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at

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THE

CONYEKSATION MANUAL,
IK

ENGLISH, HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN

AND

PASHTLT.

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THE

CONVERSATION MANUAL,
A COLLECTION OP

USEFUL PHRASES

670

AND PASHTU,

ENGLISH, HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN


WITH

SUMMARIES OF THE GRAMMARS OF THESE LANGUAGES,

VOCABULARY OP NEARLY
Jfox tty u*e

<rf

(Engineer fficer*

hM

1500

ati)er$

an

WORDS,

tf)e

fioxtfyWlttt

dfrontier antr in fnttta*

BY CAPTAIN

*y
Tf PLUNKETT,

Gtt

BOY1L ENGINEEBS.

'.'",'"

"

Eontton:

RICHARDSON &
&

13,

CO., 23, CORNHILL,


PALL MALL, S.W.

'

E.C.,

1875.
[All Bights Reserved.']
P

Icj

LONDON
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND BIVINGTON,
ST.

John's square, and whitefriars street,

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CONTENTS.

PAET

I.

PAG&
The Alphabet

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PREFACE.
So long

as

England

retains her present position in Asia,

and

seems not unlikely to extend over other parts of the Continent


the influence which she already exerts in the countries bordering

on Hindustan,

the

very desirable that a .knowledge of Persian

it is

French of Asia, and the most widely-spoken language

from the Bosphorus

to the confines of China, a tongue under-

stood on the shores of the Caspian as well as in Kabul

should

Yarkand
Officers;

and that

and

be more generally diffused among British


this

knowledge should embrace a practical

acquaintance with the colloquial idioms, as well as proficiency in


the text-books used for the Examinations.

Pashtu

is

the language of Eastern Afghanistan, and, though

useless elsewhere, is

almost indispensable for those

who

are

employed on the North- West Frontier of India.

On
to

arriving for the

first

time in Peshawar, and attempting

converse with Kabulees and others in Persian, I found

myself frequently at a

loss for the

phrases required in ordinary

conversation and for technical words ; I also discovered

how very

advantageous even a slight knowledge of Pashtu must be to an


officer

serving in this district.

I therefore set to work, whenever I could spare time from


professional duties, to write

down a number

of sentences in

English, with their equivalents in Persian and Pashtu, some-

what

after the

model of the three or four Hindustani Manuals

already in use, but in a

comprehensive

more methodical manner and on a more

scale.

Believing that no such useful collection of phrases relating to


the occurrences of everyday

life,

as

well as to the special

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PEEFACE.

viii

occupations of Engineers,

to be found elsewhere, I have

is

added the Urdu, in the hope that


of service to brother officers

may

this

render the

Work

and others in India as well as on

the Frontier, and have prefixed such brief abstracts of the Hindustani,

Persian and Pashtu

Grammars

as will suffice for those

who

wish to obtain a colloquial knowledge only of any of these


languages.
sentences,

common

The Vocabulary, which


gives the equivalents

1500 words

in

use.

In compiling

Khadim

an index to the

also forms

of nearly

this little

Work

I have been aided

All, a subordinate of the Military

and I have received great

assistance

by Saiyad

Works Department
Mahmud Khan

from Kazi

Ehatak, the well-known teacher of languages in Peshawar, more


especially in the Pashtu, but also in the revision

and correction

of the whole.

I cannot expect that this Manual will be free from imperfections, either in the

Pashtu

a language in which almost as

many dialects are met with as there are tribes among the Afghans,
and of which the spelling has not yet been reduced to a regular
system

or even in the

Persian

may not be so numerous as to


for whom it is intended, and that

but can only hope that these

detract from its value to those


I

may be allowed

excuse for deficiencies or inaccuracies the very

which I have been able

to devote to this

to plead as

an

few Leisure hours

Work.

G. T. P.
Peshawar, February, 1875.

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PART

I.

THE ALPHABET.
THE POWERS OF THE VARIOUS LETTERS USED.
The Consonants.

3s;3

THE ALPHABET.

10

The foregoing

table is according to the

most approved method of

representing the various Consonants of the Oriental Alphabets

and symbols; thus the

English letters
respectively

the soft

Alphabets, and the hard

The h

to the Hindi and the

which

peculiar to the Hindi

is

common

strong aspirate of certain Arabic words.

Work is

to

only wishes to acquire a colloquial knowledge


as

t,

the

8, s,

and

s as *,

all,

The

Persian

and Pashtu.

and the h the

making

object of

to enable anyone to write out the

phrases correctly in the Oriental characters

represent

common

represents the soft aspirate

these distinctions in this

and the

by

and so on

but the learner

may

treat the

t, (,

who
and

he should, however, learn the

true sound of the gh (ghain) from the natives.


It

ph

must be noted that p h,

th, dh,

&c,

are to be pronounced as the

in up-hilly the th in hot-house, the dh in mad-house, &c.

dot underneath
final

ah of

is

many

not to be sounded

Persian words in which the h

The vowel sounds

ip

with a

a final short a represents the


is silent.

THE ALPHABET.
as zh ; while the ts varies in sound

11

between s and

z.

