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# BEAM

What is beam?
Beams support mainly vertical loads, and are small in cross-section compared with
their span. Engineering diagrams adopt simple conventions to represent beams,
This section deals specifically with the engineering design of beams. Although
"beam" is a word in common usage for engineering design, it has a very particular
definition. A beam is a structural member which spans horizontally between
supports and carries loads which act at right angles to the length of the beam.
Furthermore, the width and depth of the beam are "small" compared with the span.
Typically, the width and depth are less than span/10.
Horizontal or inclined structural member spanning a distance between one or more
supports, and carrying vertical loads across (transverse to) its longitudinal axis, as a
girder, joist, purlin, or rafter. Three basic types of beams are: (1) Simple span,
supported at both ends, (2) Continuous, supported at more than two points, and (3)
Cantilever, supported at one end with the other end overhanging and free.

Types of Beams:
Beams can be classified into many types based on three main criteria. They are as follows:
1.
1.
2.
3.

Based on geometry:
Straight beam Beam with straight profile
Curved beam Beam with curved profile
Tapered beam Beam with tapered cross section

4.

## Based on the shape of cross section:

i.
I-beam Beam with I cross section
ii.
T-beam Beam with T cross section
iii.
C-beam Beam with C cross section
2.
Based on equilibrium conditions:
1.
Statically determinate beam For a statically determinate beam, equilibrium conditions alone can
be used to solve reactions.
2.
Statically indeterminate beam For a statically indeterminate beam, equilibrium conditions are not
enough to solve reactions. Additional deflections are needed to solve reactions.
3.
Based on the type of support:
1.
Simply supported beam
2.
Cantilever beam
3.
Overhanging beam
4.
Continuous beam
5.
Fixed beam
Classification of beams based on the type of support is discussed in detail below:

## 1. Simply supported beam:

A simply supported beam is a type of beam that has pinned support at one end and roller support at the other end.
Depending on the load applied, it undergoes shearing and bending. It is the one of the simplest structural elements in
existence.
The following image illustrates a simply supported beam.

## Simply Supported Beam (SSB)

2. Cantilever beam:
A cantilever beam is fixed at one end and free at other end. It can be seen in the image below.

Cantilever Beam

3. Overhanging beam:
A overhanging beam is a beam that has one or both end portions extending beyond its supports. It may have any
number of supports. If viewed in a different perspective, it appears as if it is has the features of simply supported
beam and cantilever beam.

Overhanging Beam

4. Continuous beam:
A continuous beam has more than two supports distributed throughout its length. It can be understood well from the
image below.

Continuous Beam

5. Fixed beam:
As the name suggests, fixed beam is a type of beam whose both ends are fixed.

Fixed Beam

Slab
A shallow, reinforced-concrete structural member that is very wide compared with depth. Spanning betwe
en beams, girders, or columns,slabs are used for floors, roofs, and bridge decks. If they are cast integrally
with beams or girders, they may be considered the top flangeof those members and act with them as a T
beam.
A one-way slab is supported on four sides and has a much larger span in one direction than in the other
may be assumed to besupported only along its long sides. It may be designed as a beam spanning in the
short direction. For this purpose a 1-ft width can bechosen and the depth of slab and reinforcing determin
ed for this unit. Some steel is also placed in the long direction to resist temperaturestresses and distribute
concentrated loads. The area of the steel generally is at least 0.20% of the concrete area.
A slab supported on four sides and with reinforcing steel perpendicular to all sides is called a two-way sla
b. Such slabs generally aredesigned by empirical methods. A two-way slab is divided into strips for desig
n purposes.
When a slab is supported directly on columns, without beams and girders, it is called a flat plate or flat sla
b. Although thicker and moreheavily reinforced than slabs in beam-and-girder construction, flat slabs are
advantageous because they offer no obstruction to passageof light (as beam construction does); savings
in story height and in the simpler formwork involved; less danger of collapse due tooverload; and better fir
e protection with a sprinkler system because the spray is not obstructed by beams. See Concrete
column,Reinforced concrete

Types of slab
1.
o

T-Shaped Slabs
T-shaped slaps get their name from the T-shape of the footer and block
foundation. Often called block slabs as a reference to the foundation using concrete blocks
during construction, T-shaped foundations find use in areas where freezing of the ground
occurs according to the Concrete Network website. This three-stage process begins with
digging footers dug and backfilling with concrete. Stage 2 involves the building of a block
perimeter wall on top of the footers. This inverted T-shape is the exterior wall of the
foundation. After wall construction, the interior of the block slab receives dirt and gravel to
several inches below the top of the block wall before adding a concrete slab over the gravel
and dirt completes the T-shaped slab.

