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Bachelor of International Sales and Marketing

Zealand Institute of business and Technology, ZIBAT

STUDENT NAME: - VICKY JANGRA

CLASS: - 5X

SUBJECT: - SCIENCE THEORY AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

EDUCATION: - TOP UP-INTERNATIONAL SALES AND MARKETING


5TH SEMESTER, FALL 2014

TEACHER: - MARIA MLLER, masc@esaj.dk

Table of content: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Assignment 1.......3
Assignment 2...6
Assignment 3...9
Conclusion.11
Appendix ...11
List of authorities15

Assignment 1: IKEA is a franchise and all IKEA store are operating under the franchise agreements. The IKEA
concept starts with the idea of producing furniture which is affordable for everyone. The IKEA
concept is to be found in every part of the company IKEA is working closely with their
customers. IKEA wants to see the satisfaction of their customers how satisfied they are with
IKEA products and they expect from customers to give feedback so that they could continuously
improvement in business therefore with this consideration the area of the research is to h the
satisfaction level of customers of IKEA. Further the research will identify the importance
benefits to retain the customer. The generally aim of this research will be to increase the business
profitability and growth through high level of customer satisfaction. Moreover, research onion is
used to understand the process of research that is used by the researcher and some layers in the
research onion which are used in conducting the study attached in appendix 1(2).
Research methods: In order to see the level of IKEA current customers satisfaction an efficient research method
needs to be designed. A research onion technique has been used to plan the research
methodology. In research onion there are some layers which are used:

Research objective

Research approach

Research strategy

Data collection

Sample selection

Data analysis

Validity and reliability of data

Research aims and objectives:The aim of the research is to identify the satisfaction level of current customers of IKEA so that
they can growth in future and profitable.
Research philosophy: Research philosophy is the technique to initiate the research by means of development thinking
and the way in which we want to conduct the research study. We can make the choices among
positivism, realism and interpretivism research philosophies. Positivism and realism research
since both the philosophical approaches work on the behavioral studies. This is the independent
research where the satisfaction level of the customers will be tested. In this study there in no

Connection of the behavioral studies and so interpretivism research philosophy will be adopted
to conduct this research. Furthermore the interpretivism research philosophy enables to us to
determine and analyze the different variables. The discussion of the research finding is more
exploratory with in deepness discussion. Hence the interpretivism research philosophy is more
relevant than the realism and positivism. The results of the study will be interpreted by
interviewing the customers at IKEA.
Research approach: This is the second layer of the research onion which enables us to further make out the selection
of data collection and data analysis methods. In addition the right research approach allows
taking further decided on line of action item that help to fulfill the research objectives in case any
constraints occurs. We can make the selection among deductive, inductive and abduction
research approaches since the philosophical approach is interpretivisim which can be better
aligned with the deductive research approach. Deductive approach is useful where the data is
collected from the external respondents and analyzed to improve the IKEA current state because
the research is focusing towards the customer satisfaction level which will increase the
companys profitability. Looking at such usefulness the abdicative and inductive research
approached is irrelevant to use in this study and to justify the selection of deductive research
approach. It is provide the base to prove the theoretical results with the primary findings and so
the deductive research is relevant in this study. It will allow to establishing the link among the
evaluation of research objectives and summary findings which has been derived from the
primary and secondary research.
Research strategy: The third layer of the research onion includes the choices of research strategies. We can mark the
selection between the qualitative and quantitative research strategy. Qualitative research is more
useful where we develop the opinion based on the small sample size. In contrast the quantitative
research is useful to develop the opinion on larger sample size and discussion analysis is used to
achieve the aims and objective in qualitative research methods while the numeric analysis is
conducted to achieve the aims and objectives in qualitative research. Sometimes we can also use
the mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods. We will gather the opinion of
consumers of IKEA to understand their satisfaction level therefore the quantitative as well as
qualitative both the research strategies will be used in this research.

Qualitative strategy : -

The qualitative research methods enable to determine the way to gain the insight from the
research. Further it seeks the behavior, value system, attitude, motivation and culture. A lot more
approaches form example conducting primary research interviews, reports, feedback and other
sources are searched out to get the right information.

