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KEY CONCEPTS OF GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 1
KEY CONCEPTS OF GENDER AND
DEVELOPMENT
In order to develop sensitivity and responsiveness to
gender issues, all agents of the state need to know and
understand the nuances of key concepts in GAD.
The
following are building blocks to developing a gender lens that
will help enable researchers to unearth the concerns in their
research subjects affecting women and men.

1. SEX
- a physical, biological identity of men and women; it refers
to whether a person is born male or female;
- Sex is fixed because it is based on the makeup of ones
chromosomes and reproductive organs including genitalia.
A person is of female sex if she is with xx chromosomes
and her reproductive organs give her the capacity to
menstruate, gestate and lactate;
- Since sex is an inborn physiological attribute, it is difficult
or impossible to entirely change even with surgical
procedures; For instance, a male transsexual although
with female features after surgery, will never be able to
get pregnant.
- Sex refers to the two categories of animals male and
female- needed for the act of mating to result in biological
reproduction. This categorization is made according to
reproductive function:
the female produces two egg cell, or ovum;
the male provide the sperm that fertilizes it;
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A rare category exists, the intersexed- people born


with both male and female or incomplete genitaliabut these from a very small proportion of the human
population.

Men and Women According to Biology


Besides the fact that male produce sperm and female egg
cells, Male and Female differ from each other:
- External genitalia (sex organs)
- Secondary sex characteristics patterns of body hair
distribution, voice pitch, muscular development, diseases
(hemophilia, colorblindness, adams apple, breasts)
- Different chromosomal makeup; and
- Different quantities of various hormones.
Chromosomes
- The cell nucleus of all other unicellular or multicellular
organisms that contain most or all of the DNA or RNA
comprising the genes of the individual;
- Are the first determinant of sex;
- These elongated body of cell nucleus contain the genes
that parents pass on to their offspring;
- Each cell of a female ovary or male testis contains twenty
three chromosomes;
- One of these is the sex chromosomes
Two Types of ChromosomesX and Y
- Female egg cells contain only X
- Male sperm may have either X or Y
- An XX combination produces a female
- An XY combination, a male
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- Sex chromosomes present in the sperm determine


whether offspring are genetically male or female
- Some of the intersexed are genetically male or femalethat is, their chromosomal make-up is either XX or XY and
the confucion in their body structure is due to faulty
embryonic (pre-birth) development.
Hormones
- Are secretions of the endocrine glands, which include the
pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and primary sex glands and the
pancreas.
- The main function of hormones is to stimulate the
development of primary sex characteristics, so that
individuals become capable of reproduction.
- Hormones are also responsible for the development of
secondary sex characteristics.
- A product of living cells that circulates in body fluids and
produces a specific effect on the activity of cells remote
from its point of origin; especially; one exerting a
stimulatory effect on a cellular activity
Male
Female
Testosterone Progesterone
Androgen
Estrogen
- All human beings produce both male and female
hormones.
During childhood and after the age of sixty, there is
little difference in the quantity of male and female
hormones they produce;
From puberty through sexual maturity females
produce more female hormone and male more male
hormones. However, the actual quantity varies from
one individual to another, some females may actually
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produce more male hormones than some males and


vice versa.

2. GENDER
- Gender refers to the differentiated social roles, behavior,
capacities and intellectual, emotional and social
characteristics attributed by a given culture to women and
men;
- The term implies the cultural roles expected of a person;
- Gender is not fixed since it is based on the culture and
are socially determined;
- The characteristics attributed to females are labeled as
feminine and those attributed to males are labeled as
masculine as defined by a given society. Hence, gender is
a social construct.
- Gender is a variable concept, as its construction varies
across cultures and over time. Definition of masculine and
feminine often vary from one race to another. Variations in
gender definitions are due to specific economic, political
and social conditions of each class, culture or era.

3. GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION


- Is the process of learning and internalizing culturally
approved ways of thinking, feeling and behaving
according to ones gender;
- Assigned to men and women are often dictated by the
society, hence gender stereotyping. This gender
stereotyping is acquired through the socialization or
gendering process;
- From their childhood to their adult years, women are
taught how to be feminine and men, how to be masculine.
This is called the socialization process;
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- The socialization individual in a particular culture is


influenced by institutions. These social institutions serve
as a mechanism that maintains gender roles. These are
the family, education, religion and media.
- Female gender roles are associated with appropriate
concepts of femininity and traits such as submissiveness,
modesty, nurturance;
- Male gender roles are associated with appropriate
concepts of masculinity and traits such as dominance,
assertiveness, instrumentality

4. GENDER STEREOTYPE
- Are the ascribed traits, characteristics, attributes and role
relegated to men and women
- The assumption behind stereotypes is that the ascribed
attributes regarding men apply to all men and those about
women apply to all women in a given society

Gender Stereotyping
- This is the tendency of a given culture to ascribed
particular traits, characteristics and roles distinctly to a
man and woman that have become fixed in ones mind
that is not open to change;
- Individuals are then judge according to their groups
identity. Me and women are conditioned to behave and
think in a way that is determined by the society as
appropriate for the feminine and masculine roles and
characteristics
- The confusion between sex and gender gives rise to such
stereotypes as :
Men
Women
They are physically
They are physically
stronger; then, they
weak, then, they are
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are better engineers,


architects, welders or
carpenters. They are
protectors of women.
Bravery,
aggressiveness,
independence and the
ability to control
emotions are traits of
men.
Work is the center of
their lives.

Reason is the basis of


decision-making.
They are fit to be
heads, leaders of
families, business
enterprises,
organizations (both
social and political)
nations, armies and
communities.
They are decisive

better sewers. They


need protection from
men.
Timidity, passivity,
while emotionally
dependent,
demonstrative, loving,
patient, self-sacrificing
and being peaceful are
the traits of women.
Relationship both
within and outside the
family tend to be the
center of their lives.
Intuition is the basis of
decision-making
Women they are fit to
take secondary roles.

They may be
whimsical and fickle
minded as the weather

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5. THREE MAIN SPHERES OF WORK


1. Productive work
- This refers to paid employment or that kind of work
that generates income
- work as employees, farmer, labandera, tinder, etc.

2. Reproductive work
- This refers to the work that relates to child-rearing and
caring, food preparation, housekeeping, family health
care or any work that pertains to the well-being of the
family;
- This kind of work is mostly unpaid

3. Community Work
- Extension of their reproductive role
- Mostly unpaid

5. GENDER BIAS
- Partiality and prejudice against men or women that was
brought by stereotyping based on their gender roles and
expectations
- Affect individuals status, position, level of participation in,
and enjoyment of benefits from society.
- Gender bias is determined by societys treatment of its
members. Women are generally subordinated in society
because of long-standing beliefs, practices, traditions,
rituals, religion and language.
- Gender biases are nurtured by societys patriarchal
structures.

The causes of gender bias


- Unequal regard for men and women in society
- Males have more power, privileges, benefits, more
dynamic roles, wider spheres;
- Women have LESS or NONE!!!
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6. Social Institutions Reinforcing Gender

Biases
1. Language and symbols
It is a very powerful instrument of socialization; it
embodies concepts or ideas representing the totality
of culture
It can also serve as a strong propaganda material
Examples of how language perpetuates biases
o History
o Cursing
o Language-biased reference: Chairman
o Religious language
o Sexual inuendoes of language
2. Religion and the Church
Has been used to maintain inequality between the
sexes overused and taken out of contextBabae,
magpasakop ka.
God conceived as a male person gives mortal man the
license to be superior over woman as if it is his
nature. This is contrary to the fact as stated in the
Scripture that God created man in his own image,
man and woman He created them.
Church hierarchy is dominated by males
Church rituals/ sacraments discriminate against
women.
3. Social Practices
Male eldest child given the priority over property and
inheritance rights.
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Male children are given priority in terms of education


for the reason that they will be the Head of their own
family.
Male spouse expected to be the haligi ng tahanan,
the income-earner.
4. Media
Very effective and its effects are long-lasting.
examples- sex and violence embodied in movies and
telenovelas portray women as generally the victims;
ads and commercials are endorsed by women
portrayed as sex objects or homemakers.
5.

School
Admission policies;
Policies in granting of benefits;
Absence of mechanisms to address sexual
harassment and campus-based prostitution;
Texbooks and IECs loaded with gender biased
language and concepts.

