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Digitized by

VjOOQIC

'

f

_J

Digitized by Googk .

Digitized by GoogI .

.Digitized by LiOOQ IC .

Digitized by UOOQ IC .

Digitized by Google .

Digitized by LiOOQ IC .

HINDUSTANI. IK ENGLISH. Digitized by UOOQ IC .THE CONYEKSATION MANUAL. PERSIAN AND PASHTLT.

Digitized by Googk .

W.'". VOCABULARY OP NEARLY Jfox tty u*e <rf (Engineer ©fficer* hM 1500 ati)er$ an WORDS. '. ' E.THE CONVERSATION MANUAL. 1875. CO..C. CORNHILL.'] P Icj . Gtt BOY1L ENGINEEBS. PERSIAN WITH SUMMARIES OF THE GRAMMARS OF THESE LANGUAGES. A COLLECTION OP USEFUL PHRASES 670 AND PASHTU.'•" • " Eontton: RICHARDSON & & 13. tf)e fioxtfyWlttt dfrontier antr in fnttta* BY CAPTAIN •*y Tf PLUNKETT. HINDUSTANI. 23. ENGLISH. S. [All Bights Reserved.. PALL MALL.

Digitized by e.: LONDON PRINTED BY GILBERT AND BIVINGTON. John's square. and whitefriars street. ST. Googk .c.

CONTENTS. PAET I. PAG& The Alphabet 9 .

Digitized by Googk .

Believing that no such useful collection of phrases relating to the occurrences of everyday life.PREFACE. some- what after the model of the three or four Hindustani Manuals already in use. to write down a number of sentences in English. whenever I could spare time from professional duties. So long as England retains her present position in Asia.knowledge of Persian it is French of Asia. On to arriving for the first time in Peshawar. I therefore set to work. I also discovered how very advantageous even a slight knowledge of Pashtu must be to an officer serving in this district. and attempting converse with Kabulees and others in Persian. is almost indispensable for those who are employed on the North. —the very desirable that a . as well as to the special Digitized by Google . and the most widely-spoken language from the Bosphorus to the confines of China. and. a tongue under- stood on the shores of the Caspian as well as in Kabul —should Yarkand Officers. but in a comprehensive more methodical manner and on a more scale. and that and be more generally diffused among British this knowledge should embrace a practical acquaintance with the colloquial idioms. I found myself frequently at a loss for the phrases required in ordinary conversation and for technical words . with their equivalents in Persian and Pashtu. as well as proficiency in the text-books used for the Examinations.West Frontier of India. Pashtu is the language of Eastern Afghanistan. though useless elsewhere. and seems not unlikely to extend over other parts of the Continent the influence which she already exerts in the countries bordering on Hindustan.

either in the Pashtu —a language in which almost as many dialects are met with as there are tribes among the Afghans. and of which the spelling has not yet been reduced to a regular system —or even in the Persian may not be so numerous as to for whom it is intended. the well-known teacher of languages in Peshawar. G. viii occupations of Engineers. I have is added the Urdu. but also in the revision and correction of the whole. 1875. Peshawar. February. to be found elsewhere. and that . common The Vocabulary. Digitized by Googk . I cannot expect that this Manual will be free from imperfections. a subordinate of the Military and I have received great assistance by Saiyad Works Department Mahmud Khan from Kazi Ehatak. PEEFACE. Persian and Pashtu Grammars as will suffice for those who wish to obtain a colloquial knowledge only of any of these languages. which gives the equivalents 1500 words in use. more especially in the Pashtu. T. In compiling Khadim an index to the also forms of nearly this little Work I have been aided All. sentences. and have prefixed such brief abstracts of the Hindustani. in the hope that of service to brother officers may this render the Work and others in India as well as on the Frontier. but can only hope that these detract from its value to those I may be allowed excuse for deficiencies or inaccuracies the very which I have been able to devote to this to plead as an few Leisure hours Work.. P.

3 . 3s. The Consonants. THE POWERS OF THE VARIOUS LETTERS USED. THE ALPHABET.PART I.

. and s as *. dot underneath final ah of is many not to be sounded . dh. Persian words in which the h The vowel sounds . are to be pronounced as the in up-hilly the th in hot-house. &c. s. who and he should.THE ALPHABET. th. (. The Persian and Pashtu. It ph must be noted that p h. learn the true sound of the gh (ghain) from the natives. &c. however. and the h the making object of to enable anyone to write out the phrases correctly in the Oriental characters t represent f common represents the soft aspirate these distinctions in this and the t by and so on : but the learner may treat the t. ip with a a final short a represents the is silent. thus the English letters respectively the soft t Alphabets. only wishes to acquire a colloquial knowledge as t. and the hard The h ( to the Hindi and the which peculiar to the Hindi is common strong aspirate of certain Arabic words. Work is to . the dh in mad-house. all. 10 The foregoing table is according to the most approved method of representing the various Consonants of the Oriental Alphabets and symbols. the 8.

which lengthens the also soften e into I . is word They v soften the a in many words pronounced un.. " yes. to learn the eastern dialect of Yusufzai. while the ts varies in sound 11 between s and z." is instead of that in " fun like our syllable. Digitized by Googjc . which where The inhabitants of Persia thus. THE ALPHABET." is every- intelligible. like " thus. an. It is sufficient. as zh ." bale. however. for instance. and kaliydn." kaliyun . the English short a in " fan." is pronounced by them but with a drawl. " you pronounced ml rawld. first ml rawed. " that. and they sound the short a go. i( into u a pipe. ballet. .