Quantitative strategy : -

Quantitative research methods enable to extract the information from the opinion of the target
respondents and conducted a statistical analysis to test the opinion and develop the conclusion of
the research. The quantitative data can be use primary research, financial documents, ration
calculation for the purpose of understanding the company performance. It is important for
company to increase profitability and measure the satisfaction level of current customers. We can
use the following data collection methods under the qualitative and quantitative research
strategies.
Data collection: - we can collect the information through various methods such as surveys,
interviews, observations and research is focused on the customer satisfaction which will be
analyzed by collecting the opinion from large set of IKEA customers. We can set the
questionnaires to collect the information regarding the satisfaction of the customer. We can also
use the interview method. We can take the personal interviews of customers what they think
about IKEA products. The survey will be conducted among large group of customers of IKEA to
measure their satisfaction level.
Sampling: - we can use the random sampling method because the research is customer focused
and customers are scattered across the country, which makes it very difficult to contact each of
them individually. It is difficult getting the exact number of customers. This is required for the
use of any random sample technique.
Target respondents: - Target respondents will be consumers of IKEA customers and using the
IKEA products. We will conduct the survey of male and female for different income category.
Survey: - in the survey we can set questionnaires method is the best tool to collect the
information. We can use the structured, semi structured or unstructured questionnaires. Primary
research is used under the quantitative research methods. Hence, the prepared questionnaire will
be utilized to collect the information.
Secondary Research: - secondary research will be conducted to collect the information from
various secondary sources such as company website, web articles and research reports.
Secondary data will be collected under the qualitative research strategy.
Data analysis: - Data analysis is the sensitive part of the research. It needs special emphasis
while selecting the methods and tools for data analysis. The data will be collected in the line of
research aim and research objective. While both the qualitative and quantitative research
strategies have been used to collect the information therefore we will represent the quantitative
method will be presented through discussion. Moreover the quantitative data will be analyzed
using statistical tool such as regression analysis.

Validity and Reliability of data: - it is necessary to maintain the reliability and validity of data to
ensure that the conclusion drawn from the research is academically and ethically appropriate or
should not be based towards particular variables. The information collected through primary
research information will be cross checked through secondary information. Reliability of a
questionnaire seems to emerge from the quality of the questionnaire. Questionnaire can be send
by mail, post to current customers of IKEA and we get the feedback of the customer. We can say
that we are totally reliable on it. On the other hand if we post the questionnaire on social site and
we get the feedback of the friends and we cant say that we are totally reliable because they are
not currently IKEA customers.
Assignment 2:
The IKEA concept is based on offering a one piece products of well designed, functional
furnishing products at low price so that many people as possible will be able to afford them,
rather than selling expensive home furniture that only a few can buy, the IKEA concept makes it
possible to serve the many by providing one piece product that contribute to helping more people
live a better life at home. Simply, the target customer is everyone. Ikeas main consumers are
classified as young, middle class, who prefer to buy one piece products. IKEA target
segmentation is young, middle income people not rich as well as old people who are retired and
not rich. These products will be in one piece which will easy for consumers to use.
Problem formulation: The purpose of the company to find out the market for high fashion interior and furniture line
through various customers response.
Segmentation: IKEA strategy is offering quality and one piece furniture at cheap prices; they really focus on
couple of different factors when segmenting their market. The basic customer segmentation
bases that IKEA user are income level, age, family life cycle, life styles and benefit seeking.
IKEA has a great value because of its cheap prices. IKEA is basing their strategy around
attracting young, lower income; old people who tend to be in low income category are a big
target customer market for IKEA. People age group 22 to 35 with certain income but they are
busy in work and study can be customers of IKEA one piece products. IKEA is able to take
advantage of this target customer market because there are many low income and college
students in the area. The other big demographic that IKEA focuses on is family life cycle. IKEA

knows that new families need one piece product to fill their new home people who shift houses
frequently as well as people who are in transferable jobs. Moreover, middle age people can be
user of one piece product because they are not rich and uneducated most of them unskilled in
fixed the products.
Old people can be target customer for IKEA because they are not able to fix lots of products and
may be target customers of IKEA new concept.
Customers greatly benefits form the value of the furniture because it is one piece product and
very low price from competitors.
Research design: In order to see the market of new concept of IKEA products an efficient research method needs
to be designed. Survey method will be used as research design to collect primary data from target
customers. This is because of quantitative type of research approach. Data are usually collected
through the use of questionnaires, although directly interviews with customers. Surveys can use
qualitative or quantitative measures. Here I will use qualitative measures. A research onion
method has been used to design the research methodology. In research onion there are some
layers which are used.
Research aims and objectives: The aim of the research is to provide an overview of the potential new customers and to identify
the response of consumers towards the new concept.
Research philosophy: It is an idea or a belief about the collecting, interpreting and analyzing the data acquired. There
are different research philosophies explained in a research onion. We can make the choices
among positivism, realism and interpretivism research philosophies. Here is the independent
research where the customer response towards the new market concept will be tested.
Research approach: -

