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M.

Keffer human biology 27888067

%1humanbio midterm review 2009-10


1. bonuses available
a) BONUS (up to 5% on your exam) if you do this review sheet!
b) by “do the review sheet” I mean: address each one of the items on this review
sheet. doesn’t have to be beautiful. just so that it lets me know that you know the
stuff.
c) ALSO -- WODs available for bonus – from any time of the year!
2. fair game:
a) ANY question from ANY test or quiz is fair game
b) questions from previous tests might be on, but rearranged to be multiple choice
c) ANY question from a typed sheet, or from an overhead, is fair game
3. format
a) MOST of the exam (probably about 75%) will be multiple choice or labeling.
b) there will be a few longer-answer questions where you have to explain something
in detail. You can make some pretty good guesses about these.
4. hints:
a) know the answers to all the multiple choice questions we’ve had on tests/quizzes
so far
b) make up some multiple choice questions of your own -- it’s good practice

%1nutrition
1. seven categories of nutrients -- what are they?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fiber, water, vitamins & minerals.
2. overall functions for carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Carbs: provide body with energy.
3. monosaccharides, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

4. drawings of glucose, disaccharide, starch, cellulose, glycogen (be able to recognize)

%1digestive system
1. three main “functions” of the digestive system
1. Break food down
2. Absorb food
3. Dispose of food
2. names, functions, locations of all organs in digestive system

Esophagus: push food down to stomach


Stomach: break food down with acids
Duodenum: place to allow food/fats to be broken down by bile
Liver: create bile, filter blood
Gallbladder: Store & release bile
Pancreas: Makes pancreatic juices & hormones
Small intestine: Absorbs nutrients from broken down food
Large intestine: Absorb water from & store feces

3. FIBER and diverticulitis – connection


If you don’t eat enough fiber, then the feces do not absorb enough water & parts of them get
stuck in the large intestine, causing diverticulitis.
4. pancreas functions: endocrine, exocrine, baking soda, digestive enzymes
5. the gall bladder – how it works, during meals, in between meals
1. Bile from liver moves down hepatic duct
2. Normally sphincter is closed
3. Bile is stored and concentrated in gall bladder
4. Muscles squeeze gall bladder and bile is forced down into duodenum

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

6. explain the following disorders:


Celiac disorder:
Damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who
have celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley.
Jaundice:
Yellowish staining of the skin and the whites of the eyes that is caused by high levels of bilirubin
in blood
Appendicitis:
Appendicitis begins when the opening from the appendix into the cecum becomes blocked by
stool in the large intestine, causing an infection. If the infection spreads then the appendix can
rupture and if the matter in the appendix makes it into the small intestine + gets absorbed, it can
be deadly.
Gallstones:
Small (or large) pebble-like pieces of bile that have hardened and eventually block the
entrance/exit to the gallbladder, not allowing bile to leave so fats are not broken down and not
absorbed. You can tell if you have gallstones if you have excessive pain while eating/digestion
(because of the pushing around of gallstones in gallbladder to pump out bile) and if your feces
float because of the excess fat. If it is serious and gallbladder is taken out, the person cannot eat
anything very fatty because they can do not have the bile execrated to break it down.

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

%1respiratory system
1. label diagram – names and functions
2. pulmonary capillaries – which way is blood flowing?
From heart back to heart.
3. gas movement at the alveolar membrane: which way is O2 going? which way is CO2
going?
O2 is leaving the gas in alveoli and entering blood, CO2 is leaving the blood + entering gas in
alveoli.
4. what’s happening in each of the following?
a) Tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that mainly involves the lungs,
but may spread to other organs. Someone with TB will have trouble breathing, coughing up
blood, excessive sweating, and chest pain. Left untreated it is fatal – but there is a cure for it.
b) emphysema
A lung disease which makes it difficult to breathe, the alveoli burst forming one large alveoli
which does not have nearly the amount of surface area as the small ones so it oxygenates much
less blood slower. Caused by smoking and irreversible.
c) pneumothorax (difference between “open” and “tension” pneumothorax)
When the surface tension between the lung and pleural membranes brakes (because of some sort
of injury pushing through them), causing the lung to collapse. An open pneumothorax is less
dangerous because the air that enters from outside can leave without causing too much damage
to the lungs/organs. When there is a flap of skin in the way, however, the air cannot leave the
chest cavity and causes the one functioning lung to shrink.
d) Cricothyrotomy
Emergency incision through the skin and cricothyroid membrane to secure a patient's airway
during certain emergency situations, such as an airway obstructed by a foreign object or
swelling.
e) collapsed lung
Result of a pneumothorax, surface tension between lung and lower/upper pleural membranes is
broken causing lung to deflate.
f) Pneumonia
An infection of the lungs. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and
fungi.

