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# Microwave Engineering

Laboratory Manual

Microwave Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Miss/Mr. __________________________
of 7th semester Enrollment no. ____________________ has
satisfactorily completed her/his laboratory work in the
Microwave Engineering Subject as per G.T.U. Guidelines.
Date Of submission: _______________

_____________

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

_____________
Faculty

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Microwave Engineering

INDEX
Sr.
No.

Name Of Experiment

Termination

10

11

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

Page
No.

Sign

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No. 1
Aim: To study waveguide Tees and Bends
1. H-Plane Tee :
An H-type T-junction is illustrated in the
besides figure. It is called an H-type Tjunction because the long axis of the B arm
is parallel to the plane of the magnetic lines of
force in the waveguide. The E-field is fed into
arm A and in-phase outputs are obtained from
the B and C arms. The reverse is also true.
H plane tee is so called because the axis of the
side arm is parallel to the planes of the main
transmission line. As all three arms of the H plane tee lie in the magnetic field, the
magnetic field divides itself into the arms. Therefore this is also called a current
junction.
Working
H-plane Tee has scattering matrix as shown below,

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Microwave Engineering

## Case 1: Input is given at port 3 and no inputs at port 1 and 2,

Let
(corresponding to ) be the power input at port 3. Then this power
divides equally between ports 1 and 2 in phase i.e.
(power outputs at the
respective ports corresponding to and . But
The amount of power coming out of port 1 or port 2 is due to input at port 3

Hence the power coming out of the port 1 or port 2 is 3 dB down with respect to
input power at port 3; hence the H-plane Tee is called as 3-dB splitter.
Case 2: Input is given at port 1 and port 2, and no input at port 3,
.

Input at port 3 is the addition of the two inputs at port 1 and port 2 and these
How it is differ than E-PLANE:
There is only one difference between E & H plane is that output s from E plane tee
is out of phase, i.e., means the two output at port1 and port2 will have a phase shift
of 180` , as shown in fig.

E-type T- junction

## Replacement circuit diagram

E plane tee called voltage junction, while H plane tee called current junction.
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Microwave Engineering

Simple construction and easy to use.
Output is in phase, no any phase shift.
Output is added of two inputs.
The output is 3dB down with respect to input wave.
Applications:
It is used as an adder
As a 3dB splitter
As a current junction.
2. E-Plane Tee
As shown in figure above is an E-plane Tee junction, as it is an intersection of
three waveguides in the form of alphabet T. Port 1 and 2 are collinear arms while
port 3 is the E arm, which is along the broader dimensions of waveguides. The T
junction is used for power division or power combining.
WORKING

We know that,

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Microwave Engineering

.

.

.

## Similarly we have all combinations of input and output.

Simple construction and easy to use.
Output is out of phase.
Output is added of two inputs.
The output is 3dB down with respect to input wave.
Applications:
It is used as a sub tractor.
As a 3dB splitter
As a current junction.

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

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Microwave Engineering

3. Magic Tee :
A magic tee is a combination of E-plane and H-plane
Tee. Magic tee, combines the power dividing
properties of both H-plane and E-plane tee, and has
the advantages of being completely matched at all the
ports. If two signals of same magnitude and phase are
fed into port 1 and port 2, then output will be zero at
port 3 and additive at port 4. If signal is fed from port
4 (H-arm) then signals divides equally in magnitude
and phase between port 1 and 2 and no signal appears
at port 3 (E-arm). If signal is fed into port 3, then signal divides equally in
magnitude, but opposite in phase at port 1 and 2, and no signal comes out from
port 4, i.e. output at port 4 is zero.
Working

.

## This is the property of H-plane Tee.

Case 2: Input is given at port 4 and no inputs at port 1, 2 and 3,
.

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Microwave Engineering

## This is the property of E-plane Tee.

Case 3: Input is given at port 1 and no inputs at port 4, 2 and 3,
.
,

When power is fed to port 1, nothing comes out of port 2 even though they are
collinear ports (Magic!!). Hence ports 1 and 2 are called as isolated ports. Similarly
an input at port 2 cannot come out at port 1.Similarly E and H-ports are isolated
ports.
Case 4: Equal input is given at port 3 and 4; no inputs at port 1 and 2,
.

## This is called as an additive property.

Case 5: Equal input is given at port 1 and 2; no inputs at port 3 and 4,
.

Equal inputs at ports 1 and 2 results in an output port 3 (additive port) and no
output at port 1, 2 and 4. This is similar to case 4.
No internal power transmission between port A &port C & also between
port B & port D.
It is most widely used in hybrid circuit.
Due to waveguide dimensions only TE10 mode is supported, all
other modes are not supported.

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Microwave Engineering

Applications:

As an isolator
As an matching device
As a phase shifter
As a T/R switch in trans receiver

4. H-Plane Bend :
Waveguide is normally rigid, except for flexible waveguide, and therefore it is
often necessary to direct the waveguide in a particular direction. Using waveguide
bends it is possible to arrange the waveguide into the positions required. When
using waveguide bends it is necessary to ensure the bending is accomplished in the
correct manner otherwise the electric and magnetic fields will be unduly distorted
and the signal will not propagate in the manner required causing loss and
reflections. Accordingly waveguide bend sections are manufactured specifically to
allow the waveguide direction to be altered without unduly destroying the field
patterns and introducing loss.