6. Government
Mostly dominated by men, its outputs are necessarily
not without biases
practices are still patriarchal. Leadership and
administration is overwhelmingly dominated by men.
Representation of women is dismally low.
7. Business
Gender discriminatory policies such as women being
last priority in hiring
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Effective management of it is thought to be performed


by males
Its a mans domain!?!!!! (mostly because of
patriarchal notions of property rights and assignment
of responsibilities)
8. Sectoral Organizations
Members of sectoral organizations are conditioned to
assume traditional gender roles and statuses.
Farmers
Fraternities
Thursday clubs
Rotary clubs

7. MANIFESTATIONS OF GENDER BIAS:


There are four major manifestations of gender
biases, namely: (EPMV)
1.Economic Marginalization
2.Political Subordination
3.Multiple Burden
4.Violence Against Women

The manifestations of gender biases are obvious in the


following socio-economic facts. Gender situationers
accurately paint the effect of gender stereotyping and biases.
After two development decades (the sixties and seventies)
declared by the United Nations had come and gone, the world
was still left, in the early 1980s, with the following disturbing
statistics:
women perform 67% of the worlds working hours;
women earn 10% of the worlds income;
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women are 2/3 of the worlds illiterates; and


women own less than 1% of the worlds property.
(Canadian Council for International Cooperation,
1991)
In 1985, reports compiled by the United Nations at the
conclusion of the UN- declared Decade for Women (19761985), highlighted the following findings:
Women form a third of the worlds official labor force,
but are concentrated in the lowest- paid occupations
and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men;
women still earn less than three quarters of the wages
of men doing similar work.
Women provide more health care than all health
services put together and have been major
beneficiaries of a new global shift in priorities towards
prevention of diseases and promotion of good health;
Women grow about half of the worlds food, but own
hardly any land, find it difficult to obtain loans and are
overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects;
Still in 1985, reports compelled by the United Nations at the
conclusion of the UN- declared Decade for Women (19761985), highlighted the following findings:
Women do almost all the worlds domestic work which
together with their additional work outside the home,
means most women work a double day.
Women continue to outnumber men among the
worlds illiterates by about three to two, but school
enrollment boom is closing the education gap
between girls an boys;
Although 90 percent of the worlds countries have
organizations promoting the advancement of womens
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because of poorer education, lack of confidence, and


greater workload, women are still dramatically underrepresented in the decision- making bodies of their
countries.
While Filipino women took an unprecedented active role in the
political events of the past decade, their participation in
politics and governance continues to be limited. They
continue to work harder to influence policy and decisionmaking as legislators, chief executives and top administrators
at both the national and local levels.
In 2001 and in 1998, not more than 20 percent of the
candidates were who won the elections remained at 20
percent or below. These trends persisted despite women
voters outnumbering men voters (18.35 million women
registered voters as compared to 17.96 million men voters) in
the 2001 national and local elections.
Women voters turn-out rate was also higher at 87.0 percent
versus the mens 85.7 percent in 1998, and 76.7 percent
versus 75.9 percent among the men in the May 2001 national
and local elections.
As of December 2002, there were 3 women senators in the
Senate and 34 (out of the total 208) women district
representatives in the House of Representatives.
Proportion of Women in Government Elective Posts,
(COMELEC data, for periodic updating)
Elective Position
Percentage
Senator
13
District representative
16
Governor
19.2
Vice-governor
12.8
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Board member
Mayor
Vice-mayor
Councilor

13

16.6
14.6
11
17.1

A manifestation of gender bias that emerge from societys


notion that women are by nature subordinate to men and
must act as mens sexual objects, and if they refuse to
assume this role and position, they should be punished.

8. Violence Against Women and Child


VAW directly and indirectly affect womens economic
productivity and well-being
FORMS OF VAW
1.Physical violence;
2.Sexual violence;
3.Emotional violence; and
4.Economic violence
Statistics on violence against Filipino women
(Submitted by webmaster on Tue, 2012-10-02 09:46)
The The 2008 National Demographic and Health
Survey (NDHS) conducted by the National Statistics
Office (NSO) introduced the "Women Safety Module"
which aims to capture the extent and types of VAW
experienced by women (15-49 years old). Information
was collected on spousal violence - covering all forms of
VAW: 1) physical violence; 2) sexual violence; 3)
emotional violence; and 4) economic violence (the 3rd
and 4th forms of VAW were grouped together in the
survey as "other forms of violence"). The module also
included questions on marital control, which may fall
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either under emotional/psychological violence or