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

Pneumonia can range from mild to severe, and can even be deadly.
g) cystic fibrosis
An inherited disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract. It
is one of the most common type of chronic lung disease in children and young adults, and may
results in a very premature death.
5. what is MDR tuberculosis? where, and why, is it happening?
Multi-drug resistant TB. Happens because of the consistent fighting of the disease – it has
become resistant to the two most powerful and common drugs against it.
6. sticky slippery slides: what is the role of surface tension in the pleural membranes?
The outer pleural membrane is connected to the diaphragm, and when the diaphragm pulls down
or pushes up, that causes the outer pleural membrane to pull/push which causes the inner pleural
membrane to pull/push which, because of the surface tension, causes the lungs to pull/push.
7. role of diaphragm and intercostals muscles in breathing
^^^^^^
8. lung volume measurement (VC, IRV, ERV, TV...) what does each mean? how might
lung volume be measured in the classroom? (“lungs and vital capacity”)
By breathing into a tube into a jug of water, measuring it before and after and seeing how much
less there is in it.
9. UP3 (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty)
A surgical procedure used to remove tissue in the throat, this stops patients from snoring because
the tissue does not block the airway causing them to snore, not get enough oxygen, wake up
frequently, and never get into a rem sleep.

%1circulatory system (arteries veins


capillaries)
1. differences between arteries, veins, capillaries
Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the cells that need them.
Veins carry blood containing carbon dioxide back to the heart after the oxygen has been given to
the cells.
Capillaries are the thinnest arteries and veins. They are only one cell wide. As the blood cell
passes through the very thin capillary, the cells on either side are given oxygen and carbon
dioxide is taken from them. Therefore, the capillaries connect the arteries and veins.
Three main reasons why blood vessels aren’t just simple tubes: dynamic; controlled leakiness;
layers... what these mean and why they’re important

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

2. varicose veins -- what they are, why they happen


Swollen, twisted, painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood. Valves in
vein do not function properly, allowing blood to remain in the vein. Pooling of blood in a vein
causes it to enlarge.
3. Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein caused by a blood clot.
4. elephantiasis: involvement of lymph vessels
There is an abnormal accumulation of watery fluid in the tissues (edema) causing severe
swelling. The skin usually develops a thickened, swollen appearance.
5. hemolytic anemia
A condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood, due to the premature
destruction of red blood cells.
6. thrombus/embolus/embolism/embolectomy
A clot formed in a blood vessel or in a chamber of the heart.
A blockage of an artery by fat, air, a blood clot, or tumor cells.
An embolism when an object migrates from one part of the body and causes a blockage of a
blood vessel in another part of the body.
The removal of a clot preventing blood from flowing in the body.
7. arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
Abnormal connection between veins and arteries.
8. valve action in veins – how valves help blood return to the heart
The pressure in veins is very low, so the valves keep it from flowing backward.
9. four hallmarks of inflammation
Redness, swelling, pain, heat.
10. capillary beds, shunt, thoroughfare channel, true capillary
The shunt can turn on and off the flow through the capillary beds.
11. shock -- five different kinds, when each might happen
Hypovolemic shock: lack of blood volume in veins due to loss of blood.
Neurogenic shock: dilation of blood vessels caused by imbalance in smooth muscle walls.
Anaphylactic shock: results from an allergic reaction
Septic shock: infectious agents release toxins into blood causing blood vessels to dilate.
Cardiogenic shock: results from heart failure, heart can no longer pump effectively + blood flow
to the tissues of the body decreases or stops.
12. precapillary sphincters -- how and WHY they work
The sphincters can turn on and off the flow through the capillary beds.
13. blood pressure -- explain why it’s important; normal values; systolic and diastolic
pressures
120/80 -> high blood pressure = 140/90.
High blood pressure causes various diseases such as myocardial infarction, so one should always
keep an eye on their blood pressure.
Systole -> blood pressure when ventricles contract (120)
Diastolic -> blood pressure between contractions (80)
14. korotkoff sounds -- what they are and why they happen; note they’re NOT the same
as heartbeat sounds!
They are caused by the blood passage causing vibrations in the walls of the blood
vessel, heart beats are the ventricles and atria contracting.

