. 09 .

. VOCABULARY AND INDEX.100 English.

Consent(agree) Consequence Constipation Contract Contractor ii. Climate Cloak Clock Close Cloth Cloth Beller Clothes Cloud Coarse Coat Cocoa-nut 13 68 i. to iii. Comb 6 ibtida Common 'am Comparison nisbat Compass 7 kampas 96 parkar mudda'I pura xi. 50 iv. 11 kafi 2 jara thanda 17 zukam Cold. Colour ii. to ix. a Conform. illness xiii. kurta naryal 41 Cock. fowl ghora murgh Coffee iii. Bef. to ii. pair of Complainant Complete Condition. i. iv. kuli Copper Cord ktilaf razi 23 13 19 71 vi. xiii. Cook ii. Cool iii. Come. 17 x. 56 98 jama' k. of gun Cock. Persian. thanda Coolie ii. to xi. 34 English. 3 sharj xi. 18 ab o hawa baran ko| xi. 101 . Cold Cold weather iv. 58 hukm Commencement xiii. Urdu.' VOCABULABY AND INDEX. 50 muwafik 77 16 EQU: x. 6 pakana bawarcbl tanba dori k. 14 i. theka thekadar Contrary to Contented Cook. 1 rang kanghi ana Command ii. ghanta nazdik kapra kapre wala kapre badal mota i. Collect. Compasses.

. VO0ABULABY AND INDEX.102 English.

103 .VOCABULARY AND INDEX. English.

104 English. YOCABULA.BY AND INDEX. .

as birds Fever viii. iii. khuh. to. to (act. garandai. ankh bhawen chashm starga. 4 viii. a Fine Finish. 52 xi. 26 pana vii. Digitized by Google . gunah kbauf kusur. yaftan jurimana mundal. Famine Fan (punkha) Urdu. to Fine. kburanidan khurawal. Few Field Fig dar darna khilana zfid chand lag. Fire ag atish or. 101 tamam k. gora girna milna ihuth sufed spin. Bef. suhan pur k. gadedal. bujhana gulk. Face Fair i. Escape Estimate Even (adv. dakawal. *i- mat. kisht kafai. to Excavation Excellent Extinguish. viii. xiii. na'lband na'lband na'lband. mulahaga k. kal kahj jp*h$. char i dan tap tsaredal. anjir indzar.) Evening Exactly Examine. tarsidan wyara.VOCABTJLABY AND INDEX. wyaredal. 21 kismat iii. 74 69 charbi wazda. English. ix. k. uftadan prewatal. 12 jurimana ii. kutumb kabila tabar. 'ain barabar. bachao ta£hmina. bhi sham. 47 v. khodal mulahaga t^andak bihtar ktub kandana. Far (distance) Fare (hire) Farrier Fast Fat Fate Father Fault 49 jald charbi ix. * File Fill. k. akhirl a£biri wrustanai. to Fall into. 31 bap ^usur i. 3 mahin ii.) Feed. kismat padar nasib. Persian. to. thik 105 Pashtu. taba.25 xi. put out Extreme Eve Eyebrow 4 x. to 75 chugna bukhar 3 4 thora khet 20 anjir 54 retl bhar dena vi. bach. i. munh ru ma&fe. barik barik. to Feed.51 Fall. to Find. Family ii. 74 viii. marawal. 89 48 54 ii. ii. makham. v. raftan darogh katal. 23 tamam pura k. tawan. Fear Fear. to False ix. plar. rihai 18- taHimmlkimat takhmini ham* sham ham. abru barwate. darogh. suhan. timat 3 iv. Fireplace angithi atish fchana ngiiarai.

106 English. VOCABULARY AND INDEX. .

English. 107 .VOCABULABY AND INDEX.

108 English. VOOABULABY AND INDEX. .

YOCABULABY AND INDEX. J&nglish. 109 .

VOCABULABY AKD I1H)EX. .110 English.

Ill .VOCABUXABT AND INDEX. English.

VOCABULARY AND IITOEX.112 English. .

VOCABULARY AKD HTDEX. English. 113 .

114 EnglUh. TOCABULABT AND INDXX. .

115 . English.TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

116 English. . VOCABCLABT AND INDEX.

117 .YOCABTTLAEY AHD INDEX. English.

11% Engltih. T0CA.B1TI.ABT ABTD INDEX. .

119 . English.TOCABULABT AND INDEX.

. YOCABFLABY AND INDEX.120 English.

VOCABULABT UTD English. 121 . IlfDII.

122 "English. TOCABULAET AND INDEX. .

TOCABULAET AND INDEX. English. 128 .

. VOCABCLABY AND INDEX.124 English.

JLSD INDEX. 125 .VOCABULARY English.

126 English.VOCABULARY AND INDEX. .

.

128 English. . VOCABULARY AKD INDEX.

129 .VOCABULARY AND INDEX. Englith.

130 English. . YO0ABULABY ANT) INDEX.

Digitized by Googk .

Digitized by Googk .

Digitized by Googk .

r Digitized by • Googk .

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