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I.

Introduction:
You never need to apologize for how you choose to survive.
Anonymous
If I were to interpret this quote, it simply depicts that as an individu
al live their life, for example doing what they want, smoking, drinking alcohol, e
ngaging to drug addiction, uncontrolled and unhealthy ways of eating and a lot m
ore, people should think before they act on their own because one day illness an
d other complications will follow thatyou wouldn t even know what to do next but w
ill try your best to survive.
Colon cancer is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. It is a
multifactorial disease process, with etiology encompassing genetic factors, env
ironmental exposures (including diet), and inflammatory conditions of the digest
ive tract.
The colon is an important part of the digestive system, and as such, it
has a major role in helping the body absorb nutrients, minerals, and water. Colo
n cancer is cancer that occurs in the cells of the colon. Colon cancer is quite
common, being the third most common cancer in men and women in the U.S. About 11
0,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with colon cancer each year. Some health
experts consider colon and rectum cancers as one group, called colorectal cancer
. Others treat these two cancers as completely separate: colon cancer and rectum
(rectal) cancer.
Colon cancer is now often detected during screening procedures. Other co
mmon clinical presentations include the following signs and symptoms: iron-defic
iency anemia, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, intestina
l obstruction or perforation and physical findings may include the following ear
ly disease such as nonspecific findings (fatigue, weight loss) or none at all. M
ore advanced diseases are: abdominal tenderness, macroscopic rectal bleeding, pa
lpable abdominal mass, hepatomegaly, and ascites.
Essential update: Study suggests long-term colorectal cancer mortality r
educed following adenoma removal. Using data from Norway s national cancer and cau
se-of-death registries, Lberg et al found that, compared with the general Norwegi
an population, the mortality rate from colorectal cancer was lower in patients w
ho had undergone removal of low-risk colorectal adenomas and moderately higher i
n patients in whom high-risk adenomas had been removed. The study involved 40,82
6 patients who had undergone adenoma removal. During follow-up (median period, 7
.7 years), 141 patients who had had low-risk adenomas and 242 patients who had h
ad high-risk adenomas died of colorectal cancer. Compared with expected colorect
al cancer deaths in the general population, this gave the low-risk and high-risk
adenoma patients standardized incidence-based mortality ratios of 0.75 and 1.16
, respectively. (Lberg M, Kalager M, Holme , et al. Long-term colorectal-cancer mo
rtality after adenoma removal. N Engl J Med. Aug 28 2014;371(9):799-807.)
As for this case study, the diagnosis of the student nurse s patient of co
lon cancer had metastases through the pulmonary and liver causing a lot more sig
ns and symptoms that worsen the client s state, one of its cause is the accumulati
on of excess fluid in the pleural cavity or as we called pleural effusion causing
the patient to have difficulty of breathing and was brought to the hospital.