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Digitized by

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f

_J

Digitized by Googk .

Digitized by GoogI .

.Digitized by LiOOQ IC .

Digitized by UOOQ IC .

Digitized by Google .

Digitized by LiOOQ IC .

PERSIAN AND PASHTLT. IK ENGLISH. HINDUSTANI.THE CONYEKSATION MANUAL. Digitized by UOOQ IC .

Digitized by Googk .

.'". tf)e fioxtfyWlttt dfrontier antr in fnttta* BY CAPTAIN •*y Tf PLUNKETT.C. S. PALL MALL.'•" • " Eontton: RICHARDSON & & 13.THE CONVERSATION MANUAL.'] P Icj . CO. 23. Gtt BOY1L ENGINEEBS.. VOCABULARY OP NEARLY Jfox tty u*e <rf (Engineer ©fficer* hM 1500 ati)er$ an WORDS.W. 1875. PERSIAN WITH SUMMARIES OF THE GRAMMARS OF THESE LANGUAGES. ' E. A COLLECTION OP USEFUL PHRASES 670 AND PASHTU. HINDUSTANI. [All Bights Reserved. ENGLISH. '. CORNHILL.

: LONDON PRINTED BY GILBERT AND BIVINGTON. John's square. and whitefriars street.c. Googk . Digitized by e. ST.

PAG& The Alphabet 9 .CONTENTS. PAET I.

Digitized by Googk .

as well as proficiency in the text-books used for the Examinations. On to arriving for the first time in Peshawar. as well as to the special Digitized by Google . —the very desirable that a . So long as England retains her present position in Asia. I therefore set to work.PREFACE. and attempting converse with Kabulees and others in Persian. I found myself frequently at a loss for the phrases required in ordinary conversation and for technical words . and the most widely-spoken language from the Bosphorus to the confines of China. Believing that no such useful collection of phrases relating to the occurrences of everyday life. Pashtu is the language of Eastern Afghanistan. with their equivalents in Persian and Pashtu. to write down a number of sentences in English. and. some- what after the model of the three or four Hindustani Manuals already in use. but in a comprehensive more methodical manner and on a more scale. though useless elsewhere.West Frontier of India. a tongue under- stood on the shores of the Caspian as well as in Kabul —should Yarkand Officers. I also discovered how very advantageous even a slight knowledge of Pashtu must be to an officer serving in this district.knowledge of Persian it is French of Asia. is almost indispensable for those who are employed on the North. and that and be more generally diffused among British this knowledge should embrace a practical acquaintance with the colloquial idioms. and seems not unlikely to extend over other parts of the Continent the influence which she already exerts in the countries bordering on Hindustan. whenever I could spare time from professional duties.

and have prefixed such brief abstracts of the Hindustani.. February. P. and of which the spelling has not yet been reduced to a regular system —or even in the Persian may not be so numerous as to for whom it is intended. 1875. more especially in the Pashtu. but also in the revision and correction of the whole. In compiling Khadim an index to the also forms of nearly this little Work I have been aided All. G. Digitized by Googk . viii occupations of Engineers. and that . in the hope that of service to brother officers may this render the Work and others in India as well as on the Frontier. sentences. either in the Pashtu —a language in which almost as many dialects are met with as there are tribes among the Afghans. the well-known teacher of languages in Peshawar. a subordinate of the Military and I have received great assistance by Saiyad Works Department Mahmud Khan from Kazi Ehatak. Peshawar. Persian and Pashtu Grammars as will suffice for those who wish to obtain a colloquial knowledge only of any of these languages. to be found elsewhere. but can only hope that these detract from its value to those I may be allowed excuse for deficiencies or inaccuracies the very which I have been able to devote to this to plead as an few Leisure hours Work. I cannot expect that this Manual will be free from imperfections. common The Vocabulary. PEEFACE. I have is added the Urdu. T. which gives the equivalents 1500 words in use.

PART I.3 . The Consonants. THE ALPHABET. THE POWERS OF THE VARIOUS LETTERS USED. 3s.

all. the dh in mad-house. however. who and he should. the 8.THE ALPHABET. only wishes to acquire a colloquial knowledge as t. dh. Work is to . Persian words in which the h The vowel sounds . and s as *. It ph must be noted that p h. &c. 10 The foregoing table is according to the most approved method of representing the various Consonants of the Oriental Alphabets and symbols. thus the English letters respectively the soft t Alphabets. and the h the making object of to enable anyone to write out the phrases correctly in the Oriental characters t represent f common represents the soft aspirate these distinctions in this and the t by and so on : but the learner may treat the t. s. ip with a a final short a represents the is silent. and the hard The h ( to the Hindi and the which peculiar to the Hindi is common strong aspirate of certain Arabic words. &c. The Persian and Pashtu. th. . learn the true sound of the gh (ghain) from the natives. (. are to be pronounced as the in up-hilly the th in hot-house. dot underneath final ah of is many not to be sounded .

