Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2014 series

0610 BIOLOGY
0610/32

Paper 3 (Extended Theory), maximum raw mark 80

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of
the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not
indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners meeting before marking began,
which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers.
Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner
Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2014 series for
most Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International A and AS Level components and some
Cambridge O Level components.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.

Page 2

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Abbreviations used in the Mark Scheme

;
/
R
I
A
AW
underline
max
mark independently
A, S, P, L
O, S, D, L
(n)ecf
()
ora
AVP

separates marking points


separates alternatives within a marking point
reject
ignore (mark as if this material was not present)
accept (a less than ideal answer which should be marked correct)
alternative wording
words underlined must be present
indicates the maximum number of marks that can be awarded
the second mark may be given even if the first mark is wrong
Axes, Size, Plots and Line for graphs
Outline, Size, Detail and Label for drawings
(no) error carried forward
the word / phrase in brackets is not required, but sets the context
or reverse argument.
any valid point

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Syllabus
0610

Paper
32

Page 3

Question
1

(a)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Answer

Syllabus
0610

Marks

A (waxy) cuticle;
B palisade mesophyll / palisade layer / palisade cell;
C (lower) epidermis / epidermal layer;
D stoma / stomata / guard cell(s);
E air / gas, space;

Additional Guidance
I outer layer / AW
R mesophyll / palisade unqualified

(b)
letter from
Fig. 1.2

function

Paper
32

controls movement of substances into and out


of the cell

creates a pressure to maintain the shape of


the cell

produces sugars using light as a source of


energy

withstands the internal pressure of the cell

controls all the activities of the cell

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

R (spongy) mesophyll

Page 4

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Question Answer

Marks

(c) (i) volume of, oxygen / gas, increases (with time);


levels off / reaches a plateau / AW;
increases rapidly at start and then slows down;
use of data;

Syllabus
0610

Paper
32

Guidance for Examiners

I reaction stops

max 3
(ii) substrate / hydrogen peroxide / reactant / AW, fits into enzyme;
active site;
shape is, complementary / AW;
any reference to lock and key;
product(s) / oxygen and water, formed and leaves the enzyme;
AVP;

e.g. levels off at 6.2 cm3 of oxygen at 90


seconds
data quotes must have units
A answers in the context of catalase
I speeds up the reaction
R if shape is the same

max 3
[Total: 16]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

A product and enzyme separate


e.g. enzyme can work again / enzyme not
used up / enzyme is not changed during
reaction / lowers activation energy

Page 5

Question
2

(a)

Answer

(d)

Syllabus
0610

Additional Guidance

max 3

A substances that cause harm / harmful


A named example e.g. CO2, urea, salt,
named ions, amino acids
toxic waste products of metabolism /
AW = 2 marks

(ii) glucose;

(iii) urea and salts;

any three from:


pelvis;
ureter;
bladder;
urethra;
homeostasis;

Paper
32

Marks

removal from the, body / organism / cell;


poisons / toxins / harmful substances;
waste product(s), of metabolism / respiration / deamination / chemical
reactions;
substances in excess (of requirements) / AW;

(b) (i) protein;

(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

max 3
1
[Total: 10]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

A sodium / ions

Page 6

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Question
3

(a)

Answer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Marks

secrete / make / use, enzymes;


breakdown insoluble substances to soluble substances;
(named) protease;
breaks down protein to amino acids;
amylase / carbohydrase;
breaks down starch to, glucose / maltose / sugar;
lipase;
breaks down fat to fatty acids and glycerol;

Paper
32

Additional Guidance

A pepsin

9 (named) products respired;


10 using oxygen;
11 carbon dioxide released;
12 ammonia produced;
13 AVP; ref to nitrification
max 5
(b)

Syllabus
0610

e.g. glucose / sugars / fatty acids / amino


acids
MP9, MP10 and MP11 can be taken from a
word equation
MP9 can be awarded for C6H12O6 in a
chemical equation
MP10 and MP11 can be taken from a
correctly balanced chemical equation

