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Revision Notes on Heat Transfer:Conduction:- Conduction is that mode of transmission of heat by which heat travels, through an unequally heated

body, from the hot end to the cold end, from particle to particle, the particles themselves remaining at their mean
positions.

Convection:- It is defined as that mode of transmission of heat by which heat travels from one part of a body to
another by the actual motion of the heated particles of the body.
Radiation:- It is defined as that mode of transmission of heat in which heat travels from hot body to cold body in
straight lines without heating the intervening medium.

Power,
Here, is the Stefans constant.

Temperature Gradient:- It is defined as the rate of change of temperature of different cross-section with distance.
Coefficient of thermal conductivity:-

Rate of flow of heat = dQ/dt


Heat current, through a conducting rod, is defined as the amount of heat
conducted across any cross-section of the rod in one second.
H= dQ/dt
H depends upon following factors:
(a) Area of cross-section of rod: H A
(b) Temperature Gradient: H -d/dx
(c) Nature of the material
So, H = -KA (d/dx)
Here K is called the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of rod. It
depends upon the nature of material of rod.
(d) The total heat Q crossing from one cross section to the other in time t:Q = KA(1-2)t/l
Or K = Ql/A(1-2)t
Coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material of a rod is defined as the heat

current (amount of heat flowing per second) flowing per unit area between two
cross-section of the rod each of area 1 m2 and separated 1 m apart.
Dimension of K:- [K] = [M1L1T-3K-1]
Unit:- C.G.S- cal cm-1s-1 C-1
S.I Wm-1K-1
Thermal Conductance (h):- It is defined as heat current per unit temperature difference.

= KA/l
= H/d
Unit- S.I- WK-1
Thermal Resistance (Rh):- Thermal resistance, of a conductor is defined as the temperature difference between its two
cross-sections when a unit heat current flows through it.

Reciprocal of thermal conductance is known as thermal resistance of the substance.


Rh= 1/H = l/KA = d/H
Units of Rh:- S.I W-1K
Analogy between electricity and heat:-

H= (1- 2)/(l/KA) = (1- 2)/Rh


Searles Method for K:-

K= m(4- 3)d/A(1- )t
The ratio of thermal and electrical conductivities is the same for the metals at a particular temperature and is
proportional to the absolute temperature of the metal. If T is the absolute temperature, then

K/ T or K/ T = constant
Ingen

Hausz Experiment:- K1/K2 = l12/ l22

Thermal resistance of a conductor of length d:- RTH = d/KA


Flow of a heat through a composite slab:-

(a)Thermal resistance in series:- Thermal resistance of the composite slab is equal


to the sum of their individual thermal resistances.
(l1 +l2)/KA = (l1/K1A) + (l2/K2A)
Rcomb = Rh+Rh'
If l1=l2=l, then, K = 2K1K2/K1+K2
Temperature of the interface:0= [1Rh' + 2Rh]/ [Rh+ Rh'] or 0 = [1K1l2+ 2 K2l1]/ [K1l2+ K2l1]
(b) Thermal resistance in parallel:- Reciprocal of the combination thermal resistance

is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of individual thermal resistances.


1/Rcomb = 1/Rh + 1/Rh
Convection:- It is the mode of transmission of heat, through fluids, in which the particle of fluids acquire heat from
one region and deliver the same to the other regions by leaving their mean positions and moving from one point to
another.
Radiation:- Radiation is that process of transmission of heat in which heat travels from one point to another in
straight lines, with velocity of light, without heating the intervening medium.
Bolometer:- If Rt and R0 are the resistances of the conductor at 0C and tC, then, Rt = R0(1+t), Here is the
temperature coefficient of change of resistance with temperature.
Absorptive power (a):- Absorptive power (a) of the substance is defined as the ratio between amounts of heat
absorbed by it to the total amount of heat incident upon it.

a = Q1/Q
Reflecting Power (r):- Reflecting power (r) of a substance is defined as the ratio between amount of heat reflected by
the substance to the total amount of heat incident upon it.

r= Q2/Q
Transmitting power (t):- Transmitting power (t) of a substance is defined as the ratio between amount of heat
transmitted by the body to the total amount of heat incident upon it.

t = Q3/Q
a + r + t = Q1/Q + Q2/Q + Q3/Q = [Q1+ Q2+ Q3]/Q = Q/Q = 1
Radiant emittance (E):- Radiant emittance of a body at a temperature T is defined as the total amount of energy (for all
wavelengths) radiated per unit time, per unit area by the body.