Digitized by Googk .

. men [men (used only with past tenses of transitive verbs). the to express : used. &c. from me Agent. ' nom. i a dog . you by you turn ne. we [me to me or hamdrd ~e ham ham ham se. Nom. to Ace. mvgh ho. mera -e 4... 'a good man's son.' &c. Nouns ending in a oblique cases and plural hutte. nouns.' and e in the oblique cases and plural. &e. or turn se. man men mard. your turn ho. mez. Nom. tujh se. my Dat. from the men. plural to the mezen. bread. In fem. to us.. mezon dogs . &c. the man Abl. as achchhe mard ha larha. mvjh se. huttd. tujh Agent.' achchhi larhi. and Ace. to you. of Nouns and generally the feminine termination of declined thus is I (See Phrases. ho. and a. 38 and 39. mard se. I Plural. main.. we Plural. the in the Accusative Case.* hutte ha.. I is The Noun in t and sh are also mostly feminine. Gen. you tumhdrd -e turn.' in the mard9 'a good man. or us thou -l. 'a good girl. ( a table. mard.' lea. mard ne. Singular. you. thy [thee ko.' fem.. added en or yah is rofi. . Sing. of man mardon-hd -he man mard-ko.' rofit/dn. or Abl. . ' of a dog Adjectives in a similarly take I .).. as achchhd THE PEONOUNS. ham. Dat. or mardon ne. to thee. tu our -i. I Gen. is mardon-ho. rotiyoh ha. mard-ko or mard. from man Agent.. from thee ne. . to Dat. Singular. the men or mardon se. Nos.— 13 ( ) ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. Digitized by Google . main ne. Gen. thou tu. mard-hd -he -hi. ' thus.. terd -e -t. There is no Article Dative with ho Part II. from us ne. man -7ci 9 of men men [men mardoh-ho or ward. huttoh ha } &c.. Norn. Section Nouns ending Adjectives. Abl. : Plur. and Ace. generally change these into e in the thus.

Aa»» hai.' or 'it. we giren. some. tfw&a. ham girt-e (fem. falling. Plur. Indefinite. EEGULAE NEUTEE VEEB. &c. Sing. l koi. fall | —I am | The Imperfect. ham girt-e the (fem. 'this. &c. main girt-d (fem. fallen . jojinkd. -i). <fec. *0. The Sing. fall.' she. CHrnd. &c. girt-% thi). falling. wuh gire. Plur. Sing. ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. -i. may fall. uskd. tfw kd. yih. is kd.. -i. -0 -?. . &c. i). jo jiskd. &c. <&c.' ' ye. Ac. main girt-d hun.' or ' your honour. main girun. -a -i. tu gire. in kd. who ? A?at0t. lam. Sing. ' any . Sing. Plur. main gir-d (fem. we £A#. Past.' 'he. main girt-d thd (fem. *o. hain. ham Plur. turn ho. tdui. Dat.in). I was. Past. Present. gir. &c. Plur. &c. \ Nom. to fall . Correl. thin). &c. girt-d (fem. girt-i thin). and and in). Interrog. main thd (fern. Jcahe kd. | fell. &c. | he. &c. ham Digitized by gir-e (in). thi). Sing.&e. &c. ' that. ham gvrt-e —I was hain. Gen. I shall tu gvreg-d. pi. ' own . Gen. A:a. pi. who.' ' Plural. . wi£a. ft* We were. #*&>. she. Main girung-d. Wuh.' Apnd -e -i. Aorist. may fall. that same. tffo fern. Ap. town fon Eelative.—I Sing. —I fall.' Singular. Gen. 14> Tih. Dat. Plur. Imperative. We ham giren. Future.' or ' « it.' Singular. ye. giro. kUkd. what ? kyd.' AUXILIARY VEEB. main hun. in). we the. | The Present. thd.' kuchh. is ko. 1 l self. gir. Interrog. Googk &c. We are hain. wuh tu hai. &c. Sing. wuh #tn» the. &c. gir-d (fem. fall. &c. &c. turn giro. I Plur. &c. Plur. 100. Nom. — falling root.