" is instead of that in " fun like our syllable. while the ts varies in sound 11 between s and z. ballet. an. the English short a in " fan. like " thus. to learn the eastern dialect of Yusufzai. It is sufficient. Digitized by Googjc ." bale. i( into u a pipe. " yes. for instance. first ml rawed. ." is pronounced by them but with a drawl. " you pronounced ml rawld. which lengthens the also soften e into I . however.. is word They v soften the a in many words pronounced un. and they sound the short a go. which where The inhabitants of Persia thus." kaliyun . as zh . " that. and kaliydn." is every- intelligible. THE ALPHABET.

Digitized by Googk .

plural to the mezen. 'a good girl. Nouns ending in a oblique cases and plural hutte. or us thou -l.' lea. from thee ne. ' of a dog Adjectives in a similarly take I . nouns. mera -e 4. Nos. Section Nouns ending Adjectives. generally change these into e in the thus. mard. ( a table. Sing. of man mardon-hd -he man mard-ko. or turn se. mvjh se. as achchhd THE PEONOUNS. . Singular. we [me to me or hamdrd ~e ham ham ham se. and Ace. ' thus.. added en or yah is rofi.. of Nouns and generally the feminine termination of declined thus is I (See Phrases. bread. tu our -i. your turn ho. or Abl. mard-ko or mard.' &c. men [men (used only with past tenses of transitive verbs).' achchhi larhi. 38 and 39. ' nom.. mezon dogs . the men or mardon se. ho. from the men.' fem. we Plural.. ham. . thou tu.* hutte ha. : Plur. I Gen. and a. mard-hd -he -hi. Abl.' in the mard9 'a good man. to us. In fem. Gen. tujh se.. from me Agent. &c. my Dat. the man Abl.). I Plural. is mardon-ho. to thee. as achchhe mard ha larha. Dat. to you. the in the Accusative Case.— 13 ( ) ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. There is no Article Dative with ho Part II. Digitized by Google . to Dat. tujh Agent. i a dog . 'a good man's son. you.' rofit/dn. Gen. from us ne. Singular. Norn. you tumhdrd -e turn. thy [thee ko.. terd -e -t... mez.. mard se. Nom. man -7ci 9 of men men [men mardoh-ho or ward. mvgh ho.. mard ne. &c. or mardon ne.' and e in the oblique cases and plural. .. rotiyoh ha. the to express : used. you by you turn ne. main ne. man men mard. I is The Noun in t and sh are also mostly feminine. from man Agent. huttoh ha } &c. to Ace. Nom. main. and Ace. &e. huttd.

fall | —I am | The Imperfect. wuh #tn» the. &c. giro. Imperative. &c. <fec. &c. \ Nom. Ac. Plur. girt-d (fem. main girt-d hun. may fall. 14> Tih. wuh gire. Plur. Aorist. &c. wuh tu hai. tffo fern. Sing. i). Jcahe kd. main hun. jo jiskd. -a -i.' Singular. &c. &c. is kd.' Singular. town fon Eelative. Dat. Gen. I Plur. jojinkd. pi. fall.' 'he.—I Sing. &c. Past.' or ' « it. main thd (fern. Dat. yih. falling. ham gvrt-e —I was hain. Future. l koi. EEGULAE NEUTEE VEEB. turn giro. some.' ' Plural. | fell. kUkd. Plur. Nom. who. and and in). The Sing. *o. <&c. girt-i thin). main girun. ' that. Plur. tfw kd. I shall tu gvreg-d. 1 l self. gir-d (fem. ye. ham girt-e (fem. pi. Sing. — falling root. &c.&e. &c. in kd.' she. main gir-d (fem. Gen. ft* We were. Gen. tu gire. ham girt-e the (fem. ham Digitized by gir-e (in). Ap. may fall. who ? A?at0t. Indefinite. Sing.' Apnd -e -i. &c. wi£a. CHrnd. | The Present. &c. ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. &c. &c. hain. Interrog. thin). -i. Sing. | he. we giren. is ko. thd. -i).' AUXILIARY VEEB. girt-% thi). ' own .' kuchh. thi). uskd. 'this. *0. ham Plur. tdui.' or 'it. Plur. Past. Main girung-d. to fall . -0 -?. Googk &c. we £A#. &c. we the.. A:a. —I fall. -i. I was. fall. Correl. #*&>. Wuh. falling. Present.' or ' your honour. what ? kyd. gir. Sing. We ham giren. &c. . lam.' ' ye. gir. 100. she. We are hain.in). &c. Aa»» hai. that same. main girt-d thd (fem. in). Sing. tfw&a. ' any . Plur. main girt-d (fem. fallen . . turn ho. Interrog.