economic violence.
Physical Violence
The NDHS revealed that one in five women aged 15-49
has experienced physical violence since age 15; 14.4
percent of married women have experienced physical
abuse from their husbands; and more than one-third
(37%) of separated or widowed women have experienced
physical violence, implying that domestic violence could
be the reason for separation or annulment
Sexual Violence
One in twenty five women age 15-49 who have ever had
sex ever experienced forced first sexual intercourse
One in ten women age 15-49 ever experienced sexual
violence
Physical Violence During Pregnancy
Overall, 4 percent of women who have ever been
pregnant have ever experienced physical violence during
pregnancy. The incident increases slightly with number of
living children; decreases slightly with age; decreases
with education level; and declines steadily with wealth
quintile.
Spousal Violence
Emotional and other forms of non-personal violence are
the most common types of spousal violence (23% of evermarried women). One in seven ever-married women
experienced physical violence by their husbands while 8
percent experienced sexual violence by their husbands.
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Patterns in prevalence of spousal violence are similar to


those of violence experienced by woman 15-49. Most
likely higher among separated, widowed and divorced;
currently married women who have married more than
once; and in CARAGA region, Central Visayas and
SOCCSKSARGEN.
Spousal Violence by Husband's Characteristics
Spousal Violence tends to decline as husband's age
increases, education increases, and wealth quintile
increases.
Consequences of Spousal Violence
One in three women who experienced physical/sexual
violence reported having physical injuries such as cuts,
bruises or aches. More than 10 percent reported to have
suffered eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns, and
about the same proportion reported that they attempted
to commit suicide.
Three in five women who experienced physical/sexual
violence reported having experienced psychological
consequences like depression, anxiety and anger.
Violence Initiated by Women Against Husbands
Women were asked, "Have you ever hit, slapped, kicked,
or done anything else to physically hurt your (last)
husband at times when he was not already beating or
physically hurting you?". 16 percent answered "Yes, ever"
and 9 percent answered "Yes, in the last 12 months"
VAW Reported to the Philippine National Police
In 2011 the number of VAW cases reported to the
Philippine National Police (PNP) decreases by 14.3
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percent from the 2010 report. The decrease caused the


trend to go downward after a five-year upward trend from
2006 to 2010.
The 2010 report (15,104) is so far the highest number of
reported VAW cases since 1997.
The trend, however, is not conclusive of a decreasing or
increasing VAW incidence in the country because data are
based only from what was reported to PNP.
Across an eight-year period from 2004 to 2011, average
violations of RA 9262 ranked first at 49.0 percent among
the different VAW categories since its implementation in
2004.
Reported cases under RA 9262 continue to increase from
218 in 2004 to 9,021 cases in 2011. Continuous
information campaign on the law and its strict
implementation may have caused the increasing trend.
Since 2004, wife battering cases have been categorized
under 'Violation of RA 9262' that is, if the victim files a
case under such law, otherwise the reported cases will
fall under physical injuries category.
Physical injury is now the second most prevalent case
across the eight-year period, accounting for 23.5 percent
of all reported VAW cases nationwide.

Table 1. Annual Comparative Statistics on Violence


Against Women, 2004 - 2011*
Reported
Cases

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

201
1

Rape

997

927

659

837

811

770

1,042

832

Incestuous
Rape

38

46

26

22

28

27

19

23

Attempted
Rape

194

148

185

147

204

167

268

201

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Acts of
Lasciviousnes 580
s

536

382

358

445

485

745

625

Physical
Injuries

3,553 2,335 1,892 1,505 1,307 1,498 2,018

1,58
8

Sexual
Harassment

53

37

38

63

RA 9262

218

924

1,269 2,387 3,599 5,285 9,974

9,02
1

Threats

319

223

199

182

220

208

374

213

Seduction

62

19

29

30

19

19

25

15

Concubinage

121

102

93

109

109

99

158

128

RA 9208

17

11

16

24

34

152

190

62

Abduction /
Kidnapping

29

16

34

23

28

18

25

22

Unjust
Vexation

90

50

59

59

83

703

183

155

Total

6,271 5,374 4,881 5,729 6,905 9,485 15,104

46

18

54

83

17

12,9
48

* 2011 report covers only from January to August


Source: Philippine National Police - Women and Children Protection Center
(WCPC)