It

is sufficient,

however, to learn the eastern dialect of Yusufzai, which

where

The inhabitants of Persia


thus, an, " that,"

is

instead of that in " fun


like our
syllable.
is

word

They

soften the a in

many words

pronounced un, and kaliydn,

and they sound the short a

go,"

is

every-

intelligible.

ballet,

like

" thus,

i(

into u

a pipe," kaliyun

the English short a in " fan,"

bale,

" yes,"

is

pronounced by them

but with a drawl, which lengthens the

also soften e into I ; for instance,

first

ml rawed, " you

pronounced ml rawld.

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13

ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR.


There

is

no Article

Dative with ho

Part

II.).

I is

The Noun

in t and sh are also mostly feminine.


:

Plur.

Sing.

Norn., mard,

man

men

mard,

Gen., mard-hd -he

-hi,

of

man

mardon-hd -he

man

mard-ko, to

Dat.,

of

Nouns and

generally the feminine termination of

declined thus

is

(See Phrases, Nos. 38 and 39, Section

Nouns ending

Adjectives.

the in the Accusative Case, the

to express

used.

is

mardon-ho, to

Ace, mard-ko or mard, the man


Abl., mard se, &e, from man
Agent, mard ne, man

-7ci 9

of

men

men

[men

mardoh-ho or ward, the

men

or

mardon se, &c, from the men, or


mardon ne, men
[men

(used only with past tenses


of transitive verbs).

In fem. nouns,
(

table,'

&c.

Nouns ending

in a

oblique cases and plural


hutte,

'

nom. plural

to the

mezen, mezon

dogs

;'

lea,

&c.

and

a,

'

thus, mez,

bread,' rofit/dn, rotiyoh ha,

generally change these into e in the

thus, huttd,

huttoh ha } &c.

added en or yah

is

rofi,

a dog

;*

hutte ha,

'

of a dog

Adjectives in a similarly take

;'

in the

mard9 'a good man;' achchhi larhi, 'a good girl;'


and e in the oblique cases and plural, as achchhe mard ha larha, 'a
good man's son.'
fem., as achchhd

THE PEONOUNS.
Singular.

Nom., main, I
Gen., mera -e 4, my
Dat. and Ace, mvgh ho,
Abl., mvjh se, from me
Agent, main ne, I

Plural,

ham, we

[me
to

me

or

hamdrd

~e

ham
ham
ham

se,

from us

ne,

we
Plural,

Singular.

Nom.,

thou

tu,

Gen., terd

-e

-t,

thy

[thee
ko, to thee, or

Abl., tujh se, from thee


ne,

you
tumhdrd -e

turn,

Dat. and Ace, tujh

Agent, tu

our

-i,

ho, to us, or us

thou

-l,

your

turn ho, to you, or


turn se,

you

by you

turn ne, you.

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ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR.

14>

Tih,

'this,' 'he,'

Singular.

she,' or 'it.'

'

Plural.

Nom. yih, Gen. is kd, Dat. is ko,&e.

Wuh,

'

that,'

'

ye, in kd, &c.

he,'

she,' or

'

it.'

Singular.

Nom. tdui, Gen. uskd,


Interrog.

who ?

A?at0t,

Dat. #*&>, &c.

Gen. kUkd, Ac.

town fon

Eelative, who, jo jiskd, &c.

that same,

Correl.

wia, &c.

100,

&c.

A:a,

jojinkd, &c.
&c.

*0, tfw&a,

*o, tfw kd,

&c.

Interrog. what ? kyd, Jcahe kd, &c.

Ap,
1

self,'

or

'

your honour.' Apnd

-e

-i,

'

own ;

koi,

'

any

;'

kuchh,

some.'

AUXILIARY VEEB.
lam;

Present, Sing, main hun,

ham

Plur.

turn ho,

Past, Sing, main thd (fern, thi), I was,

Plur. Aa

hai.

we

A#,

ft*

We were,

thin),

tffo fern,

wuh

tu hai,

We are

hain,

hain.

wuh

#tn the,

thd.

we

the.

EEGULAE NEUTEE VEEB.


CHrnd, to

fall

girt-d (fem.

gir-d (fem.

-0

-?, pi.

pi. -a

-i,

and

and

in), fallen

- in),

falling

root, gir.

Aorist.
Sing, main girun, I

Plur.

may fall, tu gire, wuh gire.


may fall, turn giro, we giren.

We

ham giren,

Future.

Main

girung-d,

-i,

I shall

tu gvreg-d,

fall,

&c.

-i,

Imperative.
Sing, gir,

Plur. giro,

fall.

The
Sing, main girt-d (fem.

Indefinite.

i), <&c.

main girt-d hun, &c.

fall,

Plur.

The Present.
Sing,

fall

I am

The Imperfect.

Plur.

ye.

&c.

ham girt-e

(fem. in),

<fec.

falling.

ham gvrt-e

I was

hain, &c.

falling.

Sing, main girt-d thd (fem. girt-% thi), &c.


Plur.

ham girt-e

the (fem. girt-i thin), &c.

Past.I
Sing, main gir-d (fem.

-i),

&c.

fell.

Plur.

ham

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gir-e

(in),

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&c.


ELEMENTS OP HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR.
Perfect.
Sing, main gird

ham gire

Plur.

I have
hun

I had

main gird thd (fem. girl

Plur.

ham gire

Present, main khdtd hun, &c.

main ne khdyd
thd, tu

The Passive Voice

thl),

&c.

the (fem. girl thin), &c.