Working
Types of waveguide bend:
There are several ways in which waveguide bends can be accomplished. They may
be used according to the applications and the requirements.
Waveguide E bend
Waveguide sharp H bend
Waveguide H bend
Waveguide sharp E bend
Each type of bend is achieved in a way that enables the signal to propagate
correctly and with the minimum of disruption to the fields and hence to the overall
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Microwave Engineering

signal. Ideally the waveguide should be bent very gradually, but this is normally
not viable and therefore specific waveguide bends are used. Most proprietary
waveguide bends are common angles - 90 waveguide bends are the most common
by far.
A rectangular waveguide bend in which the longitudinal axis, remain in a plane
parallel to the plane of the magnetic field vector throughout the bend. Also known
as H bends. This type of waveguide bend changes the direction of the H field
components and leaves the direction of the E field unchanged. The waveguide is
therefore called an H-bend.
This form of waveguide bend is very similar to the E bend, except that it distorts
the H or magnetic field. It creates the bend around the thinner side of the
waveguide. As with the E bend, this form of waveguide bend must also have a
radius greater than 2 wavelengths to prevent undue reflections and disturbance of
the field. Sharp 90` bends create total reflection resulting in infinite SWR.
Therefore bends have to be gradual.
Sharp H Bend:
At lower frequencies a bend may have to be very long and in such cases, a corner
would be preferred. A mitered 90 bend is a corner, as shown in fig. In order to
minimize the reflection the mean length L must be an odd number of quarter
wavelengths, so that reflected wave from both ends of the waveguide are
completely cancelled.
Low insertion loss
Precision flanges
Low VSWR
Sometimes there may be present reflection due to unsuitable radius.
And as it is rectangular waveguide so TEM mode cannot be propagate.
Applications:
It used to change the direction of wave in required direction with less
reflection loss.

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

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Microwave Engineering

Review Question:
Q.1 What are waveguides? What is the fundamental difference between propagation in
waveguides and propagation in transmission lines or free space?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Q.2 Why electromagnetic waves are said to be transverse? In what way are transverse
waves different from longitudinal waves?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No. 2
Aim: To study Directional coupler, Circulator and Isolator
Directional Coupler
Directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the
incident and reflected wave separately.
It consists of two waveguide:
Main waveguide
Auxiliary waveguide
And
both are electromagnetically coupled to each other. The
Main and
Auxiliary waveguide both have 2 ports named port1 & port 2 of Main
waveguide and port3 & port4 of Auxiliary waveguide. Here
General
Directional coupler is shown.

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Microwave Engineering

Where,
Pi (1) Incident power

## Pb(3) Back power (reverse power)

Working:
Let assume that we give input signal from port 1 so, output is received
from port 2 and some amount of power is also coupled to port 4. As here
port 3 is terminated from the terminated device so no power available at
port 3.
For directional coupler there are main two parameters for measuring
its performance.
Coupling factor C: it is defined as the ratio of the incident power Pi to the forward
power Pr measured in dB. Typical value of coupling factor is 20 db. Generally
directional coupler
20 db here 20 db shows its coupling factor.

## Directivity D: the directivity of a D.C. is defined as the ratio of forward power P f

to the back power Pb, expressed in dB.
Coupling factor is a measure of how much of the incident power is being sampled
while directivity is the measure of how well the directional coupler distinguishes
between the forward and reverse travelling powers. Typical value of directivity is
60 db.
Isolation I: it is defined to describe the directive properties of a directional
coupler. It is defined as the ratio of incident power Pi to the back power Pb.
Isolation in dB is equal to the coupling factor plus directivity.

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Microwave Engineering

Easy to fabricate
It is useful to measure different microwave powers.
There are only one
coupling insertion loss.

## disadvantage that there are generate some

Applications:
It can be design to measure incident &reflected power.
It can be used to measure Standing wave ratio (SWR).
1. Circulator :
A circulator is a ferrite device with usually three ports. They are non-reciprocal.
That is, energy into port 1 predominantly exits port 2, energy into port 2 exits port
3 and energy into port 3 exits port 1. In a reciprocal device the same fraction of
energy that flows from port 1 to port 2 would occur to energy flow the opposite
direction, from port 2 to port 1.

The selection of ports is arbitrary and circulators can be made to circulate either
clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW). In addition to the ferrite substrate a
magnet is required to make a circulator.
Circulators come in waveguide, coax and drop-in Micro strip varieties. Micro
strip circulators are often used in transmission and receiver modules to duplex the
antenna to the power amplifier. Waveguide always provides the best loss and
power handling.