main khdyd gayd. main ne khdyd 15 'to eat. The days of the week l budh. jdnd. Pluperfect. &c. Perfect. ham khde jdenge (fem. Sing. &c. and the Past Participle of another Verb. fallen. ne khdyd hoi. of similar meaning.' dun. "Wednesday. mangalwdr. l given. girl hain (fem. tu ne khdyd hai. I was Yerbjdna. itwdr. main ne khdyd thd.' &c. Digitized by Google . —I have hun — I had main gird thd (fem. juma' Friday. khdl jdun) y I may be eaten . main khdyd jdun (fem. main ne khdyd. named thus * Sunday.' Aorist. to go. Agent Case. Thursday. ' to go ' is {jdtd. tu ne khdyd. &c. we shall be eaten. khdnd. girl thin). juma\ Saturday. thus. hun). . rat. is going . <fec. the (fem.' gayd.' the sake of euphony. &c. main khdun. Pluperfect Tenses. Past. main gird ham gire Plur. its place. . gone ') thus. ham gire Present. are ' to give. as from dend. sanlchar. Tuesday.' : Monday. Pluperfect. There are no Irregular Verbs in Hindustani .' gayd. l l . girt hain). thus.' made for I may give. .' Past. or plr. khdl jdengln). fallen. thd. <fec. with the Past. but in some cases the Regular Past Participle has become obsolete. &c. tu The Passive Voice thl). girl Plur. and of which the Present Tense has jdtd. Perfect and Transitive Verbs take the Perfect. Sing.' is contractions are also generally used instead of dlun. Past Participle dlyd. (fern. main khdtd hun. * fallen into disuse. ' ' i eaten.— ELEMENTS OP HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. somwdr. c used in Some gone. formed by using the past participle with the going. &c.

for the remaining numbers. For the application of the Grammar. asath satsath athsath unhattar satfcar ikbattar bahattar tihattar chauhattar pachhattar 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 cbhihattar sathattar athhattar unasi assi ikasi be. The Ordinal Numbers are—pakla.. is atha. 'sixth. They are declined like Adjectives. for instance.. 'fourth.' dusrd. tirasi chaurasi pachas! cbhi. is referred to the phrases in Part II. is batis taintis 59 60 chauritis pairitls untatis cbalis 61 62 63 64 65 iktalis 66 be.' tisra. alls 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 sairitis athtis tairitalis chau.alls paiiitalis chhi.' 8atwan. is te. by adding wan to the Cardinals.' and so on. which may with advantage be written as Digitized by exercises.alis sairitalls artalis unchas pachas ikawan bawan tirpan chauwan pachpan chhappan sattawan athawan unsath sath iksath bilsath tirsath chausath painsath chlii.' cMatwan. asi satasi athasl nau. in the oblique cases and plural. chauthd. and pdnchwdn become. pahle and pdnchwen. 10 ( ) THE CARDINAL NUMBERS IN HINDUSTANI. anawe satanawe athanawe ninanawe sau or sai. 'third. asi nauwe ikanawe banawe tiranawe chauranawe pachanawe chhi. asi. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ek do tin char panch chha sat ath nau das gyarab barah terah chaudah pandrah solah satrah atharah unis bis ikkls ba. regularly.' seventh .' panchwan.. Googk . ' 'first. or to put the Adjective in the obbque case. to learn when to use thus. 'second. and in the feminine paUl and pdnchwin. pahld the genitive termination -he instead of -kd. 'fifth. the learner Section I. is chaubls pachis 26 27 28 29 untis 30 tis 31 32 33 34 35 iktis 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 chbattis 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 chhabbis sata.

kuddm. Present. we. ' arrive thou . may arrive. I am.' the r#$<wZ. &c. budam. hastem. Imperative. bud. I mard. what ? he is.' rasi. mirasem. thou Kiy who or which what sort of ? or me man . ki.) used.' plur. Aorist. which ? any ? VERBS. PKONOTJNS. and. hasted. 'arrived. kitab man. 'thou mayest arrive. 'we may arrive . ast. banda.. they may arrive. hastam. ? eh or mard. mlrased. they. or 9 which ? or Plur. ' kitab. a district/ subajat. I. am. Also the simple affix. ha for inanimate objects mardan .' Tenses from the Eoot.. budl. — ' I Mirasam. ed.' or ' my plural ends in an for animate. tu. 'to arrive' (root. : The a vowel e) to the governing ' book. shuma.i 1* ( ) ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Sing. mirasand. 'I may arrive. asti. Aorfi. it.' \ 2nd. Rasam. o. Plur. but to express the in the Accusative Case the . buded. &c. astand. (See Phrases 38. em. thus. to . hast. budand. ras).' \ Rasem. Plur. I was asted. me. a slave/ bandagan .. thou art. mirasad. who . Plur. eshan. she. Digitized by Googk . 1st. Sing. 'an arriver. rased. he. mard. budem.' rasanda. There is no Article Dative (with ra) is.. Sing. suba. you . { 3rd. am arriving. . Rasidan. hastand. Sing. astern. mirasi. ast.' &c. Jcitabhd or after a thus. Section I. . he was. f Sing. 'you may arrive.' rasand.' . Bason. 'arriving. —Ras. Plur. Also without the aspirate. 39. ' i (after the book of me. The thus. astam. rased. man.' rasida. thou wast .. genitive is formed by adding noun i . ma.