Agent Case, with the Past, Perfect and

Transitive Verbs take the

Perfect,

hun), &c.

fallen.

Sing,

Pluperfect Tenses; thus, khdnd,

<fec. ;

fallen.

(fern, girl

hain (fem. girt hain), &c.

Pluperfect.

main ne khdyd

15

'to

eat;'

Aorist, main khdun.

Past, main ne khdyd, tu ne khdyd,

ne khdyd

hoi, tu

ne khdyd

hai,

<fec.

Pluperfect,

thd, &c.

formed by using the past participle with the


going,' gayd, gone ') thus, main khdyd
jdun (fem. khdl jdun) y I may be eaten ; ham khde jdenge (fem.
khdl jdengln), we shall be eaten.' Past, main khdyd gayd, I was
Yerbjdna,

'

to go

'

is

{jdtd,

'

'

eaten,' &c.

There are no Irregular Verbs in Hindustani

but in some cases

the Regular Past Participle has become obsolete, and the Past Participle

of another Verb, of similar meaning, and of which the Present

Tense has
jdtd,

fallen into disuse, is

going

;'

gayd,

used in

Some

gone.'

the sake of euphony, as from dend,

its

place; thus, jdnd,

are

'

to give,' dun,

named thus

Sunday,

itwdr.

somwdr, or plr.
mangalwdr.

"Wednesday,

given.'

Monday,
Tuesday,

to go;'

made for
I may give,' is

contractions are also

generally used instead of dlun, Past Participle dlyd,

The days of the week

budh.

Thursday,

juma'

Friday,

juma\

Saturday,

sanlchar.

rat.

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10

THE CARDINAL NUMBERS IN HINDUSTANI.

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25

ek
do
tin

char

panch
chha
sat

ath

nau
das

gyarab
barah
terah

chaudah
pandrah
solah
satrah
atharah
unis
bis

ikkls
ba, is
te, is

chaubls
pachis

26
27
28
29

untis

30

tis

31
32
33
34
35

iktis

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

chbattis

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

chhabbis
sata, is

atha, is

batis
taintis

59
60

chauritis
pairitls

untatis
cbalis

61
62
63
64
65

iktalis

66

be, alls

67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

sairitis

athtis

tairitalis

chau,alls
paiiitalis

chhi,alis
sairitalls

artalis

unchas
pachas

ikawan

bawan
tirpan

chauwan
pachpan
chhappan
sattawan

athawan
unsath
sath

iksath
bilsath

tirsath

chausath
painsath
chlii, asath
satsath

athsath

unhattar
satfcar

ikbattar
bahattar
tihattar

chauhattar
pachhattar

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

cbhihattar
sathattar
athhattar
unasi
assi

ikasi

be, asi.
tirasi

chaurasi
pachas!
cbhi, asi
satasi

athasl

nau, asi

nauwe
ikanawe
banawe
tiranawe

chauranawe
pachanawe
chhi,

anawe

satanawe
athanawe

ninanawe
sau or

sai.

The Ordinal Numbers arepakla,


'third;'

8atwan,

'

'first;' dusrd, 'second;' tisra,


chauthd, 'fourth;' panchwan, 'fifth;' cMatwan, 'sixth;'
seventh ;' and so on, regularly, for the remaining numbers,

by adding wan to the Cardinals. They are declined like Adjectives;


and pdnchwdn become, in the oblique cases and plural,
pahle and pdnchwen, and in the feminine paUl and pdnchwin. For
the application of the Grammar, for instance, to learn when to use
thus, pahld

the genitive termination -he instead of -kd, or to put the Adjective


in the obbque case, the learner

Section

I.,

is

referred to the phrases in Part II.,

which may with advantage be written as

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exercises.

Googk

1*

ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.


There

is

no Article

Dative (with ra)

is.

but to express the in the Accusative Case the

(See Phrases 38, 39, Section I.)

used.

genitive is formed

by adding

noun

thus, kitab

man,

'

i (after

the book of me,' or

'

my

plural ends in an for animate, ha for inanimate objects

mardan ;
suba,

'

kitab, Jcitabhd

or after a thus, banda,

The

a vowel e) to the governing

'

book.'
;

The

thus, mard,

a slave/

bandagan ;

a district/ subajat, &c.

PKONOTJNS.
Sing, man, I

mard, to

Sing, tu, thou

Kiy who or which

what

sort of ? or

me man
;

shuma, you

ki,

who

o,

? eh

or mard, me.

he, she, or
9

which

? or

Plur. ma, we, &c.


Plur. eshan, they.

it.

what

he

is.

kuddm, which

any ?

VERBS.
Sing, hastam, I

am;

thou art;

Aorfi,

hast,

Plur. hastem, hasted, hastand.

Also without the aspirate, astam, asti, ast, astern,


Also the simple affix, am, I, ast, em, ed, and.
budl, thou wast ; bud, he was.
Sing., budam, I was

asted, astand.

Plur., budem, buded, budand.

Rasidan, 'to arrive' (root, ras).

Bason, 'arriving;' rasida, 'arrived;' rasanda, 'an

arriver.'

Tenses from the Eoot.


1st, Aorist.