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

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Microwave Engineering

## A circulator is sometimes called a duplexer meaning that it duplexes two signals

into one channel.
What are the circulators good for? They make a great antenna interface for a
transmitter-receiver system. Energy can be made to flow from transmitter (port 1)
to antenna (port 2) during transmit and from antenna (port 2) to the receiver (port
3).
Circulators have low else critical losses and can be made to handle huge powers in
kW. They usually operate over no more than octave bandwidth, and are purely an
RF component (they dont work at DC).
To sum up, we can say that a circulator is a
device that transports radio frequency or
microwaves from one port to another. They
typically have # ports and send the signal in
one direction. They are made of magnets and
ferrite materials with magnetic properties.
Typically, they have to be manufactured and
properly tuned by hand which makes it
expensive.
The magnets create a magnetic field that
prevents the radio or microwave signals from
moving in any direction other than along with the magnetic field to the next port.
Low electrical losses.
Can handle high power(in kW)
Are purely RF component(they dont work at DC)
Expensive.
Complex

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Microwave Engineering

Application:
1. Isolator:
When one port of circulator is terminated in a matched load,it can be used as an
isolator, since a signal can travel in only one direction between remaining ports.An
isolator is used to shield equipment on its input side from the effects of condition
on its output side.
2. Duplexer:
To route signal from transmitter to receiver from antenna without allowing signals
to pass directly from transmitter to receiver.
A circulator is sometimes called a "duplexer", meaning that is duplexes two
signals into one channel (e.g. transmit and receive into an antenna). This is not to
be confused with the term "diplexer" which is refers to a filter arrangement where
two frequency bands are separated into two channels from a single three-terminal
device.
A lot of people mix up these terms. You can remember the correct definitions
because "filter" and "diplexer" both have an "i" in them, and "circulator" and
"duplexer" both has a "u".

3. ISOLATOR:
An isolator is a two-port device that transmits microwave or radio frequency power
in one direction only. Use to shield equipment on its input side, from the effects of
conditions on its output side; for example, to prevent a microwave source being
A microwave isolator including a driving circuit and a receiving circuit, wherein
the driving circuit receives an input signal from a first isolated circuit and
generates a corresponding radio frequency (RF) signal and the receiving circuit
detects and decodes the corresponding RF signal and provides a corresponding
output signal to a second isolated circuit.
The driving circuit contains an oscillator for generating the corresponding RF
signal based on the input signal from the first isolated circuit, a transmitting
antenna for transmitting the corresponding RF signal, and a microwave switch
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Microwave Engineering

interposed between the oscillation means and the transmitting antenna for
switching the RF signal to the antenna.
The receiving circuit contains a receiving antenna to receive the corresponding RF
signal and means for detecting and decoding the received corresponding RF signal
and providing the corresponding output signal to the second isolated circuit.

## By terminating one port, a circulator

becomes an isolator, which has the
property that energy flows on one direction
only. This is an extremely useful device for
"isolating" components in a chain, so that
bad VSWRs don't contribute to gain ripple,
oscillations).
An isolator is a non-reciprocal, passive
network.

## CW and CCW isolators

Isolation (dB): This is a measure of signal levels at the adjacent ports of the RF
circulator. It is measured in decibel (dB).
Function:
In power systems an isolator is a switch which is used to completely open a circuit
which has been rendered dead by means of opening a circuit breaker for
maintenance of equipment.
It can be visually seen that an isolator is open and hence service men are assured
that it is safe to work on the isolated equipment.

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Microwave Engineering

## The equipment to be worked on is further earthed mostly on either side so that

electrical energy that could be in the equipment is completely discharged to earth
further enhancing safety of the service men.
An isolator is also used for sectionalizing power lines during fault location. An
isolator, unlike an auto disconnects or, is not used to break load or close a loaded
circuit.
An auto disconnects or opens and closes a circuit with limited load. Isolators are
used at homes to isolate appliances with circuit breakers that are out of sight of the
service men in charge of repairing the appliances. These isolators are therefore
installed near the appliances such as air conditioners.
Application:
Amplifying and measuring low level signals in the presence of high
common-mode voltages.
Breaking ground loops or eliminating source ground connections. The
isolation device provides full floating input, eliminating the need for
connections to source ground, and allowing two-wire hook-up to the signal
sources.
Providing an interface between medical patient monitoring equipment and
the transducer or device that may be in physical contact with the patients.
Such applications require high isolation voltage levels and very low leakage
currents.
Providing isolation protection to electronic instruments or equipment. Large
common mode voltages occasionally cause hazardous electronic faults. The
low leakage currents and high isolation voltage capability of isolation
devices help protect instruments against damage caused by such faults.
Coaxial SMA Isolators and Circulators provide matching & minimize signal
reflections. Using a SMA isolator will insure a good match for the devices
connecting to it. A coaxial circulator allows the third port to be used, where
as a coaxial isolator has a built in termination on the third port.

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No: 3
Aim: To study Attenuator, dielectric cell, Sectorial horn and Matched
terminator
1. Attenuator :
An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the amplitude or power of a
signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. An attenuator is effectively the
opposite of an amplifier, though the two work by different methods. While an
amplifier provides gain, an attenuator provides loss, or gain less than 1.
Attenuators are usually passive devices made from simple voltage divider
networks. Switching between different resistances forms adjustable stepped
attenuators and continuously adjustable ones using potentiometers. For higher
frequencies precisely matched low VSWR resistance networks are used.