.

18

;:;
;

.

elements of peb8ian grammar.
Tenses from the Infinitiye.
The Past.

1st,

Rasidam,

i

I arrived

;'

rasidi, rasid.

Plur. rasidem, rasided, rasidand.

2nd, Imperfect.

Ml rasidam,

'

I was arriving ;' mirasidi, mirasid.

Plur. mirasidem, mirasided, mirasidand.
3rd, Past Potential.

—I

might

*

arrive,'

See

(Seldom used.

&c.

Phrases 61 to 65).
Rasidame, rasidi, raside ; rasideme, rasidede, rasidande.

Section

I.,

4th, Future.

Khwaham

i&wdhi

rasid, 'I shall arrive;'

Plur. Jchwahem rasid, Jchwahed

r.,

khhwdhad

r.,

ihwhdhand

r.

Tenses from Past Participle.
1st,

Rasida am, rasida

i,

Perfect

rasida ast

2nd,

Rasida budam,.. .budi,

— I have

arrived.*

'

; plur., rasida

Pluperfect. — I had
'

. .

bud;

The Roots are formed
1. Infinitives in adan,

plur., rasida

as follows

em, rasida ed, rasida and.
arrived.*

budem,

;

buded,

. .

budand.

idan and ddan reject the termination

chidan, to collect, chin

come, a or ay;

.

:

firistddan, to send, firist ; pursidan, to ask, purs
give, dih

. .

;

;

sit ddan,

:

thus,

except, dddan, to

didan, to see, bin

zadan, to strike, zan

dmadan, to prepare, dmd;

:

dmadan, to

;

to seize, sit an ;

zddan, to bring forth, zd;

gddan, to

embrace, gd; kushddan, to open, Jcushd; dfridan, to create, dfrin;
shunidan, to hear, shunau ; guzidan 9 to choose, guzin.
2. Infinitives in

udan, change

for d or de, as situdan, to praise,

it

sitae or sitd: except, budan, to be,

bit

or bash; shudan, to be,shaw;

tanudan, to draw, tanau ; durudan, to reap, duru

zinau

;

3. Infinitives in

kan

:

;

zinudan, to mingle,

ghunudan, to sleep, ghunu.
rdan or udan reject the dan, as kandan, to

except, dwurdan, to bring, ar or

kardan, to do, kun

;

murdan, to

afshurdan, to press, afshar
to count,

;

dig,

bear, bar

mir; dzurdan, to vex, dzdr

sipurdan, to entrust, sipdr ; shumurdan,

shumdr; farkandan, to

4. Infinitives in

die,

awar ; bur dan, to

khtan take

dig, farkand;

z,

gandan, to rot, gand.

as andajdttan, to throw,. andaz

except, shindkhtan, to recognize, shinds ; farokhtan, to

Digitized by

sell,

Google

farosh

;:

ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.

19

gusikhtan, to break, gusil; dkhtan, to draw (a sword), dlch

to milk, dosh

;

dokhtan,

;

suJchtan, to weigh, sanj.

5. Infinitives in

stan reject the stan, as zistan, to live, zl

:

except,

ju; khdstan, to rise, khez
khwdstan, to wish, l$hwah; paiwastan, to join, paiwand; justan, to
Leap, jah ; rastan, to escape, rah ; rustan, to grow, ruy ; ristan, to
bastan, to bind, band; justan, to seek,

spin, ris ;

shustan, to wash, shuy

kdstan, to diminish, kah

make
6.

to

sit,

nishdn

nishdstan, to

;

nishin.

gard ; nawishtan, to

Ml; dghashtan,

ddr

low, kdr

;

write, navois

;

:

except,

hishtan, to

to accumulate, aghdsh; agjioshtan, to embrace,

Ighpsh ; qfrdshtan, to exalt, afrdz

7.

sit,

Infinitives in shtan take r, as dash tan, to have,

yashtan, to become,
juit,

nishistan 9 to

;

shikastan, to break, shikan

;

gusastan, to break, gusil

;

kushtan, to

rishtan, to spin, ris

;

;

hishtan, to

hush.

kill,

Infinitives inyfow take

b,

as t aft an, to Bhine, £«£

;

or retain^ as

wftan, to weave, 5«f : except, hhuftan, to sleep, Mw*p ; r oftan, to
jo, raw; giriftan, to take, y*r; guftan, to say, yo or yoy ; pa^lraftan

o

accept, pazir

huguft

;

;

to bore, suft

suftan,

shinuftan, to hear, shinau

ormed by lengthening the

The days

;

;

shuguftan, to blossom,

kaftan, to dig, haw.

Some

are

penult, as ruftan, to sweep, rob.

of the week are

named thus

in Persian

:

Sunday,

yak shanba (pronounced shambd).

Monday,

do shanba.

Tuesday,

sih shanba.

"Wednesday, chahdr shanba.
Thursday,

panj shanba.