We make the selection between different types of research approach. There are some the various
approach enables us to further make out the selection of data collection and data analysis
methods. Also the right research approach enable to take further decided on line of action item
that help to fulfill the research objectives in case any constraints occurs. We can make the
selection among deductive inductive and abduction research approaches. I will use the deductive
approach here because it is useful to collect the data from external respondents and analyzed to
improve the successful developing of IKEA new concept. Purpose of the research is focusing
towards the successful launching of IKEA one piece product. What will the customers response
towards this concept?
Research strategy: In this case we will collect the opinion of customers towards the new concept of IKEA.
Therefore, we can use the mixer of qualitative and quantitative research method.
Data collection method:Qualitative case studies rely upon qualitative data obtained from interviews, observations, and
documents. We can collect the information through various methods such us surveys, interviews,
observations and research is focused on the customer response towards the one piece products
which will be analyzed by collecting the opinion from large set of IKEA customers. We will use
the survey method to collect the information. In quantitative research strategy, we will set the
different questionnaires and get the customers response towards one piece product and interview
of different set of buyer. The survey will enable us to get the opinion of the customers. Moreover,
the interview was chosen as our primary data collection method and focus directly on the
research question and allowing the collection of in depth information. Interview can be
conducted by telephonic or in person. Telephone interviews are costly and time consuming,
which makes them useful when contacting a distant respondent. On the other hand, face to face
interview can be carried out than telephone interviews and include questions that are more
complex which will be better feedback from the respondent.
Sampling: -Sampling is the one of best method of collecting data from different customers. We
can use the random sampling method because our research is focused on customers response
towards one piece product of IKEA and customers of IKEA are scattered across the country and

it is difficult to contact each of them individually. We will collect data to set up interviews with
the different persons that have an extensive history of visits and purchases from IKEA.
Choice of respondents: Target respondents will be consumers of age 22 to 35 with certain income but they are busy in
work or study can be our target customers of new concept. We were well aware that there was a
possibility that our choice of respondents could affect the results of the interview but we
considered the benefits of choosing respondents that we knew could provide us with extensive
data that could contribute to achieve the purpose of our research.
Secondary research: This should be done before primary research as it will help identify trends and scope of the
necessary primary research. Secondary research will be conducted to collect the information
from various secondary sources such as websites, magazines, and research reports. It will collect
under the qualitative research strategy.
Data analysis: Data analysis is the sensitive part of the research. It needs special emphasis while selecting the
methods for data analysis. The data will be collected in the line of research aim and objectives.
Since both the qualitative and quantitative research strategies have been used to collect the
information therefore we will represent the quantitative method will be presented through
discussion. The information collected through primary research will be cross checked through
secondary information.
Assignment 3
IKEA is an innovation company and want to make high fashion interior and furniture line. These
products are expensive as compared to previous concept of provided the products to customers at
cheap price. The new concept of one piece products would be normally high as compared to old
concept but it will cheaper from IKEA competitors. Customers response could be determined
according to various primary and secondary data of the company so it is beneficial for us to

collect the various data of the IKEA buyers to see response of various customers towards the new
high fashion interior and furniture line.
We can make the selection between the qualitative and quantitative data strategies. Qualitative
research is more useful where we develop the opinion based on the small sample size and
quantitative research is useful to develop the opinion based on large sample size. Discussion
analysis is used to achieve the aims in qualitative methods while the numeric analysis is
conducted to achieve the objectives. Here we can use the mixer of qualitative and quantitative
research methods. We can measure the opinion of respondents. Therefore, the quantitative as
well as qualitative both the research strategies will be used in this research. There are two
categories exists when collecting data primary and secondary. Secondary data is data that has
already been collected from another purpose, whereas data collected for a specific purpose is
known as primary data. We will collect the opinion of customers through various primary data
methods. The most significant sources of primary data are interviews with the help of interview
method. We can directly get the opinion of the buyers with interview method thus allowing the
collection of depth information. Based on the level of formality and structure this allowed the
respondents to respond with flexibility and to confirm or dismiss certain facts in a conversational
matter. It is easy to get the response of buyers regarding new fashion interior and furniture line.
Focused interviews can be conducted by telephone or in person. Telephone interviews can be
costly and time consuming but it is useful when contacting distant respondent. On the other hand
face to face interviews can be carried out longer than telephone interviews and include questions
that are more complex, allowing us a better feedback from the respondent. We can choose to
conduct half of the interview in person and half of them by phone. Telephone interview can be
conducted in case of distant respondent as well as customers dont have time for face to face
interviews.
Survey method can be use as another primary data source. In order to better determine the
customers thinking about new interior and fashion line. A set of questionnaire can be filled by
potential consumers of IKEA. We will ask to customer to filled questionnaire to different age
group and getting some valuable feedback. What customers think about new concept and some
data about their income and what will the response of customer towards interior and fashion
concept. Questionnaires is attach in appendix 1(1).