Fixed attenuators in circuits are used to lower voltage, dissipate power, and to
are used to lower the amplitude of the signal a known amount to enable
measurements, or to protect the measuring device from signal levels that might
damage it. Attenuators are also used to 'match' impedances by lowering apparent
SWR. Attenuator of the power dissipation on mass and surface area of resistance
material as well as possible additional coding fins.
Attenuator is design by two types:
Active design
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Microwave Engineering

## Narrowband active variable attenuator

Passive design
Pi attenuator
Tee attenuator
Bridge T attenuator
Features

## High return loss

Simple structure
Max operation power(1W)
Low wavelength relativity
Low polarization related loss

Attenuator characteristics
Attenuation expressed in decibels of relative power. A 3dB pad reduces
power to one half, 6dB to one fourth, 10dB to one tenth, and 20dB to one
hundredth, 30dB to one thousandth and so on. For voltage you double the
dB so for example 6dB is half in voltage.
Frequency bandwidth, for example DC-18 GHz
Power dissipation depends on mass and surface area of resistance material as
well as possible additional cooling fins.
SWR is the standing wave ratio for input and output port.
Accuracy
Repeatability

## It is used to reduce power level to avoid overload

Reduce to amplitude
Improve mismatch loss error

Dynamic range is reducing.
Applications:
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Microwave Engineering

## Fiber optical distributing frame

Fiber optical network system
High speed fiber optical transmission system
CATV system
Long distance DWDM system
2. Dielectric Cell :
Dielectric cells are basic measuring components for solid and liquid dielectric
constant measurement respectively.

A dielectric waveguide employs a solid dielectric rod rather than a hollow pipe.
An optical fiber is a dielectric guide to work at optical frequencies.
Transmission lines such as Micro strip, coplanar wave guide, strip line or
coaxial may also be considered to be waveguide.
The electromagnetic waves in (metal pipe) wave guide may be imagined as
travelling down the guide in a zigzag path, being repeatedly reflected between
opposite walls of the guide.
For the particular case of rectangular waveguide, it is possible to base an exact
analysis on this view.
Propagation in dielectric waveguide may be viewed in the same way with the
waves confined to the dielectric by total internal reflection at its surface. Some
structures such as Non-radioactive dielectric waveguide and the Goubauline use
both metal walls and dielectric surface to confine the wave.

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Microwave Engineering

3. Sectorial Horn
It is called as sectorial horn because it provides radiation in sector of square zone
from mid point.

Function:
Its function is to provide optimum coverage from in point to multipoint base
station applications.

There are two types of sectorial horns according to flaring direction. If flaring is
done in the direction of electric field vector then it is termed as sectorial E-plane
antenna. If flaring is done in the direction of magnetic field vector then it is termed
as sectorial H-plane antenna.
Working:
It is manufactured from Brass or Aluminum.
Here, the area to be served is divided up into equal squares and a base station
situated so as to illuminate the four squares around it from the corner of each
square. This arrangement gives the 4:1 ratio of revenue generating cells. According
to the beam width of radiation pattern, two types of sectorial horn antennas are
possible.
64 degree
90 degree

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Microwave Engineering

64 degree sector antenna is used in Britain &Europe and it is best suited antenna
which provides high level of illumination efficiency for a variety of conditions.90
degree sector antenna is favored in USA & Canada.
One possible argument in favor of the 90 degree antenna is that the difference in
free space loss between the opposite and adjacent corners is less compared to 64
degree & can be neglected. But coverage pattern of 90 degree produces more
signal wastage and so it has lower illumination efficiency.
In 64 degree sector horn, if we measure all parameters, if has considerably higher
efficiency factor than 90 degree horn & of course it is a simple and suitable
compared to 90 degree because in 90 degree, to get high efficiency we have to use
beam shaping techniques.

Simple in design.
Better illumination efficiency.
Can be located anywhere.
Low cost.
High performance.
Greater spectrum efficiency.
Manufacturing of 64 degree is easy.

Path and atmospheric losses is high.
Attenuation due to rain is high.
Application:
Used in broadcast type coverage of base station of transmitter system.
It is used in LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Services)
Also used in MVDS (Microwave Video Distribution Services)

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Microwave Engineering

4. Matched Termination

Matched Termination is a transmission line termination which does not reflect any
energy. Matched terminations are used to terminate the waveguide transmission
line operating at low average power. The loads are carefully designed to absorb all
the applied power and VSWR of matched termination is low.
These are used in the measurement of reflection coefficient and where the matched
Reflection coefficient:
A transmission line may have at its end impedance, ZL, which is not equal to the
characteristic impedance of the line Z0. Thus, a wave on the line faces the dilemma
of obeying two different Ohms laws. To achieve this, a reflected wave is formed.
Giving positive suffices to the incident waves and negative suffices to the reflected
waves, the Ohms law relationships become
;
=

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Microwave Engineering

Where VL and IL are the voltage and current in the terminating impedance ZL.
A reflection coefficient, or is defined as the ratio of the reflected wave to the
incident wave.
=
So