Rasam, 'I may

arrive;' rasi,

'thou mayest arrive;'

the

r#$<wZ,

may

arrive.'
\

Rasem, 'we may

arrive

rased,

'you may

arrive;' rasand,

they may

arrive.'

2nd, Present.

Sing.,

'

Mirasam,

am

arriving,' &c.

mirasi, mirasad,

Plur., mirasem, mlrased, mirasand.

3rd, Imperative.

Ras,

'

arrive thou

;'

plur., rased.

Digitized by

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18

;:;
;

elements of peb8ian grammar.


Tenses from the Infinitiye.
The Past.

1st,

Rasidam,

I arrived

;'

rasidi, rasid.

Plur. rasidem, rasided, rasidand.

2nd, Imperfect.

Ml rasidam,

'

I was arriving ;' mirasidi, mirasid.

Plur. mirasidem, mirasided, mirasidand.


3rd, Past Potential.

might

arrive,'

See

(Seldom used.

&c.

Phrases 61 to 65).
Rasidame, rasidi, raside ; rasideme, rasidede, rasidande.

Section

I.,

4th, Future.

Khwaham

i&wdhi

rasid, 'I shall arrive;'

Plur. Jchwahem rasid, Jchwahed

r.,

khhwdhad

r.,

ihwhdhand

r.

Tenses from Past Participle.


1st,

Rasida am, rasida

i,

Perfect

rasida ast

2nd,

Rasida budam,.. .budi,

I have

arrived.*

'

; plur., rasida

Pluperfect. I had
'

. .

bud;

The Roots are formed


1. Infinitives in adan,

plur., rasida

as follows

em, rasida ed, rasida and.


arrived.*

budem,

buded,

. .

budand.

idan and ddan reject the termination

chidan, to collect, chin

come, a or ay;

firistddan, to send, firist ; pursidan, to ask, purs


give, dih

. .

sit ddan,

thus,

except, dddan, to

didan, to see, bin

zadan, to strike, zan

dmadan, to prepare, dmd;

dmadan, to

to seize, sit an ;

zddan, to bring forth, zd;

gddan, to

embrace, gd; kushddan, to open, Jcushd; dfridan, to create, dfrin;


shunidan, to hear, shunau ; guzidan 9 to choose, guzin.
2. Infinitives in

udan, change

for d or de, as situdan, to praise,

it

sitae or sitd: except, budan, to be,

bit

or bash; shudan, to be,shaw;

tanudan, to draw, tanau ; durudan, to reap, duru

zinau

3. Infinitives in

kan

zinudan, to mingle,

ghunudan, to sleep, ghunu.


rdan or udan reject the dan, as kandan, to

except, dwurdan, to bring, ar or

kardan, to do, kun

murdan, to

afshurdan, to press, afshar


to count,

dig,

bear, bar

mir; dzurdan, to vex, dzdr

sipurdan, to entrust, sipdr ; shumurdan,

shumdr; farkandan, to

4. Infinitives in

die,

awar ; bur dan, to

khtan take

dig, farkand;

z,

gandan, to rot, gand.

as andajdttan, to throw,. andaz

except, shindkhtan, to recognize, shinds ; farokhtan, to

Digitized by

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farosh

;:

ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR.

19

gusikhtan, to break, gusil; dkhtan, to draw (a sword), dlch

to milk, dosh

dokhtan,

suJchtan, to weigh, sanj.

5. Infinitives in

stan reject the stan, as zistan, to live, zl

except,

ju; khdstan, to rise, khez


khwdstan, to wish, l$hwah; paiwastan, to join, paiwand; justan, to
Leap, jah ; rastan, to escape, rah ; rustan, to grow, ruy ; ristan, to
bastan, to bind, band; justan, to seek,

spin, ris ;

shustan, to wash, shuy

kdstan, to diminish, kah

make
6.

to

sit,

nishdn

nishdstan, to

nishin.

gard ; nawishtan, to

Ml; dghashtan,

ddr

low, kdr

write, navois

except,

hishtan, to

to accumulate, aghdsh; agjioshtan, to embrace,

Ighpsh ; qfrdshtan, to exalt, afrdz

7.

sit,

Infinitives in shtan take r, as dash tan, to have,

yashtan, to become,
juit,

nishistan 9 to

shikastan, to break, shikan

gusastan, to break, gusil

kushtan, to

rishtan, to spin, ris

hishtan, to

hush.

kill,

Infinitives inyfow take

b,

as t aft an, to Bhine,

or retain^ as

wftan, to weave, 5f : except, hhuftan, to sleep, Mw*p ; r oftan, to


jo, raw; giriftan, to take, y*r; guftan, to say, yo or yoy ; pa^lraftan

accept, pazir

huguft

to bore, suft

suftan,

shinuftan, to hear, shinau

ormed by lengthening the

The days

shuguftan, to blossom,

kaftan, to dig, haw.

Some

are

penult, as ruftan, to sweep, rob.

of the week are

named thus

in Persian

Sunday,

yak shanba (pronounced shambd).

Monday,

do shanba.

Tuesday,

sih shanba.

"Wednesday, chahdr shanba.


Thursday,

panj shanba.

Friday,

juma\

Saturday,

shanba.

b2
Digitized by

VjOOQIC

20

CAKDINAL NUMBEES IN PERSIAN AND PASHT&.

21

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GRAMMAR.