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

%1heart and heart disease


1. label and tell function of all parts of heart

2. social aspects and costs related to atherosclerosis


Most expensive disease, by far, in America.
3. atherosclerosis -- describe how disease works at level of blood vessel
Plaque builds up in the blood vessels; white blood cells see the plaque as an infection and swarm
to eat/attack it. The white blood vessels burst and cause more white blood cells to come and do
the same. Plaque builds up between walls of artery, causing the artery to lose its elasticity,
diameter, and damages the artery walls. This continues to repeat until the artery is clogged,
plaque ruptures, and causes a heart attack.
4. electrical conduction system in the heart – be able to label and tell the fxns of each
part (SA node, AV node, bundle of His, purkinje fibers)
Sino Atria node releases electrical current, AV node spreads to the atria, the AV bundle delays
the current, then the purkinje fibers spread it throughout the ventricles.
5. rhythm of normal heartbeat, AND why that’s important (rem: AV, AV, AV...)

6. what makes heartbeat sounds?


The cuspid & semilunar valves snapping shut.
7. electrocardiogram (ECG ) be able to describe the major sections of the graph and
what each means

8. path of circulation in a normal heartbeat (the cardiac cycle); describe the linear cycle
and the parallel cycle

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

Blood moves from the pulmonary veins to the left atrium through the bicuspid valve to the left
ventricle to the aorta through the aortic semilunar valve to the body through the vena cava to the
right atrium through the tri cuspid valve to the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery
through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the lungs and into the pulmonary veins.

9. Describe what’s going on in the following:


a) heart murmur
Valves do not shut completely allowing back flow.
b) congestive heart failure
The heart has weakened and can no longer pump blood efficiently throughout the body.
c) Endocarditis
Inflammation of the endocardial layer of the heart caused by bacteria -> hole between two
chambers of the heart.
10. *** long, medium, and short-term factors leading to john’s heart attack ***

11. TPA (and what it stands for) and why it’s important
Tissue plasminogen activator -> clot-buster drug, used to bust clots caused causing heart attack
and myocardial infarction.
12. atrioventricular fibrillation -- what is it? what happens next?
The heart stops pumping so blood is not pushed anywhere, heart failure unless a defibrillator is
used successfully.
13. during john’s heart attack, at some point he was drowning in his own bodily fluids.
why and how?
Pulmonary edema -> heart was not pumping blood quickly enough to blood was staying in
pulmonary capillaries for too long and fluids were leaking into the alveoli.
14. cartoon vessels of the heart

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

%1sections and directions


1. coronal, frontal, transverse, sagittal sectioning methods
2. anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral

%1

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

16. Edema: inflammation


%1vocabulary 17. Embolectomy: surgical removal of
review an embolus.
18. Emphysema: A lung disease which
%1(arranged alphabetically; makes it difficult to breathe, the
mostly just to jog your memory. alveoli burst forming one large
Many of these are repeats from alveoli which does not have nearly
the upper section of this the amount of surface area as the
review.) small ones so it oxygenates much
less blood slower. Caused by
1. Anterior: Front smoking and irreversible.
2. arteriovenous malformation: 19. Epiglottis: A flap of tissue that sits
abnormal connection between at the base of the tongue that
veins and arteries keeps food from going into the
3. atherosclerosis: Plaque building in trachea, or windpipe, during
arteries swallowing.