&
=
As Z0 for lossless lines is real and ZL may be complex, , in general, will also be
complex. One of the main parts of microwave impedance measurement is to
measure the value of and hence ZL.
A new geometry of a matched termination using loss dielectric materials for an
overloaded cylindrical waveguide is explored in this present work. The matched
termination is designed based on attenuating the microwave using loss dielectric
materials or resistive materials by numerical simulation.
The geometry is optimized such that it can be used for a cylindrical waveguide
operating on fundamental and other higher order modes. The matched termination
is fabricated and tested for its characteristics and the results are validated against
simulated values.
Matched Terminations:
Matched terminations are used in coaxial lines, strip lines and waveguides to
absorb the incident power without appreciable reflection and radiation. A tapered
loss dielectric is placed at end of a short line as shown in following figure to form a
matched termination.
The length of the tapered section is kept about one to two guide wavelengths at the
lowest frequency of operation for effective absorption of power.
High power (>1W) terminations use outer cooling fins (fans) for heat dissipation.

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Microwave Engineering

## Practical VSWR of these loads is in the range of 1.021.05 over a frequency

bandwidth of the order of 20-30% of the centre frequency. A matched load is a
single port device having its ideal parameters: Zin=Zo=50ohm or 75ohm

VSWR=1.0
The load is located at the centre smith chart as the reference point.

Application:
Waveguide terminations are useful in satellite & radar & telecom
applications.SMA termination, type n termination, SMP termination,
GPO termination , 2.92mm termination, 2.4mm termination, TNC
termination, Mini-SMP termination, BNC termination, these parts may
be referred to as a microwave terminator, RF terminator, load, or dummy

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No: 4
Aim: To study the Smith Chart and its application
Fundamental of the Smith Chart
It consists of two sets of circles, or arcs of circles, which are so arranged that
various important quantities connected with mismatched transmission lines, may
be plotted and evaluated fairly easily.
The complete circles, whose centers lie on the only straight line on the chart,
correspond to various value of normalized resistance (r=R/Z o) along the line. The
arcs of circles, to either side of the straight line, similarly correspond to various
values of normalized line resistance jx = jX/Z o.
Smith devised a simple graphic tool, named after him as the SMITH CHART,
where the normalized impedance or admittance or reflection coefficient is plotted
to read the magnitude in the radial direction and phase in the angular direction
directly.
The characteristics of the Smith Chart are described below;
The upper half of the circle represents inductive reactance jx and lower part
represents capacitive reactance jx.
Since admittance is the reciprocal of the impedance, the smith chart can also
conductance and the inductive reactance scale capacitive reactance and viceversa.
A point of maximum voltage, line impedance (
minimum voltage, (

) max = S and at

) min =1/S.

The center O of the chart (S=1) represents matched ,extreme right of the
horizontal radius represents an open circuit (S=,
represents short circuit (S=,

## =) and extreme left

=0 )

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Microwave Engineering

The distance along the line are normalized with respect to wavelength and
are measured toward the generator and also toward the load along the
priority or unit circle.
Circle passing through O (S=1) is called the unit VSWR circle.
Application of the Smith Chart:
Calculation of the SWR
Calculation of the reflection co-efficient
Review Question:
Q.1 Why must impedance be normalized before being plotted on a standard Smith Chart?

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Example:
A load ZL = (100-j50) is connected to a line whose Z0 = 75. Calculate (a) the
point, nearest to the load, at which a quarter-wave transformer may be inserted to
provide correct matching. (b) Calculate SWR on the main line when the frequency
is increased by 10 percent, assuming that the load and line impedances remain
constant. (c) Calculate reflection co-efficient.

Page 28

## The Complete Smith Chart

Black Magic Design
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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No: 5
Aim: To understand function of Gunn Oscillator
Semiconductor material used for Gunn diode is GaAs (Gallium Arsenide), InP
(Indium Phosphate)& cadmium telluride (CdTe). These materials have two closely
spaced energy bends in the conduction band.
At low electric field most of electrons will be located in the lower energy
band.
At high electric field most of electrons transferred to high energy band.
In high energy band effective mass of electron is larger ,hence electron
mobility is less.
o Conductivity is directly proportional to mobility, hence conductivity
is also less.
In lower energy band mass of electron is less. Mobility is higher.
Conducting is higher.
Looking at above points if we increase forward bias more no. of electron transfer
to high energy band where conductivity is less, hence current f;ow is less thus we
get negative resistance characteristics.
There are two principal modes of operation that results into oscillations.
1. Transit- time mode.
2. Limited space charge (LSA) mode.

## 1. TRANSIT TIME MODE :

When applied voltage across Gunn diode exceeds threshold value , a dipole
domain forms near the cathode end with most of voltage drop across.
High resistance part of the device.
Short section of input region is in the low energy high mobility state.
Electrons leave cathode with high velocity.

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Microwave Engineering

Enter dipole domain as shown in fig .sweeps towards anode, the device in
high mobility state,& new dipole forms at cathode end. This mechanism is
self repeating & represents an oscillation with period equal to transit time.
This mode has low efficiency & its frequency cannot be controlled by
external circuit.