The
All

Article

Nouns

feminine
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

The
1.
2.
3.

wanting, as in

is

Urdu and

are masculine or feminine.

Persian.

The

following are usually

Nouns in ar nafdida, advantage.


Nouns in ai, as fopai, a hat.
Nouns in i, as badl, evil.
Nouns in ah, as zhibah, tongue or language.
Purely Pashtu Nouns in a, asjdrd, crying.
feminines are generally formed as follows

Masc. in
Masc. in

in ai

ai, fern,

as, spai,

a dog

spai, a bitch.

i, fem. in anra ; as, dobi, a washerman, dob anra.


Masc. in a consonant (except ah) add for fem. a ; as, ukh, a

camel, ukha.
4. Masc. having u in last syllable
as,

shpun, a shepherd, shpana

and masc. in

ah, fem. in

ana ;

gAobah, a cowherd, g&obana.

DEOLEN8ION OF NOUNS.
1st Declension

Masculine Nouns in ai
:

Plural.

Singular.

Nom.

sarai, a

Gen. da

sari,

man
of a

Dat.

sari ta, to a

Ace.

sarai,

Abl.

la sari na,

pa
pa
o

tar

man
man

da sariyo.
sariyo ta.

man
from a

sari.

man

la sariyo na.

man
man
man

sari (Jckhe) he, in a

upon a
sari pore, up to a

sari bdnde,

by a man
Oh, man

Agent

sari,

Voc.

ai Sariya,

2nd

sari.

pa
pa

sariyo (Jckhe) he.

sariyo bdnde.

tar sariyo pore.


sariyo.

ai sariyo.

Declension Masculine Nouns ending in a consonant, and


Nom. hor, a house plur. Tcoruna.
denoting inanimate objects
Gen. da kor, of a house ; plur. da koruno. &c.
:

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ELEMENTS OF PA8HTU GRAMMAR.

22

3rd Declension, Masculine


animate objects

Nouns

in a consonant, or

mar, a snake, da mar

as,

denoting

i,

mdran, da

plor.

tndrdno, &c.

N.B. Many such Nouns are declined


sion

as, as,

Nouns

4th Declension, Masculine

sounds;

declen-

ending in a consonant denoting

krap, a crunch, da krap;

as,

2nd

like the

a horse, dsuna, &c.

plur.

hrapahdr,

da-

krapahdro, &c.
1st Declension, Feminine

spal

Nouns

in at or i; as, spai, a bitch,

fa

da spo, &c.

plur. spai,

2nd Declension, Feminine

Nouns

in a;

woman,

ihaza, a

as,

da

ihaze ; plur. hhaze, da hhazo, &c.

Nouns

3rd Declension, Feminine


da ohldo,

plur. ahlet

4lh Declension, Feminine


road, da lare

Nouns

Adjectives ore declined


and case.

as, gld, theft,

like

ending

consonants

in

tauda, hot.

fern,

tod,

lar,

Nouns, and agree in gender, number,

following form their feminines irregularly

The
Masc.

da gMa\

da laro, &c.

plur. Idre,

in a;

<fcc.

Masc.

drana, heavy.

shin, fern. sAwa,

green.

tor,

...

forfl,

black.

...

drund,

...

trihh,

...

tarMka,bitter.

...

Tchog,

...

Jchwaga, sweet.

...

triw,

...

tarwd,

...

Jchor,

...

khwara, scattered

...

...

sour.

Degrees oe Comparison.
(See Section

I.,

Phrases 11

to 14).

Personal Pronouns.
Norn, zuh,

Plur. mung, we.

I,

Gen. dzama) n
,
_ J-of me,'
or 00 ma
j
Dat. wmfo, to me,
Ace. mo, me,
*a,
by me,
In.

dzamunga.
*

. . .

...
. .

td ta,

mung.
munga.

td,

iu me.

ma na

...

/a

munga

na,

'thee,

to thee,

thee,

by

a,

pa

you

stdso.

...

ta he

tdso ta.

...

ftwo.

thee,...

tfaso.

(Jckhe),

...pa tdso

he,

in thee.

[he,

from me.

data,

mung ta.

Loc. pa ma he (Jckhe) ...pa munga

Abl. la

thou, Plur. tdsoy

tuh,

std or

la td na,

from thee, ...la tdso

ai td,

oh, thou

Digitized by

...

ai tdso.

Google

na,

ELEMENTS OE PASHTU GRAMMAB.


Third Person Proximate.

2%tVrf Person Remote,

Nodi, and Ace. da or de} he, she or

hagha, he, she or

it.

it,

haghoi or hag ho.

dou

plur.

23

f Masc. hag&uh.

Oblique cases, da or

de, plur.

The following forms are


Section

Phrase 66)

I.,

do or

by thee, thine
him, by him, his

plur.
;

. .

{See Section

(See

mu, us, by us, our.


mu, you, by you, your.
ye,

...

affixes ta, to, Jce (Jshhe), in,

verbs, the following are used

war, him, her,

though seldom, used.

occasionally,

de, thee,

With the

(Fern, hag&e.

we, me, by me, mine

ye,

cfoyo.

by them.

&c, and
rd,

also in

me, us

comp. with
you ;

dar, thee,

The affixes are, however, omitted in speaking.