(chlorine) kills bacteria / acts as a disinfectant; R remove bacteria

A microorganisms

(some) bacteria may, cause disease / be pathogenic;

I harmful unqualified

so water is not harmful to the environment / does not kill (named)


organisms;

I makes the water safe unqualified


max 2
[Total: 7]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

kills, pathogenic / disease-causing, bacteria


=2

Page 7

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Question
4

(a)

Answer
1
2

thick, wall;
withstands (blood) pressure;

3
4

muscular tissue;
vasoconstriction / vasodilation;

5
6

elastic (tissue);
recoils to maintain (blood) pressure / smoothes out blood flow;

7
8

small lumen;
maintains (blood) pressure;

Syllabus
0610

Marks

A tunica media and tunica externa for wall


I reference to lining / endothelium

R increase

max 4
(b) (i) 13 kPa;

2
3
4

Additional Guidance
max 3 for structures (MP1, 3, 5, 7 and 9)
function marks (MP2, 4, 6, 8, 10) must
relate to a structure

9 fibrous tissue;
10 maintains shape / prevents bursting;

(ii) 1

Paper
32

blood pressure decreases as cross-sectional area increases


(to capillaries);
continues to decrease / remains constant, as cross-sectional
area decreases (in the veins);
speed of blood decreases as cross-sectional area increases
(in the capillaries);
increases as cross-sectional area decreases in, veins / vena
cava;
max 3

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 8

Question
(c)

(d)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014
Answer

(oxygen) diffuses (from blood to tissue fluid);


across the, wall / membranes (of the capillary);
down a concentration gradient / from high concentration to low
concentration;
pressure forces out, water / (named) solutes;
(pressure) filtration;

Marks

Syllabus
0610

Paper
32

Additional Guidance

max 3

muscle(s) in arteriole contract;


arterioles constrict / vasoconstriction occurs;
less blood flows to, skin / capillaries;
decrease in loss of heat (from the blood) by, radiation / conduction /
convection;

I capillaries, vasoconstrict / constrict


A stops blood flow to skin
R movement of arterioles / capillaries away
from the surface of skin / AW
A prevent heat loss by,
radiation / conduction / convection
e.g. ref to shunt vessel(s) / blood taking a
deeper route

AVP;
max 3
[Total: 14]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 9

Question
5

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014
Answer

Syllabus
0610

Marks

(a) (i) X protein (coat / AW) / capsid / capsomere(s);


Y genetic material / nucleic acid / RNA;
2
(ii) cell wall;
cell membrane;
cytoplasm;
loop of DNA;
(slime) capsule;
flagellum / flagella;
plasmids;
ribosome(s);
AVP;

Paper
32

Additional Guidance

A DNA / gene(s)
R nuclear material / chromosome

R cellulose cell wall


I size / complexity / shape

max 3

(b) (i) number of people living with HIV:


numbers living with HIV increased (from 1990), levelled off /
increased slightly, from 2000 / 2001 / 2002;
any one correct data quote from vertical axis for numbers living
with HIV;
number of people newly infected with HIV:
numbers newly infected increased (and levelled off between 1994
and 1998) and decreased since, 1997 / 1998;
any one correct data quote from vertical axis for numbers newly
infected with HIV;

e.g. pili

date quotes must have correct year, but A starts


for 1990 and ends for 2009 / 2010
A any correct manipulation of the data, e.g.
increased by / percentage increase, etc.
A a square for data quotes
4

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 10

Question

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Answer

Marks

(ii) people living with HIV are living longer;


success of (named) treatment for HIV / AIDS;
success in reducing transmission;
reference to, education / information / funding, about HIV / AIDS;