gone ') thus. ' to go ' is {jdtd. girt hain). girl Plur. the (fem. rat. jdnd. fallen.' made for I may give. Perfect. or plr.' gayd. and of which the Present Tense has jdtd. . main ne khdyd. &c.— ELEMENTS OP HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR.' Aorist. juma' Friday. we shall be eaten. Perfect and Transitive Verbs take the Perfect. formed by using the past participle with the going. Sing. &c. juma\ Saturday.' is contractions are also generally used instead of dlun. Pluperfect Tenses. main gird ham gire Plur. ne khdyd hoi. mangalwdr. main ne khdyd 15 'to eat. l l . &c.' &c. as from dend. with the Past. Agent Case. The days of the week l budh. . Past. tu ne khdyd hai. are ' to give.' : Monday. khdnd. main khdyd jdun (fem. khdl jdengln). thd. to go. fallen. Pluperfect. Tuesday. tu ne khdyd. &c. <fec. main khdtd hun. main khdyd gayd. Pluperfect. I was Yerbjdna. Thursday. Sing. (fern.' Past. somwdr.' gayd. <fec.' the sake of euphony. named thus * Sunday. sanlchar. girl thin). and the Past Participle of another Verb. &c. itwdr. There are no Irregular Verbs in Hindustani . l given. girl hain (fem. main khdun. Digitized by Google . its place. c used in Some gone. is going . khdl jdun) y I may be eaten . ham khde jdenge (fem. ' ' i eaten. of similar meaning. thus. —I have hun — I had main gird thd (fem. . main ne khdyd thd. but in some cases the Regular Past Participle has become obsolete.' dun. thus. ham gire Present. hun). "Wednesday. tu The Passive Voice thl). &c. Past Participle dlyd. * fallen into disuse.

for instance. ' 'first. 10 ( ) THE CARDINAL NUMBERS IN HINDUSTANI.. pahld the genitive termination -he instead of -kd. which may with advantage be written as Digitized by exercises. 'fifth. 'second. pahle and pdnchwen.' tisra.alls paiiitalis chhi. and in the feminine paUl and pdnchwin. asi nauwe ikanawe banawe tiranawe chauranawe pachanawe chhi. regularly. 'fourth.' panchwan. The Ordinal Numbers are—pakla.alis sairitalls artalis unchas pachas ikawan bawan tirpan chauwan pachpan chhappan sattawan athawan unsath sath iksath bilsath tirsath chausath painsath chlii. tirasi chaurasi pachas! cbhi.' 8atwan. 'third. and pdnchwdn become. chauthd. is atha. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ek do tin char panch chha sat ath nau das gyarab barah terah chaudah pandrah solah satrah atharah unis bis ikkls ba. the learner Section I. by adding wan to the Cardinals. Googk .' cMatwan. or to put the Adjective in the obbque case. to learn when to use thus. asi satasi athasl nau. asath satsath athsath unhattar satfcar ikbattar bahattar tihattar chauhattar pachhattar 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 cbhihattar sathattar athhattar unasi assi ikasi be. For the application of the Grammar.' and so on.' seventh . anawe satanawe athanawe ninanawe sau or sai. asi. They are declined like Adjectives. is te.. in the oblique cases and plural.' dusrd.. is chaubls pachis 26 27 28 29 untis 30 tis 31 32 33 34 35 iktis 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 chbattis 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 chhabbis sata. is referred to the phrases in Part II. alls 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 sairitis athtis tairitalis chau. 'sixth. is batis taintis 59 60 chauritis pairitls untatis cbalis 61 62 63 64 65 iktalis 66 be. for the remaining numbers.

thou Kiy who or which what sort of ? or me man . { 3rd. he. The thus. a district/ subajat. hastem.' rasi. . astam. ast. who . they.' &c. kuddm. mirasi.' rasanda. Sing. f Sing. o. thou wast . Plur. Plur. Also without the aspirate. we. em. I was asted. 'you may arrive. Rasam. 'arriving.' or ' my plural ends in an for animate.' rasand. shuma. mirasand. astern.. hasted.. budl. Imperative. am arriving. what ? he is. (See Phrases 38. — ' I Mirasam. There is no Article Dative (with ra) is. which ? any ? VERBS. ha for inanimate objects mardan .) used. ast. hastand. thus. . to . Rasidan. 'we may arrive . ' arrive thou . ma. Plur. budand. mlrased. Aorfi. astand.' plur. : The a vowel e) to the governing ' book.' Tenses from the Eoot. Section I. mard.' \ 2nd. 'arrived.' the r#$<wZ. &c. 39. bud. Bason. Jcitabhd or after a thus. —Ras. banda. and. ' kitab. hastam. you . buded. suba. rased. genitive is formed by adding noun i . kitab man. thou art. Sing. am. it. tu. I mard. or 9 which ? or Plur.. she. rased. &c. budem.' rasida. 1st. asti. ras).. mirasad. hast. may arrive..' . I. he was. 'I may arrive. but to express the in the Accusative Case the . ed. 'an arriver. ' i (after the book of me. Sing. Sing. 'thou mayest arrive. ki. they may arrive. a slave/ bandagan .i 1* ( ) ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR. Present. mirasem. budam. Aorist. man. Digitized by Googk . I am. me.' \ Rasem. ? eh or mard. Also the simple affix. Plur. eshan. PKONOTJNS. 'to arrive' (root.