2. LSA MODE:
Operation of Gunn oscillator this mode produce several watts with higher
efficiency around 20% .Power output is 1 W at 10 GHz & several milliwatts
can be obtained at 100 GHz.
In LSA mode, Gunn device incorporate as port of resonant circuit as shown
in fig.
Frequency of resonant circuit is adjusted so that it is several time greater
than that of in transit time mode.
represented by resistance R which is adjusted 20% greater than negative
resistance Rd. Resonant frequency of cavity is adjusted by tuning screw.

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Microwave Engineering

## The Gunn device can be operated as a pulse oscillator by applying dc bias in

the form of pulse train.
To remove heat generated within Gunn device heat sink is used.

Review Question:
Q.1 Why coupling probes and loops are required?

Q.2 How much power gain is possible with two cavity klystron amplifier?

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No: 7
Aim: Design of Patch Antenna using HFSS
The objective of this experiment is to show you how to create, simulate and
analyze a micro strip patch antenna resonating at a frequency of 7.5 GHz as shown
in Fig.1.

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Microwave Engineering

## Creating the Rectangular Patch

Substrate
To draw the Substrate, click on the toolbar. Then draw a box by filling the
following data as shown below.

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Microwave Engineering

Feed Line
To draw the Feed Line, click on the toolbar. Then draw a box by filling the
following data as shown below.

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Microwave Engineering

Patch
To draw the Patch, click on the toolbar. Then draw a box by filling the following
data as shown below.

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Microwave Engineering

We know that the Patch and Feed line should be one object. So, we need to unite
them. Note that both objects are of the same material. Click on both objects that
you need to unite, i.e. Patch and Feed_line in the history tree. Click on one and
hold the CTRL key and click on the other. Right Click Edit > Boolean > Unite.
The two objects are united now.

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Microwave Engineering

Ground Plane
To draw the Ground Plane, click on the toolbar. Then draw a box by filling the
following data as shown below.

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Microwave Engineering

Assign Excitation
The excitation is a waveguide port at the beginning of the micro strip line. The
reference plane of this port is located directly at the beginning of the radiating
plane. Antennas are excited through the port. To draw the Port, click on the
toolbar. Then draw a rectangle by filling the following data as shown below.
Choose the object Port from history tree, right-click and assign excitation. In our
case, it is wave port. Click wave port; name it as your preference, then click next,
now defines your integration line. Normally, integration line is defined from the
bottom middle point to the upper middle point. Keep other values as default. Click
Finish.

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Microwave Engineering

## Draw the lumped port,

Assign Boundary
Now the model has been created, we need to assign boundary conditions. In HFSS,
radiation boundaries are used to simulate open problems that allow waves to
radiate infinitely far into space. HFSS absorbs the wave at the radiation boundary,
essentially ballooning the boundary infinitely far away from the structure. In our
case, our ABC (Absorbing Boundary condition) is an air box.
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Microwave Engineering

To draw the Air Box, click on the toolbar. Then draw a box by filling the following
data as shown below.

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Microwave Engineering

Now select boundary, right click > Assign Boundary > radiation

Analysis Setup
setup.
To create an analysis setup, select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add
Solution Setup. In the Solution Setup window, click the general tab, Solution
frequency is 7.5 GHz, Maximum Number of Passes is 20 and Maximum Delta S
per Pass is 0.02.
Sweep. Select Solution Setup: Setup1. Click OK button. Then Edit Sweep
Window. Sweep Type: Fast, Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count, Start: 5 GHz,
Stop: 10 GHz, Count: 500. Click OK button.

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Microwave Engineering

Model Validation
To validate the model, select the menu HFSS > Validation Check. Click the Close
button. To view any errors or warnings messages, use the Message Manager.

Analyze
To start the solution process, select the menu item HFSS > Analyze.
Or click on the icon.
Solution Data
Note: The Solution Data window can be also displayed by right-click on the
Setup1 under analysis on the HFSS design tree. Note also that the default view is
Profile. Select the Convergence tab.

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Microwave Engineering

The simulation will stop as soon as the results converge, which is at pass
Create Reports
To create a report, select Results > Create Report.

Set Report Type to Modal S Parameters, Display Type to Rectangular then click
OK button.

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Microwave Engineering

In the Traces Window, set Solution to Setup1: Adaptive1. In the Y tab, set
Category to S Parameter, Quantity to S (wave port, wave port), and Function to dB
and click Add Trace button. Click done button. Note that you can create any type
of report it all depends on what you want to analyze specifically.

## The antenna is resonating around 7.5 GHz.

Note: More accurate results could be achieved by zooming in the simulation
between 7.00 GHz and 8.00 GHz. (Change the Start and Stop values to 7 GHz and
8 GHz, respectively then run simulation again).
Moreover, we notice that Zin at 7.5 GHz is 88.05 . To view Zin, go to
Results<Solution Data click on Z Matrix and drag the frequency menu to 7.5 GHz
and read the Magnitude of the input impedance.

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Microwave Engineering

Create infinite sphere. Then go to Results< Create Report. When the new window
pops up change the Report Type to Far Field and Display type to 3D Polar Plot.

