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UNIT 12

LIGHT AND
SOUND

INTRODUCTION
We perceive most of the things around us
because we can see or hear them.
Some objects have their own light, and some
others reflect light. Thanks to this, our sense of
sight can see them.

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INTRODUCTION
Sound comes from the vibration of objects and
people around us. We can hear them because
our sense of hearing notice these vibrations.

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LIGHT
WHAT IS LIGHT?
Light is a form of energy.
Light can

Produce changes in the things it shines on: plants

Be converted into electricity: solar panels

Make us to see objects and observe their shape, size


and colour

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LIGHT
WHERE IS LIGHT PRODUCED?
Light sources produce light. They can be:

Natural Sun

Artificial, most of them using electricity light bulbs

Most objects are not light sources, but we can see


them because they reflect light

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LIGHT
HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL?
Think about a foggy day. How can you see the sun
rays?

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LIGHT
HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL?
Think about the shadow of an illuminated object

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LIGHT
HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL?
Light travels in straight line

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LIGHT
LIGHT AND MATERIALS
When light travels it meets different materials. We
can classify materials according to how they respond
to light:

Transparent materials:
They allow light to pass through them

Objects can be clearly seen through them

Glass

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LIGHT
LIGHT AND MATERIALS

Translucent materials:
They allow some light to pass through them

Objects can be seen through them, but not clearly

Ice

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LIGHT
LIGHT AND MATERIALS

Opaque materials:
They do not allow light to pass through them

Objects cannot be seen through them

Wood

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REFLECTION OF LIGHT
OBJECTS REFLECT LIGHT
When light shines on an object, light can:
Pass through the object
Be reflected by the object

When an object reflects light we can see it

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REFLECTION OF LIGHT
MIRRORS
Mirrors are a good example of reflection
A mirror is a smooth piece of glass which back is
covered by a layer of shiny metal that reflects light

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REFLECTION OF LIGHT
MIRRORS
Types of mirrors:
Flat: they reflect an almost exactly image (but
symmetrical)
Concave: they reflect a shorter and wider image
Convex: they reflect a taller and narrower image

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REFRACTION OF LIGHT
REFRACTION
It is a change in the direction of light when it passes
from one material to another
When it passes from air to water

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REFRACTION OF LIGHT
LENSES
Lenses are a good example of refraction
A lens is a piece of glass or plastic that uses refraction
to change the direction of the light that shines
through it
Thanks to this, the images of objects seen through
lenses change. We use this characteristic to se objects
bigger or clearer.

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REFRACTION OF LIGHT
LENSES
Types of lenses:
Convex: they concentrate the light in one point
Concave: they separate the light rays

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COLOURS

WHITE LIGHT
We call the light from sun white light because we
see it as white
White light is made up of an infinite number of
colours
We can see all these colours when light passes through
a glass prism or a drop of water. Rainbow

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COLOURS

WHITE LIGHT
White light is made up of an infinite number of
colours
The main colours are red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo and purple
White light can be made by mixing these colours

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COLOURS
MIXING COLOURS
Our sense of sight perceives the mixture of red, blue
and green as white light
We can obtain all the other colours if we combine the
primary colours in the right proportion

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COLOURS

COLOURS IN OBJECTS
We see objects because they reflect light
Why do we see objects in different colours?
White light shines on an object. The object absorbs
some colours of the light and reflects the others.
We only see the colour of the reflected light

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SOUND
WHAT IS SOUND?
Sound is a form of energy.
Sound can

Make things vibrate: loudspeaker

Make our eardrum vibrate, allowing us to hear

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SOUND

HOW IS SOUND PRODUCED?


Sound is produced when an object vibrates
Vibrations travel in a material medium (air, water,
walls...)
If there is no material medium, sound does not travel.
An astronaut cannot hear sound in the outer space

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SOUND
PROPERTIES OF SOUND
Sound has three properties:
Pitch
Intensity
Timbre

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SOUND
PROPERTIES OF SOUND
Sound has three properties:
Pitch:
It allows us to distinguish between high pitched sounds
and low pitched sounds
A high pitched sound: a childs voice
A low pitched sound: an adult mans voice

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SOUND
PROPERTIES OF SOUND
Sound has three properties:
Intensity:
A sound can be soft or loud.
A soft sound: a wisper
A loud sound: a shout

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SOUND
ECHO
It is the reflection of sound when it meets an object

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SOUND
NOISE
Some sounds are pleasant for us
Some sounds are unpleasant or irritating. We call
them noise
Noise pollution: when noise is intense and persistent. It
can damage our health.

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