.

18

;:;
;

.

elements of peb8ian grammar.
Tenses from the Infinitiye.
The Past.

1st,

Rasidam,

i

I arrived

;'

rasidi, rasid.

Plur. rasidem, rasided, rasidand.

2nd, Imperfect.

Ml rasidam,

'

I was arriving ;' mirasidi, mirasid.

Plur. mirasidem, mirasided, mirasidand.
3rd, Past Potential.

—I

might

*

arrive,'

See

(Seldom used.

&c.

Phrases 61 to 65).
Rasidame, rasidi, raside ; rasideme, rasidede, rasidande.

Section

I.,

4th, Future.

Khwaham

i&wdhi

rasid, 'I shall arrive;'

Plur. Jchwahem rasid, Jchwahed

r.,

khhwdhad

r.,

ihwhdhand

r.

Tenses from Past Participle.
1st,

Rasida am, rasida

i,

Perfect

rasida ast

2nd,

Rasida budam,.. .budi,

— I have

arrived.*

'

; plur., rasida

Pluperfect. — I had
'

. .

bud;

The Roots are formed
1. Infinitives in adan,

plur., rasida

as follows

em, rasida ed, rasida and.
arrived.*

budem,

;

buded,

. .

budand.

idan and ddan reject the termination

chidan, to collect, chin

come, a or ay;

.

:

firistddan, to send, firist ; pursidan, to ask, purs
give, dih

. .

;

;

sit ddan,

:

thus,

except, dddan, to

didan, to see, bin

zadan, to strike, zan

dmadan, to prepare, dmd;

:

dmadan, to

;

to seize, sit an ;

zddan, to bring forth, zd;

gddan, to

embrace, gd; kushddan, to open, Jcushd; dfridan, to create, dfrin;
shunidan, to hear, shunau ; guzidan 9 to choose, guzin.
2. Infinitives in

udan, change

for d or de, as situdan, to praise,

it

sitae or sitd: except, budan, to be,

bit

or bash; shudan, to be,shaw;

tanudan, to draw, tanau ; durudan, to reap, duru

zinau

;

3. Infinitives in

kan

:

;

zinudan, to mingle,

ghunudan, to sleep, ghunu.
rdan or udan reject the dan, as kandan, to

except, dwurdan, to bring, ar or

kardan, to do, kun

;

murdan, to

afshurdan, to press, afshar
to count,

;

dig,

bear, bar

mir; dzurdan, to vex, dzdr

sipurdan, to entrust, sipdr ; shumurdan,

shumdr; farkandan, to

4. Infinitives in

die,

awar ; bur dan, to

khtan take

dig, farkand;

z,

gandan, to rot, gand.

as andajdttan, to throw,. andaz

except, shindkhtan, to recognize, shinds ; farokhtan, to

Digitized by

sell,

Google

farosh

;:

ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.

19

gusikhtan, to break, gusil; dkhtan, to draw (a sword), dlch

to milk, dosh

;

dokhtan,

;

suJchtan, to weigh, sanj.

5. Infinitives in

stan reject the stan, as zistan, to live, zl

:

except,

ju; khdstan, to rise, khez
khwdstan, to wish, l$hwah; paiwastan, to join, paiwand; justan, to
Leap, jah ; rastan, to escape, rah ; rustan, to grow, ruy ; ristan, to
bastan, to bind, band; justan, to seek,

spin, ris ;

shustan, to wash, shuy

kdstan, to diminish, kah

make
6.

to

sit,

nishdn

nishdstan, to

;

nishin.

gard ; nawishtan, to

Ml; dghashtan,

ddr

low, kdr

;

write, navois

;

:

except,

hishtan, to

to accumulate, aghdsh; agjioshtan, to embrace,

Ighpsh ; qfrdshtan, to exalt, afrdz

7.

sit,

Infinitives in shtan take r, as dash tan, to have,

yashtan, to become,
juit,

nishistan 9 to

;

shikastan, to break, shikan

;

gusastan, to break, gusil

;

kushtan, to

rishtan, to spin, ris

;

;

hishtan, to

hush.

kill,

Infinitives inyfow take

b,

as t aft an, to Bhine, £«£

;

or retain^ as

wftan, to weave, 5«f : except, hhuftan, to sleep, Mw*p ; r oftan, to
jo, raw; giriftan, to take, y*r; guftan, to say, yo or yoy ; pa^lraftan

o

accept, pazir

huguft

;

;

to bore, suft

suftan,

shinuftan, to hear, shinau

ormed by lengthening the

The days

;

;

shuguftan, to blossom,

kaftan, to dig, haw.

Some

are

penult, as ruftan, to sweep, rob.

of the week are

named thus

in Persian

:

Sunday,

yak shanba (pronounced shambd).

Monday,

do shanba.

Tuesday,

sih shanba.

"Wednesday, chahdr shanba.
Thursday,

panj shanba.