Friday,

juma\

Saturday,

shanba.

b2
Digitized by

VjOOQIC

(

20

)

CAKDINAL NUMBEES IN PERSIAN AND PASHT&.

advantage. in ana . man Agent sari. as. Persian. having u in last syllable as. g&obana. 3. tar sariyo pore. Digitized by Googk . man of a Dat. in ah. in anra . Singular. pa pa o tar a man man da sariyo. a bitch. da sari. 2nd sari. as fopai. in in ai ai. as zhibah. 3. Nouns in ah. of a house . 1st Declension —Masculine Nouns in ai — : Plural. a cowherd.— — ! 21 ( ) ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GRAMMAR. pa pa sariyo (Jckhe) he. hor. feminines are generally formed as follows Masc. tongue or language. Nouns in i. shpun. in a consonant (except ah) add for fem. evil. Masc. DEOLEN8ION OF NOUNS. fem. man man man sari (Jckhe) he. sariyo ta. a camel. up to a sari bdnde. Masc. : spai. wanting. 4. dobi. plur. Voc. as badl. ai sariyo. a . a hat. spai. as in is Urdu and are masculine or feminine. sarai. ukh. 5. sari ta. da kor. shpana . 2. denoting inanimate objects Gen. da koruno. — Declension Masculine Nouns ending in a consonant. dob anra. in Masc. . &c. Tcoruna. fern. fem. crying. Abl. a Gen. and Nom. a shepherd. gAobah. by a man Oh. The following are usually : Nouns in ar nafdida. a washerman. Nom. as. to a Ace. sariyo. a house plur. as. and masc. ai Sariya. sarai. The 1. asjdrd. Nouns in ai. man la sariyo na. : — . la sari na. ukha. Purely Pashtu Nouns in a. in a upon a sari pore. 2. i. a dog . sariyo bdnde. The All Article Nouns feminine 1. 4. man from a sari.

.. . zuh. theft. as. by £a.. . —Nouns in at or i.. g±ld. *»a. drana. forfl. Masculine sounds. heavy... tfaso. <fcc.. in thee. da hhazo. Many such Nouns are declined sion as. td. a bitch. . as. declen- ending in a consonant denoting krap. drund. ahlet 4lh Declension. . — Nouns in a consonant. &c. | data... thee. number. spai. plur. from me. sweet. hhaze. and agree in gender... a snake. Plur. as. tdso ta... ihaza. (Jckhe). denoting i. plur. da mar as.pa tdso he. spai. . fern. woman. dzama) n . 2nd Declension.. . Feminine da ohldo. trihh. tod.. . Norn. sAwa. Personal Pronouns. wmfo. —Nouns 4th Declension.la tdso ai td. . I. to thee. Google na. Feminine road. . oh. In.. me. ai tdso.pa munga Abl. td ta. mung ta. a crunch. a as. &c.. .. &c. Ace. triw. Feminine spal . ta he . Jchor. . * . Loc. hrapahdr. pa you . 2nd like the a horse. 22 3rd Declension. plur. munga. Masc. . _ J-of me.. iu me. /a munga na. dzamunga. da- krapahdro. tarMka. .. . .. mo...' or 00 ma j Dat. by me. in a. ftwo. dsuna.. as. following form their feminines irregularly The Masc. tor. .. fern. . plur. Tchog. khwara.. &c. std or la td na. Feminine — Nouns in a... Masculine animate objects .bitter.B. like ending consonants in tauda. pa ma he (Jckhe) . . da gMa\ da laro. we. sour.. tdsoy tuh. thee. hot. Phrases 11 to 14).. . da krap. . . tndrdno.. &c. green. ma na . —Nouns 3rd Declension. Jchwaga. . (See Section I. Plur.. or mar. da lare —Nouns Adjectives ore declined and case. Degrees oe Comparison. ... fa da spo.. mung. da ihaze . : shin. . black. . scattered . lar. 'thee. . da plor.. Idre. tarwd.— — ELEMENTS OF PA8HTU GRAMMAR.. plur. from thee. . to me. mdran. . [he. Gen. ... N... a Nouns. &c.. .. \ . la thou.. stdso. 1st Declension. mung. thou Digitized by ! .