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No:8
Aim: To illustrate the Magic Tee with S-parameters using MATLAB
Script:
clc;
close all;
clear all;
[a]=input('Transmitted Signal:');
[S]=(1/(2)^(1/2)).*[0 0 1 1; 0 0 1 -1;1 1 0 0; 1 -1 0 0];
[B]=S*a;
if a(1)==0 && a(2)==0 && a(4)==0 && a(3)~=0
sprintf('Reflected output [%f %f %f %f].',B)
display 'This is the property of H-Plane Tee'
elseif a(1)==0 && a(2)==0 && a(3)==0 && a(4)~=0
sprintf('Reflected output [%f %f %f %f].',B)
display 'This is the property of E-Plane Tee'
elseif a(2)==0 && a(3)==0 && a(4)==0 && a(1)~=0
sprintf('Reflected output [%f %f %f %f].',B)
display 'When power is fed to port 1, nothing comes out at port 2 even they are collinear
ports(MAGIC!!!!)';
display 'Hence port 1 and 2 are ISOLATED PORTS';
elseif a(1)==0 && a(3)==0 && a(4)==0 && a(2)~=0
sprintf('b(1) = %d \t ',b(1))
sprintf('b(2) = %d \t ',b(2))
sprintf('b(3) = %d',b(3))
sprintf('b(4) = %d',b(4))
sprintf('b(4) = %f.*(%d + %d)',0.7071,a(1),a(2))
sprintf('Reflected output [%f %f %f %f].',B)
display 'When power is fed to port 2, nothing comes out at port 1 even they are
collinear ports(MAGIC!!!!)';
display 'Hence port 1 and 2 are ISOLATED PORTS';
elseif a(1)==0 && a(2)==0 && a(3)~=0 && a(4)~=0
display b(4)=0.7071.*(a(1)-a(2));
display 'Reflected Outputs';(B)
display 'This is the property of ADDITIVE'
elseif a(3)==0 && a(4)==0 && a(1)~=0 && a(2)~=0
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## display 'Reflected Outputs';(B)

display 'This is the property of SUBTRACTIVE'
elseif (a(3)==0 && a(4)==0 && a(1)==0 && a(2)==0)
display 'Reflected Outputs';(B)
display 'No output '
end
if a(3)==1 && a(4)==1 && a(1)==1 && a(2)==1
errordlg('Input to Magic Tee is not Valid','File Error');
end

Output
Case-1
Transmitted Signal:[1;0;0;0]
ans =
Reflected output [0.000000 0.000000 0.707107 0.707107].
When power is fed to port 1, nothing comes out at port 2 even they are collinear ports
(MAGIC!!!!)
Hence port 1 and 2 are ISOLATED PORTS
Case-2
Transmitted Signal:[0;1;0;0]
ans =
Reflected output [0.000000 0.000000 0.707107 -0.707107].
When power is fed to port 2, nothing comes out at port 1 even they are collinear ports
(MAGIC!!!!)
Hence port 1 and 2 are ISOLATED PORTS
Case-3
Transmitted Signal:[0;0;1;0]
ans =
Reflected output [0.707107 0.707107 0.000000 0.000000].
This is the property of H-Plane Tee

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Microwave Engineering

Case-4
Transmitted Signal:[0;0;0;1]
ans =
Reflected output [0.707107 -0.707107 0.000000 0.000000].
This is the property of E-Plane Tee

Review Question:
Q.1 A three port circulator has an insertion loss of 1dB, isolation 30dB and VSWR=1.5.
Find the S-matrix.

Q.2 What is magic associated with a magic tee? Illustrate its applications.

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No: 9
Aim: To illustrate the Rectangular waveguide is use widely.
TE wave is propagating:
clc;
close all;
clear all;
a=1;
b=a/2;
r=a/1.706;
area_rect = a*b;
area_cir = (pi*r*r);
ratio = area_cir/area_rect
Output:
Ratio =
2.1588
TM wave is propagating:
clc;
close all;
clear all;
a=1;
b=a/2;
r=a/2.92;
area_rect = a*b;
area_cir = (pi*r*r);
ratio = area_cir/area_rect
Output:
Ratio =
0.7369
Hence, from this ratio it is clear that rectangular waveguide is widely used.

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No. 10
Aim: Implement TE mode of Rectangular waveguide in MATLAB.
For Transverse Electric Mode of Rectangular waveguide, the six field components
are represented as below,

Script
clc;
close all;
clear all;
m=input('Input M=');
n=input('Input N=');
a=10;
b=5;
l=20;
x=0:0.1:a;
y=0:0.05:b;
z=0:0.2:l;
Hoz=1;
f=12e9;
w=2*pi*f;
t=1/f;
g=i*2*pi*f/3e11;
mu=4*3.14e-7;
eb=8.854e-12;
c=abs(1/(mu*eb)^(1/2));