Friday,

juma\

Saturday,

shanba.

b2
Digitized by

VjOOQIC

(

20

)

CAKDINAL NUMBEES IN PERSIAN AND PASHT&.

Persian. sarai. 3. . The 1. man of a Dat. : spai. Purely Pashtu Nouns in a. a Gen. Nouns in i. g&obana. 4. in ah. da sari. fem. by a man Oh. The All Article Nouns feminine 1. fern. a cowherd. 2nd sari. da koruno. DEOLEN8ION OF NOUNS. as. Masc. gAobah. 3. up to a sari bdnde. Nouns in ah. Nouns in ai. Nom. tongue or language. plur. Digitized by Googk . crying. and Nom. The following are usually : Nouns in ar nafdida. sariyo. sariyo bdnde. man Agent sari. as in is Urdu and are masculine or feminine. 4. as. Masc. a camel. fem. a . shpana . hor. advantage. in in ai ai. 1st Declension —Masculine Nouns in ai — : Plural. Tcoruna. and masc. dob anra.— — ! 21 ( ) ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GRAMMAR. ai sariyo. Singular. having u in last syllable as. a house plur. ai Sariya. tar sariyo pore. man man man sari (Jckhe) he. &c. in ana . of a house . 5. in a consonant (except ah) add for fem. feminines are generally formed as follows Masc. ukh. as zhibah. wanting. as. pa pa sariyo (Jckhe) he. i. spai. 2. in Masc. dobi. asjdrd. man la sariyo na. sariyo ta. evil. — Declension Masculine Nouns ending in a consonant. as badl. denoting inanimate objects Gen. Abl. shpun. in a upon a sari pore. a dog . 2. pa pa o tar a man man da sariyo. as fopai. to a Ace. a washerman. Voc. man from a sari. da kor. : — . sarai. sari ta. a bitch. la sari na. in anra . ukha. a shepherd. a hat.

by £a. . Loc. tdsoy tuh. scattered . Jchwaga. fern.. me. . khwara. . .. thee.. —Nouns in at or i. plur.. ahlet 4lh Declension. da- krapahdro. g±ld. sour. from thee. &c.. .bitter. 1st Declension. Idre. . \ . Phrases 11 to 14). 'thee. a crunch. triw. | data. 2nd like the a horse. ta he . theft. a Nouns. or mar. to thee.. mung ta.. In. as. Feminine spal . fern. da mar as. mung... spai. Many such Nouns are declined sion as. td ta. pa ma he (Jckhe) . . . —Nouns 3rd Declension. da krap. (See Section I. hrapahdr. tndrdno. . . . wmfo.. we.— — ELEMENTS OF PA8HTU GRAMMAR.. . a snake. denoting i. spai. declen- ending in a consonant denoting krap. a as. plur. 2nd Declension. da ihaze . Gen. . dzama) n . &c. std or la td na. heavy.. Jchor. following form their feminines irregularly The Masc.. <fcc. td. Plur. * . Personal Pronouns..pa munga Abl.. tod. as. . ihaza. mo. plur. forfl. Feminine da ohldo.. N. munga. drund. .la tdso ai td.pa tdso he. tarwd. &c.. fa da spo. pa you . as. Tchog.. . woman. da plor... Masc. plur.... lar. oh.. &c. la thou.. Feminine road. sweet. black. Plur. *»a. zuh. &c. and agree in gender.. a bitch. tarMka. Google na. in a. mung. in thee. Ace. plur. .... iu me.. da gMa\ da laro. (Jckhe).. /a munga na. by me. _ J-of me...' or 00 ma j Dat. to me. tor. . hhaze. 22 3rd Declension. ai tdso. Norn. mdran.. I. stdso. . tdso ta. Masculine animate objects . dzamunga. tfaso. : shin. [he. thou Digitized by ! .. . . drana... . ftwo. Feminine — Nouns in a.... &c.. hot. number. . as. from me. . thee. like ending consonants in tauda. trihh.B. . . ma na . — Nouns in a consonant.. —Nouns 4th Declension. Degrees oe Comparison. ... green. . Masculine sounds. sAwa. da hhazo. da lare —Nouns Adjectives ore declined and case. . dsuna. .