: we. however." bul tsa. by them. he. used.— — ELEMENTS OE PASHTU GRAMMAB. . mu. Jce (Jshhe). plur. hag&e. our. Phrases 44 and 45). dou plur. us. verbs. fem. do or . . "every body. in. ' : The bat (bul) yo. Also. " many more. Present. " Which — compounds are in common use " Other one. your.. " all the rest. "who else?" nor tsa." har tso. Future. it. — Tarn. The following forms are Section Phrase 66) I. The affixes are." — fem. also in me. is. with you . ttore «fer& "other person. are.." .. you." nor cfer. me. bul hum one. Oblique dagha or da . She is. Oblique cases. 23 f Masc. this . Nodi. " Every one. and rd. the following are used war. by him. and Ace. thee. zllag&a dai. . she or it." Aar yo. Tdso yai. The Personal Pronouns hag&a and de are used for * that khpul* * own/ corresponds to the Hindi ffp/w.'* nor pi. Aara ^wwa. and Ace. . " nobody . I. de. his plur. by thee. nore (ole. affixes ta. You Haghoe They de. {See Section (See : mu. Zuh yam. . 2%tVrf Person Remote. thine him. " what else?" har tsok. " every thing " hets tsoh na. Nom. fem." fern. occasionally. " however many.. : The Auxiliary Vebb Indicative. haghoi or hag ho. art. Third Person Proximate. da or de} he.. da or de. us comp. him. thee. huma yuwa . fem. to. bala yuwa. I am." har tsuh. With the (Fern. by us. she or hagha. dagha or da. by me. Demonsteative Pbonouns. by you.. mine ye. "other thing:" nor tsok. plur." tsoh. are. her. Tuh ye. . dar. it. omitted in speaking. Thou He \l£agka dah. "lam. . We are. . dagko or deo. ye. though seldom. hag&uh. following : yo. Miiny yu. cfoyo. daghdi or de. &c.

He becomes. &c.. Kegu. Jcedu. keduh." or "to be/ . "We become.ELEMENTS OF PASHTU OBAMMAB. kedala. kedala. become. kedalu. Jcedale or £i<fe. kedana. kedalam or Jcedam. Tcedah. ifoyi. (fem. fem. They become. 24 The Intbansjtive Auxiliabt Verb —Kedal. ha kegl. Indicative Future. I become. Present. or Noun of Agency. "i becomer. " becoming. " to become. JST<?y<?. I shall become. fem. i). Tou ha kegai. kedunkai." Mood.. &c." to become. fem. Thou becomest. Kegal. kedal. Jcedalai." Present Part.. ha kegl. kedal. kedun. I was becoming." Active Part. Kegam. ha kegu. Imperfect. ha kegam. Jcedale. "the becoming. ha kege. -fiT<?y». Gerund." The Intbansitive Auxiliabt Vebb —Shwal. fem. keduh.

— ——

>

:

.

elements of pashtu gbammab.

25

Tbansitiye Vebb.
wahal, " to strike."

Active Voice

Indicative Present

—I

strike,

Sing, waham, wahe, wahi

Aorist

—I may

Future

—I

strike,

thou

;

strikest, &c.

Plur. wahu, wahai, wahi.

&c, wu toaham, wu wahe, &c.
&c, wu ha waham, &c, or, with Pronoun,

shall strike,

wu

zuh ba

toaham, &c.

The Imperfect, Past, Perfect and Pluperfect require the Agent Case
instead of the Nominative, and the Verb agrees with the object.

The Imperfect.
Thou, you,

eta tdso,

>i

he, she, it

[was (were) striking

or they,

)

me

]

^haghp
us

I,

we, he,

she, it

J

mung wahalu.

...

cmd

-\

mung,-\

or was (were) striking thee Xhaghuh ovyta toahale.

they,

^hagho

)

thou)
[ was

or you,

)

tdso
you
(him) ma mungi)
.

I, we,

-\

haghuh or \zuh wahalam.

(were) striking-!

(them

(wahal.

)

<

>

haghoi

...

(.them (fem.))

The
Thou, you,
he, she,
or they,

(have) struck

me

...

mung wahali yu.

similarly:

has or have struck thee,

tuh wahalai ye.

you,

tdso wahali yal.

him or
(them,

hagha wahalai dah.

her,

haghoe wahali

)

them (fem.) )
is

~\

haghuh ot> zuh wahalai yam.
^hagho
)

us

The Past

(toahale.

\

)

And,

<

Perfect.

Cta tdso,

)

it £ has

wahalai.

Cwahuh.
\hagha]
(wahala.
td or taso)

>

(;ber )

)

.

haghe wahali

formed from the Imperfect by prefixing

di.

di.

wu

td zuh

wu

wahalam, " thou didst strike me."

The
1

*"
\

Continuative Past

is

formed thus

:

Ma

ba hagha voahuh, " I

used to strike him/'

The

Pluperfect thus

The Doubtful

:

Ma

Pluperfeot

:

hagha wahalai wuh, u I had struck him."

Hagha ba zuh wahalai yam, " He might

have struck me."
Digitized by

Google

——

—)
26

"

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GBAMMAB.

The Imperative :

— " Strike," wu waha;

Plur.

" Let him strike," wu de wahi ;

The Subjunctive Mood

is

...

wu wahai.
wu de wahi.

formed by prefixing kaf "if," to the

Indicative.

The Potential Mood, corresponding
formed from the Past Part.
shwal thus,

;

to the use of sakna in Urdu, is

the Present with the Present of

Wahalai sham, " I can strike ; " wdhalai she, " thou canst
strike " wahalai shu, " we can strike," <fcc.
;

In the Past the Verb agrees with the
the Indicative

Thou, you,.
he, she,
it

C could

(tdtdsohaa&a')
,
T
7
7
,
»
have struck me, i
\zuh wahalai shwam.

or they )

^

ovha

<*

.

)

mung wahall

us,

...

shuri.