Slab-on-Ground Slabs
o

## Slab-on-ground slabs, called monolithic slabs due to their single-pour design,

uses thick outer footings and filled with rebar reinforcement to form the slab. Holes dug for
the footer and filled with rebar comprise the thick sides of the slab, and forms make a
barrier for the pouring of the concrete. The slab is poured with one pour from the
foundation holes to the top of the slab forms.

Frost-Protected Slabs
o

A frost-protected slab is a monolithic slab that uses the heating within the
structure to protect the slab foundation from freezing temperatures. Polystyrene insulation
placed along the perimeter of the slab retains heat from the structure to prevent the ground
temperature of the ground around the footings from freezing.

Post-Tensioned Slab
o

Post-tensioned slabs employ the same materials as other concrete slabs, but
with the addition of high-strength plastic coated steel cables. Post-tensioning of a slab
occurs by placing the cables throughout the slab before pouring and, after the slab has
hardened, tension applied to the cables compresses the slab to increase the overall strength
of the slab. According to Brian Allred's article in Residential Concrete magazine, the
strength of concrete is in compression.

Column
A column is essentially a vertical member designed to transmit a compressive load.
Being a compression member, it is reasonable to suppose that a column would fail
by crushing of the material when the load reached a high enough value, but for
most columns failure occurs at a lower load than the crushing strength .This is
because most columns are relatively slender, they are long in relation to their
lateral dimensions. It is generally seen that when a slender member is loaded in
compression, as for example when a slender garden cane is leaned on rather
heavily, it will bow sideways or buckle, and if the load is then increased further the
cane will eventually fail in bending.
If, on the other hand, a stocky column is used, one with a low length to breadth
ratio, then a crushing mode of failure is more likely than a buckling mode. For
example, if a block of timber 50 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm high were loaded in
compression, one could not imagine it failing by buckling.
Thus the normal compression elements, length and lateral dimension play a part in
determining the mode of failure that will result. Also, for a given section, there will
be a critical length of the compression member below which it will be crushed and
above which it will buckle.The shape of a column is also very important. For
example, a sheet of cardboard has practically no strength as a column, but if bent
to form an angle section or other shapes as shown below, it is capable of supporting

## There are several different column types.

Different column types support different editors, different filtering options, and so
on.
Every data column type has the following Boolean properties:

## Exportable - Determines whether the column should be included into the

exported file or not.

## Display - Determines whether the column is displayed in browser mode.

When Display is False, the column is rendered in the browser but all the cells
are styled with "display: none", so that they are not visible to the
user.Display does not affect whether the column editor is visible in an edit
form, but if the table view uses an in-place editor, the column editor does not
appear.

## Visible - Determines whether the column is rendered in browser mode.

When Visible is False, the column is not even rendered in the

browser. Visible does not affect whether the column editor is visible in an edit
form, but if the table view uses an in-place editor, the column editor does not
appear.

Foundation
Shallow Foundation System
Mat/Raft foundation
Deep foundation system
Pile
Pile wall
Caissons
Diaphgram

Shallow foundation
A shallow foundation is type of foundation which transfer buidings load to the
soil.Shallow foundations include spread footing foundations,raft foundations known
as mat-slab foundations,slab on grade foundations,strip foundations,buoyancy
foundation,pad foundations,rubble trench and earth bag foundation.
Shallow foundation are taken to be those where the depth below finished ground
level is less than 3m and include strip foundations,pad and raft foundation.Shallow
foundation are those foundations that have a depth of embedment to width ratio
of approximately less than four.
Cost is affordable
Construction procedure is simple
Material is mostly concrete
Labour does not need expertise.
Settlement
Limit of capacity soil structure
Irregular ground surface
Foundaion subjected to pullout,torsion and moment.
Deep foundation
Deep foundations is those founding too deeply below te finished ground surface for
their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions,this is usually at
depths >3 m below finished ground level.Deep foundations can be used to transfer

the loading to the deeper,more competent at depth if unsuitable soil are present
near the surface.