him. fem. . to. you. . zllag&a dai. " however many. Present. " nobody ." Aar yo. though seldom. used. Aara ^wwa. and rd.— — ELEMENTS OE PASHTU GRAMMAB. — Tarn. " every thing " hets tsoh na." fern. You Haghoe They de. us. are. &c. : The Auxiliary Vebb Indicative. huma yuwa ." har tsuh.. We are. Thou He \l£agka dah. Nodi. by them. it. "other thing:" nor tsok. thine him. da or de. bul hum one." — fem. do or . {See Section (See : mu. 23 f Masc. nore (ole. daghdi or de. plur. dagha or da. affixes ta. plur." bul tsa. da or de} he. " all the rest." tsoh. . is. by us. " Every one. occasionally. " Which — compounds are in common use " Other one. 2%tVrf Person Remote. he. with you . The Personal Pronouns hag&a and de are used for * that khpul* * own/ corresponds to the Hindi ffp/w. de. "who else?" nor tsa. Demonsteative Pbonouns. She is. Third Person Proximate. . by me. Miiny yu. her. fem. The affixes are. " what else?" har tsok. by him. thee. mu. following : yo. us comp. also in me. dar. ' : The bat (bul) yo. I. ttore «fer& "other person. . your. . . dagko or deo." har tso. ye. it. in... our. The following forms are Section Phrase 66) I. I am. Tdso yai. bala yuwa. verbs. dou plur. by you. . omitted in speaking. Oblique dagha or da . Tuh ye. thee. Nom. she or it. and Ace. Also.." nor cfer. "lam. " many more. and Ace.. this . With the (Fern. Oblique cases. the following are used war." . : we. she or hagha. however. Jce (Jshhe). fem. hag&uh. art. me. Zuh yam.. his plur. Future. cfoyo.'* nor pi. are. by thee. haghoi or hag ho. mine ye. hag&e. "every body. Phrases 44 and 45).

" The Intbansitive Auxiliabt Vebb —Shwal. kedunkai. "We become. " to become. become.. kedana. Imperfect. Kegam. Jcedalai. ifoyi. keduh. "i becomer. ha kegu. JST<?y<?. &c." or "to be/ . 24 The Intbansjtive Auxiliabt Verb —Kedal. i). I was becoming. Jcedu. I shall become. ha kegl. keduh. Kegu.ELEMENTS OF PASHTU OBAMMAB. Jcedale. kedala. &c. or Noun of Agency. Tou ha kegai. "the becoming. They become. I become. Gerund. kedalam or Jcedam. (fem. kedun. fem. ha kegam.. fem.. ha kege. Present. -fiT<?y». ha kegl. He becomes. Thou becomest." Present Part. Indicative Future." to become. fem. fem. kedal. " becoming. Tcedah." Mood. Jcedale or £i<fe. kedalu. kedala. kedal. Kegal." Active Part.

— ——

>

:

.

elements of pashtu gbammab.

25

Tbansitiye Vebb.
wahal, " to strike."

Active Voice

Indicative Present

—I

strike,

Sing, waham, wahe, wahi

Aorist

—I may

Future

—I

strike,

thou

;

strikest, &c.

Plur. wahu, wahai, wahi.

&c, wu toaham, wu wahe, &c.
&c, wu ha waham, &c, or, with Pronoun,

shall strike,

wu

zuh ba

toaham, &c.

The Imperfect, Past, Perfect and Pluperfect require the Agent Case
instead of the Nominative, and the Verb agrees with the object.

The Imperfect.
Thou, you,

eta tdso,

>i

he, she, it

[was (were) striking

or they,

)

me

]

^haghp
us

I,

we, he,

she, it

J

mung wahalu.

...

cmd

-\

mung,-\

or was (were) striking thee Xhaghuh ovyta toahale.

they,

^hagho

)

thou)
[ was

or you,

)

tdso
you
(him) ma mungi)
.

I, we,

-\

haghuh or \zuh wahalam.

(were) striking-!

(them

(wahal.

)

<

>

haghoi

...

(.them (fem.))

The
Thou, you,
he, she,
or they,

(have) struck

me

...

mung wahali yu.

similarly:

has or have struck thee,

tuh wahalai ye.

you,

tdso wahali yal.

him or
(them,

hagha wahalai dah.

her,

haghoe wahali

)

them (fem.) )
is

~\

haghuh ot> zuh wahalai yam.
^hagho
)

us

The Past

(toahale.

\

)

And,

<

Perfect.

Cta tdso,

)

it £ has

wahalai.

Cwahuh.
\hagha]
(wahala.
td or taso)

>

(;ber )

)

.

haghe wahali

formed from the Imperfect by prefixing

di.

di.

wu

td zuh

wu

wahalam, " thou didst strike me."

The
1

*"
\

Continuative Past

is

formed thus

:

Ma

ba hagha voahuh, " I

used to strike him/'

The

Pluperfect thus

The Doubtful

:

Ma

Pluperfeot

:

hagha wahalai wuh, u I had struck him."

Hagha ba zuh wahalai yam, " He might

have struck me."
Digitized by

Google

——

—)
26

"

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GBAMMAB.

The Imperative :

— " Strike," wu waha;

Plur.

" Let him strike," wu de wahi ;

The Subjunctive Mood

is

...

wu wahai.
wu de wahi.

formed by prefixing kaf "if," to the

Indicative.

The Potential Mood, corresponding
formed from the Past Part.
shwal thus,

;

to the use of sakna in Urdu, is

the Present with the Present of

Wahalai sham, " I can strike ; " wdhalai she, " thou canst
strike " wahalai shu, " we can strike," <fcc.
;

In the Past the Verb agrees with the
the Indicative

Thou, you,.
he, she,
it

C could

(tdtdsohaa&a')
,
T
7
7
,
»
have struck me, i
\zuh wahalai shwam.

or they )

^

ovha

<*

.