Phrases 44 and 45).

it.

I.,

Demonsteative Pbonouns.

Nom. and

Ace. dagha or da, this

plur. daghdi or de.

Oblique

dagha or da ;
dagko or deo.
...
The Personal Pronouns hag&a and de are used for * that
khpul*
* own/ corresponds to the Hindi ffp/w.
' :

The

bat (bul) yo,

"

Which

compounds are in common use


" Other one,"
fern, bala yuwa; " all the rest,'* nor pi, fem. nore (ole.

following

yo, fem. huma yuwa ; " many more," nor cfer,


" Every one," Aar yo, fem. Aara ^wwa. Also, bul

hum

one,"

fem. ttore fer&

"other person;" bul tsa, "other thing:" nor tsok, "who


else?" nor tsa, " what else?" har tsok, "every body;" har tsuh,
" every thing " hets tsoh na, " nobody ;" har tso, " however many."
tsoh,

The Auxiliary Vebb


Indicative.

Future.

Present.

Zuh yam,
Tuh ye,
zllag&a

dai,

I am,

Thou

He

\lagka dah, She

is,

We are,

Miiny yu,
Tdso yai,

You

Haghoe

They

de,

art,

is,

are,

are,

Tarn, "lam,"

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU OBAMMAB.

24

The Intbansjtive Auxiliabt Verb

Kedal, " to become."

Mood.

Indicative

Future.

Imperfect.

I shall become,

I was becoming, &c.

Present.

&c.

Kegam, I become,

ha kegam,

kedalam or Jcedam.

JST<?y<?,

Thou becomest,

ha kege,

Jcedale or i<fe.

ifoyi,

He

becomes,

ha kegl,

keduh, fem. kedala, Tcedah.

Kegu,

"We become,

ha kegu,

kedalu, Jcedu.

Kegal,

Tou

ha kegai,

Jcedalai, kedal.

-fiT<?y,

They become,

ha kegl,

kedal, fem. Jcedale.

become,

Gerund, kedun, fem., kedana, "the becoming."


Present Part., keduh, fem. kedala, " becoming."
Active

Part.,

or

Noun

of

Agency,

kedunkai,

(fem.

i),

"i

becomer."

The Intbansitive Auxiliabt Vebb

Shwal," to become," or "to be/

>

elements of pashtu gbammab.

25

Tbansitiye Vebb.
wahal, " to strike."

Active Voice

Indicative Present

strike,

Sing, waham, wahe, wahi

Aorist

I may

Future

strike,

thou

strikest, &c.

Plur. wahu, wahai, wahi.

&c, wu toaham, wu wahe, &c.


&c, wu ha waham, &c, or, with Pronoun,

shall strike,

wu

zuh ba

toaham, &c.

The Imperfect, Past, Perfect and Pluperfect require the Agent Case
instead of the Nominative, and the Verb agrees with the object.

The Imperfect.
Thou, you,

eta tdso,

>i

he, she, it

[was (were) striking

or they,

me

^haghp
us

I,

we, he,

she, it

mung wahalu.

...

cmd

-\

mung,-\

or was (were) striking thee Xhaghuh ovyta toahale.

they,

^hagho

thou)
[ was

or you,

tdso
you
(him) ma mungi)
.

I, we,

-\

haghuh or \zuh wahalam.

(were) striking-!

(them

(wahal.

<

>

haghoi

...

(.them (fem.))

The
Thou, you,
he, she,
or they,

(have) struck

me

...

mung wahali yu.

similarly:

has or have struck thee,

tuh wahalai ye.

you,

tdso wahali yal.

him or
(them,

hagha wahalai dah.

her,

haghoe wahali

them (fem.) )
is

~\

haghuh ot> zuh wahalai yam.


^hagho
)

us

The Past

(toahale.

And,

<

Perfect.

Cta tdso,

it has

wahalai.

Cwahuh.
\hagha]
(wahala.
td or taso)

>

(;ber )

haghe wahali

formed from the Imperfect by prefixing

di.

di.

wu

td zuh

wu

wahalam, " thou didst strike me."

The
1

*"
\

Continuative Past

is

formed thus

Ma

ba hagha voahuh, " I

used to strike him/'

The

Pluperfect thus

The Doubtful

Ma

Pluperfeot

hagha wahalai wuh, u I had struck him."

Hagha ba zuh wahalai yam, " He might

have struck me."


Digitized by

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)
26

"

ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GBAMMAB.

The Imperative :

" Strike," wu waha;

Plur.

" Let him strike," wu de wahi ;

The Subjunctive Mood

is

...

wu wahai.
wu de wahi.

formed by prefixing kaf "if," to the

Indicative.

The Potential Mood, corresponding


formed from the Past Part.
shwal thus,

to the use of sakna in Urdu, is

the Present with the Present of

Wahalai sham, " I can strike ; " wdhalai she, " thou canst
strike " wahalai shu, " we can strike," <fcc.
;

In the Past the Verb agrees with the


the Indicative

Thou, you,.
he, she,
it

C could

(tdtdsohaa&a')
,
T
7
7
,

have struck me, i


\zuh wahalai shwam.

or they )

ovha

<*

mung wahall

us,

...

shuri.

(md, mung ")


she,
(could have struck thee, j hagha or r tuh wahalai shwe.
or they
)
^haa&o
we,

I,

it

he,>.

tdso wahall ihwal.

you,

...