4. AV node: Sends electrical current 20. expiratory reserve volume


to atria. 21. fatty acid: carboxylic acids with
5. balloon angioplasty: Balloon stuck long hydrocarbon chains.
into an artery to expand it. 22. Fibrillation: rapid, irregular, and
6. Cardiogenic: Inadequate circulation unsynchronized contraction of
of blood due to primary failure of muscle fibers.
the ventricles 23. Frontal: section of front from back
7. carotid artery: Narrowed artery due 24. Glycogen: storage form of glucose
to plaque. in animals and humans which is
8. Coronal: Frontal analogous to the starch in plants.

9. coronary artery: Two major 25. hard palate: roof of the mouth; the
coronary arteries branch off from partition separating the nasal and
the aorta near the point where the oral cavities.
aorta and the left ventricle meet. 26. HDL: High-density lipoprotein
10. Cricothyrotomy: Emergency 27. Hypovolemic: lack of blood volume
incision through the skin and in veins due to loss of blood.
cricothyroid membrane to secure a
patient's airway during certain 28. -itis
emergency situations, such as an 29. korotkoff sounds: They are caused
airway obstructed by a foreign by the blood passage causing
object or swelling. vibrations in the walls of the blood
11. Diastolic: blood pressure between vessel, heart beats are the
contractions ventricles and atria contracting.
12. Disaccharide: Any of a class of 30. Lateral: Same side as
sugars, including lactose and 31. LDL: Low-density-liproteins
sucrose, that are composed of two.
32. Medial: Opposite side as
13. Distal: Anatomically located far
from a point of reference 33. Monosaccharide: Any of several
carbohydrates, such as tetroses,
14. ECG: electrocardiogram; diagnostic pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot
tool that measures and records the be broken down to simpler sugars
electrical activity of the heart. by hydrolysis.
15. -ectomy

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

34. Neurogenic: dilation of blood 46. Shunt: 52. thoroughf


vessels caused by imbalance in hole or a are
smooth muscle walls. little channel:
passage allows
35. P wave:
which blood to
36. Pacemaker: small device that's moves, or flow freely
placed in the chest or abdomen to allows between
help control abnormal heart movemen an
rhythms. t of fluid arteriole
from one and a
37. Pneumonoconiosis: chronic
part of the venule.
respiratory disease caused by
body to
inhaling metallic or mineral 53. -tomy
another.
particles
54. Transvers
47. sinoatrial
38. Pneumothorax: a collection of air or e: Top &
node: SA
gas in the space around the bottom
node
lungs
55. Triglycerid
48. soft
39. Polysaccharide: Any of a class of e: Any of a
palate:
carbohydrates, such as starch and class of
soft tissue
cellulose, consisting of a number. carbohydr
constitutin
ates, such
40. Posterior: back g the back
as starch
of the roof
41. Proximal: next to or nearest the and
of the
point of attachment or origin, a cellulose,
mouth.
central point consisting
49. stent of 3.
42. pulmonary capillaries: capillaries insertion:
wrapped around the alveoli to 56. Tuberculo
putting a
absorb 02 into blood. sis:
stent into
contagiou
43. QRS complex an artery
s bacterial
to open it
infection
up
that
because
mainly
44. SA node: of damage
involves
Fires from
the lungs,
electrical atheroscle
but may
current rosis.
spread to
through 50. Syncope: other
heart temporary organs.
45. Sagittal: loss of Someone
travels conscious with TB
vertically ness and will have
from the posture trouble
top to the breathing,
51. Systolic:
bottom of coughing
blood
the body, up blood,
pressure
dividing it excessive
when
into left sweating,
ventricles
and right and chest
contract
pain. Left
untreated
it is fatal –
but there
is a cure
for it.

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M. Keffer human biology 27888067

57. Uvulopalat 58. varicose


opharyngo veins:
plasty: A Swollen,
surgical twisted,
procedure painful
used to veins that
remove have filled
tissue in with an
the throat, abnormal
this stops collection
patients of blood.
from Valves in
snoring vein do
because not
the tissue function
does not properly,
block the allowing
airway blood to
causing remain in
them to the vein.
snore, not Pooling of
get blood in a
enough vein
oxygen, causes it
wake up to
frequently enlarge.
, and
never get
into a rem
sleep.

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