Syllabus
0610

Paper
32

Additional Guidance

e.g. drugs / antivirals / AZT / nursing care


A ref. to barrier contraception / condom / femidom
max 2

(iii) from mother to fetus / across the placenta;


from mother to baby at birth;
in breast milk;
unprotected / unsafe sex;
sharing, needles / syringes;
in blood products / blood for transfusion / transplants / blood to
blood contact;
AVP;
max 3
(iv) weakens the immune system / reduces capacity of body to respond
to disease / AW;

R saliva
R other sharps, e.g. razors unless qualified by
blood contact
R using contaminated / dirty / used, needles
unqualified A intravenous drug use / AW
R donating blood
R blood unqualified
A blood exchange
I body fluids unqualified
R no immune system / destroys immune system
A fight disease

lymphocytes are, damaged / destroyed / killed / not functional;


(B / T) lymphocytes / white blood cells, stop making antibodies;
any two roles of antibodies or lymphocytes or phagocytes which
will not happen or not happen very well;;

max 3
[Total: 17]
Cambridge International Examinations 2014

antibodies stop, pathogens spreading (in the body)


antibodies cause pathogens to, clump / agglutinate
antibodies kill bacteria
antibodies make it easier for phagocytes to ingest
pathogens
antibodies, neutralise toxin(s) / make toxins
harmless
phagocytes, ingest / AW, pathogens
lymphocytes kill infected cells

Page 11

Question
6

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014

Answer

(a) (i) 1
2
3
4
5

Syllabus
0610

Marks

concentration of PCBs increases up the food chain / ora;


concentration is much higher in larger organisms / ora;
big(gest) increase between herring and porpoise;
(only) herring / porpoise / animals at top of food chain, have a
range of concentrations;
use of figures (arbitrary units) to make a comparison
between two, trophic levels / organisms;
max 3

Paper
32

Additional Guidance

MP4 must be a qualitative statement, not just


statement of figures
MP5 must be a comparison not just figures
unqualified, e.g. use of but, and, only, etc.
and accept 1.8 / 2, 4, 30, 384, 1900

(ii) animals at higher trophic levels live longer;


eat many of the animals below them in the food chain;
PCBs cannot be, excreted / eliminated / removed / broken down;
so build up in the body (tissues);
bioaccumulation / biomagnification;
max 3
(b) (i) mutation / change in DNA;
any mutagen;
gene(s) code for, AHR / protein;
any sensible suggestions about change to protein molecule;
fish susceptible to PCB poisoning died;
fish with changed protein survived and reproduced;
passing on mutant allele;
reference to (natural) selection;

A ref to genetic variation R AHR / protein, mutates


e.g. radiation
e.g. different amino acid sequence

max 5
(ii) fish with mutant allele not at an advantage / no selection for PCB
resistance;
PCB resistant fish may not compete well with others / ora;
so less successful at breeding / ora;
leave fewer offspring / ora;
idea that mutant allele is diluted as fish interbreed;

A the altered AHR protein is of less / no use

max 2

Cambridge International Examinations 2014

Page 12

Question
(c)

Mark Scheme
Cambridge IGCSE October/November 2014
Answer

Syllabus
0610

Marks

persistent / does not breakdown / accumulates;

2
3
4
5

fill up / takes up space in, landfill sites / rubbish dumps;


suffocate / choke, animals;
kills animals that get trapped in it;
release, toxins / poisons;

Paper
32

Additional Guidance
MP1 A cant get rid of them / takes a long time to
breakdown
MP3 and MP4 do not allow kill unqualified
MP5 maybe in context of leaching out, burning or
eating
I references to recycling
I pollution unqualified

AVP;

max 3

(fill with water to become) breeding grounds


for mosquitoes
blocks light for, photosynthesis
negative effect on tourism / visual pollutant
blocks drains
blocks flow of water in, rivers / streams
reduces soil, drainage / aeration
interferes with water treatment
allows spread of alien species in the oceans

[Total: 16]

Cambridge International Examinations 2014