)

mung wahall

us,

...

shuri.

(md, mung ")
she,
(could have struck thee, j hagha or r tuh wahalai shwe.
or they
)
^haa&o
we,

I,

it

he,>.

tdso wahall ihwal.

you,

...

I,

object, as in the past tenses of

:—

him irnamung

we, thou")
or you
)

her

them

...

f

marians say

is

itself,

(haghol wahall shwal
(shwu).
^haghol wahall shwe.

\

wahalai

—according

a curious anomaly, and some

impossible, but the

it is

...

(fem.) )

The change of termination of the Verb
to the gender of the object

haghawahalaishuh.

( td or tdso ) haaha wahall shwa.

them")

...

~)

Gram-

Afghans certainly give the in-

flection.

The Potential Future

is

formed with

ba, as

zuh ba

tlai

sham, I shall

be able to go.
wahun, fem. w ahan a, " striking ; "
Pres. Part., wahuh, fem. wahala, " striking 5"
Noun of Agency
wahunkai or wahunai, " a striker

Gerund

:

:

;

Past Part., wahalai, fem. wahall, "struck."

Passive Voice.
Wahalai kedal, "to be struck."

The Passive Voice

is

formed by conjugating the Past Participle

with the auxiliaries kedal and shwal, and making the usual changes
for

number, gender, and person.

Gerund, wahalai Tceduh ; Past.

Part., wahalai

Digitized by

shawaL

Google

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GEAMMAB.
Indicative

Mood.

27

" a mover . ka kawi or kande. or wu ka . Section I. : plur." kawi. "moving. plur. Let him wu kra do." Noun of Agency." . ihwazedunkai. Fem.. If thou doest.. • wu wu hhwazega. Plural.. Gerund. Imperfect. Future. thwazedalai shwam. f j \ ka kari wai. Past. Fem. In agreement with the objects in number and gender Masc. — Present. to do.) Digitized by Googk . khwazeduh. hag&a de wuh ka Subjunctive.— " ELEMENTS OP PA8HTU OBA1CKAB. " Past Part.. I doj katvam or Tcram Thou He Jcawu or kru. 28 Imperative. &c. Imperative. &c. ka kari wai. bhwazedalai. u move de J&wazegi. —Present. ka kawi. —Kawul. . h agh a de wu kri or kande. . ka kawe. Sing. . khwazedalai ha sham. ka kawu. " a moving Pres. ka kawai. Part.. kawale. formed by prefixing ha to the Present : zah ha karam. wu krai or wu kai. wu de l&wazegi. " let " wu ihwazegai.. " The Tbansitite Auxiliary Indicative. The Future is kawuh . Do thou. ka karai wai ka kari wai. kawal. Potentials • Present. dost. kri or kande. Singular. khwazedalai shanty &c. " . him move .. plur. kawala. kri or kande does. Masc. If he does. kawe. (See Phrase 62. kawi.. &c. hhwazedun. Plural. . Sing. " having moved. Past. &c. ka kawam. Ma td.. Singular. or Tcre Tcawal or krai. If I do.

&c. see end of " Elements of Persian Grammar. them in 29 ba. The is formed by prefixing Irregular Yerbs in Pashtu are very useless to attempt any explanation of difficult. For the Numerals. as ha ba and it wu would be this "Work. The Future Subjunctive karam (or ham).ELEMENTS OP PASHTU GRAMMAS. Digitized by Googk ." page 20.

Digitized by Googk .

SENTENCES." this means the idiomatic shown instead of only the Vocabulary. it is it is in each student in picking out rapidly the equivalents of the several English words tion italics.( 31 PART ) II. Phrase 2. seen that has he must in this and similar phrases be rendered in Hindustani by us he pas hain and in Pashtu by da 9 haghuh dzalcha d% both of which mean. differ "By translation of the English expression is literal. to assist the is printed in in I. Persian. and in Pashtu. in Section L. " are in his possession. lar-Jca. halak. Note. which this reason the is all that can be given in a words given in the Vocabulary. — In most of the Phrases one word of the four languages. many For cases.. in Sec- in Hindustani. Again. Digitized by Googk . Phrase 28. in from those given in this Part. seen at once that boy is . for instance. tifl .

Digitized by Googk .

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Pers. Some English words can only be rendered by a Phrase. as the Neuter Verbs " To hurt " and " To lighten" and in these cases the stands for the Hind. hawal. karnd. kardan. —The numbers column opposite to any word in the second indicate the Section and Phrase where but owing to the it may be found in Fart II. VOCABULARY AND INDEX." When a Hindi word has been lary. difference of idiom it will often occur that the translation there given will not agree with that given in this Vocabufor instance: the Urdu for "To have" is given in the Vocabulary as rakhnd.( 95 PART ) III. Note. K used in Persian (as being current in Kabul) the English. " To do. letter H is affixed. but on referring to I. 28 it will be seen that the affix " kepds" with the Verb "To be" is idiomatically used instead. Push.. reference will supply the translation. .

.VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 96 English.

English. 97 .TOCABULABX AND INDEX.

98 English.VOCABULARY AND INDEX. .

09 . English.VOOABULABT AND INDEX.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.100 English. .

theka thekadar Contrary to Contented Cook. to xi. ghanta nazdik kapra kapre wala kapre badal mota i. of gun Cock. Bef. pair of Complainant Complete Condition. Come. 34 English. thanda Coolie ii. 56 98 jama' k. Colour ii. xiii. Urdu. Collect. to iii. 101 . Cook ii. 3 sharj xi. 58 hukm Commencement xiii. illness xiii. Cool iii. Persian. Compasses. a Conform. 11 kafi 2 jara thanda 17 zukam Cold. kuli Copper Cord ktilaf razi 23 13 19 71 vi. 17 x. Climate Cloak Clock Close Cloth Cloth Beller Clothes Cloud Coarse Coat Cocoa-nut 13 68 i. 14 i. iv. to ix. to ii. 50 iv. i.' VOCABULABY AND INDEX. kurta naryal 41 Cock. 6 pakana bawarcbl tanba dori k. 50 muwafik 77 16 EQU: x. Consent(agree) Consequence Constipation Contract Contractor ii. 18 ab o hawa baran ko| xi. Comb 6 ibtida Common 'am Comparison nisbat Compass 7 kampas 96 parkar mudda'I pura xi. 1 rang kanghi ana Command ii. fowl ghora murgh Coffee iii. Cold Cold weather iv.

.102 English. VO0ABULABY AND INDEX.

English. 103 .VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

YOCABULA.BY AND INDEX.104 English. .

Bef. gunah kbauf kusur. to. xiii. gadedal. tarsidan wyara. Far (distance) Fare (hire) Farrier Fast Fat Fate Father Fault 49 jald charbi ix. darogh. ankh bhawen chashm starga. raftan darogh katal. viii. 'ain barabar. anjir indzar. 74 69 charbi wazda. uftadan prewatal. bach. khuh. * File Fill. i. 26 pana vii. khodal mulahaga t^andak bihtar ktub kandana. timat 3 iv. Face Fair i. 89 48 54 ii. Famine Fan (punkha) Urdu. Escape Estimate Even (adv. to (act. ii. tawan. mulahaga k. to 75 chugna bukhar 3 4 thora khet 20 anjir 54 retl bhar dena vi. Persian. *i- mat. kal kahj jp*h$. 3 mahin ii.VOCABTJLABY AND INDEX. barik barik. ix. taba. garandai. 4 viii. put out Extreme Eve Eyebrow 4 x. English. bujhana gulk. to Fine. to.51 Fall. makham. v. to Feed. k. plar. kismat padar nasib. k. bhi sham. Digitized by Google . 74 viii. suhan pur k. akhirl a£biri wrustanai. a Fine Finish. rihai 18- taHimmlkimat takhmini ham* sham ham. to Excavation Excellent Extinguish. Fire ag atish or. Fireplace angithi atish fchana ngiiarai. 52 xi. 23 tamam pura k. munh ru ma&fe. Fear Fear.) Feed. thik 105 Pashtu. 101 tamam k. to Find. 21 kismat iii. 12 jurimana ii. na'lband na'lband na'lband. marawal. as birds Fever viii. suhan. Few Field Fig dar darna khilana zfid chand lag. 31 bap ^usur i. wyaredal.25 xi. char i dan tap tsaredal. kisht kafai. Family ii. 47 v. bachao ta£hmina. kburanidan khurawal. yaftan jurimana mundal. kutumb kabila tabar. iii. dakawal. gora girna milna ihuth sufed spin. abru barwate. to False ix.) Evening Exactly Examine. to Fall into.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.106 English. .

VOCABULABY AND INDEX. English. 107 .

.108 English. VOOABULABY AND INDEX.

J&nglish.YOCABULABY AND INDEX. 109 .

110 English. . VOCABULABY AKD I1H)EX.

Ill . English.VOCABUXABT AND INDEX.

112 English. VOCABULARY AND IITOEX. .

VOCABULARY AKD HTDEX. 113 . English.

TOCABULABT AND INDXX.114 EnglUh. .

115 . English.TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

116 English. . VOCABCLABT AND INDEX.

117 .YOCABTTLAEY AHD INDEX. English.

B1TI. .11% Engltih.ABT ABTD INDEX. T0CA.

TOCABULABT AND INDEX. 119 . English.

.120 English. YOCABFLABY AND INDEX.

121 .VOCABULABT UTD English. IlfDII.

TOCABULAET AND INDEX.122 "English. .

128 . English.TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

VOCABCLABY AND INDEX. .124 English.

JLSD INDEX.VOCABULARY English. 125 .

VOCABULARY AND INDEX. . 126 English.

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128 English. . VOCABULARY AKD INDEX.

129 . Englith.VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

130 English. . YO0ABULABY ANT) INDEX.

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