On the other hand, we can use the company website for getting specific data, reference book as
well as articles from internet about IKEA customer behaviors can be used as secondary data
information. Some previous data may be relevant. It will be collected under the qualitative data
research strategies.
Validity and reliability: - Reliability of a questionnaire seems to emerge from the quality of the
questionnaire. Questionnaire can be send by mail, post to current customers of IKEA and we get
the feedback of the customer. We can say that we are totally reliable on it. On the other hand if
we post the questionnaire on social site and we get the feedback of the friends and we cant say
that we are totally reliable because they may be IKEA customers.
Conclusion: 1. The area of the research is customer satisfaction towards the service offered by IKEA. In
order to achieve the desired level of objectives and aim qualitative and quantitative
research methods have been used to collect the information. Interpretivism research
philosophy will be used to generate the desired level of outcome. Primary and secondary
data will be used to collect the information within the primary method; survey will be
administered among the customer of IKEA to collect their opinion towards the IKEA
services.
2. It is obvious that many people know very well current IKEA products if company
introduce new concept of one piece products. They will include middle income as well as
people aged group 22 to 35 because these consumers like to prefer one piece products
with cheap price because customers has to build up products by self if these products will
be in one piece its price definitely would be increased as compared to normal price of
IKEA products but cheaper than from competitors. The majority of Ikeas consumers are
student as well as unskilled people with limited time. Primary and secondary data has
been used to collect the information.
Appendix: 1(1). Questionnaires: (1). ARE YOU MALE OR FEMALE?
(A). MALE

(B).FEMALE
(2). WHAT IS YOUR AGE GROUP?
(A). YOUNG AGED
(B). MIDDLE AGED
(C). OLD AGED
(3). WHAT IS YOUR ANNUAL INCOME?
(A). 0-5 Lakhs
(B). 6-11 Lakhs
(C). 12 and above
(4). HOW OFTEN DO YOU BUY FURNITURE IN A YEAR?
(A). ONCE
(B). TWICE
(C).THRICE
(5). WHAT KIND OF FURNITURE HAVE YOU BOUGHT IN THE PAST?
(A). BEDROOM
(B). KITCHEN
(C). LIVING ROOM
(D). OFFICE FURNITURE
(E). CHILDERS ROOM
(6). ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH CURRENT SERVICE OF IKEA.
(A). FULLY SATISFIED

(B). SATISFIED
(C). NOT
(7). WILL IKEAS SHOPPING EXPERIENCE LIKE IN STORE CAFES, WILL ENHANCE
YOUR SHOPPING EXPERIENCE?
(A). STRONGLY AGREE
(B). AGREE
(C). DISAGREE
(D). STRONGLY DISAGREE
(8). ACCORDING TO YOU WHAT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS YOU LOOK
FOR IN A FURNITURE BRAND?
(A). DESIGN
(B). DISCOUNTS AND OFFERS
(C). QUALITY
(D). PRICING
(9). WOULD YOU BUY FURNITURE FROM A MAJOR BRANDED FURNITURE STORE
THAT IS LOCATED IN YOUR CITY?
(A). YES
(B). NO
(C). CANT SAY

1(2). Research onion

Reference: HTTP://DEAFSTUDEERCONSULTANT.Nl/METHOE-KIEZEN-RESEARCH-ONION-IS-JEBESTE-VRIEND/
HTTP://CHINMOYPAL.COM/ARCHIVES/259
HTTP://CHINMOYPAL.COM/ARCHIVES/196
HTTP://WWW.RANDOMSAMPLING.ORG/
HTTP://WWW.SEERC.ORG/DSC2010/MISC/SINGLE_AND_MULTIPLE_CASE_STUDY_D
ESIGNS.PDF
HTTP://WWW.EHOW.COM/HOW_7557220_DETERMINE-RELIABILITY-VALIDITYSURVEY-RESULTS.HTML
HTTP://WWW.IKEA.COM/DK/DA/
HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/IKEA
HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/RIDDHIMACHOPRA/IKEA-CASE-STUDY
HTTP://RESEARCH-METHODOLOGY.NET/RESEARCH-METHODS/

BOOKS
RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, BY MARK SAUNDERS. PHILIP
LEWIS. ADRIAN THORNHILL, 6TH EDITION, CHAPTER 4TH AND 5TH.