Reported incidence of physical injury has been


decreasing in the latter years. Its peak was in 2001 at
5,668 reported cases.
The decrease can be partly attributed to the enactment
into law of RA 9262 or Anti-VAWC Act of 2004 which
penalizes abusive husbands and live-in partners.
However, in 2009 and 2010 the reported cases show an
increasing trend but it slides back in 2011.
Reported rape cases which ranked third accounted for
about 10.3 percent of total reported VAW cases from
2004 to 2011.
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Acts of lasciviousness ranked fourth at an average of 520


reported cases accounting for 6.2 percent of all reported
VAW cases from 2004 to 2011. The comparative figures
indicate an upward trend of the reported cases after a
record low of 382 reported cases in 2006.
Among the different regions, Region 6 (Western Visayas)
posted the highest reported VAW cases from January to
December 2011 with 2,772 reported cases, accounting
for 21.4 percent of the total reported VAW cases
nationwide.
Region 11 (Davao) comes next at 2,490 (19.2%) reported
VAW cases followed by Region 7 (Central Visayas) with
1,447 reported VAW cases or 11.2 percent of the total
reported VAW cases nationwide.
The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
posted the lowest reported VAW cases with 81 cases in
2011.

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Chapter 2
PHILIPPINE GAD LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Philippine laws on gender and development were
essentially a product of the application of the Human Rights
principles in addressing various social concerns that involve
gender
1. What are HUMAN RIGHTS?
The supreme inalienable rights to life, dignity, and selfdevelopment that are inherent in all human beings
Womens Human Rights
Womens rights are human rights
The state through the Constitution as well as its
commitments to international agreements such as the
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN, affirms that
womens rights are human rights as well.
9.What are the characteristics of human rights?
Universal
Equal
Non-discriminatory
Inalienable
Interrelated
Interdependent
Accountability
10. Who are the two parties that influence the enjoyment
of human rights?
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Rights-Holders individuals, groups, and organizations


who are entitled to the rights and who have the
responsibility to claim such rights.
Duty-Bearer- the state and its functionaries
(government officials, personnel, agencies, bureaus,
etc) who are mandated to RESPECT, FULFILL, and
PROTECT
11. What is Gender and Development?
It is the governments program to address gender issues
and concerns and their consequences. The program
involves activities that address gender specific needs
(e.g. GAD awareness, livelihood trainings, micro-credit,
scholarship, day-care services, etc) whose ultimate aim
is to balance male and female access to resources, and
benefits as well as opportunities to participate in all
spheres.

LEGISLATIONS FOR WOMEN IN THE PHILIPPINES


(Legal Framework for Gender and Development)
Why Advocate for Women and girls
Need for compliance to international mandates
UDHR
UN-CEDAW
-Optional Protocol
-Concluding Comments
Need to fast track efforts for equitable development

Policy Framework for Integrating Gender


Concerns
1.
Philippine Development Plan for Women
(PDPW), 1989- 1992
2.
1987 Philippine Constitution (Sec. 14, Article II)
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12. The state recognizes the role of women in nationbuilding and shall ensure that the fundamental equality
before the law of women and men.

3.

RA 9710 or the Magna Carta of Women

- Signed into law on August 14, 2009


- Took effect on September 15, 2009, 15 days after its
publication in August 31, 2009 issue of the Philippine
Daily Inquirer and Malaya Newspaper
- Comprehensive womens human rights law
- Seeks to eliminate discrimination against women
- By recognizing, protecting, fulfilling and promoting the
rights of Filipino women, especially those in the
marginalized sectors
- The Magna Carta of Women (MCW) has 6 chapters and
47 sections
- What are the rights of women guaranteed under the
MCW?
- All rights in the Philippine Constitution and those rights
recognized under international instruments duly signed
and ratified by the Philippines, in consonance with
Philippine laws shall be rights of women under the
Magna Carta of Women.
- These rights shall be enjoyed without discrimination
since the law prohibits discrimination against women,
whether done by the public and private entities or
individuals.
Rights and Empowerment (MCW Chapter IV)
right to protection from all forms of violence;
right to protection and security in times of disasters,
calamities and other crisis situations
right to participation and representation
right to equal treatment before the law
right to equal participation In sports
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right to non-discrimination in employment in the field of