Unit:- S.I-Jm-2s-1
C.G.S- erg cm-2s-1
Energy Density:- Total energy density (U) at any point is defined as the radiant energy per unit volume, around that
point, for wave-lengths taken together.

Kirchhoffs law of heat radiation:-

It states that at any temperature, the ratio of emissive power e of a body to its
absorptive power a, for a particular wave-length, is always constant and is equal to
the emissive power of perfect black body for that wavelength.
e/a = Constant = E
This implies the ratio between e and a for any body is a constant quantity (=E).
Weins Displacement Law:-

It states that wavelength of radiation which is emitted with maximum intensity


varies inversely as the absolute temperature of the body.
mT = Constant
Stefans Law:-

Radiant emittance or the energy radiated per second per unit area by a perfect
black body varies directly as the fourth power of its absolute temperature.
E = T4
Here is the Stefans constant and its value is 5.73510-8 Wm-2K-4
Spectral emissive power:-

e= Q/At(d)
Emissivity:- = e/E, 0 1
Rate of loss of heat:- -dQ/dT = A(4- 04)
For

spherical objects:- (dQ/dT)1/(dQ/dT)2 = r12/r22

The emissivity of a body is numerically equal to its absorptive power.

e = a
(a) Emissivity of body determines the radiant emittance of a body.
(b) Emissivity of a perfect body is always one.
(c) Emissivity of any body other than a perfect black body is less than one.
(d) Emissivity of any body is numerically equal to its absorbing power.
Newtons Law of Colling:- It states that the rate of loss of heat of a body is directly proportional to the temperature
difference between the body and surroundings.

dQ/dt = -K(T-T0) or (T-T0) e-KT


Weins Radiation Law:- Ed = (A/5) f(T) d = (A/5) e-a/T d
Solar

Constant:- S = (RS/RES)2 T4

Solved Examples on Heat Transfer:Question 1:An idealized representation of the air temperature as a function of distance from a
single-pane window on a calm, winter day is shown in below figure. The window
dimensions are 60 cm 60 cm 0.50 cm. (a) At what rate does heat flow out through the
window? (Hint: The temperature drop across the glass is very small.) (b) Estimate the
difference in temperature between the inner and outer glass surfaces.

Concept:The rate H at which heat is transferred through the slab is,


(a) directly proportional to the area (A) available.
(b) inversely proportional to the thickness of the slab x.
(c) directly proportional to the temperature difference T.
So, H = kA T/ x
Here, k is the proportionality constant and is called thermal conductivity of the material.
From the equation H = kA T/ x, the temperature difference T will be,
T = H x/kA
The temperature gradient is defined as,
Temperature gradient = T/ x

Solution:-

(a)To find out the rate of heat flows out through the window, first we have to find out the
temperature gradient both inside and outside the window.
Inside, the temperature gradient T/ x will be,
T/ x = (20 C- 5 C)/8 cm

(Since, x = 8 cm)

= ((20 +273)K- (5+273) K)/(8 cm10-2 m/ 1 cm)


= 293 K-278 K/0.08 m
= 187.5 K/m
Rounding off to two significant figures the temperature gradient will be 190 K/m.
Similar result will be occur for also outside.
A = (60 cm 60 cm)2
= [(60 cm10-2 m/ 1 cm) (60 cm10-2 m/ 1 cm)]2
= (0.6 m)2
To find out the heat flow H through the air, substitute 0.026 W/m. K for thermal
conductivity k, (0.6 m)2 for A and 190 C/m for T/ x in the equation H = kA T/ x,
H = kA T/ x
= (0.026 W/m. K) (0.6 m)2 (190 K/m)
= 1.8 W
The value that we arrived at is the rate that heat flows through the air across an area the
size of the window on either side of the window. Therefore the rate of heat flows out
through the window would be 1.8 W.
T = H x / kA
= (1.8 W) (0.50 cm)/( 1.0 W/m. K)( (0.6 m)2)
= (1.8 W) (0.50 cm10-2 m/1 cm )/( 1.0 W/m. K)( (0.6 m)2)
= 0.025 K
From the above observation we conclude that, the difference in temperature T between
the inner and outer glass surfaces would be 0.025 K.
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Question 2:Two identical rectangular rods of metal are welded end to end as shown in below

figure (a), and 10 J of heat flows through the rods in 2.0 min. How long would it take for
30 J to flow through the rods if they are welded as shown in below figure (b).