(md, mung ")
she,
(could have struck thee, j hagha or r tuh wahalai shwe.
or they
)
^haa&o
we,

I,

it

he,>.

tdso wahall ihwal.

you,

...

I,

object, as in the past tenses of

:—

him irnamung

we, thou")
or you
)

her

them

...

f

marians say

is

itself,

(haghol wahall shwal
(shwu).
^haghol wahall shwe.

\

wahalai

—according

a curious anomaly, and some

impossible, but the

it is

...

(fem.) )

The change of termination of the Verb
to the gender of the object

haghawahalaishuh.

( td or tdso ) haaha wahall shwa.

them")

...

~)

Gram-

Afghans certainly give the in-

flection.

The Potential Future

is

formed with

ba, as

zuh ba

tlai

sham, I shall

be able to go.
wahun, fem. w ahan a, " striking ; "
Pres. Part., wahuh, fem. wahala, " striking 5"
Noun of Agency
wahunkai or wahunai, " a striker

Gerund

:

:

;

Past Part., wahalai, fem. wahall, "struck."

Passive Voice.
Wahalai kedal, "to be struck."

The Passive Voice

is

formed by conjugating the Past Participle

with the auxiliaries kedal and shwal, and making the usual changes
for

number, gender, and person.

Gerund, wahalai Tceduh ; Past.

Part., wahalai

Digitized by

shawaL

Google

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GEAMMAB.
Indicative

Mood.

27

kawe. " a mover .. ka kawam. Do thou. Section I. hhwazedun.. In agreement with the objects in number and gender Masc. — Present. Sing. Plural. Plural. dost. Past. plur. ka kawai. Masc. 28 Imperative. wu de l&wazegi. &c. ihwazedunkai. ka karai wai ka kari wai.. hag&a de wuh ka Subjunctive. kawale. . kawala. The Future is kawuh . If thou doest. If I do.. &c.— " ELEMENTS OP PA8HTU OBA1CKAB. Part." . him move .. Past. kawal. u move de J&wazegi.. h agh a de wu kri or kande. Fem. wu krai or wu kai. • wu wu hhwazega. kri or kande. Gerund. (See Phrase 62.. " Past Part. . formed by prefixing ha to the Present : zah ha karam. : plur. Sing. or Tcre Tcawal or krai. f j \ ka kari wai. "moving. khwazeduh. Future. Singular. Fem. ka kawu. thwazedalai shwam. ka kawi. Let him wu kra do. Potentials • Present. ka kari wai. . bhwazedalai. —Kawul. —Present. &c. If he does. Imperfect. &c. Singular.) Digitized by Googk . " let " wu ihwazegai. kri or kande does. . Ma td." kawi." Noun of Agency. plur. ka kawi or kande.. khwazedalai ha sham.. Imperative. I doj katvam or Tcram Thou He Jcawu or kru. khwazedalai shanty &c. " . " The Tbansitite Auxiliary Indicative. or wu ka . kawi. to do. ka kawe. " a moving Pres. " having moved.

as ha ba and it wu would be this "Work. them in 29 ba. &c. The is formed by prefixing Irregular Yerbs in Pashtu are very useless to attempt any explanation of difficult. Digitized by Googk .ELEMENTS OP PASHTU GRAMMAS." page 20. The Future Subjunctive karam (or ham). see end of " Elements of Persian Grammar. For the Numerals.

Digitized by Googk .

many For cases. in Section L. Note. which this reason the is all that can be given in a words given in the Vocabulary. and in Pashtu. — In most of the Phrases one word of the four languages. SENTENCES. for instance. it is it is in each student in picking out rapidly the equivalents of the several English words tion italics. seen that has he must in this and similar phrases be rendered in Hindustani by us he pas hain and in Pashtu by da 9 haghuh dzalcha d% both of which mean. in from those given in this Part. Again.( 31 PART ) II. seen at once that boy is . lar-Jca. " are in his possession. Phrase 2.. halak. Digitized by Googk ." this means the idiomatic shown instead of only the Vocabulary. differ "By translation of the English expression is literal. to assist the is printed in in I. tifl . Phrase 28. in Sec- in Hindustani. Persian.

Digitized by Googk .

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89 GENERAL OBDEBS AND QUE8TIONS. i I .

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Note." When a Hindi word has been lary. Some English words can only be rendered by a Phrase. —The numbers column opposite to any word in the second indicate the Section and Phrase where but owing to the it may be found in Fart II. hawal. reference will supply the translation. K used in Persian (as being current in Kabul) the English. 28 it will be seen that the affix " kepds" with the Verb "To be" is idiomatically used instead. difference of idiom it will often occur that the translation there given will not agree with that given in this Vocabufor instance: the Urdu for "To have" is given in the Vocabulary as rakhnd. Pers. as the Neuter Verbs " To hurt " and " To lighten" and in these cases the stands for the Hind.. karnd. VOCABULARY AND INDEX. letter H is affixed.( 95 PART ) III. but on referring to I. kardan. . Push. " To do.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX. . 96 English.