I,

object, as in the past tenses of

him irnamung

we, thou")
or you
)

her

them

...

marians say

is

itself,

(haghol wahall shwal


(shwu).
^haghol wahall shwe.

wahalai

according

a curious anomaly, and some

impossible, but the

it is

...

(fem.) )

The change of termination of the Verb


to the gender of the object

haghawahalaishuh.

( td or tdso ) haaha wahall shwa.

them")

...

~)

Gram-

Afghans certainly give the in-

flection.

The Potential Future

is

formed with

ba, as

zuh ba

tlai

sham, I shall

be able to go.
wahun, fem. w ahan a, " striking ; "
Pres. Part., wahuh, fem. wahala, " striking 5"
Noun of Agency
wahunkai or wahunai, " a striker

Gerund

Past Part., wahalai, fem. wahall, "struck."

Passive Voice.
Wahalai kedal, "to be struck."

The Passive Voice

is

formed by conjugating the Past Participle

with the auxiliaries kedal and shwal, and making the usual changes
for

number, gender, and person.

Gerund, wahalai Tceduh ; Past.

Part., wahalai

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ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GEAMMAB.


Indicative

Mood.

27

"

ELEMENTS OP PA8HTU OBA1CKAB.

28

Imperative.
Sing.,

wu
wu

hhwazega, u move
de J&wazegi, " let

"

wu ihwazegai.
wu de l&wazegi.

plur,

him move ; "

...

Gerund, hhwazedun, " a moving


Pres. Part., khwazeduh, "moving."
Noun of Agency, ihwazedunkai, " a mover ; "
Past Part., bhwazedalai, " having moved."
;

Potentials

Present, khwazedalai shanty &c.


Past,

thwazedalai shwam, &c.

Future,

khwazedalai ha sham, &c.

Kawul, "

The Tbansitite Auxiliary


Indicative.

Present.
Plural.

Singular.

I doj

katvam or Tcram

Thou

He

Jcawu or kru,

dost, kawe, or Tcre

Tcawal or krai.

kawi, kri or kande

does,

to do."

kawi, kri or kande.

Imperfect.

In agreement with the objects in number and gender


Masc.

Ma td, &c.

Fem.

The Future

is

kawuh ;

plur. kawal.

kawala;

kawale.

...

formed by prefixing ha to the Present

zah ha

karam, &c.
Imperative.
Sing.

Do

thou,

Let him

wu kra

do,

or

wu ka ;

plur.

hag&a de wuh ka
Subjunctive.

...

wu

krai or

wu

kai.

h agh a de wu kri or kande.

Present.
Plural,

Singular.

If I do, ka kawam,

ka kawu.
ka kawai.
ka kawi or kande.

If thou doest, ka kawe,


If he does, ka kawi,

Past.

Masc. ka karai wai


ka kari wai,

Fem.

ka kari wai.

f
j

ka kari wai.

(See Phrase 62, Section I.)

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ELEMENTS OP PASHTU GRAMMAS.

The Future Subjunctive


karam (or ham), &c.

The

is

formed by prefixing

Irregular Yerbs in Pashtu are very

useless to attempt any explanation of

difficult,

them in

29
ba,

as ha ba

and

it

wu

would be

this "Work.

For the Numerals, see end of " Elements of Persian Grammar,"


page 20.

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Digitized by

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31

PART

II.

SENTENCES.
Note.

In most of the Phrases one word

of the four languages, to

assist the

is

printed in

in

I.,

Phrase 2,

Persian,

Phrase 28,

tifl ;

it is

it is

in each

student in picking out rapidly

the equivalents of the several English words


tion

italics,

seen at once that boy

is

for instance, in Sec-

in Hindustani, lar-Jca;

Again, in Section L,

and in Pashtu, halak.

seen that has he must in this and similar phrases be

rendered in Hindustani by us he pas hain and in Pashtu by da


9

haghuh dzalcha d% both of which mean, " are in his possession."


this

means the idiomatic

shown

instead of only the

Vocabulary.

many

For

cases, differ

"By

translation of the English expression is


literal,

which

this reason the

is all

that can be given in a

words given in the Vocabulary, in

from those given in this Part.

Digitized by

Googk

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33

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95

PART

III.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.


Note.

The

numbers

column opposite to any word

in the second

indicate the Section and Phrase where

but owing to the

it

may be found

in Fart II.,

difference of idiom it will often occur that the

translation there given will not agree with that given in this Vocabufor instance: the Urdu for "To have" is given in the
Vocabulary as rakhnd, but on referring to I. 28 it will be seen that
the affix " kepds" with the Verb "To be" is idiomatically used instead.
Some English words can only be rendered by a Phrase, as the
Neuter Verbs " To hurt " and " To lighten" and in these cases the
stands for the Hind, karnd.
reference will supply the translation.
Pers. kardan, Push, hawal, " To do." When a Hindi word has been

lary;

used in Persian (as being current in Kabul) the

English.

letter

H is affixed.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

96

English.

TOCABULABX AND INDEX.

English.

97

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

98

English.

VOOABULABT AND INDEX.

English.

09

100

English,

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

'

VOCABULABY AND INDEX.

Bef.

Urdu.

iv.