military, police and other similar services;
non-discriminatory and non-derogatory portrayal of
women in media and film;
right to health;
right to special leave benefits;
equal rights in all matters relating to marriage and
family relations;
Protection from Violence (Sec. 19)
PCW in coordination with the CHR, DSWD, DILG, and
Commission on Higher Education (CHED), DepEd and
CSC shall design the prescribed module for human
rights, gender sensitivity and gender responsive
training. The training programs and modules
developed shall be periodically reviewed to ensure
effectiveness.
Equal Access and Elimination of Discrimination in
Education, Scholarships and Training Sec. 13.
Within three (3) years from the adoption of these
Rules and Regulations, the DepEd, CHED and the
Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA) shall:
o Develop and promote gender-sensitive
curriculum;
o Develop gender fair instructional materials;
o Ensure that educational institutions implement a
capacity building program on gender, peace and
human rights education for their officials, faculty
and non-teaching staff and personnel;
o Promote partnerships between and among
players of the education sector, including the
private sector, churches, and faith groups in the
pursuit of the objectives of this section;
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o Encourage advertising industry and other


similar institutions to provide free use of space
and installation of displays for schools, colleges
and universities for campaigns to end
discrimination and violence against women; and
o Guarantee that educational institutions provide
scholarship programs for marginalized women
and girls. Condition such as age, pregnancy,
motherhood, disabilities or lack of consent of
husband shall not be grounds for disqualification
in the grant of scholarship.
Enrollment of women in non-traditional skills
training in vocational and tertiary levels shall be
encouraged.
o The DepEd, TESDA and CHED shall develop
programs aimed at increasing the enrollment of
women in non-traditional skills training in
vocational and tertiary levels, and mechanisms
for assessment and monitoring of compliance
such as sex-disaggregated list of students,
tracers of graduates and the like; and
o Policies shall be developed to ensure that all
teachers and trainers, regardless of sex,
ethnicity, political, social, economic and
religious status and affiliations have equal
access to scholarships.
The DepEd, CHED and TESDA shall monitor and
ensure compliance of educational institutions to the
following:
o Women faculty who become pregnant outside of
marriage shall not be dismissed, separated from
work, forced to go on leave, re-assigned or
transferred;
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o No female student shall be expelled, dismissed,


suspended, refused or deinied of admission or
forced take a leave of absence in any
educational institution solely on grounds of
pregnancy outside marriage during her school
term.
o Pregnant students shall be assisted through
available support services while in school, such
as but not limited to counseling to ensure
completion of their studies;
o Programs and policies to prevent VAW shall be
developed, including institutional mechanisms
for complaints;
o Coordination with PNP, DOJ, CHR, DSWD and the
LGU so that appropriate assistance are given to
female faculty and students who are victims of
rape, sexual harassment and other forms of
violence against women and discrimination
Women in sports (Sec. 14)
PSC and GAB in coordination with the DepEd, CHED,
SUCs, LGUs and other sports-related organizations
shall endeavor to:
o Train more female coaches for girls and
womens teams;
o Conduct activities such as sports clinics and
seminars for potential female leaders, coaches,
teachers at least once a year;
o Provide equal incentives and awards for both
men and women for any competition;
o Provide equal opportunities for scholarships and
travel grants for women leaders, coaches and
athletes with adequate support mechanism;
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o Provide sufficient funds to support girls and


women in sports;
o Form more girls and womens team in athletic
leagues like the Palarong Pambansa, University
Athletic Association of the Philippines, National
Collegiate Athletic Association, Private Schools
Athletic Association, and university Games;
o Collect sex-disaggregated data in sports
participation;
o Promote partnerships with community-based
sports organizations; and
o Increase the participation of the elderly women,
women with disabilities and indigenous women
through the promotion and development of
programs for them in coordination with other
sport organizations.
Special Leave Benefits for Women (MCW Section 21)
Any female employee in the public and private
sector regardless of age and civil status shall be
entitled to a special leave of two (2) months with full
pay based on her gross monthly compensation
subject to existing laws, rules and regulations due to
surgery caused by gynecological disorders, provided
that she has rendered at least six (6) months
continuous aggregate employment service for the
last twelve (12) months prior;
For government employees CSC Resolution No.
100432 (Nov. 22, 2010)
For private sector Department Order No. 112-11
(March 11, 2011)
Womens Right to Health (Sec. 17)
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To promote health education CHED shall:


o Ensure that state colleges, universities and
private institutions will integrate in their
curriculum and in CHEDs accreditation system,
health education that is gender-responsive,
rights based and culture sensitive;
o Encourage state colleges, universities and
private institutions to conduct capacity building
sessions, such as gender sensitivity and health
and sexuality education for school personnel
(faculty and non-teaching staff) and students to
promote womens health.
o
Rights and Empowerment of Marginalized Sectors
(Chapter V, mcw)
Small farmers and Rural Workers;
Fisherfolk;
Urban Poor;
Workers in the Formal Economy;
Workers in the Informal Economy;
Migrant Workers;
Indigenous Peoples;
Moro;
Children;
Senior Citizens;
Persons with Disabilities;
Solo Parents
Food Security and Productive Resources Sec. 20.
Right to resources for food production
o All concerned agencies involved in research and
development, including SUCs and higher education
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institution (HEIs), shall allocate budget for basic and


applied research to develop and promote womenfriendly technologies;
o SUCs/HEIs shall provide trainings on marketing
agricultural and forestry products to ensure delivery of
produce. These include market opportunity awareness,
technology transfer on processing. Labeling and
packaging.
Recognition and Preservation of Cultural Identity and
Integrity (Sec. 28)
The NCAA and NCIP in coordination with NCMF, Regional
Commission on Bangsamoro Women (RCBW)Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), and
other agencies shall;
o Collaborate with CHED and DepEd to integrate in the
educational curriculum the preservation and respect of
indigenous rights, cultures and traditions, provided that
they are not discriminatory to women;
o Coordinate with CHED and DepEd to ensure functional
literacy and numeracy programs for indigenous
communities
Peace and Development (SEC. 29)
The peace process shall be pursued with the following
considerations:
o Inclusion of the peace perspective in the education
curriculum and other educational undertakings by
DepEd, CHED, SUCs, TESDA, Bureau of Cultural Heritage
(BCH)- ARMM and DSWD.

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Protection of Girl-Children. SEC. 32.


The State shall pursue measures to eliminate all
forms of discrimination against girl-children in
education, health and nutrition, and skills
development;
Equal access of Moro and indigenous girl-children
in the Madaris, schools of living culture and
traditions, and the regular schools
Gender-sensitive curriculum, including legal
literacy, books, and curriculum in the Madaris and
schools of living culture and traditions shall be
developed.
Sensitivity of regular schools to particular Moro
and indigenous practices, such as fasting in the
month of Ramadan, choice of clothing (including
the wearing of hijab), and availability of halal food
shall be ensured.

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Chapter 3
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM: GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
Gender mainstreaming as a strategy to implement the
Magna Carta of Women, GAD planning, budgeting, monitoring
and evaluation

KEY CONCEPTS OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING


GENDER NEEDS
Gender needs refer to the varying needs of men and
women that is that results from their gender, the gender
biases that society maintains.
There are generally two types of gender needs: practical and
strategic gender needs.
PRACTICAL GENDER NEEDS
- Are based on womens socially accepted roles in society.
They do not challenge the gender division of labor or
womens subordinate status in society. Because they are
practical in nature, these needs often pertain to
inadequacies in living conditions such as lack of safe
water, health care and employment. Responses to
practical gender needs are concerned with easing
womens multiple burden (home, employment,
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community obligations) and supporting women in their


maternal functions. They also include health care and
nutrition services, education support, housing projects
and the delivery of other basic services.

STRATEGIC GENDER NEEDS


- Recognize womens subordinate and marginalized status
in society. They exist within particular socio-political
contexts. In meeting these needs, the objectives may be
to abolish the gender division of labor, alleviate the
burden of child care and domestic work, remove
institutionalized forms of discrimination, achieve freedom
of choice over childbearing and adopt measures to fight
violence against women and male control over them,
among others. Addressing strategic gender needs leads to
a transformed society where equality exists.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING NEEDS
- lack of a coordinating mechanism of GAD Focal Points to
consolidate efforts
- lack of a gender-based data and information system
Issues for Women
Because it is a helm of development and has
resources at its command, government is in a key position
to empower women. And it can do this by being
responsive to gender concerns. These issues are a
reiteration of the manifestations of gender biases. The
major issues for women are summed up as follows:
a.
Marginalization
Womens participation in development activities is
limited to those traditionally regarded as womens
concerns like maternal and child-care, nutrition,
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home-making and earning a supplementary income.