Concept:The rate H at which heat is transferred through the slab is,


(a) directly proportional to the area (A) available.
(b) inversely proportional to the thickness of the slab x.
(c) directly proportional to the temperature difference T.
So, H = kA T/ x
Here k is the proportionality constant and is called thermal conductivity of the material.
As the temperature difference in this case T = Thot Tcold is same for both the case, thus
the thermal conductivity will be same for both the cases.
To obtain the rate of heat transfer Ho for the rectangular rod which are connected in
series (configuration (a)), substitute 2L for x in the equation Ho = kA T/ x,
Ho = kA T/ x
= kA T/2L
(Ho) = kA T/ x
= k (2A) T/L
So, (Ho) / Ho = (k (2A) T/L)/ (kA T/2L)
=4
So, (Ho) = 4 Ho
H = W/t
Here W is the energy and t is the time.

So, time t will be,


t = W/H
Ho = W/t
= 10 J/ 2 min
= 5 J/min
To find out (Ho), substitute 5 J/min for Ho in the equation (Ho) = 4 Ho,
(Ho) = 4 Ho
= 4(5 J/min)
= 20 J/min
t = W/(Ho)
To obtain the time t for 30 J to flow through the rods if they were welded in the figure
parallel configuration, substitute 30 J for W and 20 J/min for (Ho) in the equation t = W/
(Ho),
t =W/(Ho)
=(30 J)/(20 J/min)
= 1.5 min
From the above observation we conclude that, the time t for 30 J to flow through the rods
if they were welded in the figure parallel configuration would be 1.5 min.
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___

Question 3:Ice has formed on a shallow pond and a steady state has been reached with the air
above the ice at -5.2C and the bottom of the pond at 3.98C. If the total depth of ice +
water is 1.42 m, how thick is the ice? (Assume that the thermal conductivities of ice and
water are 1.67 and 0.502 W/m.K, respectively.)

Concept:The temperature Tx at the interface of a compound slab is equal to (T1R2 + T2 R1) /


(R1 + R2).
So, Tx = (T1R2 + T2 R1) /(R1 + R2)
Here, T1, T2 are the temperature of two surfaces (with T2 > T1) and R1, R2 are thermal
resistance of the two materials.
At the interface between ice and water Tx = 0 C
Substitute 0 C for Tx in the equation Tx = (T1R2 + T2 R1) /(R1 + R2),
(T1R2 + T2 R1) /(R1 + R2) = Tx
(T1R2 + T2 R1) /(R1 + R2) = 0
So, T1R2 + T2 R1 = 0
Or, k1T1/L1 + k2T2/L2 = 0
(k1T1L2 + k2T2 L1) / L1 L2 = 0
k1T1L2 + k2T2 L1 = 0
k1T1L2 + k2T2 (L-L2) = 0
k1T1L2+ k2T2 L- k2T2 L2 = 0
k2T2 L = k2T2 L2 - k1T1L2
= (k2T2- k1T1) L2
Or, L2 = k2T2 L/(k2T2- k1T1)
Here L is the depth of ice + water and L2 is the depth of ice.
L2 = k2T2 L/(k2T2- k1T1)
=(1.67 W/m. K) (-5.20 C) (1.4 m) / ((1.67 W/m. K) (-5.20 C) (0.502 W/m . K) (3.98 C))
=(1.67 W/m. K) (-5.20 +273) K (1.4 m) / ((1.67 W/m. K) (-5.20 + 273) K(0.502 W/m . K) (3.98
+273) K)
= 635.06 W/(447.23 -139.04) W/m
= 2.06 m
Rounding off to one significant figure, the thickness of the ice will be 2 m.