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h=((g^2)+(w^2)*mu*eb)^(1/2);
Hz=abs(Hoz.*cos(((m.*pi)/a).*x).*cos(((n.*pi)/b).*y).*(exp(i*w*t-g.*z)));
[Z]=meshgrid(Hz);
[X,Y]=meshgrid(x,y);
Hoy=(g./(h^2))*((n*pi)/b)*Hoz;
Hy=abs(Hoy.*cos(((m.*pi)/a).*x).*sin(((n.*pi)/b).*y).*(exp(i*w*t-g.*z)));
Hox=(g./(h^2))*((m*pi)/a)*Hoz;
Hx=abs(Hox.*sin(((m.*pi)/a).*x).*cos(((n.*pi)/b).*y).*(exp(i*w*t-g.*z)));
Ez=0;
Eox=((i*w*mu)/(h^2))*(Hoz)*((n*pi)/b);
Ex=abs(Eox.*cos(((m.*pi)/a).*x).*sin(((n.*pi)/b).*y).*(exp(i*w*t-g.*z)));
Eoy=-((i*w*mu)/(h^2))*(Hoz)*((m*pi)/a);
Ey=abs(Eoy.*sin(((m.*pi)/a).*x).*cos(((n.*pi)/b).*y).*(exp(i*w*t-g.*z)));
EZ=zeros(101);
[EX]=meshgrid(Ex);
[EY]=meshgrid(Ey);
[HX,HY]=meshgrid(Hx,Hy);
[HZ]=meshgrid(Hz);
[Z]=meshgrid(z);
set(gcf,'Color',[1,1,1])
subplot(2,3,1);mesh(EX,Y,Z);title('EX Component in Y and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');;xlabel('Ex');ylabel(
'Y'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,2);mesh(X,EY,Z);title ('EY Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Ey'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,3);mesh(X,Y,EZ);title ('For TE mode Ez = 0; Ez Component in X and Ydirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Y'),zlabel('Ez');
subplot(2,3,4);mesh(HX,Y,Z);title ('Hx Component in Y and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('Hx');ylabel('
Y'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,5);mesh(X,HY,Z);title ('Hy Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Hy'),zlabel('Z');

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Microwave Engineering

## subplot(2,3,6);mesh(X,Y,HZ);title ('Hz Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('

Y'),zlabel('Hz');
OUTPUT:
For TE00 mode:

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Microwave Engineering

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

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Microwave Engineering

Review Question:
Q.1 What will happen if the signal frequency is greater than cut-off frequency in a
waveguide?

Q. 2 discuss how wave equations are useful in understanding the propagation of EM wave
in waveguides.

## Government Engineering College, Rajkot

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Microwave Engineering

Experiment No:11
Aim: Implement TM mode of Rectangular waveguide in MATLAB.

Script
clc;
close all;
clear all;
f=8e9;
w=2*pi*f;
t=1/f;
L=3e11/f;
B=2*pi/L;
g=i*B;
u=4*pi*1e-7;
E=8.858e-12;
H=(g*g)+(w*w*u*E);
a=10;
b=5;
m=input('enter the value of m:');
n=input('enter the value of n:');
X=0:0.1:10;

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Microwave Engineering

Y=0:0.05:5;
Z=0:0.2:20;
A=-g/H;
C=i*w*E/H;
Ex=abs(A.*((m*pi)/a).*cos(((m*pi)/a).*X).*sin(((n*pi)/b)*Y).*(exp((i*w*t)-(g*Z))));
Ey=abs(A.*((n*pi)/b).*sin(((m*pi)/a).*X).*cos(((n*pi)/b)*Y).*(exp((i*w*t)-(g*Z))));
Ez=abs(sin(((m*pi)/a).*X).*sin(((n*pi)/b)*Y).*(exp((i*w*t)-(g*Z))));______
Hx=abs(C.*((n*pi)/b).*sin(((m*pi)/a).*X).*cos(((n*pi)/b)*Y).*(exp((i*w*t)-(g*Z))));
Hy=abs(-C.*((m*pi)/a).*cos(((m*pi)/a).*X).*sin(((n*pi)/b)*Y).*(exp((i*w*t)-(g*Z))));
[HX]=meshgrid(Hx);
[HY]=meshgrid(Hy);
[EX]=meshgrid(Ex);
[EY]=meshgrid(Ey);
[EZ]=meshgrid(Ez);
HZ=zeros(101);
[Z]=meshgrid(Z);
set(gcf,'Color',[1,1,1])
subplot(2,3,1);mesh(EX);title('EX Component in Y and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');;xlabel('Ex');ylabel(
'Y'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,2);mesh(EY);title ('EY Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Ey'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,3);mesh(EZ);title ('EZ Component in X and Ydirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Y'),zlabel('Ez');
subplot(2,3,4);mesh(HX);title ('HX Component in Y and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('Hx');ylabel('
Y'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,5);mesh(HY);title ('HY Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Hy'),zlabel('Z');
subplot(2,3,6);mesh(HZ);title ('For TM mode HZ = 0;HZ Component in X and Zdirection','Color','b','FontName','Helvetica','FontSize',12,'FontWeight','demi');xlabel('X');ylabel('
Y'),zlabel('Hz');

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Microwave Engineering

OUTPUT :
TM00 mode; TM10mode; TM01mode:

TM11 mode:

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Microwave Engineering

Review Question:
Q.1 Show that the TM01 and TM10 modes cannot exist in rectangular waveguide.

Page 59