TOCABULABX AND INDEX. English. 97 .

. 98 English.VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

English.VOOABULABT AND INDEX. 09 .

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.100 English. .

101 . Consent(agree) Consequence Constipation Contract Contractor ii. Cold Cold weather iv. iv. Collect. 11 kafi 2 jara thanda 17 zukam Cold. Colour ii. 50 muwafik 77 16 EQU: x. Bef. theka thekadar Contrary to Contented Cook. Come. Climate Cloak Clock Close Cloth Cloth Beller Clothes Cloud Coarse Coat Cocoa-nut 13 68 i. 17 x. to iii. Urdu. Persian. Cool iii. 50 iv. a Conform. kurta naryal 41 Cock. 58 hukm Commencement xiii. kuli Copper Cord ktilaf razi 23 13 19 71 vi. to ii. illness xiii. Compasses. pair of Complainant Complete Condition. to ix. to xi. ghanta nazdik kapra kapre wala kapre badal mota i. fowl ghora murgh Coffee iii. 3 sharj xi. xiii. 18 ab o hawa baran ko| xi. of gun Cock. 6 pakana bawarcbl tanba dori k. i. 56 98 jama' k. 34 English. thanda Coolie ii. 14 i. Cook ii. 1 rang kanghi ana Command ii.' VOCABULABY AND INDEX. Comb 6 ibtida Common 'am Comparison nisbat Compass 7 kampas 96 parkar mudda'I pura xi.

102 English. . VO0ABULABY AND INDEX.

103 .VOCABULARY AND INDEX. English.

.BY AND INDEX. YOCABULA.104 English.

wyaredal. to 75 chugna bukhar 3 4 thora khet 20 anjir 54 retl bhar dena vi. k. Few Field Fig dar darna khilana zfid chand lag. munh ru ma&fe. 3 mahin ii.VOCABTJLABY AND INDEX. 74 69 charbi wazda. v. kburanidan khurawal. kismat padar nasib. Persian. Fireplace angithi atish fchana ngiiarai. abru barwate. viii. barik barik. kutumb kabila tabar. 31 bap ^usur i. ix. suhan pur k. akhirl a£biri wrustanai. marawal. kal kahj jp*h$. Escape Estimate Even (adv. taba. 12 jurimana ii. mulahaga k. gadedal. 23 tamam pura k. *i- mat. 21 kismat iii. 101 tamam k. bujhana gulk. rihai 18- taHimmlkimat takhmini ham* sham ham. makham. raftan darogh katal. Fear Fear. bach. bachao ta£hmina. as birds Fever viii. to Feed. khuh. 4 viii. Face Fair i. * File Fill. to Find. Bef. put out Extreme Eve Eyebrow 4 x. a Fine Finish. Digitized by Google . garandai.25 xi. 47 v. 89 48 54 ii. uftadan prewatal. suhan. na'lband na'lband na'lband. plar. thik 105 Pashtu. darogh. khodal mulahaga t^andak bihtar ktub kandana. iii. Famine Fan (punkha) Urdu. gora girna milna ihuth sufed spin. to. to (act. to Fine. yaftan jurimana mundal. to False ix. timat 3 iv. to Fall into. ankh bhawen chashm starga. 'ain barabar. xiii. dakawal. kisht kafai. Fire ag atish or. to. tawan. k. anjir indzar. 74 viii. Far (distance) Fare (hire) Farrier Fast Fat Fate Father Fault 49 jald charbi ix.) Feed. Family ii. 26 pana vii. 52 xi. char i dan tap tsaredal.) Evening Exactly Examine. ii. i.51 Fall. tarsidan wyara. bhi sham. to Excavation Excellent Extinguish. gunah kbauf kusur. English.

106 English. VOCABULARY AND INDEX. .

English.VOCABULABY AND INDEX. 107 .

VOOABULABY AND INDEX. .108 English.

YOCABULABY AND INDEX. J&nglish. 109 .

.110 English. VOCABULABY AKD I1H)EX.

Ill .VOCABUXABT AND INDEX. English.

112 English. VOCABULARY AND IITOEX. .

English.VOCABULARY AKD HTDEX. 113 .

114 EnglUh. . TOCABULABT AND INDXX.

115 .TOCABULAET AND INDEX. English.

. VOCABCLABT AND INDEX.116 English.

English. 117 .YOCABTTLAEY AHD INDEX.

.ABT ABTD INDEX.B1TI. T0CA.11% Engltih.

English.TOCABULABT AND INDEX. 119 .

.120 English. YOCABFLABY AND INDEX.

IlfDII. 121 .VOCABULABT UTD English.

.122 "English. TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

English.TOCABULAET AND INDEX. 128 .

VOCABCLABY AND INDEX.124 English. .

125 .VOCABULARY English. JLSD INDEX.

. 126 English.VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

.

. VOCABULARY AKD INDEX.128 English.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 129 . Englith.

130 English. . YO0ABULABY ANT) INDEX.

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