18

ab o hawa
baran ko|

xi.

34

English.

Climate
Cloak

Clock
Close
Cloth
Cloth Beller
Clothes

Cloud
Coarse
Coat
Cocoa-nut

13
68
i. 50
iv. 14
i.
i.

ghanta
nazdik
kapra
kapre wala
kapre
badal

mota
i.

kurta
naryal

41

Cock, of gun
Cock, fowl

ghora

murgh

Coffee

iii.

Cold
Cold weather

iv.

11

kafi

jara

thanda

17 zukam

Cold, illness

xiii.

Collect, to

ix.

Colour

ii.

56
98

jama' k.

Come, to

ii.

rang
kanghi
ana

Command

ii.

58

hukm

Commencement

xiii.

Comb

ibtida

Common

'am

Comparison

nisbat

Compass

kampas

96

parkar
mudda'I
pura

xi.

sharj

xi.

50

muwafik

77
16

EQU:

x.

Compasses,
pair of

Complainant
Complete
Condition, a
Conform, to

xi.

Consent(agree)

Consequence
Constipation
Contract
Contractor

ii.

xiii.

theka
thekadar

Contrary to
Contented
Cook, to

iii.

Cook

ii.

Cool

iii.

thanda

Coolie

ii.

kuli

Copper
Cord

ktilaf
razi

23
13

19
71
vi. 17
x. 6

pakana
bawarcbl

tanba
dori

k.

Persian.

101

102

English.

VO0ABULABY AND INDEX.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

English.

103

104

English.

YOCABULA.BY AND INDEX.

VOCABTJLABY AND INDEX.

English.

Escape
Estimate

Even (adv.)
Evening
Exactly

Examine, to
Excavation
Excellent
Extinguish, to,

bachao
tahmina,
timat

iv.

47
v.25
xi. 74
viii.

52

xi.

put out

Extreme
Eve
Eyebrow

x.

Face
Fair

i.51

Fall, to

Fall into, to

False

ix.

Family

ii.

Famine
Fan (punkha)

Urdu.

Bef.

89

48
54

ii.

bhi
sham,
thik

105

Pashtu.

Persian.

bach,

rihai
18-

taHimmlkimat takhmini

ham*
sham

ham.

'ain

barabar.

makham.

khodal

mulahaga
t^andak

bihtar

ktub

kandana.
khuh.

bujhana

gulk.

marawal.

akhirl

abiri

wrustanai.

ankh
bhawen

chashm

starga.

abru

barwate.

munh

ru

ma&fe.

gora
girna
milna
ihuth

sufed

spin.

uftadan

prewatal.
gadedal.
darogh.

mulahaga

k.

*i-

mat.

k.

raftan

darogh

katal.

kutumb

kabila

tabar.

kal

kahj

jp*h$.

na'lband

na'lband

na'lband.
garandai.

Far (distance)
Fare (hire)
Farrier

Fast
Fat
Fate
Father
Fault

49 jald
charbi
ix. 21
kismat
iii. 31
bap
^usur
i. 4
viii.

Fear
Fear, to
Feed, to (act.)

Feed,

ix.
ii.

74
69

charbi

wazda.

kismat
padar

nasib.

gunah
kbauf

kusur.

plar.

tarsidan

wyara.
wyaredal.

kburanidan

khurawal.

char i dan
tap

tsaredal.
taba.

to, as

birds

Fever

viii.

xiii.

Few
Field

Fig

dar
darna
khilana

zfid

chand

lag.

kisht

kafai.

iii.

anjir

indzar.

viii.

suhan
pur k.

suhan.
dakawal.

yaftan

jurimana

mundal.
tawan.

barik

barik.

i.

File
Fill, to

Find, to
Fine, a

Fine
Finish, to

75 chugna
bukhar
3

thora
khet

20 anjir
54 retl
bhar dena
vi. 26
pana
vii. 12
jurimana
ii. 3
mahin
ii. 101
tamam k.
v. 23

tamam

pura k.

k.

Fire

ag

atish

or.

Fireplace

angithi

atish fchana

ngiiarai.

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106

English.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

VOCABULABY AND INDEX.

English.

107

108

English.

VOOABULABY AND INDEX.

YOCABULABY AND INDEX.

J&nglish.

109

110

English.

VOCABULABY AKD

I1H)EX.

VOCABUXABT AND INDEX.

English.

Ill

112

English.

VOCABULARY AND

IITOEX.

VOCABULARY AKD HTDEX.

English.

113

114

EnglUh.

TOCABULABT AND INDXX.

TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

English.

115

116

English.

VOCABCLABT AND INDEX.

YOCABTTLAEY AHD INDEX.

English.

117

11%

Engltih.

T0CA.B1TI.ABT ABTD INDEX.

TOCABULABT AND INDEX.

English.

119

120

English.

YOCABFLABY AND INDEX.

VOCABULABT UTD

English.

IlfDII.

121

122

"English,

TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

TOCABULAET AND INDEX.

English.

128

124

English.

VOCABCLABY AND INDEX.

VOCABULARY

English.

JLSD INDEX.

125

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

126

English.

128

English.

VOCABULARY AKD INDEX.

VOCABULARY AND INDEX.

Englith.

129

130

English.

YO0ABULABY

ANT) INDEX.

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