Hence, women are unable to develop their potential to
the full. Development concerns that are primarily
associated with womens functions are considered
less important and therefore do not receive as much
attention and resources as those that pertain to mens
functions.
b.
Subordination
Women are assigned secondary status vis--vis men
whether in the home, at work or in public life. Again,
this has resulted in women having less access to and
control over development resources and benefits.
Other manifestations of womens subordinate status
are: the use of male values and standards as yardstick
for what is ideal or preferable or acceptable,
deferment to male authority and opinion, automatic
designation of the father as family head and many
others.
c.Discrimination
This is any practice, policy or procedure that denies
women equal treatment and status because they are
female. Statistics for example still show womens
labor force participation and wages to be lower than
that of men. Legal reform has not completely removed
instances in the law and the justice system where
women are dealt the shorter hand. Cultural biases
also continue to hamper the enforcement of laws that
uphold womens rights.
d.
Multiple Burden
Many women hold fulltime jobs or do exhausting farm
or market work, but still have to be responsible for
seeing to it that theres food on the table, the children
are looked after, and the household is in order. Often
they are also expected to do volunteer work in the
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community. These multiple responsibilities wear out


women and leave them no time or energy for
recreation or personal pursuits.
e.
Gender Stereotyping
This is the tendency to hold fixed, unquestioned and
unexamined beliefs and perceptions about women
and men, and to assign them roles based on these
beliefs. Stereotyping extends to perceptions as to
what type of activities, fields of study, occupations,
areas of responsibility and activities are appropriate
for women and for men.
f. Violence
Whether threatened or actual, perpetrated on women
simply because they are women. It includes sexual
harassment, sexual assault, rape, incest,
pornography, battering, trafficking, and abuse
whether psychological, verbal or economic. These
acts of violence reinforce male domination of women.
g.
Obstacles to personal development
The issues and problems discussed above have a
direct negative impact on womens sense of self worth
and their ability to make something of their lives.
Developing ones talents and pursuing interests is so
much more difficult for women than men, and women
who try to achieve something at the cost of neglecting
their families risk being censured by society.
GENDER MAINSTREAMING MECHANISMS
The government institutionalized mechanisms through the
Magna Carta of Women to ensure that the framework of
gender and development is mainstreamed into the
operations, functions, policies, and processes of government.
They are as follows:
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1.Gender Audit. COAs conduct of annual audit on the use


of the GAD Budget;
2. Creation/ Strengthening of GAD Focal Points
3.Strengthened Philippine commission on Women
(formerly NCRFW) as the governments policy making and
coordinating body on womens empowerment and gender
equality concerns;
4.Gender Ombud. Designates the Commission on Human
Rights as Gender and Development (GAD) Ombud, to act on
investigations and complaints of discrimination and
violations of womens rights;
5.Monitoring of progress and implementation.
Institution of Penal provisions to the Magna Carta of
Women
If the violation by a government agency or any
government office, including government-owned
and controlled corporations and local government
units, the person directly responsible for the
violation, as well as the head of the agency or
local chief executive shall be held liable under the
Magna Carta of Women;
The sanctions under administrative law, civil
service or other appropriate laws shall be
recommended by the Commission on Human
Rights to the Civil Service Commission and the
Department of Interior and Local Government.
Further, in cases where violence has been proven
to be perpetrated by agents of the State, such
shall be considered aggravating offenses with
corresponding penalties depending on the
severity of the offenses.
Establishment of incentives and awards system
Funding
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5% GAD budget to be utilized for programs and


activities to implement the MCW. The Magna Carta
of Women also mandates the State to prioritize
allocation of all available resources to be
effectively fulfill its obligations under the said law.
GAD Database
All department, including their attached agencies,
offices, bureaus, SUCs, GOCCs, LGUs and other
government instrumentalities shall develop and
maintain a GAD Database containing GAD
information to include gender statistics and age
and sex-disaggregated data that have been
systematically produced/ gathered, regularly
updated to serve as inputs or bases for planning,
programming, and policy formulation.

Cover Page
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Table of Contents
Foreword
Introduction (Rationale of Gender Mainstreaming)
Key Concepts
Cover Page
Table of Contents
Foreword
Introduction (Rationale of Gender Mainstreaming)
Key Concepts

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